Builders M.I., Wannang N.N., Ajoku G.A., Builders P.F., Onsadipe A., Aguiyi J.C.
Evaluation of the antimalarial potential of Vernonia ambigua kotschy and peyr (Asteraceae)
International Journal of Pharmacology
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medical Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria; Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria; Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, National Institute for Pha
Builders, M.I., Department of Pharmacology, College of Medical Sciences, Bingham University, Jos, Nigeria; Wannang, N.N., Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria; Ajoku, G.A., Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development Idu, Abuja, Nigeria; Builders, P.F., Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Raw Materials Development, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development Idu, Abuja, Nigeria; Onsadipe, A., Department of Medicinal Plant Research and Traditional medicine, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development Idu, Abuja, Nigeria; Aguiyi, J.C., Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria
Some traditional medicine practitioners in Nigeria have claimed the use of the decoction of the whole plant of Vernonia ambigua for the management of malaria. The aim of this study is to authenticate the antimalarial potential of this plant by evaluating its antiplasmodial activities. The freeze-dried decoctions of the whole plant of V. ambigua were used for the study. The phytochemical components and antioxidant activity using 2, 2-Diphenyl-l-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) were determined. The oral median lethal dose (LD50) and in vivo antiplasmodial activity were determined in Swiss albino mice. Different doses of the extract (50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mg kg-1 PO) were administered to the mice infected with 1×177 Plasmodium berghei berghei. Four days suppressive and curative effects against established infections as well as prophylactic activities were evaluated. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity was carried out on Plasmodium falciparum using different concentrations of the decoction. The decoction showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, sterols, phenols and reducing sugars and a moderate antioxidant activity. The LD50 was estimated to be greater than 5000 mg kg-1. Effective dose dependent inhibitions of parasitaemia were observed in the suppressive, curative and prophylactic tests. The in vitro screening also showed a moderate antiplasmodial activity (31.62 μg mL-1<IC50<50 μg mL-1). The effective antiplasmodial activities of V. ambigua could be attributed to its content of certain phytochemicals and may partly explain its use for the treatment of malaria. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Information.
Antioxidant property; Antiplasmodial activity; Oral median lethal dose; Phytochemical components; Vernonia ambigua
1,1 diphenyl 2 picrylhydrazyl; alkaloid; anthraquinone derivative; ascorbic acid; chloroquine; essential oil; flavonoid; phenol derivative; plant extract; plant resin; saponin derivative; sterol derivative; sugar; tannin derivative; terpene derivative; unclassified drug; Vernonia ambigua extract; animal experiment; animal model; antimalarial activity; antioxidant activity; aqueous solution; article; blood sampling; controlled study; dose response; drug dose comparison; drug isolation; drug mechanism; drug screening; freeze drying; human; human cell; in vitro study; in vivo study; LD 50; lethal dose; mouse; nonhuman; phytochemistry; Plasmodium berghei infection; Plasmodium falciparum; survival time; toxicity testing; Vernonia; Vernonia ambigua