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Scopus2-s2.0-84868483815Evaluation of NASA satellite and modelled temperature data for simulating maize water requirement satisfaction index in the Free State Province of South AfricaMoeletsi M.E., Walker S.2012Physics and Chemistry of the EarthNoneNone10.1016/j.pce.2012.08.012Agricultural Research Council, Institute for Soil, Climate and Water, Private Bag X79, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South AfricaMoeletsi, M.E., Agricultural Research Council, Institute for Soil, Climate and Water, Private Bag X79, Pretoria 0001, South Africa, Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; Walker, S., Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South AfricaLow density of weather stations and high percentages of missing values of the archived climate data in most places around the world makes it difficult for decision-makers to make meaningful conclusions in natural resource management. In this study, the use of NASA modelled and satellite-derived data was compared with measured minimum and maximum temperatures at selected climate stations in the Free State Province of South Africa. The NASA temperature data-fed Hargreaves evapotranspiration estimate was compared with the Penman-Monteith estimate to obtain regional coefficients for the Free State. The maize water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI) obtained using the NASA temperature data and calibrated Hargreaves equation was evaluated against the WRSI obtained using Penman-Monteith estimate. The data used is mostly from 1999 to 2008. The results of the comparison between measured minimum temperatures and NASA minimum temperatures show overestimation of the NASA values by between a monthly mean of 1.4°C and 4.1°C. NASA maximum temperatures seem to underestimate measured temperatures by monthly values ranging from 2.2 to 3.8°C. NASA-fed Hargreaves equation in its original form underestimates Penman-Monteith evapotranspiration by between 20% and 40% and hence its coefficient was calibrated accordingly. The comparison of the maize WRSI simulated with NASA temperatures showed a good correlation and small deviations from WRSI calculated from measured data. Thus, the use of NASA satellite and modelled data is recommended in the Free State Province in places where there are no meteorological readings, with special consideration of the biasness of the data. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.Evapotranspiration; Hargreaves; Maize; Minimum and maximum temperatures; WRSIClimate data; Climate stations; Decision makers; Free state; Good correlations; Hargreaves; Hargreaves equations; Low density; Maize; Maximum temperature; Missing values; NASA satellite; Natural resource management; Penman-Monteith; South Africa; Temperature data; Water requirements; Weather stations; WRSI; Estimation; Evapotranspiration; NASA; Natural resources management; Satellites; Water supply; Information management; computer simulation; evapotranspiration; maize; resource management; satellite data; temperature effect; Free State; South Africa; Zea maysNone
NoneNoneUse of hybrid cultivars in Kagera region, Tanzania, and their impactEdmeades S., Nkuba J.M., Smale M.2007Research Report of the International Food Policy Research InstituteNone155NoneAgriculture and the Rural Development, World Bank, Washington, DC, United States; Maruku Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Bukoba, Tanzania; IFPRI, IPGRIEdmeades, S., Agriculture and the Rural Development, World Bank, Washington, DC, United States; Nkuba, J.M., Maruku Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Bukoba, Tanzania; Smale, M., IFPRI, IPGRIBanana hybrid use in Kagera Region, Tanzania have been beneficial in that the reduce vulnerability to production losses from biotic pressures. In order to assess, a treatment model is used as well as for the identification of the determinants of adoption and the effects of adoption on expected yield losses from pests and diseases. Meanwhile, the hybrids are high yielding and resistant to pests and diseases that ravaged banana production in the lakes region. It was shown that the intended impact of reducing yield losses to pests and diseases has been achieved, supporting research efforts aimed at developing resistant planting material and the formal diffusion program. Findings from the research showed that there is a need to disseminate new cultivars to sustain the benefits. Using the disease and pest resistant cultivars help farmers reduce dependence on pesticides and fungicides which are costly and bear health risks for farming communities, not to mention degrade the environment.Nonebiotic factor; cultivar; health risk; hybrid; pest resistance; pesticide resistance; yield; Africa; East Africa; Kagera; Sub-Saharan Africa; TanzaniaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84868459367Electrical resistivity survey for groundwater investigations and shallow subsurface evaluation of the basaltic-greenstone formation of the urban Bulawayo aquiferMuchingami I., Hlatywayo D.J., Nel J.M., Chuma C.2012Physics and Chemistry of the EarthNoneNone10.1016/j.pce.2012.08.014Applied Physics Department, National University of Science and Technology, Box AC939, Ascot, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe; Department of Earth Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Box X17, Bellville 7535, South AfricaMuchingami, I., Applied Physics Department, National University of Science and Technology, Box AC939, Ascot, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, Department of Earth Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Box X17, Bellville 7535, South Africa; Hlatywayo, D.J., Applied Physics Department, National University of Science and Technology, Box AC939, Ascot, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe; Nel, J.M., Department of Earth Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Box X17, Bellville 7535, South Africa; Chuma, C., Applied Physics Department, National University of Science and Technology, Box AC939, Ascot, Bulawayo, ZimbabweElectrical resistivity surveying methods have been widely used to determine the thickness and resistivity of layered media for the purpose of assessing groundwater potential and siting boreholes in fractured unconfined aquifers. Traditionally, this has been done using one-dimensional (1D) vertical electrical sounding (VES) surveys. However, 1D VES surveys only model layered structures of the subsurface and do not provide comprehensive information for interpreting the structure and extent of subsurface hydro-geological features. As such the incorporation of two-dimensional (2D) geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting has often been used to provide a more detailed interpretation of the subsurface hydro-geological features from which potential sites for successful borehole location are identified. In this study, 2D electrical resistivity tomography was combined with 1D VES to produce a subsurface resistivity model for assessing the availability of groundwater in the basaltic-greenstone formation of the Matsheumhlope well field in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Low resistivity readings (<50. Ωm) towards the central region of the study area suggest a high groundwater potential, while high resistivities (>500. Ωm) around the western margin of the study area suggests a low groundwater potential. 2D electrical resistivity surveys provide a more detailed subsurface structure and may assist in identifying the configuration of possible fractures which could conduct groundwater into the shallow subsurface of study area. It is concluded that 2D electrical resistivity methods is an effective tool for assessing the availability of groundwater in the highly weathered and fractured basaltic greenstone rocks. The methods provided a more precise hydro-geophysical model for the study area compared to the traditional VES. Results from this study are useful for technical groundwater management as they clearly identified suitable borehole locations for long term groundwater prospecting. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.2D (two-dimensional); Electrical resistivity; Groundwater; Resistivity models; Unconfined aquiferComprehensive information; Effective tool; Electrical resistivity; Electrical resistivity tomography; Geophysical techniques; Groundwater management; High resistivity; Layered media; Layered Structures; Low resistivity; Potential sites; Resistivity models; Shallow subsurface; Study areas; Subsurface structures; Unconfined aquifers; Vertical electrical sounding; Zimbabwe; Aquifers; Basalt; Boreholes; Electric conductivity; Electric prospecting; Geophysics; Groundwater; Hydrogeology; Structural geology; Surveys; Two dimensional; Water management; Groundwater resources; basalt; borehole; electrical resistivity; greenstone; groundwater; tomography; two-dimensional modeling; unconfined aquifer; urban area; vertical electrical sounding; water management; Bulawayo [Bulawayo (PRV)]; Bulawayo [Zimbabwe]; ZimbabweNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84900417099Thermal performance considerations for intelligent videoAlves R.2014EngineerITNoneAPRILNoneAxis Communications, South AfricaAlves, R., Axis Communications, South Africa[No abstract available]NoneNoneNone
WoSWOS:000271954100013A Critical Analysis of the Social and Economic Impact of Asian Diaspora in KenyaAfolabi, N,Akala, Winston Jumba,Falola, T,Kiruthu, Felix,Ogino, Francis2007TRANS-ATLANTIC MIGRATION: THE PARADOXES OF EXILENoneNoneNoneCatholic University of Eastern Africa, University of Nairobi"Akala, Winston Jumba: Catholic University of Eastern Africa","Kiruthu, Felix: University of Nairobi","Ogino, Francis: University of Nairobi"NoneNoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84856804402Modeling variable river flow velocity on continental scale: Current situation and climate change impacts in EuropeVerzano K., Bärlund I., Flörke M., Lehner B., Kynast E., Voß F., Alcamo J.2012Journal of HydrologyNoneNone10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.01.005Center for Environmental Systems Research (CESR), University of Kassel, Kurt-Wolters-Str. 3, 34109 Kassel, Germany; Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6, Canada; United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, KenyaVerzano, K., Center for Environmental Systems Research (CESR), University of Kassel, Kurt-Wolters-Str. 3, 34109 Kassel, Germany; Bärlund, I., Center for Environmental Systems Research (CESR), University of Kassel, Kurt-Wolters-Str. 3, 34109 Kassel, Germany; Flörke, M., Center for Environmental Systems Research (CESR), University of Kassel, Kurt-Wolters-Str. 3, 34109 Kassel, Germany; Lehner, B., Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6, Canada; Kynast, E., Center for Environmental Systems Research (CESR), University of Kassel, Kurt-Wolters-Str. 3, 34109 Kassel, Germany; Voß, F., Center for Environmental Systems Research (CESR), University of Kassel, Kurt-Wolters-Str. 3, 34109 Kassel, Germany; Alcamo, J., Center for Environmental Systems Research (CESR), University of Kassel, Kurt-Wolters-Str. 3, 34109 Kassel, Germany, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, KenyaThis paper introduces an approach to route discharge with a variable river flow velocity based on the Manning-Strickler formula within large scale hydrological models. The approach has been developed for the global scale hydrological model WaterGAP and model results have been analyzed focusing on Europe. The goal was to find a method that is simple enough to derive the required parameters from globally available data while being sophisticated enough to deliver realistic flow velocity estimates for a large variety of environmental conditions. The river bed roughness (Manning's n) is approximated in a spatially explicit way based on topography, the location of urban population, and river sinuosity. The hydraulic radius is estimated from actual river discharge, and river bed slope is derived by combining a high resolution DEM, a 5. arc min drainage direction map, and river sinuosity. The modeled river flow velocity has been validated against data of US gauging stations. The representation of lateral transport has clearly been improved compared to the constant flow velocity applied in older model versions. The effect of incorporating variable flow velocities as compared to a constant flow velocity is largest on flood discharge, which generally increases in large rivers. The impact on monthly discharge hydrographs is marginal only. WaterGAP has been driven by three climate change projections for the 2050s to assess climate change impacts on flow velocity, and on the residence time of water in the European river system. Results indicate a decrease in residence times for Northern Europe and an increase for parts of the Mediterranean. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.Climate change; Manning's n; Manning-Strickler; Residence time; River flow velocity; WaterGAPClimate change impact; Climate change projections; Constant flow; Continental scale; Current situation; Environmental conditions; Flood discharge; Gauging stations; Global scale; High-resolution DEM; Hydraulic radius; Hydrographs; Hydrological models; Large rivers; Large scale hydrological model; Lateral transport; Manning-Strickler; Model results; Residence time; River bed; River discharge; River systems; Spatially explicit; Urban population; Variable flow velocity; Velocity-based; WaterGAP; Climate change; Hydrology; Rivers; Stream flow; Flow velocity; bed roughness; climate change; environmental conditions; flow velocity; gauge; hydrograph; hydrological modeling; model validation; parameterization; residence time; river bed; river discharge; river flow; river system; Europe; Mediterranean RegionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84877342673The effect of frother blends on the flotation performance of selected PGM bearing oresNgoroma F., Wiese J., Franzidis J.-P.2013Minerals EngineeringNoneNone10.1016/j.mineng.2013.03.017Centre for Minerals Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town, South AfricaNgoroma, F., Centre for Minerals Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town, South Africa; Wiese, J., Centre for Minerals Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town, South Africa; Franzidis, J.-P., Centre for Minerals Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town, South AfricaConcentrators processing PGM bearing ores make use of polysaccharide depressants to reduce the recovery of the undesired naturally floatable gangue minerals, mainly silicates, present in the ore. Recent work has shown that high depressant dosages can completely depress naturally floatable gangue and thus prevent it from reporting to the concentrate. These high depressant dosages can, however, have a negative effect on the recovery of valuable minerals present in the ore by reducing the stability of the froth. In order to counterbalance the effects of depressant addition, frothers are added. It is, however, preferable to maintain independent control over bubble size and froth stability which is difficult to achieve with only one frother. An alternative strategy is to use a blend of frothers, e.g. a weaker frother in combination with a stronger frother. Such a system allows an additional degree of freedom: changing the ratio of the two frothers provides more independent control of bubble size and froth stability. This study demonstrates through the use of batch flotation tests how blending low molecular weight alcohols with commercially available frothers impacts the solids and water recovery, as well as the valuable mineral recovery and concentrate grade in different PGM ores. Higher water and solids recoveries together with higher valuable mineral recoveries (>90% copper and >70% nickel) were obtained from tests using frother blends. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Alcohols; Froth flotation; Frothers; Polysaccharide depressantsConcentrate grade; Degree of freedom; Floatable gangue; Flotation performance; Frothers; Independent control; Low molecular weight alcohols; Mineral recovery; Alcohols; Blending; Froth flotation; Ores; Recovery; Silicates; Ore treatmentNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84867741899The use of machine vision to predict flotation performanceMorar S.H., Harris M.C., Bradshaw D.J.2012Minerals EngineeringNoneNone10.1016/j.mineng.2012.02.010Centre for Minerals Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7701, South Africa; University of Queensland, Sustainable Minerals Institute, Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre, QLD 4072, AustraliaMorar, S.H., Centre for Minerals Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7701, South Africa; Harris, M.C., Centre for Minerals Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7701, South Africa; Bradshaw, D.J., University of Queensland, Sustainable Minerals Institute, Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre, QLD 4072, AustraliaMachine vision has been proposed as an ideal non-intrusive instrument to obtain meaningful information relating to the performance of the froth phase of flotation for the purposes of process control. Many attempts have been made to use machine vision to predict performance factors such as mass recovery rate and concentrate grade. These approaches have largely been empirical, and have been shown to be accurate under limited operating conditions. The most commonly used application of machine vision technology is the measurement of froth velocity within a control strategy to balance the concentrate recovery rate down a bank by manipulating either froth depth or air rate. This paper investigates whether the measurement of physical machine vision measurements are able to provide accurate measures of mass recovery rate and concentrate grade across variations in operating conditions. The results show that although good relationships are found in narrow conditions, a mechanistic understanding and model is needed to determine relationships that are useful over a wide range of operating conditions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Flotation froths; Froth flotation; Modelling; On-line analysis; Process controlAir rate; Concentrate grade; Concentrate recovery; Control strategies; Flotation froths; Flotation performance; Machine vision technologies; Mass recovery; Non-intrusive; On-line analysis; Operating condition; Performance factors; Vision measurement; Air; Froth flotation; Models; Process control; Recovery; Computer visionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84867747561The effect of frother type and dosage on flotation performance in the presence of high depressant concentrationsWiese J., Harris P.2012Minerals EngineeringNoneNone10.1016/j.mineng.2012.03.028Centre for Minerals Research, University of Cape Town, South AfricaWiese, J., Centre for Minerals Research, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Harris, P., Centre for Minerals Research, University of Cape Town, South AfricaThe use of high dosages of polysaccharide depressants in order to depress the undesired naturally floatable gangue (NFG) present in ores beneficiated from the Bushveld Complex, South Africa, results in a significant decrease in the stability of flotation froths. These unstable froths can result in restricted mass pull and decreased valuable mineral recovery. Previous work using a single polyglycol ether type frother, DOW 200, has shown that an increase in frother dosage could be used to overcome the destabilisation of the froth to a certain extent and improve valuable mineral recovery. This resulted in an increase in water recovery and dilution of the concentrate by entrained material. This work extends this study to examine the effect of using a stronger frother, DOW 250, on the recovery of sulphide minerals and floatable gangue from a Merensky ore at different dosages of guar gum and CMC, which are typically used as depressants in the processing of Merensky ore. Results indicate that an increase in the strength of the frother resulted in a more robust froth. Depressant type also had an influence on results obtained. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Flotation depressants; Flotation frothers; Froth flotation; Precious metal oresBushveld Complex; Floatable gangue; Flotation depressants; Flotation frothers; Flotation froths; Flotation performance; Frothers; Guar gums; Merensky ore; Mineral recovery; Polyglycol ethers; Precious metal ores; South Africa; Water recovery; Ethers; Froth flotation; Ores; Precious metals; Recovery; Ore treatmentNone
Scopus2-s2.0-38549122916The internal contradictions of global civil society - What impact on global democracy?Fioramonti L.2007Development DialogueNone49NoneCIVICUS: World Alliance for Citizen Participation, Johannesburg, South AfricaFioramonti, L., CIVICUS: World Alliance for Citizen Participation, Johannesburg, South Africa[No abstract available]Nonecivil society; democracy; globalization; social movementNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84901690560Characterisation of raw sewage and performance assessment of primary settling tanks at Firle Sewage Treatment Works, Harare, ZimbabweMuserere S.T., Hoko Z., Nhapi I.2014Physics and Chemistry of the EarthNoneNone10.1016/j.pce.2013.10.004Civil Engineering Department, University of Zimbabwe, MP 167, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Harare Water Department, City of Harare, Old Mutual House Corner, Sam Nujoma and Speke Avenue, Harare, ZimbabweMuserere, S.T., Civil Engineering Department, University of Zimbabwe, MP 167, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe, Harare Water Department, City of Harare, Old Mutual House Corner, Sam Nujoma and Speke Avenue, Harare, Zimbabwe; Hoko, Z., Civil Engineering Department, University of Zimbabwe, MP 167, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Nhapi, I., Civil Engineering Department, University of Zimbabwe, MP 167, Mt Pleasant, Harare, ZimbabweThe need for more stringent effluent discharge standards as prescribed by the Environmental Management Act 20:27 to protect the environment can be sustainably achieved with the aid of Activated Sludge Models. Thus, the researchers believe it is time to re-evaluate wastewater characteristics at Firle Sewage Treatment Works (STW) and make use of activated sludge simulators to address pollution challenges caused by the sewage plant. Therefore, this paper characterizes raw sewage and assesses settled and unsettled sewage in order to evaluate the performance of the primary treatment system and the suitability of the settled sewage for treatment by the subsequent Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) system at Firle STW. Parameters studied included COD, BOD, TKN, TP, NH3, TSS, pH and Alkalinity. Composite samples were collected over a 9-day campaign period (27 June to 6 July 2012), hourly grab samples over 24hrs and composite samples on 6 March 2012 which were then analysed in the lab in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater to support the City of Harare 2004-2012 lab historical records. Concentrations for unsettled sewage in mg/L were COD (527±32), BOD (297±83) TKN (19.0±2.0), TP (18±3), NH3 (24.0±12.9), TSS (219±57), while pH was 7.0±0 and Alkalinity 266±36mg/L. For settled sewage the corresponding values in mg/L were COD (522±15), BOD (324±102), TKN (21.0±3.0), TP (19.0±2.0), NH3 (25.6±11.2), TSS (250±66), while pH was 7.0±0 and Alkalinity 271±17mg/L. The plant design values for raw sewage are COD (650mg/L), BOD (200mg/L), TKN (40mg/L) and TP (11mg/L). Thus, COD and nitrogen were within the plant design range while BOD and TP were higher. Treatability of sewage in BNR systems is often inferred from the levels of critical parameters and also the ratios of TKN/COD and COD/TP. The wastewater average settled COD/BOD, COD/TP and TKN/COD ratio were 1.7±0.5, 27.1±3.1 and 0.04±0.01 respectively and corresponding unsettled ratios were 1.8±0.5, 30.77±6.8 and 0.04±0 respectively. Thus, treatability by the 3-stage BNR system appears highly feasible for nitrogen and is likely to be complex for phosphorous. Fractionation of COD, TP and TN is recommended to appropriately advise further steps to optimise the plant operations. © 2013 The Authors.Biological Nutrient Removal; Characterise; Firle Sewage Treatment Works; Settled sewage; Treatability of sewageActivated sludge process; Alkalinity; Effluents; Environmental management; Nitrogen; Nutrients; pH; Activated sludge model; Biological nutrient removal; Characterise; Effluent discharge; Performance assessment; Sewage treatment works; Wastewater characteristics; Water and wastewater; Biological sewage treatment; activated sludge; biochemical oxygen demand; chemical oxygen demand; performance assessment; sewage; sewage treatment; Harare [Zimbabwe]; ZimbabweNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33748367852Evaluation of fever of unknown origin before starting antiretroviral therapyConradie F., Wilson D.2006Southern African Journal of HIV MedicineNone23NoneClinical HIV Research Unit, Helen Joseph Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa; Department of Medicine, Edendale Hospital, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaConradie, F., Clinical HIV Research Unit, Helen Joseph Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa; Wilson, D., Department of Medicine, Edendale Hospital, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa[No abstract available]Noneantiretrovirus agent; efavirenz; fluconazole; lamivudine; stavudine; tenofovir; adult; article; blood transfusion; bone marrow biopsy; case report; coughing; death; diarrhea; disease course; drug substitution; esophagus candidiasis; female; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; laboratory test; patient assessment; patient referral; peripheral neuropathy; physical examination; pyrexia idiopathica; treatment refusalNone
Scopus2-s2.0-20744436885Evaluation of aluminium phosphide against house mice (Musmusculus) in GhanaAdu-Acheampong R., Sarfo J.E., Avemegah R., Odzawo V.2005Tests of Agrochemicals and CultivarsNone26NoneCocoa Research Institute of Ghana, P. O. Box 8, Tafo-Akim, Ghana; Quality Control Division, COCOBOD, Takoradi, GhanaAdu-Acheampong, R., Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, P. O. Box 8, Tafo-Akim, Ghana; Sarfo, J.E., Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, P. O. Box 8, Tafo-Akim, Ghana; Avemegah, R., Quality Control Division, COCOBOD, Takoradi, Ghana; Odzawo, V., Quality Control Division, COCOBOD, Takoradi, Ghana[No abstract available]Aluminium phosphide; Control; Gastoxin; House miceMus musculusNone
WoSWOS:000293382500007A 3-year Cohort Study to Assess the Impact of an Integrated Food- and Livelihood-based Model on Undernutrition in Rural Western KenyaAmoroso, L,Diru, W.,Fanzo, J.,Kim, D.,Lelerai, E.,Masira, J.,Muniz, M.,Mutuo, P.,Negin, J.,Nemser, B.,Palm, C.,Pronyk, P. M.,Remans, R.,Sachs, J. D.,Sachs, S. Ehrlich,Sanchez, P.,THOMPSON, B,Wariero, J.2011COMBATING MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES: FOOD-BASED APPROACHESNoneNoneNoneColumbia University, KU Leuven, University of Sydney, Biovers Int"Kim, D.: Columbia University","Negin, J.: University of Sydney","Pronyk, P. M.: Columbia University","Remans, R.: KU Leuven","Sanchez, P.: Columbia University",Reducing extreme poverty and hunger is the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG). With undernutrition contributing to one third of all child deaths, improving nutrition is a precondition for accelerating progress towards other MDG targets. While the role of technical interventions such as micronutrient fortification and supplementation in reducing morbidity and mortality has been well documented, evidence to support more comprehensive multi-sectoral approaches remains inconclusive. This chapter aims to evaluate the impact of an integrated food- and livelihood-based model on nutrition-related outcomes in rural western Kenya. A 3-year prospective cohort study was undertaken among 300 randomly selected wealth-stratified households. Detailed socio-economic and health surveys were conducted. A nutrition module assessed household levels of food security, food consumption frequency and diet diversity. This was complemented by anthropometric measurement and assessments of serum levels of vitamin A among children under 5 years old. The average food insecurity score decreased from 5.21 at baseline to 4.13 at follow-up (P &lt; 0.0001). Average diet diversity scores for daily, weekly and monthly time periods increased from 6.7 to 7.3; from 10.7 to 11.2; and from 12.4 to 12.6, respectively (P &lt; 0.0001). Daily consumption for 14 out of 16 food groups increased significantly. For children under 2 years of age, underweight and stunting decreased from 26.2% to 3.9% (P = 0.002) and from 62.3% to 38.3% (P = 0.014), respectively. Vitamin A deficiency as measured by serum vitamin A levels decreased from 70.0% to 33.3% (P = 0.007) for children under 5 years old. This study presents encouraging evidence that a multi-sectoral food- and livelihood-based model can improve diet quality, enhance food security and positively affect childhood nutritional outcomes. The wider application of this approach to a diversity of agro-ecological zones in sub-Saharan Africa is currently being assessed."diet diversity",Food-based,"FOOD SECURITY",multi-sectoral,STUNTING,"VITAMIN A","CHILD UNDERNUTRITION","DIETARY DIVERSITY",GROWTH,HEALTH,INTERVENTIONS,OPPORTUNITY,"VITAMIN-A INTAKE"NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84870311367The impact of contactor scale on a ferric nanoparticle adsorbent process for the removal of phosphorus from municipal wastewaterMartin B.D., De Kock L., Stephenson T., Parsons S.A., Jefferson B.2013Chemical Engineering JournalNoneNone10.1016/j.cej.2012.11.006Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, United Kingdom; Department of Chemical Technology, Nanotechnology Innovation Centre (Water Research Platform), University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028, South AfricaMartin, B.D., Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, United Kingdom; De Kock, L., Department of Chemical Technology, Nanotechnology Innovation Centre (Water Research Platform), University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa; Stephenson, T., Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, United Kingdom; Parsons, S.A., Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, United Kingdom; Jefferson, B., Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, United Kingdom, Department of Chemical Technology, Nanotechnology Innovation Centre (Water Research Platform), University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028, South AfricaThe impact of contactor scale on the efficacy of a ferric nanoparticle embedded media for phosphorus removal was investigated. Experiments were conducted on columns with diameters between 15 and 500mm, operated at a fixed empty bed contact time of 4min and an aspect ratio of bed depth to column diameter of 2:1 to ensure self similarity. The columns contained a ferric nanoparticle embedded media, and treated water containing 4mgPL-1 to simulate applications of full load removal. The treatable flow before breakthrough, the shape of the mass transfer zone and the capacity were all seen to vary with the column diameter used. A logarithmic relationship was observed between column diameter and adsorption capacity such that the capacity increased from 3.4 to 6.3mgPgmedia-1 as the column diameter increased from 15 to 500mm. Overall the results highlight the importance of considering the scale at which the capacity is measured when assessing the economic suitability of the embedded nanoparticle resin. