In vitro evaluation of antileishmanial activity and toxicity of essential oils of Artemisia absinthium and Echinops kebericho
Chemistry and Biodiversity
Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Jimma University, P.O. Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia; Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Department of Immunology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 9086, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Plant Biocentre, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim, Norway
Potential toxicity, costs, and drug-resistant pathogens necessitate the development of new antileishmanial agents. Medicinal and aromatic plants constitute a major source of natural organic compounds. In this study, essential oils of Artemisia absinthium L. and Echinops kebericho Mesfin were investigated by GC and GC/MS analyses. Isolated oils were screened for antileishmanial activity against two Leishmania strains (L. aethiopica and L. donovani), and toxicity on the human monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cell line and red blood cells in vitro. GC/MS Analysis revealed 65 compounds (93.74%) for Artemisia absinthium and 43 compounds (92.85%) for Echinops kebericho oil. The oils contained the oxygenated monoterpene camphor (27.40%) and the sesquiterpene lactone dehydrocostus lactone (41.83%) as major constituents, respectively. Both oils showed activity against promastigote (MIC 0.0097-0.1565 μl/ml) and axenic amastigote forms (EC50 0.24-42.00 nl/ml) of both leishmania species. Weak hemolytic effect was observed for both oils, showing a slightly decreased selectivity index (SI 0.8-19.2) against the THP-1 cell line. Among the two oils tested, E. kebericho exerted strong antileishmanial activity that was even higher than that of amphotericin B with significant cytotoxicity. This study, therefore, demonstrated the potential use of both oils as source of novel agents for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.
antileishmanial agent; Artemisia absinthium extract; camphor; Echinops kebericho extract; essential oil; sesquiterpene lactone derivative; terpene derivative; unclassified drug; antiprotozoal activity; Artemisia absinthium; article; Asteraceae; cytotoxicity; Echinops kebericho; erythrocyte; hemolysis; human; human cell; in vitro study; Leishmania donovani; mass fragmentography; monocytic leukemia; nonhuman; promastigote; Antiprotozoal Agents; Artemisia absinthium; Cell Line; Cell Survival; Echinops Plant; Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry; Hemolysis; Humans; Leishmania; Leishmaniasis; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Oils, Volatile; Artemisia absinthium; Dryobalanops; Leishmania aethiopica; Leishmania donovani