Impact of the HIV epidemic and Anti-Retroviral Treatment policy on lymphoma incidence and subtypes seen in the Western Cape of South Africa, 2002-2009: Preliminary findings of the Tygerberg Lymphoma Study Group
Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Division of Haematopathology, Tygerberg Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town 7505, South Africa; Division of Clinical Haematology, Tygerberg Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town 7505, South Africa; Division of Anatomical Pathology, Tygerberg Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town 7505, South Africa; Department of Paediatrics, Tygerberg Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town 7505, South Africa; Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43240, United States; Sub-Saharan Africa Lymphoma Consortium (SSALC/NCI), South Africa
The Tygerberg Lymphoma Study Group was constituted in 2007 to quantify the impact of HIV on the pattern and burden of lymphoma cases in the Western Cape of South Africa which currently has an HIV prevalence of 15%. South Africa has had an Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART) policy and a roll-out plan since 2004 attaining 31% effective coverage in 2009. This study is designed to qualify and establish the impact of HIV epidemic and the ARV roll-out treatment program on the incidence of HIV Related Lymphoma (HRL). Early data document that despite the ART roll out, cases of HRL are increasing in this geographical location, now accounting for 37% of all lymphomas seen in 2009 which is an increase from 5% in 2002. This is in contrast to trends seen in developed environments following the introduction of ART. Also noted are the emergence of subtypes not previously seen in this location such as Burkitt and plasmablastic lymphomas. Burkitt lymphoma is now the commonest HRL seen in this population followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subtypes. The reasons for this observed increase in HRL are not ascribable to improved diagnostic capacity as the tertiary institute in which these diagnoses are made has had significant expertise in this regard for over a decade. We ascribe this paradoxical finding to an ART treatment environment that is ineffective for a diversity of reasons, paramount of which are poor coverage, late commencement of ART and incomplete viral suppression. © 2011.
antiretrovirus agent; angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia; article; Burkitt lymphoma; cancer incidence; diagnostic procedure; epidemic; follicular lymphoma; health care policy; Hodgkin disease; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; human tissue; immunohistochemistry; large cell lymphoma; lymphoblastoma; lymphocytoma; lymphoma; major clinical study; marginal zone lymphoma; peripheral T cell lymphoma; plasmablastic lymphoma; primary effusion lymphoma; South Africa; trend study; Anti-HIV Agents; Communicable Disease Control; Epidemics; Health Policy; HIV Infections; HIV Seropositivity; Humans; Incidence; Lymphoma; Public Health; South Africa