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.Ferric nanoparticles; Municipal wastewater; Phosphorus removal; Scale-upAdsorption capacities; Bed depth; Embedded media; Embedded nanoparticles; Empty bed contact time; Full-load; Logarithmic relationship; Municipal wastewaters; Phosphorus removal; Scale-up; Self-similarities; Aspect ratio; Phosphorus; Water treatment; NanoparticlesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84874078832Capital structure, corporate financial performance and shareholders' investment decisions: A survey of selected nigerian companiesBassey B.E., Inah E.U.2012European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative SciencesNone54NoneDepartment of Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B.1115, Calabar, 8037983154, NigeriaBassey, B.E., Department of Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B.1115, Calabar, 8037983154, Nigeria; Inah, E.U., Department of Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B.1115, Calabar, 8037983154, NigeriaThis study examines capital structure, corporate financial performance and shareholders' investment decisions. The greatest issue striving against the management of any firm in Nigeria and the world over is how to minimize cost of capital and maximize shareholders wealth. To achieve this major objective, financial managers of firms need to understand the source of capital to finance the growth of the firm and also the efficient use of the available capital. The study made use of an ex-post facto design and the data collected through the use of questionnaires were analyzed using the ordinary least square (OLS) method. The results therefore revealed that capital structure have a significant relationship with corporate financial performance and shareholders' investment decisions. Based on the findings obtained the study therefore concluded that capital structure ratios significantly influence investment decisions in companies, with most investors preferring to invest in companies with a smaller debt/equity ratio. Finally, it was recommended that retained earnings should be the first source of financing a business venture before considering debt and equity. Where extra fund is needed, the company should preferably go for equity capital as the risk would be shared among the different investors. © EuroJournals, Inc. 2012.Debt; Debt/equity; Dividend per share; Earnings per share; Equity; Return on asset; Return on equityNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-67549117347Corporate governance and firm performance: The case of Nigerian listed firmsKajola S.O.2008European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative SciencesNone14NoneDepartment of Accounting, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, NigeriaKajola, S.O., Department of Accounting, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, NigeriaThis paper seeks to examine the relationship between four corporate governance mechanisms (board size, board composition, chief executive status and audit committee) and two firm performance measures (return on equity, ROE, and profit margin, PM), of a sample of twenty Nigerian listed firms between 2000 and 2006. Using panel methodology and OLS as a method of estimation, the results provide evidence of a positive significant relationship between ROE and board size as well as chief executive status. The implication of this is that the board size should be limited to a sizeable limit and that the posts of the chief executive and the board chair should be occupied by different persons. The results further reveal a positive significant relationship between PM and chief executive status. The study, however, could not provide a significant relationship between the two performance measures and board composition and audit committee. These results are consistent with prior empirical studies. © EuroJournals, Inc. 2008.Agency cost; Corporate governance; Firm performance; NigeriaNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34248170244The national agricultural land development programme in Nigeria: Impact on farm incomes in Oyo and Osun statesIdowu E.O.2006Land Reform, Land Settlement and CooperativesNone2NoneDepartment of Agricultural Economics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, NigeriaIdowu, E.O., Department of Agricultural Economics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, NigeriaThe study assesses the impact of the National Agricultural Land Development Programme on farm incomes in the Oyo and Osun states of Nigeria. In each state, 60 farmers, equally distributed between the participating and non-participating, were randomly selected. The study showed that the programme in these two states achieved less than 2 percent of the targets set for land development and placement of participants during the project life of seven years (i.e. 1992-99), and showed a participant turnover of 76 and 79 percent for Oyo and Osun states, respectively. Similarly, net farm incomes by the farmers (ranging from US$164 to US$267) were grossly inadequate to satisfy the needs of the farmers and their families. The article makes some recommendations to improve the performance of similar projects in the future. These include adequate funding, as well as the provision of rural infrastructure and credit to participants.Noneagricultural development; agricultural land; assessment method; income distribution; Africa; Nigeria; Osun; Oyo; Sub-Saharan Africa; West AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84861854216Evaluation of agricultural credit utilization by cooperative farmers in Benue state of NigeriaOkwoche V.A., Asogwa B.C., Obinne P.C.2012European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative SciencesNone47NoneDepartment of Agricultural Extension and Communication, University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria; Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, NigeriaOkwoche, V.A., Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria; Asogwa, B.C., Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria; Obinne, P.C., Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, NigeriaThe study evaluated agricultural credit utilization by cooperative farmers in Benue State of Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 130 Agricultural Cooperatives in Benue State using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution and percentages and t-test analysis. The result of study showed that majority of the farmers (41.5%) is within the age bracket of active work and therefore can make meaningful impact in agricultural production when motivated with the needed credit facilities. Furthermore, 88.5% of the respondents source their credits from non-institutional sources. More than 87.7% of the respondents utilized credits accessed for the purpose of Agricultural production. In addition, the study indicated that the loan acquired by the respondents had significant impact on their output and income. Farmer's joined the farmers' cooperative societies mainly for access to credit. It is recommended that the farmers should be adequately motivated with needed credit facilities so as to enhance their agricultural production. Furthermore, formal credit institution should increase the access of farmers to credit facilities as this will go a long way in improving their productivity and welfare. The result of study indicated that high interest rate was the major constraint of the respondents in sourcing agricultural credit. © EuroJournals, Inc. 2012.Agricultural credit; Cooperative society; Evaluation; Farmers; UtilizationNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78349251274The impact of macroeconomic and demographic factors on savings mobilisation in NigeriaUremadu S.O.2009Savings and DevelopmentNoneSUPPL.NoneDepartment of Banking and Finance, College of Agribusiness and Financial Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, NigeriaUremadu, S.O., Department of Banking and Finance, College of Agribusiness and Financial Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, NigeriaThe role of savings in the economic growth of Nigeria cannot be over-emphasised. However, rapid population growth has posed a serious problem to savings mobilisation. A high dependency ratio of the population will require substantial increase in future spending on health, education and care for dependants. This envisaged decline in the working-age population could lead to lower savings and investment rates and slower GDP growth. Against this background, this paper examines the impact of dependency ratio on savings mobilisation in Nigeria using a number of macroeconomic indicators that influence savings. Nigerian data on relevant variables covering the period under investigation were utilised for the study. A multiple regression approach that incorporated an error-correction model was used for our data analysis and tests. The results suggested that savings ratio is determined by spread between lending and savings deposit rates (SLS), domestic inflation rate, real interest rate and foreign private investment (FPI). The major findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) demographic factors seem to have played a positive and insignificant role in explaining the savings ratio in over two decades studied, (2) interest rates spread leads savings ratio, (3) domestic inflation rate has a negative and significant impact on savings ratio, and (4) foreign capital inflows, as measured by FPI positively and significantly affect savings ratio in Nigeria. The findings of this research will guide policy makers on economic growth and poverty reduction in countries of sub-Saharan Africa.Dependency ratio; Domestic inflation rate; Foreign private investment; Macroeconomic indicators; Multiple regression; Real interest rate; Savings mobilisation; Spreadcapital flow; demographic trend; economic growth; Gross Domestic Product; inflation; interest rate; investment; macroeconomics; multiple regression; population growth; poverty alleviation; savings; NigeriaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84868454984Monitoring of N-methyl carbamate pesticide residues in water using hollow fibre supported liquid membrane and solid phase extractionMsagati T.A.M., Mamba B.B.2012Physics and Chemistry of the EarthNoneNone10.1016/j.pce.2012.08.016Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, South AfricaMsagati, T.A.M., Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa; Mamba, B.B., Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, South AfricaThe aim of this work was to develop a method for the determination of N-methyl carbamates in water involving hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) and solid phase extraction (SPE) as sample preparation methods. Four N-methyl carbamate pesticides, aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb sulfoxide, were simultaneously extracted and analysed by a liquid chromatograph with a diode array detector (LC-UV/DAD) and a liquid chromatograph coupled to a ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS). The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of carabamate extracts was performed on a C 18 column with water-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The mass spectrometry analyses were carried out in the positive mode, operating under both the selected ion monitoring (SIM) and full scan modes. The solid phase recoveries of the extracts ranged between 8% and 98%, with aldicarb having the highest recoveries, followed by carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb had the lowest recovery. The HFSLM recovery ranged between 8% and 58% and the order of recovery was similar to the SPE trend. Factors controlling the efficiency of the HFSLM extraction such as sample pH, stripping phase pH, enrichment time, stirring speed as well as organic solvent used for entrapment of analytes, were optimised to achieve the highest enrichment factors. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; Hollow fibre supported liquid membrane; N-methyl carbamates; Solid phase extractionAldicarb; Analytes; Carbaryl; Carbofurans; Diode array detectors; Enrichment factors; Hollow fibre; Ion traps; LC-ESI-MS; Liquid chromatography-Mass spectrometry; Mass spectrometry analysis; Methiocarb; Mobile phase; N-methyl carbamate; N-Methyl carbamate pesticides; Positive mode; Quadrupole mass spectrometer; Sample pH; Sample preparation methods; Scan mode; Selected ion monitoring; Solid-phase; Solid-phase extraction; Stirring speed; Supported liquid membrane; Acetonitrile; Chromatography; High performance liquid chromatography; Insecticides; Liquid membranes; Mass spectrometry; Organic solvents; Recovery; extraction method; liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry; membrane; pesticide residue; water pollutionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84930378351Evaluation of sample preparation methods for the detection of total metal content using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in wastewater and sludgeDimpe K.M., Ngila J.C., Mabuba N., Nomngongo P.N.2014Physics and Chemistry of the EarthNoneNone10.1016/j.pce.2014.11.006Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein, South AfricaDimpe, K.M., Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein, South Africa; Ngila, J.C., Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein, South Africa; Mabuba, N., Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein, South Africa; Nomngongo, P.N., Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein, South AfricaHeavy metal contamination exists in aqueous wastes and sludge of many industrial discharges and domestic wastewater, among other sources. Determination of metals in the wastewater and sludge requires sample pre-treatment prior to analysis because of certain challenges such as the complexity of the physical state of the sample, which may lead to wrong readings in the measurement. This is particularly the case with low analyte concentration to be detected by the instrument. The purpose of this work was to assess and validate the different sample preparation methods namely, hot plate and microwave-assisted digestion procedures for extraction of metal ions in wastewater and sludge samples prior to their inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometric (ICP-OES) determination. For the extraction of As, Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, three acid mixtures, that is, HNO<inf>3</inf>/H<inf>2</inf>O<inf>2</inf>, HNO<inf>3</inf>/HClO<inf>4</inf>/H<inf>2</inf>O<inf>2</inf> and aqua regia+H<inf>2</inf>O<inf>2</inf>, were evaluated. Influent wastewater spiked with the SRM (CWW-TM-B) was used for the optimization of acid mixtures affecting the extraction procedure. After sample digestion, the filtration capabilities of cellulose-acetate filter paper and the acrodisc syringe filter with the pore size of 0.45μm were compared. In terms of performance, acrodisc syringe filter in terms of the improved recoveries obtained, was found to be the best filtration method compared to the filter paper. Based on the analytical results obtained, microwave-assisted digestion (MAD) using aqua regia+H<inf>2</inf>O<inf>2</inf> mixture was found to be the most suitable method for extraction of heavy metals and major elements in all the sample matrices. Therefore, MAD using aqua regia+H<inf>2</inf>O<inf>2</inf> mixture was used for further investigations. The precision of the developed MAD method expressed in terms of relative standard deviations (% RSD) for different metals was found to be <5%. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.12% to 2.18μgL-1 and 0.61% to 3.43μgL-1, respectively. The accuracy of the developed method (MAD using aqua regia+H<inf>2</inf>O<inf>2</inf>) was verified by analyzing two SRMs (CWW-TM-A and CWW-TM-B) and the obtained results were in agreement with certified values with recoveries ranging from 80% to 104% for CWW-TM-A and 84% to 102% for CWW-TM-B. The accuracy of the developed method was verified also by the recovery test in the spiked sludge samples. The accuracy and spike recovery test for different metal ions were in the range 80-104% and 92-106%, respectively. The developed method was applied for extraction of the As, Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn in environmental samples, namely wastewater and sludge. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.Heavy metals; Hot plate-assisted digestion; Microwave-assisted digestion; Sludge; WastewaterAluminum; Electric discharges; Heavy metals; Inductively coupled plasma; Iron compounds; Lead removal (water treatment); Light emission; Manganese; Manganese removal (water treatment); Metal ions; Metal recovery; Metals; Mixtures; Nickel; Nitric acid; Optical emission spectroscopy; Plasma diagnostics; Plasma torches; Plate metal; Pore size; Recovery; Sludge digestion; Spectrometry; Syringes; Wastewater; Wastewater treatment; Zinc; Heavy metal contamination; Hot plates; Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometric; Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry; Microwave assisted digestion; Relative standard deviations; Sample preparation methods; Sludge; Extraction; concentration (composition); extraction method; filter; heavy metal; inductively coupled plasma method; sampling; sludge; wastewaterNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84930376404Predictive complexation models of the impact of natural organic matter and cations on scaling in cooling water pipes: A case study of power generation plants in South AfricaBosire G.O., Ngila J.C., Mbugua J.M.2014Physics and Chemistry of the EarthNoneNone10.1016/j.pce.2014.11.007Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 17011, Doornfontein, Johannesburg, South Africa; Technical University of Kenya (TUK), Department of Chemical Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 52428, Nairobi, KenyaBosire, G.O., Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 17011, Doornfontein, Johannesburg, South Africa; Ngila, J.C., Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 17011, Doornfontein, Johannesburg, South Africa; Mbugua, J.M., Technical University of Kenya (TUK), Department of Chemical Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 52428, Nairobi, KenyaThis work discusses simulative models of Ca and Mg complexation with natural organic matter (NOM), in order to control the incidence of scaling in pipes carrying cooling water at the Eskom power generating stations in South Africa. In particular, the paper reports how parameters such as pH and trace element levels influence the distribution of scaling species and their interactions, over and above mineral phase saturation indices. In order to generate modelling inputs, two experimental scenarios were created in the model solutions: Firstly, the trace metals Cu, Pb and Zn were used as markers for Ca and Mg complexation to humic acid and secondly the effect of natural organic matter in cooling water was determined by spiking model solutions. Labile metal ions and total elements in model solutions and water samples were analysed by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), respectively. ICP-OES results revealed high levels of K, Na, S, Mg and Ca and low levels of trace elements (Cd, Se, Pb, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Al and Zn) in the cooling water samples. Using the Tipping and Hurley's database WHAM in PHREEQC format (T_H.DAT), the total elemental concentrations were run as inputs on a PHREEQC code, at pH 6.8 and defined charge as alkalinity (as HCO3-) For model solutions, PHREEQC inputs were based on (i) free metal differences attributed to competitive effect of Ca and the effect of Ca+Mg, respectively; (ii) total Ca and Mg used in the model solutions and (iii) alkalinity described as hydrogen carbonate. Anodic stripping peak heights were used to calculate the concentration of the free/uncomplexed/labile metal ions (used as tracers) in the model solutions. The objective of modelling was to describe scaling in terms of saturation indices of mineral phases. Accordingly, the minerals most likely to generate scale were further simulated (over a range of pH (3-10) to yield results that mimicked changing pH. Speciation calculations of Cu2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ generated azurite, cerrusite and smithsonite mineral phases, which showed positive saturation indices at higher pH, hence increased potential to precipitate (form scale). The derived predictive models would act as a useful management tool and henceforth aid to avoid unnecessary costs due to the consequences of scaling. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.Cooling water; Humic acid; Metal complexation; Mineral phases; Natural organic matter; Pipe scalingAlkalinity; Biogeochemistry; Biological materials; Calcium; Chemicals removal (water treatment); Cooling; Copper; Electric substations; Inductively coupled plasma; Magnesium; Manganese; Manganese removal (water treatment); Metal ions; Metals; Minerals; Optical emission spectroscopy; Organic acids; Organic compounds; pH; Spectrometry; Trace elements; Voltammetry; Water pipelines; Zinc; Elemental concentrations; Humic acid; Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry; Metal complexation; Mineral phasis; Natural organic matters; Speciation calculations; Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry; Cooling water; calcium; cation; complexation; cooling water; humic acid; magnesium; organic matter; pipe; power generation; power plant; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79959697143Relationship between regulation and performance of Nigerian commercial banksOkezie A.C., Tella S., Akingunola R.2011European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative SciencesNone33NoneDepartment of Banking and Finance, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State Nigeria P. O. Box 6241, Shomolu, Lagos, Nigeria; Department of Economics, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State Nigeria P. O. Box 1166, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun StatOkezie, A.C., Department of Banking and Finance, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State Nigeria P. O. Box 6241, Shomolu, Lagos, Nigeria; Tella, S., Department of Economics, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State Nigeria P. O. Box 1166, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria; Akingunola, R., Department of Banking and Finance, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, P.M.B 2002, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, NigeriaThe study set out to find the relationship between commercial banks' regulation and their performance, using the period 1986 - 2004. Granger Causality test, OLS regression analysis and charting, were applied to regulation, measured by the quotient of the number of banks and the number of on-site examination and performance measured by the reciprocal of the number of distressed banks. For the entire period 1986 - 2004, there was no relationship between banks' performance and regulation. However, for both the periods, 1986-1995 and 1996-2004, the level of banks' performance determined the level of regulation, implying that banking supervision policy was reactive rather than proactive. The study, therefore, endorses the move to shift from the transaction bank supervision method to the risk based approach. © EuroJournals, Inc. 2011.Bank performance; Regulation; Risk based supervision; Transaction based supervisionNoneNone
NoneNoneHost plants of Osyris lanceolata (African Sandalwood) and their influence on its early growth performance in TanzaniaMwang'ingo P.L., Teklehaimanot Z., Lulandala L.L., Mwihomeke S.T.2005Southern African Forestry JournalNone203NoneDepartment of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O.Box 3038, Morogoro, Tanzania; School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, United Kingdom; Department of Forest Biology, Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O.Box 3010, Morogoro, Tanzania; Department of Forestry, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou, South AfricaMwang'ingo, P.L., Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O.Box 3038, Morogoro, Tanzania; Teklehaimanot, Z., School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, United Kingdom; Lulandala, L.L., Department of Forest Biology, Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O.Box 3010, Morogoro, Tanzania; Mwihomeke, S.T., Department of Forestry, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou, South AfricaIdentification of the host plants of the hemi-parasitic African sandalwood (Osyris lanceolata) and the influence of some on its early growth performance was investigated at Image, Nundu, Sao Hill and Iringa in the southern highlands of Tanzania. The aim was to identify host plants that support the growth of O. lanceolata, and to evaluate the potential of some in promoting its early growth under artificial establishment. The results revealed that O. lanceolata parasitises a wide range of hosts although some were preferred. The preferredhosts were Rhus natalensis, Dodonaea viscosa, Tecomaria capensis, Catha edulis, Apodytes dimidiata, Brachystegia spiciformis, Maytenus acuminatus and Aphloia theiformis. Of the preferred hosts, Brachytegia spiciformis, Rhus natalensis and Casuarina equisetifolia promoted most effectively the early growth of O. lanceolata in terms of height, diameter and overall root and shoot biomass. Possibly the light crown of these host species and the nitrogen fixing ability of C. equisetifolia played a significant role in conferring this advantage. The species are thus recommended as appropriate host plants when raising O. lanceolata seedlings for planting. However, a decision on whether these hosts will support the growth of O. lanceolata at a later stage is subject to further experimentation as they may only be serving as initial or intermediate hosts as reported in a related species Santalum album.African sandalwood; Host plants; Host selectivity; Osyris lanceolata; Parasitism; Tree growthAphloia theiformis; Apodytes dimidiata; Brachystegia spiciformis; Casuarina equisetifolia; Catha edulis; Dodonaea viscosa; Hedera; Lanceolata; Maytenus; Osyris lanceolata; Rhus; Rhus natalensis; Santalaceae; Santalum album; Tecomaria capensisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84873039519Impact of Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus 1758 (Crustacea: Copepoda) almost a decade after an initial parasitic outbreak in fish of Malilangwe Reservoir, ZimbabweDalu T., Nhiwatiwa T., Clegg B., Barson M.2012Knowledge and Management of Aquatic EcosystemsNone40610.1051/kmae/2012020Department of Biological Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP167, Mt. Pleasant Harare, South Africa; Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa; Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, P. Bag 7085, Chiredzi, ZimbabweDalu, T., Department of Biological Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP167, Mt. Pleasant Harare, South Africa, Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa; Nhiwatiwa, T., Department of Biological Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP167, Mt. Pleasant Harare, South Africa; Clegg, B., Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, P. Bag 7085, Chiredzi, Zimbabwe; Barson, M., Department of Biological Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP167, Mt. Pleasant Harare, South AfricaAn assessment was carried out on the impact of Lernaea cyprinacea on fish populations ten years after its first outbreak in the Malilangwe reservoir, and Lernaea cyprinacea is currently showing no sign of declining in the reservoir. Eight fish species were examined for ectoparasite prevalence and intensity. The possible relationship between L. cyprinacea infestation and environmental factors were investigated. Two parasite species, L. cyprinacea in Oreochromis mossambiccus, Oreochromis placidus, Oreochromis macrochir, Labeo altivelis and Tilapia rendalli and trematode cysts (Clinostomoides brieni) in Clarias gariepinus were found. Lernaea cyprinacea prevalence was 100% amongst all cichlids but varied for L. altivelis. Parasite intensity increased during the cool, dry season (May to July), with the greatest mean intensity being observed amongst the cichlids. There was a significant relationship between parasite intensity and environmental factors; dissolved oxygen (p < 0.05), temperature (p < 0.001) and pH (p < 0.001). © ONEMA, 2012.Cichlids; Clinostomoides brieni; Intensity; Lernaea cyprinacea; Malilangwe; ParasiteCichlidae; Clarias gariepinus; Copepoda; Crustacea; Labeo; Lernaea cyprinacea; Oreochromis; Oreochromis macrochir; Oreochromis placidus; Tilapia; Tilapia rendalli; TrematodaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84858960683Impact of marketing practices on the performance of small business enterprises: Empirical evidence from NigeriaOyedijo A., Idris A.A., Aliu A.A.2012European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative SciencesNone46NoneDepartment of Business Admin. and Management Technology, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, NigeriaOyedijo, A., Department of Business Admin. and Management Technology, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria; Idris, A.A., Department of Business Admin. and Management Technology, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria; Aliu, A.A., Department of Business Admin. and Management Technology, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, NigeriaThis study investigated the impact of marketing practices on organizational performance of small business enterprises (SBEs) in Lagos State, Nigeria. The purpose of the study is to contextually validate recent findings as to the efficacy of marketing practices in developing economies. Within a survey design, data were obtained from 545 business owners and senior marketing personnel using structured questionnaire and analyzed using factor analysis, ANOVA and other relevant statistical tools in the predictive analysis software (version 19). The findings implicated marketing mix factors and product strategy issues as the most important and impacting factors in the marketing practices of small businesses in Nigeria while advertising and marketing research appears neglected. The study found a strong positive relationship between the marketing practices of Nigerian SBEs and organizational performance indicants. The paper proposes a model that can be used to explain the influence of marketing practices on the performance of small business enterprises. It also makes some recommendations for marketing practitioners and suggests areas for future research. © EuroJournals, Inc. 2012.Market orientation; Marketing models; Marketing orientation; Marketing practices; Nigeria; Performance; Small business enterprisesNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77954596259Performance evaluation of AOP/biological hybrid system for treatment of recalcitrant organic compoundsNkhalambayausi-Chirwa E.M., Makgato S.S.2010International Journal of Chemical EngineeringNoneNone10.1155/2010/590169Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Water Utilization Division, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South AfricaNkhalambayausi-Chirwa, E.M., Water Utilization Division, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa; Makgato, S.S., Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0001, South AfricaProcess water from nuclear fuel recovery unit operations contains a variety of toxic organic compounds. The use of decontamination reagents such as CCl4 together with phenolic tar results in wastewater with a high content of chlorophenols. In this study, the extent of dehalogenation of toxic aromatic compounds was evaluated using a photolytic advanced oxidation process (AOP) followed by biodegradation in the second stage. A hard-to-degrade toxic pollutant, 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), was used to represent a variety of recalcitrant aromatic pollutants in effluent from the nuclear industry. A UV-assisted AOP/bioreactor system demonstrated a great potential in treatment of nuclear process wastewater and this was indicated by high removal efficiency (&gt;98) under various 4-CP concentrations. Adding hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2) as a liquid catalyst further improved biodegradation rate but the effect was limited by the scavenging of OH radicals under high concentrations of H 2O2. Copyright © 2010 S. S. Makgato and E. M. Nkhalambayausi-Chirwa.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84876405182Modeling used engine oil impact on the compaction and strength characteristics of a lateritic soilOjuri O.O., Ogundipe O.O.2012Electronic Journal of Geotechnical EngineeringNoneNoneNoneDepartment of Civil Engineering Science, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, South Africa; Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, NigeriaOjuri, O.O., Department of Civil Engineering Science, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, South Africa; Ogundipe, O.O., Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, NigeriaThis study entails simulating an oil contaminated site by mixing predetermined amounts of used engine oil with lateritic soil samples collected in Akure, south-western Nigeria. Geotechnical testing performed on the studied soils include basic index property tests, compaction tests and strength tests. Soil samples collected from the surrounding of the Engineering Workshop (Machine Shop) building in the Federal University of Technology, Akure were mixed with 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% of used engine oil by dried weight of the soil. The oil contaminated soils indicated lower Maximum Dry Density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC), unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) compared to the uncontaminated soil. Regression models for the estimation of compaction and strength characteristics for this type of ferrallitic lateritic soils were established. © 2012 ejge.Ferrallitic laterite; Land pollution; Regression models; Soil bearing capacity; Waste oilFerrallitic laterite; Land pollution; Regression model; Soil bearing capacity; Waste oil; Compaction; Compressive strength; Lubricating oils; Machine shops; Regression analysis; Soil pollution; Soil surveys; Soils; Soil testing; bearing capacity; compaction; compressive strength; dry density; laterite; modeling; moisture content; numerical model; oil pollution; regression analysis; soil pollution; soil strength; soil test; Akure; Nigeria; OndoNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84872125731Impact of nitrogen fertilizer applications on surface water nitrate levels within a Kenyan tea plantationMaghanga J.K., Kituyi J.L., Kisinyo P.O., Ng'Etich W.K.2013Journal of ChemistryNoneNone10.1155/2013/196516Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Pwani University College, P.O. Box 195, Kilifi 80108, Kenya; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Chepkoilel University College, P.O. Box 1125, Eldoret 30100, Kenya; Department of Soil Science, Chepkoilel University College, P.O. Box 1125, Eldoret 30100, KenyaMaghanga, J.K., Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Pwani University College, P.O. Box 195, Kilifi 80108, Kenya; Kituyi, J.L., Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Chepkoilel University College, P.O. Box 1125, Eldoret 30100, Kenya; Kisinyo, P.O., Department of Soil Science, Chepkoilel University College, P.O. Box 1125, Eldoret 30100, Kenya; Ng'Etich, W.K., Department of Soil Science, Chepkoilel University College, P.O. Box 1125, Eldoret 30100, KenyaTea production in the Kenyan Rift Valley uses high rates of nitrogenous fertilizer. Nitrates can be discharged to water bodies through leaching and surface run-off. Nitrate levels above 10 mg/L NO3 - N cause methemoglobinemia which is fatal. A study to monitor changes in surface water nitrate levels was carried out in ten rivers within a Kenyan tea plantation for three years. Water samples were obtained before and after fertilizer application in 2004, 2005, and 2006. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 - N) was determined colorimetrically by the cadmium reduction method using HACH-DR 2400 dataloging spectrophotometer. For the three years, the highest nitrate-nitrogen levels were in river Temochewa in 2005 during the first fertilizer applications (4.9 mg/L to 8.2 mg/L). There was no established trend between surface water nitrate levels and the time of fertilizer applications; however, fertilizer application contributed to an increase in nitrate levels. The initial nitrate-nitrogen levels in most of the rivers were high, indicating that contamination could have been upstream; hence, further research is required to establish this. Nitrogen-nitrogen levels in the three years were below the maximum contaminant level of 10 mg/L NO3 - N; however, the rivers should be monitored frequently. © 2013 J. K. Maghanga et al.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84908334995Evaluation of trimetallic Ru(II)- and Os(II)-Arene complexes as potential anticancer agentsMakhubela B.C.E., Meyer M., Smith G.S.2014Journal of Organometallic ChemistryNoneNone10.1016/j.jorganchem.2014.08.034Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Biotechnology, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town, South AfricaMakhubela, B.C.E., Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa; Meyer, M., Department of Biotechnology, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa; Smith, G.S., Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South AfricaSchiff-base ligands, tris-2-(salicylaldimine ethyl)amine and tris-2-(2-pyridylimine ethyl)amine (1 and 2) were prepared and complexed to Ru(II) and Os(II) entities to form new trimetallic complexes (3-10). The complexes are air- and moisture-stable and have been characterized fully using elemental analysis, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy as well as HR-ESI-TOF-MS spectrometry. Related mononuclear analogues (11-14) were also prepared via the Schiff-base condensation reaction of propyl amine and the appropriate aldehyde to form propysalicylaldimine and propyl-2-pyridylimine ligands. Upon complexation with the respective metal dimers, ([OsCl2(p-cym)]2 and [OsBr2(p-cym)]2) complexes (11-14) formed and were characterized by elemental analysis, NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The cytotoxicity of the trimetallic complexes (3-10) and their mononuclear analogues were established against human osteosarcoma (MG63), human ovarian (A2780cisR; cisplatin-resistant) cancer cells and model human non-cancerous cells (KMST6, fibroblast). All the complexes exhibited moderate to high anti-cancer activities and the most potent complexes were further evaluated for their ability to inhibit DNA topoisomerase I (Topo I) - an enzyme key to cellular genetic processes, such as DNA replication and transcription. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Cancer; Cytotoxicity; I; Ruthenium(II)-arenes and osmium(II)-arenes; Topoisomerase; TrimetallicIodine; Arene complexes; Cancer; Potential anticancer agents; Topoisomerases; Trimetallic; CytotoxicityNone
