Proximal great saphenous vein cut down: An evaluation of techniques and anatomical considerations
Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Pretoria, PO Box 2034, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
Cut-down techniques by which emergency venous access can be achieved are important, particularly, in the resuscitation of haemodynamically depleted patients where percutaneous access to collapsed veins is a problem. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of different methods that are used to locate the proximal great saphenous vein in the thigh and to describe the vein's immediate course. A further component was to identify the position of the valves in the proximal great saphenous vein. Needles were placed in 42 cadaver thighs as defined by the techniques identified from the literature and surgical practice. After a detailed dissection, the vein's relation to these needles was measured and the course of the vein and number of valves noted in relation to easily identifiable landmarks. Landmarks in 2.5-cm intervals on a line from the pubic tubercle to the adductor tubercle of the femur were used. The rule of two's, an experimental method by one of the authors, along with Dronen's second method localized the vein most successfully. The course of the vein was scrutinized and found to have a rather direct course as it proceeded medially toward the saphenous hiatus. The largest population of valves could be found in the proximal 5 cm (76%) with a valve in the confluence of the great saphenous vein and the femoral vein being the most common. Valve populations were found to decrease in number from proximal to distal, which would have implications with the placement of catheters into the vein for fluid resuscitation. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
adult; aged; article; cadaver; cut down technique; dissection; dronen 2 method; dronen method; experimental method; femur; fluid resuscitation; hemodynamic monitoring; human; human tissue; intermethod comparison; new simon method; priority journal; saphenous vein; surgical anatomy; surgical technique; traditional method; vascular access; vein surgery; Adult; Aged; Dissection; Humans; Middle Aged; Needles; Saphenous Vein