Impact of milieu conditions on the α-lactalbumin glycosylation in the dry state
Journal of Food Engineering
Zentralinstitut für Ernährungs- und Lebensmittelforschung (ZIEL), Junior Research Group: Bioactive Peptides and Protein Technology, Technische Universität München, Weihenstephaner Berg 1, D-85354 Freising, Germany; School of Public Health and Community Development, Maseno University, Private Bag, Kisumu, Kenya; Department of Food Process Engineering and Dairy Technology, ZIEL Technology Section, Technische Universität München, Weihenstephaner Berg 1, D-85354 Freising, Germany
Maillard reaction is influenced by protein and sugar properties, water activity (aw) as well as the glycosylation time and temperature. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of environmental parameters on the glycosylation reaction kinetics and to develop a technology platform for protein glycosylation as a possible substrate pre-treatment. The glycosylation reaction of bovine α-lactalbumin (α-La) was performed with lactose and maltodextrin in the dry-state at 40, 50 or 60 °C performed at a w of 0.33, 0.44 or 0.58 for reaction times of 8, 24 or 48 h. The degree of glycosylation (DG) was determined as the loss of lysine using the ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) method. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with Coomassie and glycoprotein staining was also performed. The reaction with lactose reached higher DG values in all cases as compared to reactions with maltodextrin (maximum DG of 85% and 31%, respectively, at aw = 0.58 after 48 h). Lactosylation kinetics showed that the second order rate constants increased with increasing temperature and were highest at aw = 0.58 in all cases. The activation energies were determined as 97.1 ± 37.7, 193.9 ± 9.1 and 136.6 ± 15.6 kJ/mol for aw = 0.33, 0.44 and 0.58, respectively and showed an increasing trend with increasing temperature. Glycosylation of α-La offers a new process for improvement of functional properties as well as being a substrate pre-treatment process to control enzymatic digestion in order to generate tailor-made peptides as food additives with important health benefits like probiotics due to glycoprotein resistance to further enzyme hydrolysis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dry state; Environmental parameter; Enzymatic digestions; Enzyme hydrolysis; Functional properties; Glycosylation reactions; Health benefits; Lactose; Maillard reaction; Maltodextrins; Ortho-phthalaldehyde; Pre-Treatment; Pretreatment process; Probiotics; Protein glycosylation; SDS-PAGE; Second-order rate constants; Sodium dodecyl sulphate; Technology platforms; Water activity; Activation energy; Amino acids; Electrophoresis; Esterification; Glycoproteins; Kinetics; Polysaccharides; Proteins; Rate constants; Reaction kinetics; Sodium; Sugars; Glycosylation; Bovinae