Scopus2-s2.0-38549090080Rapid phosphorus(III) ligand evaluation utilising potassium selenocyanateMuller A., Otto S., Roodt A.2008Dalton TransactionsNone510.1039/b712782kDepartment of Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, P. O. Box 524, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa; Department of Chemistry, University of the Free State, P. O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; Sasol Technology Research and Development, P.O. Box 1, Sasolburg, 1947, South AfricaMuller, A., Department of Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, P. O. Box 524, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; Otto, S., Department of Chemistry, University of the Free State, P. O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa, Sasol Technology Research and Development, P.O. Box 1, Sasolburg, 1947, South Africa; Roodt, A., Department of Chemistry, University of the Free State, P. O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South AfricaOxidative addition of SeCN- to tertiary phosphine ligands has been investigated in methanol at 298 K by use of UV-Vis stopped-flow and conventional spectrophotometry. In most cases kobsvs. [SeCN -] plots were linear with zero intercepts corresponding to a rate expression of kobs = k1[SeCN-]. Reactions rates are dependent on the electron density of the phosphorus centre with k 1 varying by five orders of magnitude from 1.34 ± 0.02 × 10-3 to 51 ± 3 mol-1 dm3 s-1 for P(2-OMe-C6H4)3 to PCy3 respectively. Activation parameters range from 27 ± 1 to 49.0 ± 1.3 kJ mol-1 for ΔH‡ and -112 ± 9 to -140 ± 3 J K-1 mol-1 for ΔS ‡ supporting a SN2 mechanism in which the initial nucleophilic attack of P on Se is rate determining. Reaction rates are promoted by more polar solvents supporting the mechanistic assignment. Reasonable linear correlations were observed between log k1vs. pKa, 1JP-Se and χd values of the phosphines. The reaction rates are remarkably sensitive to the steric bulk of the substituents, and substitution of phenyl rings in the 2 position resulted in a decrease in the reaction rate. The crystal structures of SePPh2Cy and SePPhCy2 have been determined displaying Se-P bond distances of 2.111(2) and 2.1260(8) respectively. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.NoneCarrier concentration; Crystal structure; Methanol; Nucleophiles; Organic solvents; Phosphorus; Potassium compounds; Rate constants; Spectrophotometry; Bond distances; Phenyl rings; Polar solvents; Reactions rates; LigandsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84903839917Geotechnical evaluation of some lateritic soils in Akure South, South-Western NigeriaOwolabi T.A., Aderinola O.S.2014Electronic Journal of Geotechnical EngineeringNoneNoneNoneDepartment of Civil Engineering, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria; Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, NigeriaOwolabi, T.A., Department of Civil Engineering, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria; Aderinola, O.S., Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, NigeriaThis research project aims at evaluating the geotechnical properties of lateritic soil in Akure South, Southwestern Nigeria. In order to achieve this, six samples were collected from two borrow pits for laboratory test. Atterberg limits test, specific gravity test, sieve analysis test, moisture content test, compaction test and California bearing ratio test (CBR) and unconfined compressive strength were conducted on the soil samples in accordance with British standard code of practice (BS1377:1990), Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes. The particle size analysis shows that the percentages passing number 200 BS sieve are 13%, 6% and 53% for samples S1, S2 and S3 respectively. Samples S1 and S2 can be deduced as suitable for sub-grade, sub-base and base materials as the percentage by weight finer than N0 200BS test sieve is less than 35%. The Atterberg limit result shows that sample S1, S2 and S3 have sandy particle sizes predominating. Hence the soil sample as a result of its particle size composition happens to be a cohesionless soil with no plasticity. The natural moisture content for the soil samples ranges between 5.26% to14.72%. The Specific gravity of the tested samples lies between 2.64 and 2.71. The soaked California bearing ratio ranges from 53.30% - 70.85%. The maximum dry density for the soil samples varies between 1.89 Mg/m3 and 2.314 Mg/m3 with their optimum moisture content ranging between 6.25% to 17.44% while the unconfined compressive strength for S3 is 53.315kN/m2. According to AASHTO soil classification samples S1 and S2 can be classified as A-1b materials (granular material) consist of well graded mixtures of gravel, coarse sand and fine sand and can be rated as excellent material for road works having satisfied all the conditions for constructing subgrade and subbase materials while sample S3 can be classified as A-4 material (silty soil), rated as fair to poor sub-grade material and cannot be used as a construction material. Conversely this research work has provided data for engineers, designers and contractor for the use of this borrowpits for construction work. It is recommended that all contractors should ensure that the testing and quality control of pavement materials is done before the commencement of work on site. © 2014 ejge.Atterberg limit test; California bearing ratio; Compaction test; Geotechnical properties; Lateritic soil; Particle size analysis test; Soil classification; Specific gravityCivil engineering; Compaction; Compressive strength; Contractors; Density (specific gravity); Granular materials; Moisture determination; Particle size analysis; Research; Sieves; Soil surveys; Soils; Compaction; Compressive strength; Contractors; Density (specific gravity); Engineering research; Granular materials; Materials testing; Moisture; Moisture determination; Particle size; Particle size analysis; Quality control; Sieves; Soil surveys; Soils; Strength of materials; Atterberg limits; California bearing ratio; Compaction test; Geotechnical properties; Lateritic soils; Soil classification; Soil testing; Soil testing; Atterberg limit; bearing capacity; compaction; compressive strength; laboratory method; laterite; moisture content; particle size; soil classification; soil mechanics; soil water; Akure; Nigeria; OndoNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84859608343Hydraulic performance of compacted foundry sand bagasse ash mixture permeated with municipal solid waste leachateOsinubi K.J., Moses G.2012Electronic Journal of Geotechnical EngineeringNoneNoneNoneDepartment of Civil Engrg., Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 810001, Nigeria; Department of Civil Engrg., Nigerian Defense Academy, Kaduna, NigeriaOsinubi, K.J., Department of Civil Engrg., Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 810001, Nigeria; Moses, G., Department of Civil Engrg., Nigerian Defense Academy, Kaduna, NigeriaFoundry sand mixed with up to 8% bagasse ash by weight of dry soil was evaluated for use as a suitable hydraulic barrier material. Tests were carried out on the foundry sand - bagasse ash mixtures to determine the index properties and compaction characteristics. The relationship between hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures compacted using the British Standard light (BSL) energy (relative compaction = 100%) with molding water content, bagasse ash content and unit weight were determined. Furthermore, specimens were sequentially permeated with water and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate to determine the hydraulic conductivity values of the foundry sand - bagasse ash mixtures. Test results show that the regulatory minimum hydraulic conductivity (k) value of 1 × 10 -9 m/s or lower required for a material to be used in waste containment application can be achieved when foundry sand is treated with 4 % bagasse ash, prepared at molding water content in the range 11.2 - 15.4% and compacted to a unit weight of at least 17.56 kN/m 3. Results for specimen permeated with MSW leachate showed that foundry sand treated with 4% bagasse ash met the regulatory minimum value for barrier materials. Generally hydraulic conductivity values of specimens treated with MSW decreased by factors in the range 1.12-5.71, but above 6% bagasse ash treatment the value increased by a factor of 1.32, which practically is considered insignificant. The study showed that foundry sand treated with 4% bagasse ash can be used as a barrier material in municipal waste containment facilities.Bagasse ash; Compaction; Hydraulic conductivity; Municipal solid waste leachateAsh contents; Ash mixtures; Barrier material; British Standards; Dry soil; Hydraulic barrier; Hydraulic performance; Index properties; Leachates; Minimum value; Molding water content; Municipal solid waste landfills; Municipal waste; Relative compaction; Unit weight; Waste containment; Compaction; Foundry sand; Hydraulic conductivity; Leaching; Mixtures; Molding; Municipal solid waste; Soil testing; Bagasse; ash; compaction; hydraulic conductivity; landfill; leachate; municipal solid waste; sand; waste facilityNone
Scopus2-s2.0-48649110107Effect of capital structure on firms' performance: The Nigeria performanceAkintoye I.R.2008European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative SciencesNone10NoneDepartment of Economics, Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaAkintoye, I.R., Department of Economics, Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaIn this paper, we examined the effect of capital structure on firms performance. We address the following questions: Does higher leverage lead to better firm performance? Is the effect of performance on leverage similar across the distribution of different capital structures? Using a sample of 10 Nigerian quoted firms with consideration of their financial statements for three years, we discover that an evenly distributed capital structure has positive effect on firms performance, while the effect of performance on leverage varies across the distribution of different capital structure as seen from the companies understudied. Most of the equity financed firms in this study performed as much as those who employed debt in their structure in term returns on equity and assets. Although we cannot generalize this fact as few other firms with debt finance performed more efficiently as in the case of Nestle Nig. Plc, Northern Nig Flour Mills Plc, hence the effect of leverage on efficiency varies across the distribution of different capital structure lending credence to the agency cost theory of Jensen and Meckling(1976). We therefore recommend that investors should concentrate on engagement of efficient management team, motivation and other developmental programmes so as to achieve goal congruence in the long run.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-64549122298Budget and budgetary control for improved performance: A consideration for selected food and beverages companies in NigeriaAkintoye I.R.2008European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative SciencesNone12NoneDepartment of Economics, Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, West Africa, NigeriaAkintoye, I.R., Department of Economics, Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, West Africa, NigeriaBudget and Budgetary control, both at management and operational level looks at the future and lays down what has to be achieved. Control checks whether or not the plans are realized, and puts into effect corrective measures where deviation or shortfall is occurring. This study examines how budget and budgetary control can impact on the performance of the selected food and beverages companies in Nigeria, as considered in this study, being a sample of the entire population of the firms in the Nigerian Manufacturing Industry. We reviewed the performance of the Nigeria manufacturing industry in previous and recent times. We found out that the performance of this industry leaves much to be desired due to factors such as neglect of the industry due to over dependence on crude oil, epileptic power supply, collapsing infrastructures, unfavourable sectoral reforming among others and have resulted in low capacity utilization of the manufacturing industry. An empirical investigation was undertaken, using the simple correlation analytics technique specifically the Pearson product movement correlation coefficient. In most of he cases considered, established the presence of strong relationship between turnover as a variable of budget and performance indicators - EPS, DPS and NAS, of the selected food and beverages companies. Following our findings, we advise managers and business operators (not only in the manufacturing industry) to pay more attention to their budgetary control systems, for those without an existing budgetary control system, they should put one in place, and those with a dummy or passive budgetary control system, it is time they re-established a result-oriented budgetary control system as it goes a long way in repositioning the manufacturing industry from its creeping performance level to an improved high capacity utilization point. © EuroJournals, Inc. 2008.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77953955141Industrial development, electricity crisis and economic performance in NigeriaUdah E.B.2010European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative SciencesNone18NoneDepartment of Economics, University of Calabar-Nigeria, NigeriaUdah, E.B., Department of Economics, University of Calabar-Nigeria, NigeriaThis paper seeks to investigate the causal and long-run relationship between electricity supply, industrialization and economic development in Nigeria from 1970-2008. To achieve this, the paper employed the Granger Causality test and the ARDL bounds test approach to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al (2001). In order to determine the time series characteristics of variables used in the regression, the paper adopted the approach of NG and Perron (2001) modified unit root test. The Granger Causality results showed that there is a feedback causal relationship between GDP per capita and electricity supply. Unidirectional relationship is seen between capital employed and GDP per capita without a feedback effect, running from capital to GDP per capita. The same unidirectional relationship is observed between electricity supply and capital; the causality runs from capital to electricity supply. The causality result also revealed a unidirectional relationship without feedback effect between labour and electricity supply. The Granger causality test found no causal link in the case of industrial output and GDP per capita. The results of the long run and error correction model showed that industrial development, electricity supply, technology and capital employed are important determinants of economic development. Stability tests were also conducted using CUSUM and CUSUMQ and the Jarque-Bera normality test. The results strongly suggest that the residuals are within the boundaries. This implies that the parameters of the model remained within its critical bounds of parameter stability throughout the period of study. The paper concludes that for Nigeria to drive economic development through industrialization, the country should fix the electricity supply problem. © EuroJournals, Inc.Cointegration and error correction; Economic development; Electricity crisis; Industrial developmentNoneNone
NoneNoneGrowth performance of lesser-known Leucaena species/provenances at Gairo inland plateau, Morogoro, TanzaniaEdward E., Chamshama S.A.O., Mugasha A.G.2006Southern African Forestry JournalNone208NoneDepartment of Forest Biology, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3010, Morogoro, TanzaniaEdward, E., Department of Forest Biology, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3010, Morogoro, Tanzania; Chamshama, S.A.O., Department of Forest Biology, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3010, Morogoro, Tanzania; Mugasha, A.G., Department of Forest Biology, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3010, Morogoro, TanzaniaGrowth performance and psyllid resistance was studied among nineteen lesser- known Leucaena species/provenances at Gairo inland plateau, Morogoro, Tanzania. Assessment was done at irregular intervals for survival, root collar diameter and diameter at 30 cm above the ground, height, diameter at breast height, multiple stems production, biomass and psyllid resistance. Final assessment of these tree attributes was done at 37 months after planting, while psyllid resistance was assessed at 9 and 37 months after planting. During the final assessment occasion, height ranged from 2.69 m for L. collinsii Ex. Chiapas to 4.87 m for L. diversifolia Ex. Veracruz. Diameter at breast height (Dbh) ranged from 2.26 cm for L. shannonnii Ex. Chiapas to 4.93 cm for L. diversifolia Ex. Veracruz, while multiple stems production ranged from 2709 stems ha-1 for L. pulverulenta Ex. Tamaulipas to 7135 stems ha -1 for L. leucocephala Ex. Morogoro and untransformed survival ranged from 43.75% for L. pulverulenta Ex. Tamaulipas to 100% for L. diversifolia Ex. Veracruz. Total wood biomass production ranged from 3.74 t/ha for L. shannonnii Ex. Chiapas to 15.61 t/ha for L. diversifolia Ex. Veracruz. The study has shown that species/provenances differ significantly in survival, diameter, height growth, psyllid resistance, multiple stem production and biomass production. Based on these findings, provenances L. diversifolia Batch (15551), L. diversifolia Ex. Mexico, L. diversifolia Ex. Veracruz and L. pallida Ex. Oaxaca are recommended for Gairo and similar sites.Biomass production and psyllid resistance; Growth; Lesser-known Leucaena; SurvivalLeucaena; Leucaena collinsii; Leucaena diversifolia; Leucaena leucocephala; Leucaena pallida; Leucaena pulverulenta; PsyllidaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84894298159Geotechnical and mineralogical evaluation of some lateritic soils from Southwestern NigeriaOmoniyi I.O., Olufemi O., Abdulwahid A.K.2014Electronic Journal of Geotechnical EngineeringNoneNoneNoneDepartment of Geology and Mineral Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, NigeriaOmoniyi, I.O., Department of Geology and Mineral Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria; Olufemi, O., Department of Geology and Mineral Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria; Abdulwahid, A.K., Department of Geology and Mineral Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, NigeriaFour lateritic soil samples derived from different parent rocks were examined for their suitability as construction materials. All analyses were carried out in accordance with BSI standard. Results showed that soil samples from migmatite gneiss, quartz schist and amphibolites are siltysands while the granite derived soil is siltyclay. All samples have low to intermediate plasticity. The cohesion values of the soils are between 50kPa and 80kPa at standard Proctor compaction energy while it is between 30kPa and 75kPa at modified Proctor compaction energy. Also, the angle of internal friction varies from 11° to 24° and from 14° to 24° for standard and modified compaction energies respectively. The coefficients of permeability of the soils fall between 10-8m/s and 10-9m/s making them practically impermeable. The mineralogy of the soil showed that they contain no undesirable mineral constituent as they contain mainly quartz. The results of the compaction and CBR showed that the samples are suitable for use as subgrade and fill materials. The grain size distribution values, Atterberg limits and coefficient of permeability of the soils make them suitable for use as liners in waste disposal systems. The angle of internal friction and cohesion of the soils means the soils could also support shallow foundations and could also support moderately steep slopes. This geotechnical information is important for foundation design for future development of the sampled localities. © 2013, EJGE.Coefficient of permeability; Compaction; Geotechnical properties; Mineralogy; Particle size analysisAdhesion; Compaction; Friction; Grain size and shape; Internal friction; Mineralogy; Minerals; Particle size; Particle size analysis; Quartz; Soil surveys; Structural design; Waste disposal; Angle of internal friction; Coefficient of permeability; Geotechnical information; Geotechnical properties; Grain size distribution; Southwestern nigeria; Standard Proctor compaction; Waste disposal systems; Soils; compaction; geotechnical engineering; geotechnical property; laterite; mineralogy; particle size; permeability; NigeriaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84888200858Quantitative clay mineralogy of a Vertic Planosol in southwestern Ethiopia: Impact on soil formation hypothesesDumon M., Tolossa A.R., Capon B., Detavernier C., Van Ranst E.2014GeodermaNoneNone10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.09.012Department of Geology and Soil Science (WE13), Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium; Department of Natural Resources Management, Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Ethiopia; Department of Solid State Sciences (WE04), Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, B-9000 Ghent, BelgiumDumon, M., Department of Geology and Soil Science (WE13), Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium; Tolossa, A.R., Department of Geology and Soil Science (WE13), Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium, Department of Natural Resources Management, Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Ethiopia; Capon, B., Department of Solid State Sciences (WE04), Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium; Detavernier, C., Department of Solid State Sciences (WE04), Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium; Van Ranst, E., Department of Geology and Soil Science (WE13), Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000 Ghent, BelgiumPlanosols, characterised by a bleached, silt-textured surface horizon abruptly overlying a dense, clayey subsoil, are a very common soil type in Ethiopia. The origin of the abrupt textural change is still often debated in literature. One of the processes frequently put forward to explain the coarse textured material in the topsoil is 'ferrolysis': an oxidation-reduction sequence driven by bacterial decomposition of soil organic matter, resulting in the destruction of open 2:1 clay minerals. Recent studies of representative profiles of Vertic Planosols in south-western Ethiopia indicate that these soils are composed of a weathered volcanic ash layer deposited on top of a deflated vertic subsoil, which refutes the ferrolysis hypothesis. To strengthen the geogenetic origin of these profiles, a quantitative mineralogical analysis of the clay fraction was undertaken.Results of a sequential fractionation revealed a strong aggregation of clay particles in the bleached horizon, while the effect of aggregation was far more limited in the vertic horizon. This is believed to be related to the dispersed, impregnative nature of iron oxides in the bleached horizon, compared to the segregated nature of the sharp, nodular concretions found in the vertic horizon. The annealing XRD analysis revealed only minor changes in dehydroxylation temperatures of kaolinites and 2:1 minerals between untreated and DCB-treated samples, indicating that the pretreatment did not significantly alter the mineral lattices. Multi-specimen, full-profile fitting of XRD patterns revealed no large quantitative differences between sub-fractions of the bleached and vertic horizons, although a net increase of 1:1 layers over 2:1 layers towards the top of the profile can be observed in the bleached horizon. This could be interpreted as the result of neo-formation of kaolinite. The main mineralogical differences between the bleached and vertic horizons of the <. 2. μm fraction are mainly a result of the different proportions of sub-fractions. Interestingly, the <. 0.05. μm fraction seems to be dominated by a complex assemblage of kaolinite and smectite mixed-layer minerals. The obtained detailed view on the mineralogical composition of the clay fraction of a typical Vertic Planosol has provided new insights in the complex nature of these duplex soils, confirming ferrolysis not to be at the origin of the abrupt textural change. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.Clay mineralogy; Ethiopia; Ferrolysis; Fractionation; Planosol; QuantitativeClay mineralogy; Ethiopia; Ferrolysis; Planosol; Quantitative; Agglomeration; Cleaning; Fractionation; Kaolinite; Minerals; Soils; Bleaching; clay mineral; fractionation; Planosol; quantitative analysis; silt; soil horizon; soil organic matter; soil texture; soil type; subsoil; volcanic ash; X-ray diffraction; Ethiopia; Bacteria (microorganisms)None
Scopus2-s2.0-77953990181Influence of work motivation, leadership effectiveness and time management on employees' performance in some selected industries in Ibadan, Oyo State, NigeriaOluseyi A.S., Hammed T.A.2009European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative SciencesNone16NoneDepartment of Industrial Relations and Personnel Management, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria; Department of Guidance and Counselling, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaOluseyi, A.S., Department of Industrial Relations and Personnel Management, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria; Hammed, T.A., Department of Guidance and Counselling, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaThe study investigated influence of work motivation, leadership effectiveness and time management on employees' performance in some selected industries in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria. 300 participants were selected through stratified random sampling from the population of staff of the organizations. The study employed expost facto design; data were collected through Work Motivation Behaviour Profile (α = 0.89), Leadership Behaviour Rating scale (α = 0.88) and Time management Behaviour Inventory (α = 0.90) adapted from Workers' Behaviour Assessment Battery.Three research questions were answered at 0.05 level of significance. The data were analysed using multiple regression statistical method and correlation matrix. The findings revealed that the three independent variables (work motivation, leadership effectiveness and time management) accounts for 27.2% variance in employees' performance (R2 adjusted = 0.272). Each of the independent variables contributed to employees' performance. In terms of magnitude of the contribution, leadership effectiveness was the most potent contributor to employees' performance (β = 0.521, t = 7.11, P &lt; 0.05), followed by work motivation (β = 0.289, t = 5.42, P &lt; 0.05) while time management was the least contributor to employees' performance (β = 0.190, t = 2.43, P &lt; 0.05), Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that employers, human resource managers and other leaders in organizations are encouraged to show greater interest in the welfare of workers to make them more valuable contributors to the success of the organization. © EuroJournals, Inc. 2009.Employees' performance; Leadership effectiveness; Time management; Work motivationNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79952147780Marketing segmentation practices and performance of Nigerian commerical banksOnaolapo A.A., Salami A.O., Oyedokun A.J.2011European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative SciencesNone29NoneDepartment of Management and Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaOnaolapo, A.A., Department of Management and Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria; Salami, A.O., Department of Management and Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria; Oyedokun, A.J., Department of Management and Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaThe paper examines the impact of marketing segmentation practices on the performance of selected Nigerian commercial banks in the post consolidation era 2005 to date. Data employed were mainly secondary while the research design was exploratory in nature relating such basic variables as market segmentation practices of market share; pricing and geographical branch location to performance. Statistical test using Herfindahl Hirschman Index was used as surrogate for market concentration which was tested against performance. Findings indicate that banks with high level of market share demonstrate high customer retention ability and lower overall unit operating expenses. © EuroJournals, Inc. 2011.Customer Retention Capability, Operating expense and Market share; Market segmentationNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78649791393Capital structure and firm performance: Evidence from NigeriaOnaolapo A.A., Kajola S.O.2010European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative SciencesNone25NoneDepartment of Management Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria; Department of Accounting, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, NigeriaOnaolapo, A.A., Department of Management Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria; Kajola, S.O., Department of Accounting, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, NigeriaThis paper examines the impact of capital structure on firm's financial performance using sample of thirty non- financial firms listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange during the seven- year period, 2001- 2007. Panel data for the selected firms are generated and analyzed using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) as a method of estimation. The result shows that a firm's capital structure surrogated by Debt Ratio, DR has a significantly negative impact on the firm's financial measures (Return on Asset, ROA and Return on Equity, ROE). The study by these findings, indicate consistency with prior empirical studies and provide evidence in support of Agency cost theory. © EuroJournals, Inc. 2010.Agency cost; Capital structure; Firm performance; Roa; RoeNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79952146233Impacts of global economic crisis on the consumption of psychiatric nursing services in NigeriaEsu B.B., Inyang B.J.2011European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative SciencesNone29NoneDepartment of Marketing, University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, Nigeria; Department of Business Management, University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, NigeriaEsu, B.B., Department of Marketing, University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, Nigeria; Inyang, B.J., Department of Business Management, University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, NigeriaPsychiatric doctors and nurses are two groups of professionals whose responsibility it is to offer mental health services; advice on issues related to mental health, treatment of cases of mental disorders and rehabilitation of individuals with mental health problems in the community. The demand and supply of these services are influenced extensively by the prevailing business environment, specially, the economic factors. The current global economic melt-down is an uncontrollable variable facing all economies of the world. Nigeria is no exception. What differentiates one economy from the other is the degree of impacts on the well being of the citizenry. In this paper, the authors x-ray the challenges of psychiatric nursing services in Nigeria and the impacts of the current global economic meltdown on consumption. The elementary laws of demand and supply were significant in this analysis. Suggestions that would help cushion the effect of the global economic crisis on the consumption of psychiatric nursing services were considered in the paper. © EuroJournals, Inc. 2011.Economic melt-down; Interventions; Mental health services; Nigerian economy; Psychiatric nursingNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84867366944Monitoring detrusor oxygenation and hemodynamics noninvasively during dysfunctional voidingMacNab A.J., Stothers L.S., Shadgan B.2012Advances in UrologyNoneNone10.1155/2012/676303Department of Urology, UBC Hospital Bladder Care Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada; Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study, Wallenberg Research Centre, 10 Marais Street, Stellenbosch 7600, South AfricaMacNab, A.J., Department of Urology, UBC Hospital Bladder Care Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada, Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study, Wallenberg Research Centre, 10 Marais Street, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa; Stothers, L.S., Department of Urology, UBC Hospital Bladder Care Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada; Shadgan, B., Department of Urology, UBC Hospital Bladder Care Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, CanadaThe current literature indicates that lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have a heterogeneous pathophysiology. Pressure flow studies (UDSs) remain the gold standard evaluation methodology for such patients. However, as the function of the detrusor muscle depends on its vasculature and perfusion, the underlying causes of LUTS likely include abnormalities of detrusor oxygenation and hemodynamics, and available treatment options include agents thought to act on the detrusor smooth muscle and/or vasculature. Hence, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an established optical methodology for monitoring changes in tissue oxygenation and hemodynamics, has relevance as a means of expanding knowledge related to the pathophysiology of BPH and potential treatment options. This methodological report describes how to conduct simultaneous NIRS monitoring of detrusor oxygenation and hemodynamics during UDS, outlines the clinical implications and practical applications of NIRS, explains the principles of physiologic interpretation of NIRS voiding data, and proposes an exploratory hypothesis that the pathophysiological causes underlying LUTS include detrusor dysfunction due to an abnormal hemodynamic response or the onset of oxygen debt during voiding. © 2012 Andrew J. Macnab et al.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-81555195731Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Müll. Arg) Hutch & Dalziel leavesAmaeze O.U., Ayoola G.A., Sofidiya M.O., Adepoju-Bello A.A., Adegoke A.O., Coker H.A.B.2011Oxidative Medicine and Cellular LongevityNoneNone10.1155/2011/976701Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, PMB 12003, Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria; Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, PMB 12003, Surulere, Lagos, NigeriaAmaeze, O.U., Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, PMB 12003, Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria; Ayoola, G.A., Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, PMB 12003, Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria; Sofidiya, M.O., Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, PMB 12003, Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria; Adepoju-Bello, A.A., Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, PMB 12003, Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria; Adegoke, A.O., Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, PMB 12003, Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria; Coker, H.A.B., Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, PMB 12003, Surulere, Lagos, NigeriaThis study evaluated the antioxidant activity as well as bioflavonoid content of the methanol and ethanol-water extracts of the fresh and dried leaves of Tetracarpidium conophorum. Antioxidant activity was determined by spectrophotometric methods using DPPH free radical, nitric oxide radical inhibition and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. In addition, total phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidin content were also determined. The ethanol: water extract of the dried leaves had the highest antioxidant activity with a 50 inhibition of DPPH at a concentration of 0.017mg/mL compared to the standards, Vitamin C and Vitamin E with inhibition of 0.019 and 0.011mg/mL, respectively. This extract also showed nitric oxide radical inhibition activity comparable to that of rutin, 54.45 and 55.03 for extract and rutin, respectively, at 0.1mg/mL. Ferric reducing power was also comparable to that of ascorbic acid (281 and 287M Fe (11)/g, resp.) at a concentration of 1mg/mL. The methanol extract of both the dried and the fresh leaves had higher phenolic, flavonoids and proanthocyanidin content than the ethanol:water extract. The study reveals that T. conophorum can be an interesting source of antioxidants with their potential use in different fields namely food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. © 2011 O. U. Amaeze et al.NoneAntioxidant activities; Ascorbic acids; Dalziel; Dried leaves; Ethanol-water; Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay; Fresh leaves; Inhibition activity; Methanol extract; Proanthocyanidins; Reducing power; Spectro-photometric method; Total phenolics; Vitamin C; Vitamin-E; Water extracts; Agents; Ethanol; Flavonoids; Free radicals; Ketones; Methanol; Nitric oxide; Organic acids; Phenols; Spectrophotometers; Spectrophotometry; Solvent extraction; 1,1 diphenyl 2 picrylhydrazyl; alpha tocopherol; antioxidant; ascorbic acid; flavonoid; iron; nitric oxide; phenol derivative; plant extract; proanthocyanidin; rutoside; Tetracarpidium conophorum extract; unclassified drug; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; antioxidant; biphenyl derivative; picric acid; antioxidant activity; article; Euphorbia; nonhuman; phytochemistry; plant leaf; Tetracarpidium conophorum; walnut; chemistry; Euphorbiaceae; plant leaf; Tetracarpidium conophorum; Antioxidants; Ascorbic Acid; Biphenyl Compounds; Euphorbiaceae; Picrates; Plant Leaves; Vitamin ENone
