The experimental evaluation and molecular dynamics simulation of a heat-enhanced transdermal delivery system
Catalysis and Synthesis Research Group, Faculty of Natural Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, South Africa; School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 777 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI, United States
Transdermal delivery systems are useful in cases where preferred routes such as the oral route are not available. However, low overall extent of delivery is seen due to the permeation barrier posed by the skin. Chemical penetration enhancers and invasive methods that disturb the structural barrier function of the skin can be used to improve transdermal drug delivery. However, for suitable drugs, a fast-releasing transdermal delivery system can be produced by incorporating a heating source into a transdermal patch. In this study, a molecular dynamics simulation showed that heat increased the diffusivity of the drug molecules, resulting in faster release from gels containing ketoprofen, diclofenac sodium, and lidocaine HCl. Simulations were confirmed by in vitro drug release studies through lipophilic membranes. These correlations could expand the application of heated transdermal delivery systems for use as fast-release-dosage forms. © 2012 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.
diclofenac; ketoprofen; lidocaine; article; chemical reaction; correlation analysis; diffusion; drug delivery system; drug release; experimental study; gel; heat; heating; in vitro study; lipophilicity; molecular dynamics; priority journal; skin conductance; skin penetration; transdermal patch; Administration, Cutaneous; Gels; Hot Temperature; Molecular Dynamics Simulation; Permeability