Impact of the fish Garra on the ecology of reservoirs and the occurrence of Microcystis blooms in semi-arid tropical highlands: An experimental assessment using enclosures
Department of Biology, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Department of Microbiology, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology and Protistology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Chemistry, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Geography Department, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Geo-instituut, Leuven, Belgium; Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Ch. Deberiotstraat 32, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
1. Many man-made reservoirs in the semi-arid highlands of Northern Ethiopia (Tigray) are characterised by the occurrence of intensive blooms of cyanobacteria and a dominance of small riverine fishes belonging to the genus Garra. 2. We carried out enclosure experiments to test for the effect of these small fish on abiotic characteristics, phytoplankton biomass and zooplankton community structure in the pelagic of two reservoirs (Gereb Awso and Tsinkanet). Two experiments were carried out in each of the reservoirs, one at the end of the rainy season (highest water level) and one at the end of the dry season (lowest water level). 3. The presence of Garra in general increased the amount of suspended matter, nutrient concentrations (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), phytoplankton and Microcystis biomass (including the proportion of Microcystis in the phytoplankton community), and reduced water transparency. The positive effect of the presence of Garra on nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton productivity indicate that Garra has the potential to affect food web functioning indirectly through bottom-up effects, by enhancing nutrient concentrations through sediment resuspension and excretion of nutrients. Indeed, population densities of the cladoceran zooplankton taxa Ceriodaphnia and Diaphanosoma also showed an overall increase in enclosures with Garra. 4. However, our data also provide some evidence for a potential of Garra to exert top-down control on large bodied daphnids (Daphnia carinata, D. barbata), although such effect varied among experiments. The limited capability of Garra to control zooplankton communities mainly reflects the low efficiency of these small, riverine and benthos-oriented fish in foraging on zooplankton and suggests the existence of an unoccupied niche for zooplanktivorous fish in the majority of the reservoirs. 5. Although the main effects of Garra on the pelagic food web seemed to be mediated by bottom-up mechanisms, our results also indicate that one of the key variables, the relative abundance of Microcystis, was impacted by Daphnia-mediated trophic cascade effects. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Ceriodaphnia; Cyanobacteria; Daphnia; Daphnia barbata; Daphnia carinata; Daphniidae; Diaphanosoma; Garra; Microcystis; Pisces