Scopus2-s2.0-84909943797Evaluation of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of standardised rootbark extract of Xeromphis niloticaAdzu B., Amizan M.B., Okhale S.E.2014Journal of EthnopharmacologyNonePART A10.1016/j.jep.2014.10.030Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Abuja, Nigeria; Directorate of Pharmaceutical Services, Ministry of Health, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria; Department of Medicinal Plant ResAdzu, B., Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Abuja, Nigeria, Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiabá, Brazil; Amizan, M.B., Directorate of Pharmaceutical Services, Ministry of Health, Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria; Okhale, S.E., Department of Medicinal Plant Research and Traditional Medicine, NIPRD, Abuja, NigeriaEthnopharmacological relevance Xeromphis nilotica (Stapf) Keay (Rubiaceae), popularly known as 'barbaji' (in Nigeria), is a lowland shrub that grows wild in tropical areas of Africa and Asia. The plants extract is used for the treatment of various diseases in folk medicine including pain related ailments. Important bioactive constituents have been isolated from the plant among them are coumarin, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and terpenes. This study is aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of standardised aqueous extract of the plant using in vivo models of pain and inflammation in mice and rats.Materials and methods Aqueous extract of Xeromphis nilotica root bark was prepared and standardised using HPLC technique. Three dose levels (25, 100 and 400 mg/kg) of the extract were used, administered orally to laboratory mice and rats. Acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as the positive control. Nociception was induced in laboratory rodents: chemically using acetic acid and formalin, and mechanically using analgesy meter; while inflammation was induced using fresh raw egg albumin.Results The extract showed 11 constituents peak profiles in the HPLC analysis. The extract alleviates mice response to acetic acid-induced writhing, analgesy-meter and formalin tests. It significantly decreased the oedema induced by egg albumin induced inflammation, but failed to show significant effect beyond 80 min of the test.Conclusion The extract has antinociceptive effect and short acting anti-inflammatory activities. The results justify its usage in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions, and also provided evidence of its potential as source of new pain relief drug prototype. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Anti-inflammatory; Antinociceptive; Aqueous extract; Xeromphis niloticaacetic acid; acetylsalicylic acid; analgesic agent; antiinflammatory agent; formaldehyde; ovalbumin; plant extract; unclassified drug; Xeromphis nilotica extract; analgesic agent; antiinflammatory agent; plant extract; analgesic activity; animal experiment; animal model; antiinflammatory activity; Article; controlled study; drug efficacy; drug screening; experimental mouse; experimental rat; female; high performance liquid chromatography; in vivo study; inflammation; male; mouse; nociception; nonhuman; pain; rat; animal; bark; chemistry; Liliaceae; Wistar rat; Analgesics; Animals; Anti-Inflammatory Agents; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid; Female; Liliaceae; Male; Mice; Plant Bark; Plant Extracts; Rats; Rats, WistarNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84865975626Evaluation of highway failure of a portion of ibadan-iwo road, southwestern nigeria, using very low frequency electromagnetic and resistivity methodsPopoola O.I., Okhaifo B.O.2012Electronic Journal of Geotechnical EngineeringNoneNoneNoneDepartment of Physics, University of Ibadan, NigeriaPopoola, O.I., Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Okhaifo, B.O., Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, NigeriaAbout 1600 m portion of the Ibadan - Iwo road (southwestern Nigeria) which has suffered structural failures repeatedly was investigated using Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) profiling at 10 m intervals and five Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES). The results from the VLF-EM investigation showed the presence of near surface linear geologic structures of varying lengths, depths, and elevations which suggest probable conductive zones that are inimical to the foundation of the road subgrade. Also, the lateral resistivity profile showed low resistivity zones that coincided with most of the peak positive VLF-EM anomalies, indicating near surface clay materials and linear structures. The quantitative interpretation of the VES results established the presence of four geologic layers namely top soil, weathered layer, partly weathered layer and fractured basement with varying resistivity values and thicknesses. The unstable segment of the road was characterized by low resistivity of the near surface materials on which the road pavement was founded. The clayey subgrade soil below the highway pavement and identified geologic features are the major factors responsible for the highway failure. © 2012 ejge.Geologic features; Highway failure; Ibadan-iwo road; Resistivity profile; Vlf-em investigationFractured basement; Geologic features; Geologic layers; Geologic structures; Highway pavement; Ibadan-iwo road; Linear structures; Low resistivity; Major factors; Near-surface; Near-surface clay; Near-surface materials; Nigeria; Quantitative interpretation; Resistivity profile; Resistivity values; Road pavements; Schlumberger; Structural failure; Subgrade soil; Top soils; Vertical electrical sounding; Very low frequency; Vlf-em investigation; Electric prospecting; Electromagnetism; Fracture mechanics; Pavements; Surfaces; Transportation; electrical resistivity; electromagnetic method; failure analysis; motorway; pavement; subgrade; vertical electrical sounding; Ibadan; Iwo; Nigeria; Osun; OyoNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79958143994The state's failure to comply with its constitutional duties and its impact on democracyMalherbe R., Van Eck M.2009Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse RegNone2NoneDepartment of Public Law, University of Johannesburg, South AfricaMalherbe, R., Department of Public Law, University of Johannesburg, South Africa; Van Eck, M., Department of Public Law, University of Johannesburg, South Africa[No abstract available]NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84887885629Nutrition as an important mediator of the impact of background variables on outcome in middle childhoodKitsao-Wekulo P., Holding P., Taylor H.G., Abubakar A., Kvalsvig J., Connolly K.2013Frontiers in Human NeuroscienceNoneOCT10.3389/fnhum.2013.00713Department of Publications and Ethics, International Centre for Behavioural Studies, Nairobi, Kenya; Discipline of Psychology, School of Applied Human Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Department of Research and Training, International Centre for Behavioural Studies, Mombasa, Kenya; Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States; Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, United States; Department of Child and Adolescent Studies, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Department of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Tilburg University, Tilburg, Netherlands; Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United KingdomKitsao-Wekulo, P.Department of Publications and Ethics, International Centre for Behavioural Studies, Nairobi, Kenya, Discipline of Psychology, School of Applied Human Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Holding, P.Department of Research and Training, International Centre for Behavioural Studies, Mombasa, Kenya, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States; Taylor, H.G., Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, United States; Abubakar, A.Department of Child and Adolescent Studies, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands, Department of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Tilburg University, Tilburg, Netherlands; Kvalsvig, J., Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Connolly, K., Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United KingdomAdequate nutrition is fundamental to the development of a child's full potential. However, the extent to which malnutrition affects developmental and cognitive outcomes in the midst of co-occurring risk factors remains largely understudied. We sought to establish if the effects of nutritional status varied according to diverse background characteristics as well as to compare the relative strength of the effects of poor nutritional status on language skills, motor abilities, and cognitive functioning at school age. This cross-sectional study was conducted among school-age boys and girls resident in Kilifi District in Kenya. We hypothesized that the effects of area of residence, school attendance, household wealth, age and gender on child outcomes are experienced directly and indirectly through child nutritional status. The use of structural equation modeling (SEM) allowed the disaggregation of the total effect of the explanatory variables into direct effects (effects that go directly from one variable to another) and indirect effects. Each of the models tested for the four child outcomes had a good fit. However, the effects on verbal memory apart from being weaker than for the other outcomes, were not mediated through nutritional status. School attendance was the most influential predictor of nutritional status and child outcomes. The estimated models demonstrated the continued importance of child nutritional status at school-age. © 2013 Kitsao-Wekulo, Holding, Taylor, Abubakar, Kvalsvig and Connolly.Co-occurring risk factors; Cognitive outcomes; Direct and indirect effects; Nutritional status; School-age children; Structural equation modelingage; article; child; childhood; cognition; cross-sectional study; demography; female; gender; human; human experiment; Kenya; language; male; motor performance; normal human; nutritional status; outcome assessment; school; school child; structural equation modeling; verbal memoryNone
NoneNoneThe impact of time use differentials on poverty levels in the Eastern and Northern Zones of TanzaniaAkarro R.2008European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative SciencesNone13NoneDepartment of Statistics, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam - Tanzania, P.O. Box 35047, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaAkarro, R., Department of Statistics, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam - Tanzania, P.O. Box 35047, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaDevelopment is positively correlated with poverty. People who are poor are generally less developed compared with the rich. Analysis of poverty levels in Northern and Eastern Zones of Tanzania is hereby presented. These zones were selected because they are a representative of coastal and upcountry cultures respectively. Principal component analysis was used in constructing poverty index. The households possessions that were used are type of the house roof, floor type, distance to water point, type of wall and type of toilet if any. Using principal component analysis, these factors explained about 51% of the total variation. Analysis showed that there were significant differences in poverty levels by regions. One of the determinants proposed to explain differences in poverty levels is time use. Time use variable was obtained from survey data that was collected by the NUFU project. Time use variable was collected for household head, spouse and the two eldest children. The contribution for spouse appeared to be highly significant for Mtwara and Tanga implying that the contribution of spouse to households welfare was eminent. The contribution by head of the household in Arusha and other regions in the Northern zones did not differ much from those by spouse. © EuroJournals, Inc. 2008.Development; Gender; Poverty index; Principal component analysis; Time useNoneNone
NoneNonePerformance analyses of adaptive IIR notch filters using a PSD-based approachMvuma A., Nishimura S., Hinamoto T.2006IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer SciencesNone710.1093/ietfec/e89-a.7.2079Department of Telecommunications Engineering, University of Dar Es Salaam, P.O. Box 35131, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Shimane University, Matsue-shi, 690-9504, Japan; Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima-shi, 739-8527, JapanMvuma, A., Department of Telecommunications Engineering, University of Dar Es Salaam, P.O. Box 35131, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Nishimura, S., Shimane University, Matsue-shi, 690-9504, Japan; Hinamoto, T., Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima-shi, 739-8527, JapanIn this letter we present steady-state analyses of a gradient algorithm (GA) for second-order adaptive infinite impulse response (IIR) notch filters. A method for deriving more accurate estimation mean square error (MSE) expressions than the recently proposed method is presented. The method is based on the estimation error power spectral density (PSD). Moreover, an expression for the estimation bias for the adaptive IIR notch filter with constrained poles and zeros is shown to be obtained from the estimation MSE expression. Simulations are presented to confirm the validity of the analyses. Copyright © 2006 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers.Adaptive IIR notch filters; Bias; Gradient algorithm (GA); Mean square error (MSE); Power spectral density (PSD)Adaptive systems; Algorithms; Computer simulation; Error analysis; IIR filters; Poles and zeros; Gradient algorithm (GA); Infinite impulse response (IIR); Mean square error (MSE); Power spectral density (PSD; Notch filtersNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84863881336Performance, subprime-assets and the Nigerian banking sectorOsamwonyi I.O., Abosede A.J.2012European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative SciencesNone49NoneDept of Banking and Finance, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria; Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, NigeriaOsamwonyi, I.O., Dept of Banking and Finance, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria; Abosede, A.J., Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, NigeriaBanking sector performance in Nigeria has exhibited high level of volatility and fragility with the resultant individual and systemic distress which brought about wide ranging reforms. No doubt the actions and inactions of managers of banks and the inclement nature of the socio-economic environment could have accounted for the unpleasant results. The Central Bank of Nigeria indicted management of banks for insider abuses, subprime assets and inadequate provision. This study relying on Klitgaard (1996) model uses bad debts and operating expenses as proxies examines how circumvention of best practices may have affected banking activities in Nigeria. The study shows positive correlation among gross income, bad debts, loans and advances and operating expenses, though not significant. The significant intercept suggests other factors, and given current revelations they could be creative accounting and circumvention of best practices [despite the window dressing using incomes from non-interest activities and inadequate provision for doubtful debts]. Government should therefore intensify and/or redefine its intervention strategies through improved supervision and insistence on good corporate governance instead of focusing on only recapitalization. © EuroJournals, Inc. 2012.And Bad debts; Banking sector performance; Best practicesNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-48249126815The utility of pharmacy dispensing data for ART programme evaluation and early identification of patient loss to follow-upWood R., Kaplan R., Bekker L.-G., Brown S., Rivett U.2008Southern African Journal of HIV MedicineNone30NoneDesmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Cell-Life, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricaWood, R., Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Kaplan, R., Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Bekker, L.-G., Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Brown, S., Cell-Life, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Rivett, U., Cell-Life, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa[No abstract available]Noneantiretrovirus agent; article; community care; electronic medical record; follow up; health care access; health care delivery; health program; health service; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; information processing; information technology; patient care; patient compliance; patient counseling; patient identification; patient information; pharmacy; South Africa; virus resistanceNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84938424022The more the merrier? Network portfolio size and innovation performance in Nigerian firmsEgbetokun A.A.2015TechnovationNoneNone10.1016/j.technovation.2015.05.004DFG Research Training Program 'The Economics of Innovative Change', Friedrich Schiller Universität, Carl-Zeiss Str. 3, Jena, Germany; National Centre for Technology Management, PMB 012, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; South African Research Chair on Innovation (SARChI), Tshwane University of TechnologyPretoria, South AfricaEgbetokun, A.A., DFG Research Training Program 'The Economics of Innovative Change', Friedrich Schiller Universität, Carl-Zeiss Str. 3, Jena, Germany, National Centre for Technology Management, PMB 012, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, South African Research Chair on Innovation (SARChI), Tshwane University of TechnologyPretoria, South AfricaAbstract A positive relationship between firms' networking activities and innovativeness has been consistently established in the literature on innovation. However, studies considering different innovation types, and on developing countries are scarce. This paper addresses questions concerning the relationship between networking strategies and innovativeness of firms, using innovation survey data on Nigerian firms. Quantile regression is applied to trace the link between portfolio size and innovation at different levels of innovative success. The results show a positive relationship between a firm's innovation performance and the size of its networking portfolio. This relationship varies across different innovation types and with increasing innovation performance. The findings suggest that the widely accepted portfolio approach to external search for knowledge is not necessarily always the best - its utility depends on the firm's current level of innovative success. This poses a challenge for open innovation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.Collaboration; External knowledge; Innovative success; Networking; Nigeria; Open innovationDeveloping countries; Collaboration; External knowledge; Innovative success; Networking; Nigeria; Open innovation; InnovationDFG, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
Scopus2-s2.0-84937953954Effect of laser surface texturing (LST) on tribochemical films dynamics and friction and wear performanceOlofinjana B., Lorenzo-Martin C., Ajayi O.O., Ajayi E.O.2015WearNoneNone10.1016/j.wear.2015.02.050Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, United States; Department of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, NigeriaOlofinjana, B., Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, United States, Department of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; Lorenzo-Martin, C., Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, United States; Ajayi, O.O., Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, United States; Ajayi, E.O., Department of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, NigeriaSurface texturing or topographical design is one of the primary techniques to control friction and wear performance of surfaces in tribological contact. Laser surface texturing (LST), whereby a laser beam is used to produce regular arrays of dimples on a surface, has been demonstrated to reduce friction in conformal lubricated contacts. Friction and wear behavior under boundary lubrication is also known to be dependent on the formation and durability of the tribochemical film formed from lubricant additives. In this paper, the effects of LST on the formation and durability of tribochemical films and its consequent impacts on friction and wear behavior in various lubrication regimes were evaluated. Friction and wear tests that cycled through different lubrication regimes were conducted with both polished and LST treated surfaces using a synthetic lubricant with and without model additives of ZDDP and MoDTC mixture. In the base oil without additives, LST produced noticeable reduction in friction in all lubrication regimes. However, with low-friction model additives, friction was higher in tests with LST due to significant differences in the tribochemical film formation in the polished and LST surfaces, as well as the sliding counterface. Continuous tribo-films were formed on ball conterface rubbed against polished surfaces while the films were streaky and discontinuous in ball rubbed against LST surfaces. LST produced more wear on the ball counterface in both base and additized oils. No measurable wear was observed in both the polished and LST flat specimens. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.Friction; LST; Lubrication regimes; Oil additives; Tribochemical films; WearDurability; Friction; Laser beams; Lubrication; Wear of materials; Boundary lubrications; Friction and wear behaviors; Friction and wear performance; Laser surface texturing; LST; Lubrication regimes; Oil additive; Tribological contacts; TribologyNone
NoneNoneField and laboratory evaluation of bioefficacy of an insect growth regulator (Dimilin) as a larvicide against mosquito and housefly larvaeMsangi S., Lyatuu E., Kweka E.J.2011Journal of Tropical MedicineNoneNone10.1155/2011/394541Division of Livestock and Human Health Disease, Vector Control Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, P.O. Box 3024, Arusha, TanzaniaMsangi, S., Division of Livestock and Human Health Disease, Vector Control Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, P.O. Box 3024, Arusha, Tanzania; Lyatuu, E., Division of Livestock and Human Health Disease, Vector Control Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, P.O. Box 3024, Arusha, Tanzania; Kweka, E.J., Division of Livestock and Human Health Disease, Vector Control Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, P.O. Box 3024, Arusha, TanzaniaThe inhibitory function of Dimilin (Diflubenzuron), mostly a chitin synthesis regulator, on the ecdysis of mosquitoes (Anopheles gambiae s.l., Culex quinquefasciatus) and housefly was evaluated in the field and in laboratory. Three formulations of Diflubenzuron were evaluated in this study: Dimilin, Wettable powder (25), Dimilin granules (2), and Dimilin tablets (2). The laboratory and field evaluation used different rates of concentrations of these formulations. Generally, at higher dosages larvae developments, eggs hatchability and pupation were impossible. The development of mosquitoes was significantly higher in control while highly depressed in different dosages of treatment in both laboratory and field experiments. In houseflies, the adult population decreased sharply after treatment of their breeding sites while pupae mortality was noticed to be high in laboratory-treated samples. Dimilin could be opted as one of the choice of the larval control chemicals to be incorporated in the integrated vector control programmes in urban and rural areas. Copyright © 2011 Shandala Msangi et al.Nonediflubenzuron; larvicidal agent; Anopheles gambiae; article; Culex quinquefasciatus; disease carrier; drug granule; hatching; house fly; insect control; insect development; insecticidal activity; larval development; molting; nonhuman; powder; priority journal; pupation; rural area; tablet formulation; urban area; vector controlNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70349251730Growth performance, nutrient utilization of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed housefly maggot meal (magmeal) dietsOgunji J., Summan Toor R.-U.-A., Schulz C., Kloas W.2008Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic SciencesNone1NoneEbonyi State University, Department of Animal Production and Fisheries Management, Nigeria; Institute of Freshwater Ecology and, Inland Fisheries Berlin, Germany; Anatomy University of Agriculture, Dept. of Veterinary, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan; InstitutOgunji, J., Ebonyi State University, Department of Animal Production and Fisheries Management, Nigeria, Institute of Freshwater Ecology and, Inland Fisheries Berlin, Germany; Summan Toor, R.-U.-A., Anatomy University of Agriculture, Dept. of Veterinary, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan; Schulz, C., Institut für Tierzucht und Tierhaltung Christian, Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Germany; Kloas, W., Institute of Freshwater Ecology and, Inland Fisheries Berlin, Germany, Institute of Biology, Dept. of Endocrinology, Humboldt University Berlin, GermanyA 56 day study was carried out to evaluate the growth performance and nutrient utilization of Nile Tilapia fed diets containing housefly maggot meal (magmeal). Three isoenergetic diets respectively containing 31.20, 34.0 and 36.10% crude protein were formulated. Fishmeal was replaced partially with magmeal. Results of the study showed a good overall growth performances and status of experimental fish. Standard growth rate was between 2.58 - 3.08; food conversion ratio ranged from 1.12 to 1.45; Protein efficiency ratio was between 2.21-2.47, while hepatosomatic Index and condition factor were ranged between 3.08-3.14; and 2.47-2.89, respectively. Fish survival was 100%. These recommend the suitability of magmeal in diets for Nile tilapia fingerling. However, the apparent crude protein digestibility of diet 3 (65.71%) containing highest magmeal dietary inclusion level, decreased significantly compared to diet 1 and 2 (76.26%, 77.04%). This may be due to the effect of elevated ash concentration of magmeal used in the diet formulation. © Central Fisheries Research Institute (CFRI) Trabzon, Turkey and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).Alternative protein sources; Fishmeal substitute; MagmealMusca domestica; Oreochromis niloticus; TilapiaNone
WoSWOS:000280964800005Free Primary Education in Kenya: An Impact Evaluation Using Propensity Score MethodsCOCKBURN, J,KabuboMariara, J,Mueni, Esther,Muyanga, Milu,Olwande, John,Wambugu, Stella2010CHILD WELFARE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIESNoneNone10.1007/978-1-4419-6275-1_5Egerton University"Muyanga, Milu: Egerton University","Olwande, John: Egerton University","Wambugu, Stella: Egerton University"This chapter attempts to evaluate the impact of the free primary education programme in Kenya, which is based on the premise that government intervention can lead to enhanced access to education especially by children from poor parental backgrounds. Primary education system in Kenya has been characterized by high wastage in form of low enrolment, high drop-out rates, grade repetition as well as poor transition from primary to secondary schools. This scenario was attributed to high cost of primary education. To reverse these poor trends in educational achievements, the government initiated free primary education programme in January 2003. This chapter therefore analyzes the impact of the FPE programme using panel data. Results indicate primary school enrolment rate has improved especially for children hailing from higher income categories; an indication that factors that prevent children from poor backgrounds from attending primary school go beyond the inability to pay school fees. Grade progression in primary schools has slightly dwindled. The results also indicate that there still exist constraints hindering children from poorer households from transiting to secondary school. The free primary education programme was found to be progressive, with the relatively poorer households drawing more benefits from the subsidy."benefit incidence analysis",KENYA,"PRIMARY EDUCATION","programme evaluation","PROPENSITY SCORE",ESTIMATORS,PROGRAMSNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84904554720Operations monitoring software for reliability and safetyVan De Groenendaal H.2014EngineerITNoneJULYNoneHoneywell SA, South AfricaVan De Groenendaal, H., Honeywell SA, South AfricaHans van de Groenendaal, features editor, EngineerIT, reviews a Honeywell Process Solutions White Paper. The paper describes the implementation of an effective operations monitoring solution for process industry facilities. New software tools are available for systematically monitoring plant performance data and analysing deviations from operating plans, enabling plant managers and operations personnel to better track plant performance against targets and identify problem areas.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70349229757Nutritional evaluation of termite (Macrotermes subhyalinus) meal as animal protein supplements in the diets of Heterobranchus longifilis (Valenciennes, 1840) fingerlingsSogbesan A.O., Ugwumba A.A.A.2008Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic SciencesNone1NoneFederal University of Technology, Department of Fisheries, Yola, Adamawa state, Nigeria; University of Ibadan, Department of Zoology, Ibadan, NigeriaSogbesan, A.O., Federal University of Technology, Department of Fisheries, Yola, Adamawa state, Nigeria; Ugwumba, A.A.A., University of Ibadan, Department of Zoology, Ibadan, Nigeria250 fingerlings of Heterobranchus longifilis had an average weight of 2.04±0.21 g were fed five crude protein 42.5% isonitrogenous experimental diets coded Tm1 - Tm5 were tested on the fingerlings. Termite meal was used to replace fish meal in the diets at 0% (Diet Tm1- control diet), 25% (Diet Tm2), 50% (Diet Tm3), 75% (Diet Tm4) and 100% termite meal inclusion levels (Diet Tm5). The experiment was in triplicates and the fingerlings were fed 5% body weight twice a day for 12 weeks. Termite meal had a crude protein of 46.3% and ash content of 3.6% while fish meal used has 71.5% crude protein and 18.2% ash and these differed significantly (P<0.05). The lipid content of 11.3% and 8.0% respectively for termite meal and fishmeal also differed significantly (P<0.05). The water stability of the experimental diets ranged between72.3%-76.9%. The highest mean weight gain of 9.6 g/fish, relative growth rate of 488.0% and specific growth rate of 0.9%/day were recorded in fish fed 50% termite meal inclusion diet. The feed striking time ranged between 5.0-6.0 second. The lowest feed conversion ratio of 2.9 and highest protein efficiency ratio of 0.8 were also recorded in fish fed 50% termite meal inclusion diet. The lowest incidence of cost (2.1), highest profit index (1.6) and best benefit cost ratio (1.2) were also from 50% termite meal diet. Based on the broken-line analysis, 50% inclusion levels of termite meal will yield the best result in a practical diet for H. longifilis fingerlings for a profitable and sustainable aquaculture venture. © Central Fisheries Research Institute (CFRI) Trabzon, Turkey and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).Cost; Fishmeal; Growth; H. longifilis; Nutrient; Termite mealAnimalia; Heterobranchus longifilis; Isoptera; Macrotermes subhyalinusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84867741983The effect of froth depth on air recovery and flotation performanceHadler K., Greyling M., Plint N., Cilliers J.J.2012Minerals EngineeringNoneNone10.1016/j.mineng.2012.04.003Froth and Foam Research Group, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom; Anglo American Platinum, P.O. Box 62179, Marshalltown 2107, South AfricaHadler, K., Froth and Foam Research Group, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom; Greyling, M., Anglo American Platinum, P.O. Box 62179, Marshalltown 2107, South Africa; Plint, N., Anglo American Platinum, P.O. Box 62179, Marshalltown 2107, South Africa; Cilliers, J.J., Froth and Foam Research Group, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ, United KingdomIn recent years, it has been shown that there is a clear link between froth stability and flotation performance. Air recovery is a measure of froth stability, and describes the fraction of air entering a flotation cell that overflows the cell lip as unburst bubbles. Studies have shown that air recovery passes through a peak as flotation cell aeration is increased. Furthermore, when a cell, or bank of cells, is operated at the air rate that yields this Peak Air Recovery (PAR), higher mineral recoveries are obtained, often for a higher concentrate grade. In this paper, the effect of froth depth on air recovery is discussed, particularly with regards to the interaction between air rate and froth depth. Using results obtained from an industrial experimental campaign, it is shown that, at a given air rate, air recovery passes through a peak as froth depth is increased. The froth depth at which PAR is obtained depends on the air rate; for example at lower air rates, the PAR froth depth will be shallower than at higher air rates. In order to operate at the highest air recovery, therefore, froth depth should increase as the air rate increases. Surveys were carried out at a single air rate and three different froth depths, in which air recovery increased with increasing froth depth. These results show that the lowest grades and recoveries were obtained when operating with the shallowest froth, which also yielded the lowest air recoveries, despite giving the highest mass pull. The highest mineral recovery was obtained when operating with the deepest froth. While the relationship between air rate, froth depth and PAR may be complex, the results presented in this paper underline that operating under conditions that yield high air recoveries is the best indicator for obtaining high mineral recoveries. