Comparative evaluation of environmental contamination and DNA damage induced by electronic-waste in Nigeria and China
Science of the Total Environment
Analytic Cytology Laboratory, The Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China; Biosciences and Biotechnology Department, Babcock University, Ilisan-remo, Ogun State, Nigeria; Cell Biology and Ge
In the last decade, China and Nigeria have been prime destinations for the world's e-waste disposal leading to serious environmental contamination. We carried out a comparative study of the level of contamination using soils and plants from e-waste dumping and processing sites in both countries. Levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed using gas chromatography/spectrophotometry and heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. DNA damage was assayed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using an alkaline comet assay. Soils and plants were highly contaminated with toxic PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, and heavy metals in both countries. Soil samples from China and plant samples from Nigeria were more contaminated. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of organics and heavy metals in plant samples and the surrounding soils. In human lymphocytes, all tested samples induced significant (p < 0.05) concentration-dependent increases in DNA damage compared with the negative control. These findings suggest that e-waste components/constituents can accumulate, in soil and surrounding vegetation, to toxic and genotoxic levels that could induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Adverse health effects; Alkaline comet assay; Atomic absorption spectrophotometry; Comet assays; Comparative evaluations; Comparative studies; Concentration-dependent; DNA damage; DNA damages; e-Waste; Electronic waste; Environmental contamination; Genotoxic; Human lymphocytes; Human peripheral blood; Negative control; Nigeria; Organic contaminant; Organics; Plant samples; Polyaromatic hydrocarbons; Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs); Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs); Positive correlations; Soil sample; Surrounding soils; Contamination; DNA; Electronic equipment; Heavy metals; Hydrocarbons; Organic pollutants; Polychlorinated biphenyls; Soils; Waste disposal; Wastes; Soil pollution; chromium; copper; DNA; heavy metal; iron; lead; manganese; nickel; polybrominated diphenyl ether; polychlorinated biphenyl; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; soil organic matter; bioaccumulation; comparative study; DNA; genotoxicity; health impact; heavy metal; organic pollutant; PAH; PBDE; PCB; plant; pollution exposure; soil pollution; waste disposal; article; atomic absorption spectrometry; bioaccumulation; China; comet assay; comparative study; concentration (parameters); controlled study; correlation analysis; DNA damage; dumping; electronic waste; environmental exposure; gas chromatography; genotoxicity; human; human cell; Nigeria; nonhuman; peripheral lymphocyte; phytotoxicity; priority journal; soil analysis; soil pollution; vegetation; waste disposal; China; Comet Assay; DNA Damage; Electronics; Environmental Pollutants; Environmental Pollution; Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry; Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers; Humans; Hydrocarbons, Aromatic; Metals, Heavy; Nigeria; Plants; Polychlorinated Biphenyls; Recycling; Soil; Waste Management; China; Nigeria