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Flotation bubbles; Flotation froths; Froth flotation; Process optimisationAir rate; Air recovery; Concentrate grade; Experimental campaign; Flotation bubbles; Flotation cell; Flotation froths; Flotation performance; Froth stability; Mineral recovery; Process optimisation; Deinking; Minerals; Molecular biology; Recovery; Froth flotationNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84870254863Human impact on sediment fluxes within the Blue Nile and Atbara River basinsBalthazar V., Vanacker V., Girma A., Poesen J., Golla S.2013GeomorphologyNoneNone10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.10.013Georges Lemaître Centre for Earth and Climate Research, Earth and Life Institute, University of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium; Hydrology Department, Ministry of Water Resources, Addis Abeba, EthiopiaBalthazar, V., Georges Lemaître Centre for Earth and Climate Research, Earth and Life Institute, University of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Vanacker, V., Georges Lemaître Centre for Earth and Climate Research, Earth and Life Institute, University of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Girma, A., Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Poesen, J., Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium; Golla, S., Hydrology Department, Ministry of Water Resources, Addis Abeba, EthiopiaA regional assessment of the spatial variability in sediment yields allows filling the gap between detailed, process-based understanding of erosion at field scale and empirical sediment flux models at global scale. In this paper, we focus on the intrabasin variability in sediment yield within the Blue Nile and Atbara basins as biophysical and anthropogenic factors are presumably acting together to accelerate soil erosion. The Blue Nile and Atbara River systems are characterized by an important spatial variability in sediment fluxes, with area-specific sediment yield (SSY) values ranging between 4 and 4935t/km2/y. Statistical analyses show that 41% of the observed variation in SSY can be explained by remote sensing proxy data of surface vegetation cover, rainfall intensity, mean annual temperature, and human impact. The comparison of a locally adapted regression model with global predictive sediment flux models indicates that global flux models such as the ART and BQART models are less suited to capture the spatial variability in area-specific sediment yields (SSY), but they are very efficient to predict absolute sediment yields (SY). We developed a modified version of the BQART model that estimates the human influence on sediment yield based on a high resolution composite measure of local human impact (human footprint index) instead of countrywide estimates of GNP/capita. Our modified version of the BQART is able to explain 80% of the observed variation in SY for the Blue Nile and Atbara basins and thereby performs only slightly less than locally adapted regression models. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.Blue-Nile/Atbara system; BQART; Human footprint; Regional scale; Sediment yield; Soil erosionanthropogenic effect; numerical model; sediment transport; sediment yield; soil erosion; spatial variation; Blue Nile [Nile River]; Nile RiverNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84864579649New measures improve operations performance managementVan Der Merwe K., Paton A.2012EngineerITNoneJULYNoneIME, South Africa; Hatch, South AfricaVan Der Merwe, K., IME, South Africa; Paton, A., Hatch, South Africa[No abstract available]NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84868463375Climate change and impacts on the hydrology of the Congo Basin: The case of the northern sub-basins of the Oubangui and Sangha RiversTshimanga R.M., Hughes D.A.2012Physics and Chemistry of the EarthNoneNone10.1016/j.pce.2012.08.002Institute for Water Research, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa; Department of Natural Resources Management, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 117, Kinshasa, KIN XI, Democratic Republic CongoTshimanga, R.M., Institute for Water Research, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa, Department of Natural Resources Management, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 117, Kinshasa, KIN XI, Democratic Republic Congo; Hughes, D.A., Institute for Water Research, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South AfricaThis study assesses the hydrological response of the Congo Basin's runoff to future changes of climatic conditions. The study is carried out at the sub-basin scale in the northern part of the Congo Basin for which downscaled GCM data have been obtained. In order to assess the impacts of climate change scenarios on water resources availability of the Congo Basin, three downscaled and bias corrected GCMs were used to drive a semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model which was initially established for the whole Congo Basin through manual calibration and physically-based a priori parameter estimation approaches. The analysis focuses on the variables of the hydrological processes such as rainfall, interception, potential evapotranspiration, soil moisture store, surface runoff, soil moisture runoff, and recharge. In general terms, the study shows that there is a decrease in runoff for the near-future projections in the northern part of the Congo Basin which has a tropical transition regime. For the three GCMs used in this study, there is very little change in rainfall from the historical conditions. The major change is observed in evapotranspiration, due to an increase in air temperature. There is a clear indication of the translation of climate signal into flows. There is more than 10% decrease in total runoff, which is a consequence of relatively little increase in rainfall and a consistent increase in potential evapotranspiration. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.Climate change; Congo Basin; GCMs; HydrologyAir temperature; Climate change scenarios; Climate signals; Climatic conditions; Congo basins; GCMs; Hydrological process; Hydrological response; Manual calibration; Potential evapotranspiration; Priori parameter estimation; Rainfall-runoff models; Sub-basin scale; Subbasins; Surface runoffs; Tropical transition; Water resources availability; Digital storage; Evapotranspiration; Hydrology; Parameter estimation; Rain; Runoff; Soil moisture; Water supply; Climate change; climate change; climate effect; downscaling; evapotranspiration; general circulation model; hydrological response; interception; parameterization; rainfall-runoff modeling; resource availability; runoff; soil moisture; Congo Basin; Ubangi RiverNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84889092904The impact of childhood adversity on suicidality and clinical course in treatment-resistant depressionTunnard C., Rane L.J., Wooderson S.C., Markopoulou K., Poon L., Fekadu A., Juruena M., Cleare A.J.2014Journal of Affective DisordersNone110.1016/j.jad.2013.06.037Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, Section of Neurobiology of Mood Disorders, 103 Denmark Hill, Box P074, London SE5 8AZ, United Kingdom; National Affective Disorder Unit, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom; Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia; Department of Neurosciences and Behaviour, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, BrazilTunnard, C., Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, Section of Neurobiology of Mood Disorders, 103 Denmark Hill, Box P074, London SE5 8AZ, United Kingdom, National Affective Disorder Unit, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom; Rane, L.J., Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, Section of Neurobiology of Mood Disorders, 103 Denmark Hill, Box P074, London SE5 8AZ, United Kingdom, National Affective Disorder Unit, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom; Wooderson, S.C., Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, Section of Neurobiology of Mood Disorders, 103 Denmark Hill, Box P074, London SE5 8AZ, United Kingdom, National Affective Disorder Unit, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom; Markopoulou, K., Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, Section of Neurobiology of Mood Disorders, 103 Denmark Hill, Box P074, London SE5 8AZ, United Kingdom, National Affective Disorder Unit, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom; Poon, L., National Affective Disorder Unit, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom; Fekadu, A., Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, Section of Neurobiology of Mood Disorders, 103 Denmark Hill, Box P074, London SE5 8AZ, United Kingdom, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia; Juruena, M., Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, Section of Neurobiology of Mood Disorders, 103 Denmark Hill, Box P074, London SE5 8AZ, United Kingdom, Department of Neurosciences and Behaviour, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Cleare, A.J., Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, Section of Neurobiology of Mood Disorders, 103 Denmark Hill, Box P074, London SE5 8AZ, United Kingdom, National Affective Disorder Unit, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, United KingdomBackground Childhood adversity is a risk factor for the development of depression and can also affect clinical course. We investigated this specifically in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Methods One hundred and thirty-seven patients with TRD previously admitted to an inpatient affective disorders unit were included. Clinical, demographic and childhood adversity (physical, sexual, emotional abuse; bullying victimization, traumatic events) data were obtained during admission. Associations between childhood adversity, depressive symptoms and clinical course were investigated. Results Most patients had experienced childhood adversity (62%), with traumatic events (35%) and bullying victimization (29%) most commonly reported. Childhood adversity was associated with poorer clinical course, including earlier age of onset, episode persistence and recurrence. Logistic regression analyses revealed childhood adversity predicted lifetime suicide attempts (OR 2.79; 95% CI 1.14, 6.84) and childhood physical abuse predicted lifetime psychosis (OR 3.42; 95% CI 1.00, 11.70). Limitations The cross-sectional design and retrospective measurement of childhood adversity are limitations of the study. Conclusions Childhood adversity was common amongst these TRD patients and was associated with poor clinical course, psychosis and suicide attempts. Routine assessment of early adversity may help identify at risk individuals and inform clinical intervention. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.Abuse; Childhood adversity; Childhood trauma; Early life stress; Refractory depression; Suicide; Treatment-resistant depressionanxiolytic agent; hypnotic agent; mood stabilizer; neuroleptic agent; adult; article; bipolar disorder; bullying; child abuse; child sexual abuse; childhood injury; depression; disease course; early life stress; emotional abuse; female; human; logistic regression analysis; major clinical study; major depression; male; onset age; priority journal; psychosis; recurrent disease; suicidal behavior; suicide attempt; symptom; victim; cross-sectional study; Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant; life event; middle aged; psychologic test; psychological rating scale; psychology; risk factor; severity of illness index; treatment outcome; Adult Survivors of Child Abuse; Age of Onset; Bullying; Cross-Sectional Studies; Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant; Female; Humans; Interview, Psychological; Life Change Events; Male; Middle Aged; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Risk Factors; Severity of Illness Index; Suicide, Attempted; Treatment OutcomeNIHR, National Institute for Health Research
WoSWOS:000293559000026Overview of Impact Assessment MethodologiesAnandajayasekeram, P,Anandajayasekeram, P.,Babu, S,Babu, S.,Keswani, CL,Liebenberg, F,Rukuni, M2007IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON AFRICAN AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITYNoneNoneNoneInternational Food Policy Research Institute, International Livestock Research Institute, Capac Strengthening Unit CaSt"Babu, S.: International Food Policy Research Institute",The ultimate interest of investors in agricultural research and development (R&amp;D) is the extent to which their investment eventually bears a positive outcome on the lives of the poor and hungry people of developing nations without seriously harming the natural resource base. Consequently, most donors, governments and financiers of agricultural and natural resource research focus on outcome and impact assessment as a major step in their strategy. In impact assessment of R&amp;D investments, one needs to differentiate between the research results and the contribution of research to development (i.e. the people-level impact). Moreover, both of these aspects should be addressed simultaneously. This chapter summarizes the various methods and techniques used in R&amp;D using a comprehensive framework that addresses intermediate product, direct product and people-level impact simultaneously. Owing to the wide-ranging implications of agricultural research results to society, no single technique or method is sufficient to adequately address the impact. However, there is consensus that the most appropriate approaches to impact assessment should involve a mixture of both qualitative and quantitative methods and active participation of the beneficiaries. Case studies are also essential for further refining the approaches and lessons learned. The chapter concludes by outlining suggested best practices in understanding impact assessment of agricultural R&amp;D investments.,AGRICULTURAL-RESEARCHNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84930377963Impacts of small built infrastructure in inland valleys in Burkina Faso and Mali: Rationale for a systems approach that thinks beyond rice?Katic P., Lautze J., Namara R.E.2014Physics and Chemistry of the EarthNoneNone10.1016/j.pce.2014.11.010International Water Management Institute, West Africa Office, PMB CT 112, Cantonments, Accra, Ghana; International Water Management Institute, Southern Africa, Office Private Bag X813, Silverton, Pretoria, South Africa; Water Resources and DRM, Environment and NRM (AFTN2), The World Bank, Washington, DC, United StatesKatic, P., International Water Management Institute, West Africa Office, PMB CT 112, Cantonments, Accra, Ghana; Lautze, J., International Water Management Institute, Southern Africa, Office Private Bag X813, Silverton, Pretoria, South Africa; Namara, R.E., Water Resources and DRM, Environment and NRM (AFTN2), The World Bank, Washington, DC, United StatesThe potential to increase agricultural production in inland valleys in West Africa has received a good degree of attention in both national development strategies and academic literature, and improving agriculture productivity in inland valleys has been an active area of donor engagement. Despite this attention, documentation of the degree to which benefits are enhanced through construction of built water storage infrastructure in such sites is somewhat scant. This paper examines evidence from eight inland valley sites with recently-built water retention infrastructure (4 in southwest Burkina Faso, 4 in southeast Mali) to determine how economic returns derived from agricultural production have changed through built infrastructure construction. Farmer interviews were undertaken at each site to identify costs and benefits of agricultural production before and after small built infrastructure construction. Overall results indicate that net present value increased substantially after built infrastructure was constructed. The results nonetheless highlight substantial variation in economic impacts across sites. A central variable explaining such variation appears to be the degree to which water retention is exploited for groundwater-based offseason cultivation. These findings will help development planners to better predict the degree and nature of change engendered by water storage projects in inland valley sites, and help to ground-truth grand statements about the development potential of this piece of natural infrastructure. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.Infrastructure; Inland valleys; Irrigation; Water storage; West AfricaCultivation; Groundwater; Irrigation; Landforms; Planning; Agricultural productions; Development potential; Infrastructure; Infrastructure construction; Inland valleys; Substantial variations; Water storage; West Africa; Agriculture; agricultural production; cultivation; economic impact; infrastructure; irrigation; productivity; valley; Burkina Faso; MaliNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84901694376Impact of spatial input data resolution on hydrological and erosion modeling: Recommendations from a global assessmentChaplot V.2014Physics and Chemistry of the EarthNoneNone10.1016/j.pce.2013.09.020IRD-LOCEAN c/o SAEES, Center for Water Ressources Research, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Rabie Sanders Building, Box X01, 3209 Scottsville, South AfricaChaplot, V., IRD-LOCEAN c/o SAEES, Center for Water Ressources Research, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Rabie Sanders Building, Box X01, 3209 Scottsville, South AfricaThe need to precisely describe the characteristics of a landscape is well-known in mathematical modeling from different environmental disciplines. Because spatial input data, such as climate, relief and soil maps are costly to obtain, especially when large areas are considered, several research studies have investigated the extent to which the resolution of these can be reduced. Yet, a consensus has not been reached on the question of models' sensitivity to the whole range of spatial input data and for different environmental conditions. This issue was illustrated with the analysis of existing results from 41 watersheds from 30 research studies using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Because these studies were not consistent in the type of spatial input data considered and the range of resolutions, an application of SWAT was performed in a flat 2612ha flat watershed of central Iowa (USA) where the sensitivity of runoff (R), NO3-N (N) and sediment (SED) yields was tested for changes in the resolution of all the required spatial input data (digital elevation model: DEM: 20-500m; n=12; number of rain gauge: NRAIN from 1 to 13; n=8; soil map: SOIL: 1/25,000-1/500,000; n=3) and in the number of watershed sub-divisions (NSW from 4 to 115; n=4). At the flat watershed, a Canonical Correlation Analysis with 67.4% of data variance explained by the two first variates, revealed that R and SED predictions were affected, mostly by NSW (r=0.95), followed by SOIL (r=0.18). N loads were the most sensitive to RAIN (r=0.76) and DEM (r=0.41), followed by SOIL (r=0.23) and NSW (r=-0.17). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic (KS), that describes the significance of resolution changes for a considered spatial input data, showed that the model's sensitivity was greater for SSW below 261ha, for 30&lt;DEM&lt;100m and across the whole range of NRAIN. Finally, the analysis of watersheds with different sizes and environmental conditions revealed that the minimum spatial input data resolution needed, to achieve accurate modeling results can be predicted from watersheds' terrain declivity and mean annual precipitation. These results are expected to help modelers weight the level of investment to be made in generating spatial input data and in subdividing their watersheds as a function of both watersheds' environmental conditions and desired level of accuracy in the output variables. © 2013 .Global assessment; Model parameterization; NPS pollution; OATSoils; Watersheds; Canonical correlation analysis; Global assessment; Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics; Mean annual precipitation; Model parameterization; NPS pollution; OAT; Soil and water assessment tool; Input output programs; annual variation; canonical analysis; digital elevation model; environmental assessment; environmental conditions; erosion; hydrological modeling; nonpoint source pollution; resolution; sediment yield; spatial data; watershedNone
WoSWOS:000303523600010Gender Impacts of Agricultural Liberalization: Evidence from GhanaAckah, Charles,BUSSOLO, M,DeHoyos, RE,Lay, Jann2009GENDER ASPECTS OF THE TRADE AND POVERTY NEXUS: A MACRO-MICRO APPROACHNoneNoneNoneUniversity of Ghana, Kiel Inst World Econ"Ackah, Charles: University of Ghana",None,EXPENDITURE,"MENS CROPS",PATTERNS,TRANSITION,"WOMENS CROPS"NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84855773556The design, implementation and evaluation of computerized clinic patient management and clinician order entry systems in a PMTCT clinic in UgandaKavuma M., Mars M.20112011 IST-Africa Conference Proceedings, IST 2011NoneNoneNoneManagement Sciences for Health, P.O Box 71419, Kampala, Uganda; Department of Tele Health Nelson R Mandela Medical School University of KwaZulu Natal, 719 Umbilo Road 4001, Congella 4013, South AfricaKavuma, M., Management Sciences for Health, P.O Box 71419, Kampala, Uganda, Department of Tele Health Nelson R Mandela Medical School University of KwaZulu Natal, 719 Umbilo Road 4001, Congella 4013, South Africa; Mars, M., Department of Tele Health Nelson R Mandela Medical School University of KwaZulu Natal, 719 Umbilo Road 4001, Congella 4013, South AfricaA computerized clinic patient management system (CCPMS) and a portable clinician electronic order entry system were designed for the HIV/AIDS PMTCT research and programme activities at Mulago hospital. Clinicians satisfaction with the CCPMS was evaluated using a quantitative questionnaire and 848 records were collected to evaluate the portable clinician order entry system. Most clinicians thought the CCPMS improved clinic and drug inventory management. 52% thought it slightly impacted on the quality of patient care and 90% preferred using the CCPMS. Hospital tablet PC order entry system data were found to be more complete and significantly more accurate with 0.8% errors daily compared to 4.1% errors daily in paper based registers (p#60;0.0001). A lower number of missed infant MTCT prophylaxis dosing was also observed in the tablet PC data (4% compared to 14%). Computerized information systems can enhance HIV/AIDS care and research efforts and clinicians are willing to adopt them. © 2011 IIMC LTD.clinic; computerized; Design; evaluation; portable; systems; Ugandaclinic; computerized; evaluation; portable; Uganda; Computer systems; Design; Diseases; Errors; Hospitals; Inventory control; Personal computers; Quality controlNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78650701286Effect of investment in human capital development on organisational performance: Empirical examination of the perception of small business owners in NigeriaUkenna S., Ijeoma N., Anionwu C., Olise M.C.2010European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative SciencesNone26NoneMarketing Unit, Department of Business Management, Godfrey Okoye University, Enugu State, Nigeria; Department of Accountancy, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Anambra State, Nigeria; Department of Marketing, Cross River University of Technology, Cross River StaUkenna, S., Marketing Unit, Department of Business Management, Godfrey Okoye University, Enugu State, Nigeria; Ijeoma, N., Department of Accountancy, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Anambra State, Nigeria; Anionwu, C., Department of Marketing, Cross River University of Technology, Cross River State, Nigeria; Olise, M.C., Department of Marketing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Anambra State, NigeriaNumerous extant studies linking human capital and organizational performance abound, but few focused on the small scale business context. Thus a study towards determining the nature of relationship between the two construct among small scale enterprise owners is thoughtful. Drawn from literature, four variable measures - skills, education, knowledge, and training - were used to predict and explain the human capital effectiveness construct. Thus, four hypotheses (one for each variable measure) were formulated linking each variable measure to the human capital effectiveness construct. The construct, organizational performance, was divided into two sub-constructs, financial organizational performance and non-financial organizational performance to formulate two additional hypotheses linking each to human capital effectiveness. Twenty-five small scale business owners were purposively selected in Awka metropolis of Nigeria. A structured five-point likert type questionnaire was designed and distributed and a 100% return rate was recorded. ANOVA, t-test, multiple regression analysis, simple regression analysis, and pearson's correlation coefficient were all employed to conduct relevant analyses. While keeping constant other factors that can impact on organizational performance, the study singled out human capital and it was shown that a high intercorelation exist among the four variable measure predictors of human capital effectiveness. A key finding of this study is that, training and skill are stronger predictors of human capital effectiveness over and above knowledge and education. This study, in no small measure, provides penetrating insight for small scale business owners in the area of human resources management. Managerial implications, limitations and opportunity for further research are discussed. © EuroJournals, Inc. 2010.Education; Financial performance; Human capital effectiveness; Knowledge; Nigeria; Nonfinancial performance; Skill; Small business; TrainingNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80055014244The impact of ethnicity and religious affiliation on the alienation of staff from their work environment in Nigerian universities: A comparative surveyNnekwu D.A.2010Research in EducationNone84NoneMichael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, NigeriaNnekwu, D.A., Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria[No abstract available]NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84867741981The PGM flotation predictor: Predicting PGM ore flotation performance using results from automated mineralogy systemsBushell C.2012Minerals EngineeringNoneNone10.1016/j.mineng.2012.02.016Mineralogy Division, Mintek, Private Bag X3015, Randburg 2125, South AfricaBushell, C., Mineralogy Division, Mintek, Private Bag X3015, Randburg 2125, South AfricaPerformance of froth flotation recovery plants for platinum group minerals (PGMs) is usually monitored by means of routine chemical assays of samples taken at various locations in the plant. Whilst these assays can alert the plant metallurgist to variations in recovery, the reasons for changes in recovery are not adequately revealed by the assay results. Assay-by-size analyses can help to diagnose whether PGM and/or base metal sulphide (BMS) liberation issues exist, but do not provide any information on mineralogical changes in the plant feed material. The flotation performance of an ore is determined by its mineralogy. Mintek's Mineralogy Division is currently developing PGM flotation prediction software that uses data from automated mineralogy systems to provide valuable information to the plant metallurgist. Each PGM-bearing particle detected by the automated mineralogy system is individually evaluated. Particle floatability, based on the mode of occurrence of the PGM, the proportion of floatable component/s and the composition of constituent minerals in each PGM-bearing particle is calculated. These data provide a direct output that highlights the metallurgical properties and recoverability of the PGM-bearing particles in samples gathered from strategic locations in the recovery plant. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Flotation kinetics; Flotation modelling; Froth flotation; Precious metal ores; Process optimisationBase metal sulphides; Feed materials; Floatability; Flotation kinetics; Flotation performance; Flotation recovery; Metallurgical properties; Mineralogical changes; Platinum group minerals; Precious metal ores; Process optimisation; Recoverability; Strategic locations; Assays; Automation; Crystallography; Economic geology; Froth flotation; Mineralogy; Minerals; Precious metals; Recovery; Ore treatmentNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84874276052GRP bolting: Application and performanceFerreira P.2012Tunnels and Tunnelling InternationalNoneNOVNoneMinova RSA, South AfricaFerreira, P., Minova RSA, South AfricaPete Ferreira of Minova RSA argues the case of glass fiber reinforced plastic rockbolts and call for more research to be done on tunnelling applications. GRP bolt technology has since found widespread application in mining and civil engineering. Compared to steel, GRP has advantages that can be traced to the properties of the composite material. GRP bolts simply consist of a composite of resin and fiber that is manufactured through the pultrusion manufacturing process which was developed in the early 1970s. FiReP fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) Powermesh was developed to comply with standard grid applications while providing the added benefits of durability and cut ability. High load capacity at each joint, compared to that of welded mesh, is unique and makes the design of FRP grid reinforced concrete structures a viable option for engineers and mining support structures.NoneNoneNone
WoSWOS:000288998900005Community resource centres in Mtwara, Lindi and Ruvuma regions in Tanzania: an evaluation of their development needs, usefulness, and the way forwardCharbonneau, DH,Mcharazo, Alli A. S.2008GLOBAL INFORMATION INEQUALITIES: BRIDGING THE INFORMATION GAPNoneNoneNoneMuhimbili Univ Hlth & Allied SciNoneNoneNoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-39749093855Assessing the potential impact of selected technologies on the banana industry in UgandaKalyebara R., Wood S., Abodi P.N.2007Research Report of the International Food Policy Research InstituteNone155NoneNARO; IFPRI; Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical in Cali, Cali, Colombia; IFPRI, Kampala, UgandaKalyebara, R., NARO; Wood, S., IFPRI, Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical in Cali, Cali, Colombia; Abodi, P.N., IFPRI, Kampala, UgandaThe potential economic benefits of a range of technology options that are available to R&D policymakers and managers in Uganda have been assessed. The assessment involved six banana production systems, determined according to productivity potential and the commercial orientation of growers and 14 technology scenarios that span current best practices for managing bananas, genetic transformation and conventional breeding. It was shown through simulations that current recommended scenarios could generate the highest levels of gross benefits, assuming relatively high rates of adoption. The productivity of the banana needs more refining according to the assessment, given its importance in the diet of Ugandans and the large amount of agricultural land currently allocated to relatively unproductive banana systems.Noneagricultural land; agricultural production; agroindustry; economic impact; policy making; productivity; research and development; simulation; technology adoption; Africa; East Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; UgandaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33846334041Performance contract-driven improvements at Uganda's state-owned water utilityIsingoma D.2006Water 21NoneJUNENoneNational Water and Sewerage Corporation, UgandaIsingoma, D., National Water and Sewerage Corporation, Uganda[No abstract available]NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84873738800Trade credit and performance of firms in NigeriaOjenike J.O., Asaolu T.O., Olowoniyi A.O.2013European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative SciencesNone56NoneObafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaOjenike, J.O., Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria; Asaolu, T.O., Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria; Olowoniyi, A.O., Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaThis study analyzed the effect of trade credit on firm's performance. Panel data framework was fitted to the secondary data obtained from 70 sampled firms for the period 2000-2009. Data collected were analyzed using panel econometric approach of fixed effect, random effect and Hausman test. The result indicates that trade credit positively influenced Net Profit Margin (NPM), return on investment (ROI) and return on capital employed (ROCE) by firms. The finding implied that trade credit financing is an integral part of doing business for firms especially those that find raising funds from the credit market difficult and could not generate adequate internal funds for their working capital requirements. © EuroJournals, Inc. 2012.NPM; ROA; ROCE; ROI; Trade creditNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-67549105494The performances of commercial banks in post-consolidation period in Nigeria: An empirical reviewSomoye R.O.C.2008European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative SciencesNone14NoneOlabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria; P.O.Box 1104, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, NigeriaSomoye, R.O.C., Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria, P.O.Box 1104, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, NigeriaThe current credit crisis and the transatlantic mortgage financial turmoil have questioned the effectiveness of bank consolidation programme as a remedy for financial stability and monetary policy in correcting the defects in the financial sector for sustainable development. Many banks consolidation had taken place in Europe, America and Asia in the last two decades without any solutions in sight to bank failures and crisis. The paper attempts to examine the performances of government induced banks consolidation and macro-economic performance in Nigeria in a post-consolidation period. The paper analyses published audited accounts of twenty(20) out of twenty-five(25) banks that emerged from the consolidation exercise and data from the Central Banks of Nigeria(CBN). We denote year 2004 as the pre-consolidation and 2005 and 2006 as post-consolidation periods for our analysis. We notice that the consolidation programme has not improved the overall performances of banks significantly and also has contributed marginally to the growth of the real sector for sustainable development. The paper concludes that banking sector is becoming competitive and market forces are creating an atmosphere where many banks simply cannot afford to have weak balance sheets and inadequate corporate governance. The paper posits further that consolidation of banks may not necessaily be a sufficient tool for financial stability for sustainable development and this confirms Megginson(2005) and Somoye(2006) postulations. We recommend that bank consolidation in the financial market must be market driven to allow for efficient process. The paper posits further that researchers should begin to develop a new framework for financial market stability as opposed to banking consolidation policy. © EuroJournals, Inc. 2008.Consolidation; Financial sector; Profitability; Real sectorNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84869174458Specific performance as a remedy in international sales contractsWethmar-Lemmer M.2012Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse RegNone4NonePrivate International Law, University of South Africa, South AfricaWethmar-Lemmer, M., Private International Law, University of South Africa, South Africa[No abstract available]NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-27844527498A critical evaluation of the South African state antiretroviral programmeVenter W.D.F.2005Southern African Journal of HIV MedicineNone20NoneReproductive Health and HIV Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaVenter, W.D.F., Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa[No abstract available]Noneantiretrovirus agent; azithromycin; didanosine; efavirenz; nevirapine; stavudine; article; geographic distribution; health behavior; health care access; health care system; health program; hepatitis; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; human rights; infection complication; lactic acidosis; lifestyle; nutritional health; pancreatitis; patient compliance; patient counseling; peripheral neuropathy; population distribution; population research; public health service; resource management; South Africa; statistical analysis; statistical significance; Stevens Johnson syndrome; treatment failureNone
Scopus2-s2.0-26444443474Root volume and raising period affect field performance of Pinus patula cuttings in South AfricaMitchell R.G., Zwolinski J., Jones N.B., Bayley A.D.2005Southern African Forestry JournalNone204NoneSappi Forests Research, Ngodwana Nursery, P.O. Box 372, Ngodwana, 1209, South Africa; Forestry Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209, South Africa; Sappi Forests Research, Shaw Research Centre, P.O. Box 473, Howick, 1209, South Africa; Sappi SA Technology Centre, Innovation Hub Hatfield, No 1 Sydney Brenner Street, Pretoria, 0002, South AfricaMitchell, R.G., Sappi Forests Research, Ngodwana Nursery, P.O. Box 372, Ngodwana, 1209, South Africa; Zwolinski, J., Forestry Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209, South Africa; Jones, N.B., Sappi Forests Research, Shaw Research Centre, P.O. Box 473, Howick, 1209, South Africa; Bayley, A.D., Sappi SA Technology Centre, Innovation Hub Hatfield, No 1 Sydney Brenner Street, Pretoria, 0002, South AfricaThe propagation of pines through cuttings has become a commercial means of rapidly multiplying improved genetic material for operational use in forestry companies. Cuttings of pines are produced entirely in containers in South Africa. Containers, however, can negatively affect plant growth and post-planting field performance if plants are allowed to grow beyond the constraints of the root cavity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of tray type and plant age on the field performance of Pinus patula rooted cuttings. Field assessments indicate that the combination of greater root mass at planting and increased media volumes improved field growth with the most significant response observed in stem diameter. Factors responsible for producing greater root dry mass at planting were increased media volume and a longer raising period in the nursery. Seven years after planting, cuttings with the largest root mass at planting (0.560 g) were 27% larger in individual tree volume than trees produced from cuttings having the smallest root mass at planting (0.159 g). Field survival was exceptionally good and did not differ among nursery treatments.Cuttings; Field performance; Pinus patula; Plant age; Root collar diameter; Root mass; Root volumePinus patulaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33748528140The effects of ontogenetic maturation in Pinus patula - Part II: Hedge cycling and field performanceMitchell R.G., Jones N.B.2006Southern African Forestry JournalNone207NoneSappi Forests Research, Shaw Research Centre, P.O. Box 473, Howick, 3290, South AfricaMitchell, R.G., Sappi Forests Research, Shaw Research Centre, P.O. Box 473, Howick, 3290, South Africa; Jones, N.B., Sappi Forests Research, Shaw Research Centre, P.O. Box 473, Howick, 3290, South AfricaEarly studies suggest that the juvenile period, during which favourable rooting can be achieved from Pinus patula seedling hedges, may be as short as 2 years from the date of sowing. If the effects of hedge maturation cannot be delayed, productivity from seedling hedges will be severely limited. The most common technique to postpone hedge maturation in some coniferous species is by rejuvenating the donor plant (ramet) through serial propagation or hedge cycling. This involves taking a cutting from the parent hedge and, once rooted, establishing a new donor hedge from the rooted cutting. Cuttings harvested from such cycled hedges have been reported to grow better than those from non-cycled hedges that have passed the point of ontogenetic maturation. This paper summarises the effects of cycling P. patula hedge plants in the nursery on subsequent field performance. Seedling comparisons were included in the field trial. The effects of cycling were measured for the first three years after planting. The field results indicate that cycling hedges within the first 24 months since sowing negatively affected early field growth in one treatment. Cuttings from the non-cycled three-year-old seedling hedge treatment performed similarly to the seedling controls in the field trial, which supports other studies. Based on these results, it is currently recommended that P. patula cuttings be produced from seedling hedges for a period of 36 months from sowing, without the inclusion of a hedge-cycling regime.Cuttings; Growth; Ontogenetic maturation; Pinus patula; Stem form (tropism); SurvivalPinus patulaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84907379871Land degradation impact on soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks of sub-tropical humid grasslands in South AfricaDlamini P., Chivenge P., Manson A., Chaplot V.2014GeodermaNoneNone10.1016/j.geoderma.2014.07.016School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Water Resources Research, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Rabie Saunders Building, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs, Private Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg 3200, South Africa; IRD-LOCEAN c/o School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Water Resources Research, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Rabie Saunders Building, Scottsville 3209, South AfricaDlamini, P., School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Water Resources Research, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Rabie Saunders Building, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; Chivenge, P., School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Water Resources Research, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Rabie Saunders Building, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; Manson, A., KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs, Private Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg 3200, South Africa; Chaplot, V., School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Water Resources Research, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Rabie Saunders Building, Scottsville 3209, South Africa, IRD-LOCEAN c/o School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Water Resources Research, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Rabie Saunders Building, Scottsville 3209, South AfricaLand degradation is recognized as a main environmental problem that adversely depletes soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON) stocks, which in turn directly affects soils, their fertility, productivity and overall quality. While it is expanding worldwide at rapid pace, quantitative information on the impact of land degradation on the depletion of SOC and SON stocks remains largely unavailable, limiting the ability to predict the impacts of land management on the C losses to the atmosphere and associated global warming. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the consequences of a decrease in grass aerial cover on SOC and SON stocks. A degraded grassland showing an aerial cover gradient from 100% (Cov100, corresponding to a non-degraded grassland) to 50-75% (Cov75), 25-50% (Cov50) and 0-5% (Cov5, corresponding to a heavily degraded grassland), was selected in South Africa. Soil samples were collected in the 0.05m soil layer at 48 locations along the aerial cover gradient and were subsequently separated into the clay+silt (2-20μm) and sand (20-2000μm) fractions, prior to total C and N analysis (n=288). The decline in grass aerial cover from 100% to 0-5% had a significant (P&lt;0.05) impact on SOC and SON stocks, with losses by as much as 1.25kgm-2 for SOC and 0.074kgm-2 for SON, which corresponded to depletion rates of 89 and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, both the C:N ratio and the proportion of SOC and SON in the silt+clay fraction declined with grass aerial cover, which was indicative of a preferential loss of easily decomposable organic matter. The staggering decline in SOC and SON stocks raises concerns about the ability of these acidic sandy loam soils to sustain their main ecosystem functions. The associated decrease in chemical elements (e.g., Ca by a maximum of 67%; Mn, 77%; Cu, 66%; and Zn, 82%) was finally used to discuss the mechanisms at stake in land degradation and the associated stock depletion of SOC and SON stocks, a prerequisite to land rehabilitation and stock replenishment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.Carbon cycle; Climate change; Ecosystems; Pasture; RangelandChemical elements; Climate change; Global warming; Nitrogen; Silt; Carbon cycles; Ecosystem functions; Environmental problems; Pasture; Quantitative information; Rangeland; Soil organic carbon; Soil organic carbon and nitrogen; Ecosystems; acid soil; grassland; humid environment; land degradation; nutrient loss; organic carbon; soil chemistry; soil organic matter; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84855205602Hydrological impacts of land use change in three diverse South African catchmentsWarburton M.L., Schulze R.E., Jewitt G.P.W.2012Journal of HydrologyNoneNone10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.10.028School of Bioresources Engineering and Environmental Hydrology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, PBag X01, Scottsville 3209, South AfricaWarburton, M.L., School of Bioresources Engineering and Environmental Hydrology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, PBag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; Schulze, R.E., School of Bioresources Engineering and Environmental Hydrology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, PBag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; Jewitt, G.P.W., School of Bioresources Engineering and Environmental Hydrology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, PBag X01, Scottsville 3209, South AfricaIn order to meet society's needs for water, food, fuel and fibre, the earth's natural land cover and land use have been significantly changed. These changes have impacted on the hydrological responses and thus available water resources, as the hydrological responses of a catchment are dependent upon, and sensitive to, changes in the land use. The degree of anthropogenic modification of the land cover, the intensity of the land use changes and location of land uses within a catchment determines the extent to which land uses influences hydrological response of a catchment.The objective of the study was to improve understanding of the complex interactions between hydrological response and land use to aid in water resources planning. To achieve this, a hydrological model, viz. the ACRU agrohydrological model, which adequately represents hydrological processes and is sensitive to land use changes, was used to generate hydrological responses from three diverse, complex and operational South African catchments under both current land use and a baseline land cover. The selected catchments vary with respect to both land use and climate. The semi-arid sub-tropical Luvuvhu catchment has a large proportion of subsistence agriculture and informal residential areas, whereas in the winter rainfall Upper Breede catchment the primary land uses are commercial orchards and vineyards. The sub-humid Mgeni catchment is dominated by commercial plantation forestry in the upper reaches, commercial sugarcane and urban areas in the middle reaches, with the lower reaches dominated by urban areas.The hydrological responses of the selected catchments to land use change were complex. Results showed that the contributions of different land uses to the streamflow generated from a catchment is not proportional to the relative area of that land use, and the relative contribution of the land use to the catchment streamflow varies with the mean annual rainfall of the catchment. Furthermore, it was shown that the location of specific land uses within a catchment has a role in the response of the streamflow of the catchment to that land use change. From the Mgeni catchment, the significant role of the water engineered system on catchment streamflow was evident. Hydrological models have drawbacks associated with them due to inherent uncertainties. However, in this study the ACRU model proved to be a useful tool to assess the impacts of land use change on the hydrological response as impacts from the local scale to catchment scale could be assessed as well as the progression of impacts of land use changes as the streamflow cascades downstream through the catchment. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.ACRU agrohydrological model; Baseline land cover; Hydrological response; Land use changeAnnual rainfall; Anthropogenic modification; Available water; Baseline land cover; Catchment scale; Commercial plantation; Complex interaction; Engineered systems; Hydrological impacts; Hydrological models; Hydrological process; Hydrological response; Land cover; Land use change; Local scale; Relative contribution; Residential areas; Semi arid; Sub-humid; Subsistence agriculture; Urban areas; Water resources planning; Winter rainfall; Agriculture; Land use; Landforms; Rain; Runoff; Stream flow; Urban planning; Water resources; Catchments; agricultural land; anthropogenic effect; baseline conditions; catchment; hydrological modeling; hydrological response; land cover; land use change; orchard; plantation forestry; semiarid region; streamflow; subsistence; subtropical region; uncertainty analysis; vineyard; water availability; water planning; water resource; Breede River; KwaZulu-Natal; Luvuvhu Basin; Mgeni River; South Africa; Western CapeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84885649435Synthesis and evaluation of novel fluorinated 2-styrylchromones as antibacterial agentsMomin M., Ramjugernath D., Chenia H., Koorbanally N.A.2013Journal of ChemistryNoneNone10.1155/2013/436758School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa; School of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa; Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South AfricaMomin, M., School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa; Ramjugernath, D., School of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa; Chenia, H., Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa; Koorbanally, N.A., School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South AfricaA range of fluorinated 2-styrylchromones (5a-g) of which six were new (5a-f) were prepared in three steps using the Baker-Venkataraman rearrangement along with two methoxylated derivatives (5h-i) and a methylenedioxy derivative (5j) and screened for their antibacterial activity using Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, sciuri, and xylosus as well as Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia). The compounds were most effective against B. subtilis followed by S. aureus and a single strain of E. coli (ATCC 25922). Difluorination on the phenyl ring was shown to enhance antibacterial activity, and fluorine substitution at the 6 position was shown to be far superior to substitution at the 7 position. In comparison to tetracycline, the activity indices of the fluorinated styrylchromones ranged from 0.50 to 0.75 against B. subtilis. The crystal structure of 2′-fluoro-2-styrylchromone is also presented, and the molecule was shown to be planar. © 2013 Mehbub Momin et al.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84861815460Microwave-assisted synthesis of guanidine organocatalysts bearing a tetrahydroisoquinoline framework and their evaluation in Michael addition reactionsNaicker T., Arvidsson P.I., Kruger H.G., Maguire G.E.M., Govender T.2012European Journal of Organic ChemistryNone1710.1002/ejoc.201200303School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag 4000, Durban, South Africa; Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Uppsala Biomedical Centre, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala, Sweden; Innovative Medicines, CNSP IMed, AstraZeneca RandD Sodertalje, 15185 Sodertalje, Sweden; School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville, Durban, South AfricaNaicker, T., School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag 4000, Durban, South Africa; Arvidsson, P.I., School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag 4000, Durban, South Africa, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Uppsala Biomedical Centre, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala, Sweden, Innovative Medicines, CNSP IMed, AstraZeneca RandD Sodertalje, 15185 Sodertalje, Sweden; Kruger, H.G., School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville, Durban, South Africa; Maguire, G.E.M., School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville, Durban, South Africa; Govender, T., School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag 4000, Durban, South AfricaThe simple and practical syntheses of chiral guanidine organocatalysts and their evaluation in the asymmetric Michael addition reaction of malonates and β-keto esters with nitro-olefins is reported. These organocatalysts are the first of their kind based on a tetrahydroisoquinoline framework. In addition, a microwave-assisted procedure for introducing the guanidine unit onto amino amide derivatives is reported. The chiral products were obtained with quantitative chemical efficiency (up to 99 % yield) and excellent enantioselectivity (up to 97 % ee). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.Michael addition; Microwave chemistry; OrganocatalysisNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84857975408Land degradation impact on soil carbon losses through water erosion and CO 2 emissionsMchunu C., Chaplot V.2012GeodermaNoneNone10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.01.038Soil Fertility and Analytical Services, KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs, Private Bag X 9059, Pietermaritzburg, 3200, South Africa; IRD - BIOEMCO c/o School of Bioresources Engineering and Environmental Hydrology, Rabie Saunders Building, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Box X01, Scottsville, 3209, South AfricaMchunu, C., Soil Fertility and Analytical Services, KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs, Private Bag X 9059, Pietermaritzburg, 3200, South Africa; Chaplot, V., IRD - BIOEMCO c/o School of Bioresources Engineering and Environmental Hydrology, Rabie Saunders Building, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Box X01, Scottsville, 3209, South AfricaWorldwide concerns with global change and its effects on our future environment require an improved understanding of the impact of land cover changes on the global C cycle. Overgrazing causes a reduction in plant cover with accepted consequences on soil infiltration and soil erosion, yet the impact on the loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its associated processes remain unaccounted for. In this study performed in South Africa, our main objective was to evaluate the impact of plant cover reduction on (i) SOC erosion by water in both particulate (POC) and dissolved (DOC) forms, and (ii) soil CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere. The study performed under sandy-loam Acrisols investigated three proportions of soil surface coverage by plants (Cov), from 100% (Cov100) for the "non-degraded" treatment to 25-50% (Cov50) and 0-5% (Cov5). POC and DOC losses were evaluated using an artificial rainfall of 30mmh -1 applied for a period of 30min on bounded 1×1m 2 microplots (n=3 per treatment). CO 2 emissions from undisturbed soil samples (n=9) were evaluated continuously at the laboratory over a 6-month period. At the "non-degraded" treatment of Cov100, plant-C inputs to the soil profile were 1950±180gCm -2y -1 and SOC stocks in the 0-0.02m layer were 300.6±16.2gCm -2. While soil-C inputs by plants significantly (P&lt;0.05 level) decreased by 38.5±3.5% at Cov50 and by 75.4±6.9% at Cov5, SOC, the losses by water erosion of 0.75gCm -2 at Cov100 increased from 66% at Cov50 (i.e. 3.76±1.8gCm -2) to a staggering 213% at Cov5 (i.e. 7.08±2.9gCm -2). These losses were for the most part in particulate form (from 88.0% for Cov100 to 98.7% for Cov5). Plant cover reduction significantly decreased both the cumulative C-CO 2 emissions (by 68% at Cov50 and 69% at Cov5) and the mineralization rate of the soil organic matter (from 0.039 gC-CO 2gC -1 at Cov100 to 0.031gC-CO 2gC -1 at Cov5). These results are expected to increase our understanding of the impact of land degradation on the global C cycle. Further in-situ research studies, however, need to investigate whether or not grassland degradation induces net C-emissions to the atmosphere. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..Global c Cycle; Land use change; Particulate and dissolved SOC forms; South africa; Water erosionGlobal c Cycle; Land use change; Particulate and dissolved SOC forms; South Africa; Water erosion; Air pollution; Erosion; Forestry; Rating; Soils; Vegetation; Carbon dioxide; Acrisol; air-soil interaction; carbon cycle; carbon dioxide; carbon emission; infiltration; land degradation; land use change; mineralization; overgrazing; rainfall; sandy loam; soil carbon; soil emission; soil erosion; soil organic matter; soil profile; soil surface; vegetation cover; water erosion; South AfricaNone
WoSWOS:000293559000014Evaluating Agricultural Research and Extension in Tanzania: the Production Function ApproachAnandajayasekeram, P,Babu, S,Isinika, A. C.,Keswani, CL,Liebenberg, F,Rukuni, M2007IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON AFRICAN AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITYNoneNoneNoneSokoine University of AgricultureNoneAgricultural research in Tanzania began in 1923 on sorghum and cotton. Since then, the number of research stations and institutions involved in agricultural research has increased. However, there are very few evaluations of the performance of agricultural research. This study uses the production function approach to assess the efficiency of investments in agricultural research and extension from 1971 to 1992. Results of the regression analysis showed that the total factor productivity for crop production in Tanzania is responsive to expenditures on research while it is not responsive to expenditure on agricultural extension. The model also shows that total factor productivity for crop production was not significantly responsive to the literacy rate of farmers, rainfall and lagged export earnings. The study concludes that since the marginal rate of return of investment in agricultural research is greater than the social rate of return, continued funding of agricultural research by both government and private sector is encouraged. The marginal rate of return was found to be low. This calls for efforts to improve extension and enhance the linkages between agricultural research and extension.NoneNoneNone
WoSWOS:000300690500019The World Bank's poverty and social impact analysisBeddies, Sabine,Dani, Anis,Esteves, AM,Vanclay, F2011NEW DIRECTIONS IN SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: CONCEPTUAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ADVANCESNoneNoneNoneThe World Bank, EU, UN"Dani, Anis: The World Bank",NoneNoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78651314444Truck productivity, efficiency, energy use, and carbon dioxide output: Benchmarking of international performanceWoodrooffe J., Glaeser K.-P., Nordengen P.2010Transportation Research RecordNone216210.3141/2162-08Transportation Research Institute, University of Michigan, 2901 Baxter Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2150, United States; Bundesanstalt für Strassenwesen (BASt), Brüderstraße 53, Bergisch Gladbach, D-51427, Germany; CSIR, South Africa, Meiring Naudé Road, Pretoria, 0001, South AfricaWoodrooffe, J., Transportation Research Institute, University of Michigan, 2901 Baxter Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2150, United States; Glaeser, K.-P., Bundesanstalt für Strassenwesen (BASt), Brüderstraße 53, Bergisch Gladbach, D-51427, Germany; Nordengen, P., CSIR, South Africa, Meiring Naudé Road, Pretoria, 0001, South AfricaThe Joint Transport Research Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the International Transport Forum recently conducted a benchmarking study of the safety and productivity of typical highway transport trucks from various countries. This paper focuses on vehicle productivity and efficiency in regard to the movement of freight. Forty vehicles from 10 countries were examined. The vehicles were designed for longer-haul applications and were classified in three separate categories: workhorse vehicles, which are the most common and can travel on most roads; high-capacity vehicles, which may be restricted to a certain class of road; and very high-capacity vehicles, which may be restricted to specific highways or routes. The metrics used in the analysis include maximum cargo mass and volume capacity, optimum cargo density, fuel consumption, and carbon dioxide output as a function of the freight task. The study found that size and weight regulations have a significant effect on the productivity and efficiency of heavy vehicles, including fuel consumption and vehicle emissions per unit of cargo transported. Significant variations were found among the vehicles from participating countries as well as within vehicle classes. It was also apparent that, in general, higher-productivity vehicles are correlated more strongly with increased cargo volume than with increased cargo mass and that larger trucks are better suited to lower-density freight than are workhorse vehicles. The study also found that it is important to consider the freight task when evaluating vehicle fuel consumption and emissions.NoneCargo volume; Energy use; Heavy vehicle; High-capacity; International transport; Organisation for economic co-operation and development; Per unit; Transport research; Vehicle emission; Volume capacity; Automobiles; Benchmarking; Carbon dioxide; Fuels; International cooperation; Lead acid batteries; Productivity; Roads and streets; Steel metallurgy; Trucks; VehiclesNone
WoSWOS:000301791400094The impact of microcredit programmes on survivalist women entrepreneurs in The Gambia and SenegalCasier, Bart,Chant, S2010INTERNATIONAL HANDBOOK OF GENDER AND POVERTY: CONCEPTS, RESEARCH, POLICYNoneNoneNoneTRIAS Reg OffNoneNoneNoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84868463758Mentum deformities in Chironomidae communities as indicators of anthropogenic impacts in Swartkops RiverOdume O.N., Muller W.J., Palmer C.G., Arimoro F.O.2012Physics and Chemistry of the EarthNoneNone10.1016/j.pce.2012.08.005Unilever Centre for Environmental Water Quality, Institute for Water Research, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, South AfricaOdume, O.N., Unilever Centre for Environmental Water Quality, Institute for Water Research, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, South Africa; Muller, W.J., Unilever Centre for Environmental Water Quality, Institute for Water Research, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, South Africa; Palmer, C.G., Unilever Centre for Environmental Water Quality, Institute for Water Research, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, South Africa; Arimoro, F.O., Unilever Centre for Environmental Water Quality, Institute for Water Research, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, South AfricaSwartkops River is located in Eastern Cape of South Africa and drains a heavily industrialised catchment and has suffered deterioration in water quality due to pollution. Water quality impairment in the Swartkops River has impacted on its biota. Deformities in the mouth parts of larval Chironomidae, particularly of the mentum, represent sub-lethal effects of exposure to pollutants, and were therefore employed as indictors of pollution in the Swartkops River. Chironomid larvae were collected using the South African Scoring System version 5 (SASS5) protocol. A total of 4838 larvae, representing 26 taxa from four sampling sites during four seasons were screened for mentum deformities. The community incidences of mentum deformity were consistently higher than 8% at Sites 2-4, indicating pollution stress in the river. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) conducted on arcsine transformed data revealed that the mean community incidence of mentum deformity was significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) at Site 3. ANOVA did not reveal statistically significant differences (p&gt;0.05) between seasons across sites. Severe deformities were consistently higher at Site 3. Strong correlations were found between deformity indices and the concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), orthophosphate-phosphorus (PO 4-P), electrical conductivity (EC) and turbidity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.Chironomidae; Deformities; South Africa; Swartkops River; Water qualityAnthropogenic impacts; Chironomid larvae; Chironomidae; Deformities; Electrical conductivity; Inorganic nitrogen; Sampling site; Scoring systems; South Africa; Statistically significant difference; Strong correlation; Water quality impairment; Analysis of variance (ANOVA); Catchments; Deformation; Electric conductivity; Phosphorus; Pollution; Rivers; Turbidity; Water quality; River pollution; anthropogenic effect; bioindicator; community structure; concentration (composition); dissolved oxygen; electrical conductivity; fly; inorganic nitrogen; orthophosphate; pollution exposure; river pollution; sublethal effect; taxonomy; turbidity; variance analysis; water quality; Eastern Cape; South Africa; Swartkops River; ChironomidaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84865796627Limiting of accumulating debt from interest due and the ultra duplum rule: An evaluation of the historical development and the purported purpose of the rule [Limitering van renteheffing en die ultra duplum-reël: 'N evaluering van die historiese ontwikkeliSonnekus J.C.2012Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse RegNone3NoneUniversiteit van Johannesburg, South AfricaSonnekus, J.C., Universiteit van Johannesburg, South AfricaIt is an accepted principle in any state governed by the rule of law that no one may use an asset of another without his permission and if it is to be for a period of time, they would normally regulate the situation by agreement. The only exception would be when someone uses someone else's property and is complying with the principles of acquisitive prescription. Doing otherwise may encourage squatting and anarchy. Unless the person with full legal title feels inclined to be benevolent towards his neighbour, the agreement between them would normally make provision for the payment of a sum of money to the owner for the use of his property. Nobody would disallow the owner his right to a reasonable benefit as quid pro quo, but if we are dealing with the use of money (a money-lending transaction) where interest is to be paid, the law will limit the money-lender's claim to profit from interest in terms of the rules against usury if it becomes excessive. Since early Roman times, Roman law objectively limited the possible content of a clause governing interest on an outstanding debt due in terms of a money-lending agreement. Not only was the maximum interest rate determined and the claim to compound interest excluded, but under the duplum rule the interest could not accumulate beyond the equivalent of the original debt. In this contribution the author reflects on the evolution of this rule and the content it carried as contained in both known and lesser-known texts on the Roman law. In the light of the interplay between the known and lesser-known texts from Justinian the author concludes that contrary to the popular assumption or belief, the underlying purpose of the duplum rule was not an early version of consumer protection for the benefit of the poor, over-indebted credit-seeker. Instead, it served to safeguard the general public interest by eliminating as early as possible any high-risk debtor as possible credit-seeker who would never be able to rid himself of his indebtedness and would - if allowed to continue to form part of the economic society with an unsequestrated status - endanger that very society. For this purpose Justinian ruled that no interest may accumulate at any stage beyond the magic duplum amount. This applied irrespective of whether the interest due was paid in instalments or not. It consequently made it unattractive for a credit provider to extend the due date for the full repayment of any debt beyond the date of reaching this maximum margin. This is a very effective disciplinary measure to curtail overindebtedness and to compel the creditor to attend to the timeous service of his claim. An oversimplification of allowing the immature (rather unsophisticated) credit-seeker to enjoy unlimited credit irrespective of whether he would be in a position to service and repay all his debt does not conform to the economic reality recognised by the old authorities. The article concludes by noting with astonishment that an African country like Kenya, with no legal historical ties to Roman law, decided to introduce legislation along the lines of the duplum rule to govern the further accumulation of debt from interest-bearing financial vehicles, because the rule makes logical and economic sense. The advisors to the European Union whom one would have expected to be acquainted with Roman law and its fundamental principles, however, have not advised the European Union along these lines, since it is still providing bankrupt states with loans under circumstances where it may be assumed that it might be impossible for the recipient countries ever to repay their debts. Greece might not have been in half of its current financial difficulties if a credit provider knew that no profit was to be made by extending additional credit if the outstanding debt had passed the duplum margin (had the possibility existed to apply this rule). If there is no profit to be made from extending the due date for the debtor, the flow of credit will automatically dwindle, unless credit providers publicly don the cloak of the Good Samaritan and could justifiably show their shareholders or taxpayers why their investments or hard-earned money should be donated to the credit receiver in question. The same principle applies to the private debtor seeking unlimited credit as consumer. An outright moratorium or re-arrangement order on the repayment of debt is contrary to the provisions of the original agreement by which the debtor undertook to abide; this implies that it is done at the expense of the creditor, even if governed by sections 78-88 read with section 103(5) of the National Credit Act 34 of 2005.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-76149107192Evaluation of embedded discontinuity method for finite element analysis of cracking of hot-mix asphalt concreteWu R., Denneman E., Harvey J.2009Transportation Research RecordNone212710.3141/2127-10University of California, Pavement Research Center, Building 452, 1353 South 46th Street, Richmond, CA 94804, United States; CSIR, Built Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Pavement Research Center, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United StatesWu, R., University of California, Pavement Research Center, Building 452, 1353 South 46th Street, Richmond, CA 94804, United States; Denneman, E., CSIR, Built Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Harvey, J., Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Pavement Research Center, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United StatesCracking is a major source of distress in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. Various approaches have been proposed to describe crack initiation and propagation in HMA. This paper evaluates a finite element analysis technique that uses the embedded discontinuity method (EDM) for model cracking. The purpose of this study is to identify the strengths and potential weaknesses of the approach and investigate its applicability in general crack simulation for HMA pavements. An alternative formulation of EDM is adopted to make the approach easier to understand. The cohesive-crack model is used to describe development of HMA cracking. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the ability of EDM to simulate uniaxial-tension, three-point bending, and semicircular beam bending tests. It is shown that EDM is a promising finite element analysis technique, but additional research is needed to make it more robust.NoneBeam bending; Crack initiation and propagation; Crack model; Embedded discontinuity; Finite element analysis; Hot mix asphalt; Hot-mix asphalt concretes; Numerical example; Three point bending; Asphalt; Bending tests; Crack initiation; Cracking (chemical); Cracks; Electric dipole moments; Electric discharge machining; Micromachining; Pavements; Finite element methodNone
WoSWOS:000302027500004Climate Change Impacts in the Developing World: Implications for Sustainable DevelopmentBrainard, L,Jones, A,Nyong, Anthony,Purvis, N2009CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL POVERTY: A BILLION LIVES IN THE BALANCENoneNoneNoneUniversity of Jos, Int Dev Res CtrNoneNone,AFRICA,"HEALTH SECTOR",MODEL,RISK,VARIABILITYNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84901696557Impacts of climate change on water resources in southern Africa: A reviewKusangaya S., Warburton M.L., Archer van Garderen E., Jewitt G.P.W.2014Physics and Chemistry of the EarthNoneNone10.1016/j.pce.2013.09.014University of KwaZulu Natal, Centre for Water Resources Research, School of Agriculture, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3209, South Africa; Climate Studies, Modeling and Environmental Health, CSIR Natural Resources and Environment, Building 1, Corner Carlow and Rustenburg Roads, Emmarentia 2195, South AfricaKusangaya, S., University of KwaZulu Natal, Centre for Water Resources Research, School of Agriculture, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3209, South Africa; Warburton, M.L., University of KwaZulu Natal, Centre for Water Resources Research, School of Agriculture, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3209, South Africa; Archer van Garderen, E., Climate Studies, Modeling and Environmental Health, CSIR Natural Resources and Environment, Building 1, Corner Carlow and Rustenburg Roads, Emmarentia 2195, South Africa; Jewitt, G.P.W., University of KwaZulu Natal, Centre for Water Resources Research, School of Agriculture, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3209, South AfricaThe Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that there is consensus that the increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases will result in climate change which will cause the sea level to rise, increased frequency of extreme climatic events including intense storms, heavy rainfall events and droughts. This will increase the frequency of climate-related hazards, causing loss of life, social disruption and economic hardships. There is less consensus on the magnitude of change of climatic variables, but several studies have shown that climate change will impact on the availability and demand for water resources. In southern Africa, climate change is likely to affect nearly every aspect of human well-being, from agricultural productivity and energy use to flood control, municipal and industrial water supply to wildlife management, since the region is characterised by highly spatial and temporally variable rainfall and, in some cases, scarce water resources. Vulnerability is exacerbated by the region's low adaptive capacity, widespread poverty and low technology uptake. This paper reviews the potential impacts of climate change on water resources in southern Africa. The outcomes of this review include highlighting studies on detected climate changes particularly focusing on temperature and rainfall. Additionally, the impacts of climate change are highlighted, and respective studies on hydrological responses to climate change are examined. The review also discusses the challenges in climate change impact analysis, which inevitably represents existing research and knowledge gaps. Finally the paper concludes by outlining possible research areas in the realm of climate change impacts on water resources, particularly knowledge gaps in uncertainty analysis for both climate change and hydrological modelling. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.Climate change; Hydrological modelling; Southern Africa; Uncertainty; Water resourcesEnergy utilization; Flood control; Greenhouse gases; Hydrology; Rain; Sea level; Uncertainty analysis; Water resources; Water supply; Agricultural productivity; Atmospheric greenhouse; Hydrological modelling; Hydrological response; Industrial water supply; Intergovernmental panel on climate changes; Southern Africa; Uncertainty; Climate change; atmospheric structure; climate change; climate effect; hydrological modeling; rainfall; uncertainty analysis; water resource; Southern AfricaNone
WoSWOS:000271954100006"The Uprooted Emigrant": The Impact of Brain Drain, Brain Gain, and Brain Circulation on Africa's DevelopmentAfolabi, N,Falola, T,Okeke, Godwin S. M.2007TRANS-ATLANTIC MIGRATION: THE PARADOXES OF EXILENoneNoneNoneUniversity of LagosNoneWorsening economic conditions in many African countries have uprooted many of its people from their home countries, voluntarily and involuntarily, in search of the "golden fleece" abroad. This has led to brain drain, brain gain and brain circulation. Brain drain is synonymous with knowledge loss or drain. Brain gain is the reverse side of brain drain, in which Africans in the diaspora return to their various countries with high skills to contribute to their countries' development. Brain circulation entails a continuous and counter-balancing in-flow of highly skilled personnel. The nature of most economies in Africa today has warranted this jigsaw puzzle. The outcome of bad management of the economy and the generalized violent conflict on the continent has not helped matters. Some survivors in war-torn countries, both skilled and unskilled, look outside of their countries for a better life. In some African countries people run away from economic hardship to improve their lives abroad where things are expectedly better. This phenomenon cuts across all manners of people, including professionals and other skilled labor. This situation is true of many countries in Africa, including Nigeria, Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Niger, Senegal, Togo, Cameroon, Ghana, Liberia and Sierra Leone, to mention just a few. Some of those who are not well educated travel and get educated and develop and acquire better skills and make positive contributions to those societies. These movements do not take place only outside Africa, but also within Africa. The consequences of these developments are many and varied. Aside from the image problem it creates for Africa, it portrays Africans as people who are not serious and their governments as irresponsible and corrupt, especially Africa south of the Sahara. There are also those who have made Africa proud in various fields of human endeavor. But the problem remains that the recipe which made them succeed abroad never works at home. Against this background, this chapter investigates the impact of this type of crisscrossing migration on Africa's development, and how far the benefits or otherwise can go to assist in the sustainable development of Africa.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-83155183871Evaluation of selected effects of pavement riding quality on logistics costs in South AfricaSteyn W., Bean W., King D., Komba J.2011Transportation Research RecordNone222710.3141/2227-15University of Pretoria, Lynnwood Road, Hatfield, Pretoria 0002, South Africa; Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Built Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South AfricaSteyn, W., University of Pretoria, Lynnwood Road, Hatfield, Pretoria 0002, South Africa; Bean, W., Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Built Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; King, D., Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Built Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Komba, J., Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Built Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South AfricaThe efficient operation of a country's economy depends, among other things, on an efficient logistical system to ensure that goods can be transported efficiently between producers and users. The costs of logistics include aspects such as transport, storage, inventory, and management. Of these, the transport costs are directly influenced by the condition of the transport infrastructure. The effects of road riding quality on the costs of logistics were evaluated through analysis of data on actual truck costs (specifically, vehicle damage and maintenance) obtained from a logistics service provider as well as data on road riding quality for the routes used by the company. Analysis of the data indicated that the vehicle operating costs increased with decreasing riding quality (as would be expected). Spending adequate resources on the maintenance of routes in a country decreased vehicle fleet operating costs and ultimately the logistics costs of the country. It is recommended that the study be broadened to incorporate a larger sample of vehicles and road conditions.NoneAnalysis of data; Logistical systems; Logistics costs; Logistics service provider; Road condition; South Africa; Transport costs; Transport infrastructure; Vehicle damage; Vehicle fleets; Economics; Fleet operations; Logistics; Maintenance; Operating costs; Quality control; Riding qualities; Roads and streets; Transportation; Cost benefit analysisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79960761924Evaluation of sustainability of low-volume roads treated with nontraditional stabilizersVan Der Merwe Steyn W., Visser A.2011Transportation Research RecordNone220410.3141/2204-24University of Pretoria, Lynnwood Road, Hatfield, Pretoria, South AfricaVan Der Merwe Steyn, W., University of Pretoria, Lynnwood Road, Hatfield, Pretoria, South Africa; Visser, A., University of Pretoria, Lynnwood Road, Hatfield, Pretoria, South AfricaThe use of nontraditional stabilizers to treat unpaved (mostly lowvolume) roads has received attention over the past several years as various types of stabilizers have been developed and become available. Evaluation of the sustainability of various infrastructure actions, including the provision and maintenance of roads, is becoming more relevant as the effects of actions taken in the natural environment on itself and on the human environment are evaluated and understood in more detail. The Greenroads rating system offers a method for evaluation of the sustainability of the design, construction, and maintenance of roads. The system was developed with a focus on surfaced higher-volume roads. In this paper, the potential applicability of the Greenroads system for the evaluation of the sustainability of unsurfaced low-volume roads is investigated through two case studies of experiments in which unpaved low-volume test sections were treated with various types of traditional and nontraditional material stabilizers. Appropriate parameters were selected from the general Greenroads metric to ensure that those affecting unpaved low-volume roads would be evaluated (e.g., runoff quality and use of regional materials) while parameters such as paving emission reduction were excluded from the analysis. The assumption was made that all compulsory project requirements would be met by each of the options evaluated. It was concluded that the Greenroads metric can be used to evaluate the potential sustainability of unpaved low-volume roads treated with nontraditional stabilizers and that the metric can provide insight into the potential effect of various parameters on the sustainability of the various stabilization options.NoneEmission reduction; Human environment; Natural environments; Potential effects; Project requirement; Rating system; Runoff quality; Test sections; Maintenance; Rating; Sustainable development; Quality controlNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84894582678Non-performance of constitutional obligations and the demise of the water tribunal - Access to justice denied?Olivier N., Olivier N.2014Tydskrif vir die Suid-Afrikaanse RegNone1NoneUniversity of Pretoria, South AfricaOlivier, N., University of Pretoria, South Africa; Olivier, N., University of Pretoria, South Africa[No abstract available]NoneNoneNone
WoSWOS:000300690500004Looking beyond impact assessment to social sustainabilityAucamp, Ilse,Aucamp, San-Marie,Bron, Anita,Esteves, AM,Perold, Jan,Vanclay, F,Woodborne, Stephan2011NEW DIRECTIONS IN SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: CONCEPTUAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ADVANCESNoneNoneNoneUniversity of Pretoria, University of Witwatersrand, Environm Div Aurecon, Equispect Res & Consulting Serv, Ptersa Environm Management Consultants, SIA Working GrpNoneNone,"ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT"NoneNone
WoSWOS:000300690500018Conflict-sensitive impact assessmentEsteves, AM,Kapelus, Paul,Richards, Emily,Sherwin, Hope,Vanclay, F2011NEW DIRECTIONS IN SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: CONCEPTUAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ADVANCESNoneNoneNoneUniversity of Witwatersrand, African Inst Corp Citizenship, AICC, Buyani Trust, ClimateCare Trust, Natl Human Rights Commiss, Oxfam, Synergy Global Consulting, World Econ ForumNoneNoneNoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80053018252Benefits of high-performance cloud computing of engineersDreyer R., Crunch Y., Dwolatzky B.2011EngineerITNoneJULYNoneWits University, South AfricaDreyer, R., Wits University, South Africa; Crunch, Y., Wits University, South Africa; Dwolatzky, B., Wits University, South AfricaCrunchYard, a startup company established as part of the pre-incubator program run by the Joburg Center for Software Engineering (JCSE) at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) provides high performance computing (HPC) in the cloud offering several benefits. HPC cloud solution allows engineers to run many small problems in parallel. HPC cloud solution can also be used for large complex simulations and optimization problems. The use of HPC cloud solution leads to the reduction or elimination of simulation assumptions and approximations. The current CrunchYard cluster includes several packages such as FEKO, OpenFOAM, CP2K and SuperNEC that are available to all users. The use of a cloud-based system on a pay-per-use basis allows large organizations to budget per project more effectively such as the geosciences services department at Anglo American is using the CrunchYard platform to run the H3DTD code.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-21044432356Improving home-based care in Southern Africa: An analysis of project evaluationsRosenberg A., Mabude Z., Hartwig K., Rooholamini S., Oracca-Tetteh D., Merson M.2005Southern African Journal of HIV MedicineNone19NoneYale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaRosenberg, A., Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States; Mabude, Z., University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Hartwig, K., Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States; Rooholamini, S., Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States; Oracca-Tetteh, D., Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States; Merson, M., Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United StatesWe describe lessons learned from independent evaluations of nine home-based care (HBC) projects in Lesotho, South Africa and Swaziland. Projects were funded through Bristol-Myers Squibb's Secure the Future (STF) initiative and evaluated through the STF Monitoring and Evaluation Unit (MEU) at Yale University. The objectives of this study were to: ■ Assess the management capacity of the HBC organisations reviewed, concentrating on monitoring and supervision mechanisms. ■ identify innovations in responding to the challenges of delivering care in resource-poor settings, and ■ explore the nature of linkages between HBC projects and governments. Specific strategies to assure quality are discussed, as are policy changes necessary to provide system-wide improvements in quality and the integration of HBC. These are particularly important as governments seek ways to use existing resources to make antiretroviral (ARV) roll-outs successful.Noneantiretrovirus agent; acquired immune deficiency syndrome; article; caregiver; drug industry; government; health care access; health care delivery; health care management; health care organization; health care planning; health care policy; health care quality; health care system; health program; home care; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; Lesotho; medical assessment; resource allocation; South Africa; SwazilandNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84865827371Development and preliminary evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for Halioticida noduliformans in abalone tissuesGreeff M.R., Christison K.W., MacEy B.M.2012Diseases of Aquatic Organisms99210.3354/dao02468Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, University of Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, South Africa; Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Aquaculture Research, Private Bag X2, Roggebaai, Cape Town, 8012, South AfricaGreeff, M.R., Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, University of Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, South Africa; Christison, K.W., Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, University of Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, South Africa, Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Aquaculture Research, Private Bag X2, Roggebaai, Cape Town, 8012, South Africa; MacEy, B.M., Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Aquaculture Research, Private Bag X2, Roggebaai, Cape Town, 8012, South AfricaAbalone Haliotis midae exhibiting typical clinical signs of tubercle mycosis were discovered in South African culture facilities in 2006, posing a significant threat to the industry. The fungus responsible for the outbreak was identified as a Peronosporomycete, Halioticida noduliformans. Currently, histopathology and gross observation are used to diagnose this disease, but these 2 methods are neither rapid nor sensitive enough to provide accurate and reliable diagnosis. Realtime quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a rapid and reliable method for the detection and quantification of a variety of pathogens, so therefore we aimed to develop a qPCR assay for species-specific detection and quantification of H. noduliformans. Effective extraction of H. noduliformans geno - mic DNA from laboratory grown cultures, as well as from spiked abalone tissues, was accomplished by grinding samples using a pellet pestle followed by heat lysis in the presence of Chelax- 100 beads. A set of oligonucleotide primers was designed to specifically amplify H. noduliformans DNA in the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene, and tested for cross-reactivity to DNA extracted from related and non-related fungi isolated from seaweeds, crustaceans and healthy abalone; no crossamplification was detected. When performing PCR assays in an abalone tissue matrix, an environment designed to be a non-sterile simulation of environmental conditions, no amplification occurred in the negative controls. The qPCR assay sensitivity was determined to be approximately 0.28 pg of fungal DNA (∼2.3 spores) in a 25 μl reaction volume. Our qPCR technique will be useful for monitoring and quantifying H. noduliformans for the surveillance and management of abalone tubercle mycosis in South Africa. © Inter-Research 2012.Abalone; Disease; Halioticida noduliformans; PCR; Tubercle mycosisbioassay; environmental conditions; fungal disease; histopathology; host-pathogen interaction; matrix; mitochondrial DNA; monitoring; polymerase chain reaction; population outbreak; seaweed; South Africa; Bacteria (microorganisms); Crustacea; Fungi; Haliotidae; Haliotis midae; Lonchocarpus glaucifolius; fungal DNA; animal; article; classification; fungus; genetics; isolation and purification; methodology; microbiology; mollusc; real time polymerase chain reaction; sensitivity and specificity; species difference; Animals; DNA, Fungal; Fungi; Mollusca; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction; Sensitivity and Specificity; Species SpecificityNone
WoSWOS:000273449700027Developmental monitoring using caregiver reports in a resource-limited setting: the case of Kilifi, KenyaAbubakar, A.,Bomu, G.,Holding, P.,Van Baar, A.,van de Vijver, F.2010ACTA PAEDIATRICA99210.1111/j.1651-2227.2009.01561.xCase Western Reserve University, North West University - South Africa, Tilburg University, University of Utrecht, KEMRI Wellcome Trust Res Programme"Van Baar, A.: University of Utrecht",Aim: The main aim of the current study was to evaluate the reliability, validity and acceptability of developmental monitoring using caregiver reports among mothers in a rural African setting. Methods: A structured interview for parents of children aged 24 months and less was developed through both participant consultation and a review of literature. The reliability and validity of the schedule was evaluated through a 10-month monitoring programme of 95 children, aged 2-10 months. The acceptability of the process was evaluated by studying retention rates and by organizing focus group discussions with participating mothers. Results: The structured interview 'Developmental Milestones Checklist' consisted of 66 items covering three broad domains of child functioning: motor, language and personal-social development. The interview yielded scores of developmental achievements that showed high internal consistency and excellent test-retest reliability. The results were sensitive to maturational changes and nutritional deficiencies. In addition, acceptable retention rates of approximately 80% were found. Participating mothers reported that they found the procedures both acceptable and beneficial. Conclusion: Developmental monitoring using caregiver report is a viable method to identify and monitor at-risk children in Sub-Saharan Africa.Africa,"Caregiver reports",CHILDREN,"developmental monitoring",CARE,CHILD-DEVELOPMENT,DEVELOPING-COUNTRIES,"NEUROLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT",PRESCHOOL-CHILDREN,SERVICESNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84922994537Evaluation of bio-molecular signatures and hydrocarbon potential of upper Cretaceous shale, NE NigeriaBoboye O.A., Nzegwu U.A.2014Journal of African Earth Sciences99PA210.1016/j.jafrearsci.2014.04.014Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, NigeriaBoboye, O.A., Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Nzegwu, U.A., Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, NigeriaThe Bornu Basin is a sector of the Chad Basin located in the northeastern part of Nigeria, occupying about one-tenth of total area in Chad Basin. Twenty-eight representative shale cutting samples retrieved from Tuma-1, Sa-1 and Albarka-1 exploratory wells were analyzed. Seventeen shale samples systematically selected from Gongila, Fika Shale and Chad Formations were subjected to Total Organic Content (TOC), Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Soluble Organic Matter, Liquid Chromatography, Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry analyses. This is to characterize and assess the potential capability of the shale units. The results showed that TOC of the Coniacian-Paleocene shale units exceed the threshold (0.5 wt%) needed for petroleum generation. This classifies it as potential source beds. Evidence from biomarkers indicates a preponderance of marine organic matter with subordinate terrigenous input. The quantity of gammacerane occurrence suggests normal saline environment. The presence of oleanane index indicates angiosperms input into Cretaceous-Tertiary source rock. C35/C34 homohopane ratio showed the anoxia development towards the center of the basin. C29ααα (20R)/C27ααα (20R) sterane ratio indicate the dominance of marine organic matter with subordinate terrigenous input. The 22S/(22S + 22R) ratio of C31 hopane have not reached equilibrium as evident by immaturity to early mature stages from diagnostic ratios of βα moretane/βα hopane, Ts/(Ts + Tm), 28,30-bisnorhopanes/17α-hopanes, diasteranes/ regular steranes, ααα steranes/αββ steranes and 20S/(20S + 20R) C29 regular steranes respectively. This is corroborated with the Rock-Eval indices showing immature to earlier mature kerogen within the Fika Formation. It consists preeminently of Type IV, with subordinate Type III. The prospect for hydrocarbon in this part of the basin is only fair to moderate with potential for gaseous rather than liquid hydrocarbon. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.Anoxia; Biomarkers; Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; Kerogen; Organic matter; Thermal maturationanoxia; biomarker; Cretaceous; gas chromatography; hydrocarbon exploration; hydrocarbon generation; hydrocarbon reservoir; kerogen; mass spectrometry; organic matter; shale; source rock; thermal maturity; Chad Basin; Nigeria; MagnoliophytaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-68149118879Impact of the International Rugby Board's experimental law variations on the incidence and nature of match injuries in southern hemisphere professional rugby unionFuller C.W., Raftery M., Readhead C., Targett S.G.R., Molloy M.G.2009South African Medical Journal994NoneCentre for Sports Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom; Australian Rugby Union, Sydney, NSW, Australia; South African Rugby Union, Newlands, Cape Town, South Africa; New Zealand Rugby Union, Wellington, New Zealand; International Rugby Board, Dublin, IrelandFuller, C.W., Centre for Sports Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom; Raftery, M., Australian Rugby Union, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Readhead, C., South African Rugby Union, Newlands, Cape Town, South Africa; Targett, S.G.R., New Zealand Rugby Union, Wellington, New Zealand; Molloy, M.G., International Rugby Board, Dublin, IrelandObjective. To examine the epidemiology of match injuries in southern hemisphere professional rugby union and assess the impact of the International Rugby Board (IRB) Experimental Law Variations. Setting. One-season whole population prospective cohort. Subjects. Twenty-seven teams (813 players) taking part in the 2008 Super 14 and Vodacom Cup competitions. Outcome measures. Incidence, severity, location, type and cause of injury. Results. The incidence in the Super 14 competition (96.3 injuries/1 000 player-match hours; 95% confidence interval (CI) 69.0 - 111.7) was significantly higher (p=0.003) than that in the Vodacom Cup (71.2; CI 60.0 - 84.5); injury severity was significantly lower (p<0.001) in the Super 14 (mean 13.4 days; median 5) than the Vodacom Cup (mean 21.2; median 12). There were no significant differences between the two competitions in type or location of injury: lower limb muscle/tendon (Super 14: 27.8%; Vodacom Cup: 25.7%) and joint (non-bone)/ligament (Super 14: 18.8%; Vodacom Cup: 24.3%) were the most common injuries. Injury causation was similar for the two competitions but there were significantly fewer ruck/maul (p=0.001) and more tackled (p=0.010) injuries in Super 14 compared with English Premiership rugby and fewer collision (p=0.002) and more tackling (p<0.001) injuries compared with Rugby World Cup. In the Vodacom Cup, there were significantly more tackling (p<0.001) injuries compared with Rugby World Cup. Conclusion. The incidence, nature and causes of injuries in southern hemisphere professional club rugby played under IRB Experimental Law Variations were similar to those for professional club rugby in the northern hemisphere and Rugby World Cup played under the previous Laws of Rugby.Noneadult; article; athlete; competition; controlled study; human; incidence; injury severity; joint injury; leg muscle; ligament injury; major clinical study; rugby; sport injury; sporting event; tendon injury; athletic performance; Australia; cohort analysis; football; injury; legal aspect; male; New Zealand; South Africa; standard; Adult; Athletic Injuries; Athletic Performance; Australia; Cohort Studies; Football; Humans; Incidence; Male; New Zealand; South Africa; Young AdultNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84861831370Evidence on the impact of minimum wage laws in an informal sector: Domestic workers in South AfricaDinkelman T., Ranchhod V.2012Journal of Development Economics99110.1016/j.jdeveco.2011.12.006Dartmouth College, United States; University of Cape Town, South AfricaDinkelman, T., Dartmouth College, United States; Ranchhod, V., University of Cape Town, South AfricaWhat happens when a previously uncovered labor market is regulated? We exploit the introduction of a minimum wage in South Africa and variation in the intensity of this law to identify increases in wages for domestic workers and no statistically significant effects on employment on the intensive or extensive margins. These large, partial responses to the law are somewhat surprising, given the lack of monitoring and enforcement in this informal sector. We interpret these changes as evidence that strong external sanctions are not necessary for new labor legislation to have a significant impact on informal sectors of developing countries, at least in the short-run. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.Africa; Domestic workers; Informal sector; Minimum wagedeveloping world; domestic work; informal sector; law enforcement; legislation; minimum wage; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84941748654Interaction effect of whole wheat feeding and mannanoligosaccharides supplementation on growth performance, haematological indices and caecal microbiota of cockerel chicksOso A.O., Erinle O.Y., William G.A., Ogunade A.C.2015Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition99510.1111/jpn.12314Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Livestock Production, Federal University of Agriculture, NigeriaOso, A.O., Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Livestock Production, Federal University of Agriculture, Nigeria; Erinle, O.Y., Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Livestock Production, Federal University of Agriculture, Nigeria; William, G.A., Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Livestock Production, Federal University of Agriculture, Nigeria; Ogunade, A.C., Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Livestock Production, Federal University of Agriculture, NigeriaThe interaction effect of whole wheat feeding and mannanoligosaccharides supplementation on growth performance, haematological indices and caecal microbiota of cockerel chicks were investigated using 250-day-old cockerel chicks previously reared for 7 days pre-experimental period. Birds were fed with commercial chick mash during the pre-experimental period. At the expiration of this period, 192 chicks were selected on weight equalization basis and assigned into 24 pens. Each treatment consisted of six pens, while each pen housed eight birds. Four wheat-soya bean-based experimental diets were formulated in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of diets having two wheat forms (ground and whole wheat grain) each supplemented or not with 1 g/kg MOS/kg feed. Whole wheat feeding (irrespective of MOS supplementation) showed reduced (p < 0.05) feed intake. Birds fed whole wheat diet supplemented with MOS recorded the highest (p < 0.01) final live weight, weight gain and the best (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio. Haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and red blood cell count of the chicks were not affected (p > 0.05) by dietary treatment. However, dietary supplementation with MOS resulted in increased (p < 0.05) WBC counts. The caecum content of chicks fed with MOS-supplemented whole wheat diets recorded the least (p < 0.01) salmonella counts. In conclusion, combination of whole wheat feeding and MOS supplementation showed improved growth performance, gut microbiota and indications of improved health status of cockerel chicks. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.Caecal microbiota; Cockerel chicks; Haematological indices; Mannanoligosaccharides; Whole wheat feedingNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84952299774Environmental impact of elemental concentration and distribution in waters, soils and plants along the Lokoja-Abuja pipeline routes of Bida Basin, northwestern NigeriaBoboye O.A., Abumere I.O.2014Journal of African Earth Sciences99None10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2014.04.008Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Blueback Reservoirs Ltd., 1 Berry Street, Aberdeen, United KingdomBoboye, O.A., Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Abumere, I.O., Blueback Reservoirs Ltd., 1 Berry Street, Aberdeen, United KingdomThis paper presents environmental study carried out to evaluate the impacts of elements' concentrations in water, soil, plants and the level of environmental damage. This is to establish the rate of pollution and degree of enrichment to enhance delineation of highly polluted areas along the pipeline routes. It was achieved by determining their spatial distribution, concentration and/or occurrences as well as the possible sources of enrichment. Forty-six (46) surface water samples were collected during the dry season while thirty (30) surface water samples were collected in the wet season respectively. The sampling was systematically carried out at diverse locations along the streams and major rivers to broadly cover the variation in the area. Fifty-one (51) soil samples were collected during dry and wet seasons to determine the texture, heavy metal concentration and physico-chemical characteristics. Thirty (30) and twenty-six (26) samples of stream and river sediments were also collected during the dry and wet seasons for physico-chemical characterization, texture and heavy metal concentrations. Ten plant tissues were collected and analysed to ascertain the rate of absorption. The results of the surface water during the dry and wet seasons showed slight acidity while the Electrical Conductivity revealed that the major ions are higher in the dry season. The major anions and cations accounted for about 71% and 29% of the Total Dissolved Solids respectively. The higher concentrations of Fe in the stream sediments and soil than that in the water and plant tissues suggest the weathering of oolitic, pisolitic and argillaceous ironstone within the area. Concentration of NH4 emanate from anthropogenic sources. Textural classification revealed sand dominated soil which confirmed that the soil and stream sediment are autochthonous. The concentration of heavy metals and cations for both seasons in the plant tissues showed no discrepancy. The hydro-chemical facies characterization of the surface water identified two water groups of Ca-HCO3 and Na-K-Cl. The water chemistry evolution in this area is controlled dominantly by weathering and precipitation in the wet season. There is strong soil-plant relationship which is evident in their enrichment. Heavy metal distribution is generally within the acceptable limit except for few locations where Pb, Zn and Fe are of high concentration. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.Autochthonous; Enrichments; Facies; Heavy metals; Seasons; Textureconcentration (composition); enrichment; environmental impact; heavy metal; pipeline; surface water; water pollution; water quality; wet season; Bida BasinNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84905190672Burial and thermal history modeling and petroleum potential evaluation of the northwestern Niger Delta, Nigeria [Modelação da evolução térmica e do soterramento e avaliação do potencial petrolífero do noroeste do Delta do Níger, Nigéria]Ojo O.J., Akpabio I., Frielingsdorf J.2012Comunicacoes Geologicas992NoneDepartment of Geology and Mineral Sciences, University of Ilorin, Nigeria; Department of Physics, University of Uyo, Nigeria; Shell Petroleum Development Company, PortHarcourt, NigeriaOjo, O.J., Department of Geology and Mineral Sciences, University of Ilorin, Nigeria; Akpabio, I., Department of Physics, University of Uyo, Nigeria; Frielingsdorf, J., Shell Petroleum Development Company, PortHarcourt, NigeriaOne of the major hydrocarbon exploration risks or constraints in the Niger Delta is the complex nature of the petroleum systems, as there is lack of geochemical data from deeper and older potential strata. In this study, 1D models of burial and thermal histories were constructed from stratigraphic and well-log data in order to assess the petroleum potential of part of the northwestern Niger Delta basin using Cauldron and PetroMod software. The thermal maturation of the source rock intervals was reconstructed based on crustal thinning during rift, break up, and drift during the Lower and Upper Cretaceous. Bottom-hole temperature data were used to estimate present-day subsurface temperature. Results show that the Eocene and Paleocene source rocks attained sufficient thermal maturities to contribute oil and gas into the Oligocene and Miocene clastic reservoirs. In Operation Mining License (OML) 1 and 40, the Paleocene, which is overmature (modeled Ro% ranges from 0.9 to 3 Ro %) at present, entered the oil window and expelled most of its oil during late Eocene. In the present day, it could be expelling minor volumes of dry gas. The Eocene source rock intervals appear to be the most active at present, having entered the oil window during Oligocene and attained present-day maturities in the range of 0.62 to 0.90 Ro% in most of the wells. However, in OML 38, with relatively higher sedimentation rates, the Paleocene source rocks are presently at the peak of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion whereas the Eocene source rocks in most of the wells are barely mature. The Oligocene intervals in the wells studied are not mature according to modeled vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.4 to 0.52R% at present day. At present time, average cumulative oil generated and expelled from Paleocene source rocks in OML 1 and 40 are 98,000 kg/m2 and 77,500 kg/m2, respectively. The Eocene source rocks stand at 73,000 kg/m2 and 35,000 kg/m2, respectively. In OML 38, average cumulative oil generated from Paleocene and Eocene source rocks are 95,000 and 51,000 kg/m2, respectively. Only 76% and 1.9% of the generated hydrocarbon have been expelled, respectively. It is only from the Paleocene interval of Abiala 1 (OML 40) that a substantial amount of gas (65,000 kg/m2) has been generated. © 2012 LNEG - Laboratório Nacional de Geologia e Energia IP.Abiala; Heat flow; Hydrocarbon; Maturation; Paleocene; Source rockburial (geology); computer simulation; crustal thinning; gas field; heat flow; hydrocarbon exploration; hydrocarbon reservoir; Paleocene-Eocene boundary; potential flow; sedimentation rate; software; source rock; thermal maturity; Niger Delta; NigeriaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84941740138Performance of growing cattle on poor-quality rangelands supplemented with farm-formulated protein supplements in ZimbabweGusha J., Katsande S., Zvinorova P.I., Halimani T.E., Chiuta T.2015Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition99510.1111/jpn.12303Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Department of Animal Science, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Makoholi Research Institute, Masvingo, ZimbabweGusha, J., Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Katsande, S., Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Zvinorova, P.I., Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Halimani, T.E., Department of Animal Science, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Chiuta, T., Makoholi Research Institute, Masvingo, ZimbabweFarmers use different non-conventional protein supplements and different feeding strategies to aid their animals survive the dry season in Zimbabwe. The strategies can be giving supplements once a week or once every other day up to very little supplement daily. Supplements are either legume crop residues or forage legumes. However, the efficacy of the use of non-conventional protein supplements in promoting growth and at the same time lowering the age at first calving is little understood. The study tested whether supplementing with farm-formulated non-conventional feeds could reduce live weight loss during the dry season and promote live weight gain as well as early development of sexual maturity in beef cattle. In a completely randomized design, thirty dams with calves on hooves were allocated to five different treatments which were repeated during the dry season for 3 years. The 3-year study results show that weight loss can be controlled, resulting in positive growth in both the pre-weaning and post-weaning phases of growing cattle. Yearlings fed solely on natural pasture lost significant weight during the dry season as compared to supplemented groups. The period to puberty and first calving was achieved at 18 and 27 months, respectively. Using non-conventional protein supplements could thus improve livestock productivity in resource-poor farming communities. It was concluded that smallholder farmers can supplement cattle with a kilogram per day of low-cost farm-based non-conventional legume meal to improve livestock productivity in semi-arid regions of Zimbabwe. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.Forage legumes; Low production; Non-conventional feeds; Resource-poor farmersNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-28444439950In vitro pharmacodynamic evaluation of antiviral medicinal plants using a vector-based assay techniqueEsimone C.O., Grunwald T., Wildner O., Nchinda G., Tippler B., Proksch P., Überla K.2005Journal of Applied Microbiology99610.1111/j.1365-2672.2005.02732.xDepartment of Molecular and Medical Virology, Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany; Division of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Heinrich-Heine University,Esimone, C.O., Department of Molecular and Medical Virology, Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany, Division of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; Grunwald, T., Department of Molecular and Medical Virology, Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany; Wildner, O., Department of Molecular and Medical Virology, Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany; Nchinda, G., Department of Molecular and Medical Virology, Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany; Tippler, B., Department of Molecular and Medical Virology, Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany; Proksch, P., Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Heinrich-Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany; Überla, K., Department of Molecular and Medical Virology, Ruhr-University, Bochum, GermanyAims: Medicinal plants are increasingly being projected as suitable alternative sources of antiviral agents. The development of a suitable in vitro pharmacodynamic screening technique could contribute to rapid identification of potential bioactive plants and also to the standardization and/or pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic profiling of the bioactive components. Methods and Results: Recombinant viral vectors (lentiviral, retroviral and adenoviral) transferring the firefly luciferase gene were constructed and the inhibition of viral vector infectivity by various concentrations of plant extracts was evaluated in HeLa or Hep2 cells by measuring the changes in luciferase activity. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated in parallel on HeLa or Hep2 cells stably expressing luciferase. Amongst the 15 extracts screened, only the methanol (ME) and the ethyl acetate (ET) fractions of the lichen, Ramalina farinacea specifically reduced lentiviral and adenoviral infectivity in a dose-dependent manner. Further, Chromatographic fractionation of ET into four fractions (ET1-ET4) revealed only ET4 to be selectively antiviral with an IC50 in the 20 μg ml-1 range. Preliminary mechanistic studies based on the addition of the extracts at different time points in the viral infection cycle (kinetic studies) revealed that the inhibitory activity was highest if extract and vectors were preincubated prior to infection, suggesting that early steps in the lentiviral or adenoviral replication cycle could be the major target of ET4. Inhibition of wild-type HIV-1 was also observed at a 10-fold lower concentration of the extract. Conclusions: The vector-based assay is a suitable in vitro pharmacodynamic evaluation technique for antiviral medicinal plants. The technique has successfully demonstrated the presence of antiviral principles in R. farinacea. Significance and Impact of Study: Potential anti-HIV medicinal plants could rapidly be evaluated with the reported vector-based technique. The lichen, R. farinacea could represent a lead source of antiviral substances and is thus worthy of further studies. © 2005 The Society for Applied Microbiology.Antiviral; Lichen; Medicinal plants; Pharmacodynamic; Ramalina farinacea; Vector-based assayacetic acid ethyl ester; adenovirus vector; antivirus agent; lentivirus vector; luciferase; methanol; plant extract; ramalina farinacea extract; retrovirus vector; unclassified drug; virus vector; antimicrobial activity; medicinal plant; virus; alternative medicine; article; chromatography; concentration response; controlled study; drug cytotoxicity; drug screening; drug selectivity; enzyme activity; fractionation; gene expression; gene transfer; HeLa cell; HEp 2 cell; human; human cell; Human immunodeficiency virus 1; IC 50; in vitro study; medicinal plant; nonhuman; ramalina farinacea; standardization; technique; viral gene delivery system; virus infectivity; virus recombinant; virus replication; wild type; Adenoviridae Infections; Adenoviruses, Human; Antiviral Agents; Biological Assay; Cell Line, Tumor; Chemiluminescent Measurements; Genetic Engineering; Genetic Vectors; Hela Cells; HIV; HIV Infections; Humans; Luciferases; Medicine, African Traditional; Nigeria; Plant Extracts; Plants, Medicinal; Retroviridae; Adenoviridae; Human immunodeficiency virus 1; Lentivirus; Ramalina farinaceaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-17644375483Evaluation of selected South African medicinal plants for inhibitory properties against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase and integraseBessong P.O., Obi C.L., Andréola M.-L., Rojas L.B., Pouységu L., Igumbor E., Meyer J.J.M., Quideau S., Litvak S.2005Journal of Ethnopharmacology99110.1016/j.jep.2005.01.056Department of Microbiology, Univ. of Venda for Sci. and Technol., PMB X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa; Center for Global Health, Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 801379, Charlottesville, VA 22908-1379, United States; REGER, UMR-5097 CNRS, Univ. Victor Segalen, Bordeaux 2, 146 Rue Léo-Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France; Lab. de Chim. des Substances Veg., Ctr. de Rech. en Chim. Moléc., Université de Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence, France; Inst. Europ. de Chimie et Biologie, 2 Rue Robert Escarpit, 33607 Pessac, France; Department of Botany, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Instituto de Investigaciones, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Los Andes, VenezuelaBessong, P.O., Department of Microbiology, Univ. of Venda for Sci. and Technol., PMB X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa, Center for Global Health, Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 801379, Charlottesville, VA 22908-1379, United States; Obi, C.L., Department of Microbiology, Univ. of Venda for Sci. and Technol., PMB X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa; Andréola, M.-L., REGER, UMR-5097 CNRS, Univ. Victor Segalen, Bordeaux 2, 146 Rue Léo-Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France; Rojas, L.B., Lab. de Chim. des Substances Veg., Ctr. de Rech. en Chim. Moléc., Université de Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence, France, Inst. Europ. de Chimie et Biologie, 2 Rue Robert Escarpit, 33607 Pessac, France, Instituto de Investigaciones, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela; Pouységu, L., Lab. de Chim. des Substances Veg., Ctr. de Rech. en Chim. Moléc., Université de Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence, France, Inst. Europ. de Chimie et Biologie, 2 Rue Robert Escarpit, 33607 Pessac, France; Igumbor, E., Department of Microbiology, Univ. of Venda for Sci. and Technol., PMB X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa; Meyer, J.J.M., Department of Botany, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Quideau, S., Lab. de Chim. des Substances Veg., Ctr. de Rech. en Chim. Moléc., Université de Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence, France, Inst. Europ. de Chimie et Biologie, 2 Rue Robert Escarpit, 33607 Pessac, France; Litvak, S., REGER, UMR-5097 CNRS, Univ. Victor Segalen, Bordeaux 2, 146 Rue Léo-Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, FranceSeventeen aqueous and methanol extracts from nine South African medicinal plants, ethnobotanically selected, were screened for inhibitory properties against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Isolated compounds were additionally evaluated on HIV-1 integrase (IN). The strongest inhibition against the RNA-dependent-DNA polymerase (RDDP) activity of RT was observed with the methanol extract of the stem-bark of Peltophorum africanum Sond. (Fabaceae) (IC50 3.5 μg/ml), while the methanol extract of the roots of Combretum molle R.Br. ex G. Don (Combretaceae) was the most inhibitory on the ribonuclease H (RNase H) activity (IC50 9.7 μg/ml). The known compounds bergenin and catechin, and a red coloured gallotannin composed of meta-depside chains of gallic and protocatechuic acids esterified to a 1-O-isobutyroly-β-d-glucopyranose core, were isolated from the methanol extract of the roots and stem-bark of Peltophorum africanum. The gallotannin inhibited the RDDP and RNase H functions of RT with IC50 values of 6.0 and 5.0 μM, respectively, and abolished the 3′-end processing activity of IN at 100 μM. Catechin showed no effect on RT but had a moderate activity on HIV-1 IN. Bergenin was inactive on both enzymes. The aqueous and methanol extracts were non-toxic in a HeLaP4 cell line at a concentration of 400 μg/ml. © 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Gallotannins; HIV-1; Integrase; Plant phenols; Reverse transcriptase; South African medicinal plantsbergenin; bridelia micranthra extract; catechin; combretum molle extract; elaodendron transvaalensis extract; Euphorbia extract; gallic acid; integrase; methanol; mucuna coriacea extract; peltophorum africanum extract; plant extract; protocatechuic acid; ribonuclease H; Ricinus communis extract; RNA directed DNA polymerase; sutherlandia frutescens extract; tannin; unclassified drug; vernonia stipulacea extract; virus enzyme; ziziphus mucronata extract; antiviral activity; article; Asteraceae; Celastraceae; Combretaceae; Combretum; controlled study; drug isolation; drug screening; enzyme activity; esterification; Euphorbia; human; human cell; Human immunodeficiency virus 1; IC 50; jujube; legume; medicinal plant; Rhamnaceae; Ricinus communis; South Africa; velvet bean; Vernonia; Anti-HIV Agents; Cell Survival; Combretum; DNA, Viral; Ethanol; HIV Integrase; HIV Integrase Inhibitors; HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase; Humans; Medicine, African Traditional; Plant Extracts; Plants, Medicinal; Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; Solvents; South Africa; Tumor Cells, Cultured; Water; Combretaceae; Combretum; Combretum molle; Fabaceae; Human immunodeficiency virus; Human immunodeficiency virus 1; Peltophorum; Peltophorum africanumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84924198271The effect of different high-fat diets on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, growth performance and serum lipid concentrations in male, Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)Donaldson J., Pillay K., Madziva M.T., Erlwanger K.H.2015Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition99210.1111/jpn.12250Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaDonaldson, J., Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Pillay, K., Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Madziva, M.T., Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Erlwanger, K.H., Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaSummary: Poultry diets are formulated with additional animal fat or vegetable oils to improve growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. High-fat diet feeding in rats and fish has been shown to result in alterations in the phospholipid composition and cholesterol content of the erythrocyte membrane, in turn affecting erythrocyte osmotic fragility. In contrast, the few studies performed using high-fat diet feeding in avian species show no changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility. This study made use of the Japanese quail as no data exists on investigation of this species with respect to high-fat diet feeding and erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Fifty-seven male quail were randomly divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet (commercial poultry feed) or one of five high-fat diets (commercial poultry feed with 22% of either coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soya bean oil or sunflower oil on a weight/weight basis) for 12 weeks. All birds on the high-fat diets were significantly heavier (p < 0.05) after the 12-week feeding period, than when commencing the dietary intervention. Serum triglyceride concentrations of birds in all high-fat diet groups were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than birds in the standard diet group, whereas only birds in the palm oil group had significantly lower (p < 0.05) serum cholesterol concentrations compared to the standard diet group. Fragiligrams of erythrocytes from birds in the various dietary groups were similar. High-fat diet feeding with different types of additional fat did not affect the osmotic fragility of the quail erythrocytes. Feeding quail high-energy diets of varying degrees of fatty acid saturation was well tolerated and did not seem to affect the overall health status of the birds. Resistance of avian erythrocytes to modification by excess dietary fat may be a general characteristic of avian erythrocytes. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.High-fat diets; Japanese quail; Osmotic fragilityfat intake; lipid; administration and dosage; animal; blood; body weight; controlled study; Coturnix; drug effects; erythrocyte; fat intake; growth, development and aging; male; osmotic fragility; pharmacology; physiology; randomized controlled trial; Animals; Body Weight; Coturnix; Dietary Fats; Erythrocytes; Lipids; Male; Osmotic FragilityNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70450174975Field evaluation of a malaria rapid diagnostic test (ICT Pf)Moonasar D., Goga A.E., Kruger P.S., La Cock C., Maharaj R., Frean J., Chandramohan D.2009South African Medical Journal9911NoneLondon School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United Kingdom; Medical Research Council of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Health and Social Welfare, Limpopo Provincial Government, Polokwane, South Africa; National Institute of Communicable Diseases Control, Johannesburg, South AfricaMoonasar, D., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United Kingdom; Goga, A.E., Medical Research Council of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa; Kruger, P.S., Department of Health and Social Welfare, Limpopo Provincial Government, Polokwane, South Africa; La Cock, C., Department of Health and Social Welfare, Limpopo Provincial Government, Polokwane, South Africa; Maharaj, R., Medical Research Council of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa; Frean, J., National Institute of Communicable Diseases Control, Johannesburg, South Africa; Chandramohan, D., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United KingdomBackground. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (MRDTs) are quick and easy to perform and useful for diagnosing malaria in primary health care settings. In South Africa most malaria infections are due to Plasmodium falciparum, and HRPII-based MRDTs have been used since 2001. Previous studies in Africa showed variability in sensitivity and specificity of HRPII-based MRDTs; hence, we conducted a field evaluation in Limpopo province to determine the accuracy of the MRDT currently used in public sector clinics and hospitals. Methods. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an ICT Pf MRDT. We tested 405 patients with fever with ICT Pf MRDT and compared the results with blood film microscopy (the gold standard). Results. The overall sensitivity of the ICT Pf MRDT was 99.48% (95% confidence interval (CI) 96.17-100%), while specificity was 96.26% (95% CI 94.7-100%). The positive predictive value of the test was 98.48 (99% CI 98.41-100%), and the negative predictive value was 99.52% (95% CI 96.47-100%). Conclusions. The ICT Pf MRDT is an appropriate test to use in the field in South Africa where laboratory facilities are not available. It has a high degree of sensitivity and acceptable level of specificity in accordance with the World Health Organization criteria. However, sensitivity of MRDT at low levels of parasitaemia (<100 parasites/μl of blood) in field conditions must still be established.Noneadolescent; adult; aged; article; child; clinical assessment tool; diagnostic accuracy; diagnostic test; diagnostic value; female; field study; human; major clinical study; malaria; male; microscopy; sensitivity and specificity; South Africa; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Antigens, Protozoan; Child; Child, Preschool; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Incidence; Infant; Malaria, Falciparum; Male; Middle Aged; Protozoan Proteins; Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; Sensitivity and Specificity; Sex Factors; South Africa; Young AdultNone
WoSWOS:000257863300008Southern African AIDS Trust - An evaluation of the process and outcomes of community-based partner graduationIsmail, Hamida,Simon, Lisa D.2008CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH-REVUE CANADIENNE DE SANTE PUBLIQUE99NoneNoneMcMaster University, University of Toronto, So African AIDS TrustNoneObjectives: To assess the partner graduation process used by SAT, the barriers partners face to graduation, and the outcomes following graduation, as well as to recommend directions for formalizing the graduation process into a more efficient and effective strategy. Methods: The quantitative component of this evaluation described existing data on graduated partners. The qualitative component collected data through semi-structured interviews with SAT regional and national staff, and both current long-term and graduated partners, with an emphasis on SAT's operations in Zambia and Zimbabwe. A participatory staff workshop allowed for the review of findings and recommendations. Results: SAT has graduated 31 implementing partners in its 5 core programming countries, after an average partnership duration of 6.5 years each. The graduation process has generally operated in accordance with SAT's guidelines regarding criteria and timeline, but has also involved considerable judgement, as SAT does not form explicit graduation strategies with partners. Key barriers to graduation included partners' challenges with resource mobilization and high staff turnover, as well as the reduced clarity around the graduation process itself for both SAT staff and partners. The outcomes of the graduated partners interviewed revealed strong sustainability of organizational systems, but mixed sustainability of financial resources and resource-dependent features. SAT staff provided many recommendations for addressing partners' challenges, and for improving and formalizing the graduation process. Discussion: The efficiency and sustainability of SAT's work could be improved with the development of an explicit and individualized graduation strategy with each partner. An enhanced and earlier focus on fundraising, sustainability, and human resources would also remove barriers to graduation and help improve outcomes.Africa,"EVALUATION STUDIES",HIV,ORGANIZATIONS,SOUTHERN,"World health"NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33751068997A combined school- and community-based campaign targeting all school-age children of Burkina Faso against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis: Performance, financial costs and implications for sustainabilityGabrielli A.-F., Touré S., Sellin B., Sellin E., Ky C., Ouedraogo H., Yaogho M., Wilson M.D., Thompson H., Sanou S., Fenwick A.2006Acta Tropica994240310.1016/j.actatropica.2006.08.008Schistosomiasis Control Initiative, Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, United Kingdom; Programme National de Lutte contre la Schistosomiase et les Vers Intestinaux, Ministère de la Santé, 06 BP9103, Ouagadougou 06, Burkina Faso; Réseau International Schistosomoses, Environnement, Aménagements et Lutte, Saint-Mathurin, 56270 Ploemeur, France; Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG581, Legon, Accra, Ghana; Direction de la Lutte contre la Maladie, Ministère de la Santé, 03 BP7035, Ouagadougou 03, Burkina FasoGabrielli, A.-F., Schistosomiasis Control Initiative, Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, United Kingdom; Touré, S., Programme National de Lutte contre la Schistosomiase et les Vers Intestinaux, Ministère de la Santé, 06 BP9103, Ouagadougou 06, Burkina Faso; Sellin, B., Réseau International Schistosomoses, Environnement, Aménagements et Lutte, Saint-Mathurin, 56270 Ploemeur, France; Sellin, E., Réseau International Schistosomoses, Environnement, Aménagements et Lutte, Saint-Mathurin, 56270 Ploemeur, France; Ky, C., Programme National de Lutte contre la Schistosomiase et les Vers Intestinaux, Ministère de la Santé, 06 BP9103, Ouagadougou 06, Burkina Faso; Ouedraogo, H., Programme National de Lutte contre la Schistosomiase et les Vers Intestinaux, Ministère de la Santé, 06 BP9103, Ouagadougou 06, Burkina Faso; Yaogho, M., Programme National de Lutte contre la Schistosomiase et les Vers Intestinaux, Ministère de la Santé, 06 BP9103, Ouagadougou 06, Burkina Faso; Wilson, M.D., Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG581, Legon, Accra, Ghana; Thompson, H., Schistosomiasis Control Initiative, Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, United Kingdom; Sanou, S., Direction de la Lutte contre la Maladie, Ministère de la Santé, 03 BP7035, Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso; Fenwick, A., Schistosomiasis Control Initiative, Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, United KingdomA combined school- and community-based campaign targeting the entire school-age population of Burkina Faso with drugs against schistosomiasis (praziquantel) and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (albendazole) was implemented in 2004-2005. In total, 3,322,564 children from 5 to 15 years of age were treated, equivalent to a 90.8% coverage of the total school-age population of the country. The total costs of the campaign were estimated to be US$ 1,067,284, of which 69.4% was spent on the drugs. Delivery costs per child treated were US$ 0.098, in the same range as school-based only interventions implemented in other countries; total costs per child treated (including drugs) were US$ 0.32. We conclude that a combined school- and community-based strategy is effective in attaining a high coverage among school-age children in countries where school enrolment is low and where primary schools cannot serve as the exclusive drug distribution points. The challenge for Burkina Faso will now be to ensure the sustainability of these disease control activities. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Burkina Faso; Control; Financial costs; Performance; Schistosomiasis; Soil-transmitted helminthiasis; Sustainabilityalbendazole; praziquantel; child health; community care; cost; disease transmission; disease treatment; drug; performance assessment; sustainability; adolescent; article; Burkina Faso; child; community care; controlled study; disease control; drug cost; drug distribution; female; health care cost; health care delivery; helminthiasis; human; intervention study; major clinical study; male; primary school; schistosomiasis; school health service; Adolescent; Albendazole; Animals; Anthelmintics; Burkina Faso; Child; Child, Preschool; Drug Costs; Female; Health Care Costs; Humans; Male; Praziquantel; Schistosoma haematobium; Schistosoma mansoni; Schistosomiasis haematobia; Schistosomiasis mansoni; Schools; Africa; Burkina Faso; Sub-Saharan Africa; West AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84922993569Slope stability susceptibility evaluation parameter (SSEP) rating scheme - An approach for landslide hazard zonationRaghuvanshi T.K., Ibrahim J., Ayalew D.2014Journal of African Earth Sciences99None10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2014.05.004School of Earthsciences, College of Natural Science, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 1176, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaRaghuvanshi, T.K., School of Earthsciences, College of Natural Science, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Ibrahim, J., School of Earthsciences, College of Natural Science, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Ayalew, D., School of Earthsciences, College of Natural Science, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 1176, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaIn this paper a new slope susceptibility evaluation parameter (SSEP) rating scheme is presented which is developed as an expert evaluation approach for landslide hazard zonation. The SSEP rating scheme is developed by considering intrinsic and external triggering parameters that are responsible for slope instability. The intrinsic parameters which are considered are; slope geometry, slope material (rock or soil type), structural discontinuities, landuse and landcover and groundwater. Besides, external triggering parameters such as, seismicity, rainfall and manmade activities are also considered. For SSEP empirical technique numerical ratings are assigned to each of the intrinsic and triggering parameters on the basis of logical judgments acquired from experience of studies of intrinsic and external triggering factors and their relative impact in inducing instability to the slope. Further, the distribution of maximum SSEP ratings is based on their relative order of importance in contributing instability to the slope. Finally, summation of all ratings for intrinsic and triggering parameter based on actual observation will provide the expected degree of landslide in a given land unit. This information may be utilized to develop a landslide hazard zonation map. The SSEP technique was applied in the area around Wurgessa Kebelle of North Wollo Zonal Administration, Amhara National Regional State in northern Ethiopia, some 490 km from Addis Ababa. The results obtained indicates that 8.33% of the area fall under Moderately hazard and 83.33% fall within High hazard whereas 8.34% of the area fall under Very high hazard. Further, in order to validate the LHZ map prepared during the study, active landslide activities and potential instability areas, delineated through inventory mapping was overlain on it. All active landslide activities and potential instability areas fall within very high and high hazard zone. Thus, the satisfactory agreement confirms the rationality of considered governing parameters, the adopted SSEP technique, tools and procedures in developing the landslide hazard map of the study area. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.Landslide hazard evaluation; Landslide hazard zonation; Landslide triggering; Slope stability; Susceptibilitygovernance approach; hazard management; inventory; landslide; mapping; parameterization; slope stability; trigger mechanism; zonation; Amhara; EthiopiaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-67651219109Impact of common mental disorders during childhood and adolescence on secondary school completionMyer L., Stein D.J., Jackson P.B., Herman A.A., Seedat S., Williams D.R.2009South African Medical Journal995NoneSchool of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Sociology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States; National School of Public Health, University of Limpopo, Medunsa Campus, Pretoria, South Africa; MRC Stress and Anxiety Disorders Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, W Cape, South Africa; Department of Society Human Development and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United StatesMyer, L., School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Stein, D.J., Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Jackson, P.B., Department of Sociology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States; Herman, A.A., National School of Public Health, University of Limpopo, Medunsa Campus, Pretoria, South Africa; Seedat, S., MRC Stress and Anxiety Disorders Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, W Cape, South Africa; Williams, D.R., Department of Society Human Development and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United StatesThere are few data from South Africa and other low- and middle-income countries on how mental disorders in childhood and adolescence may influence different aspects of socio-economic position, including educational attainment. We examined the association between early-onset disorders and subsequent educational achievement in a nationally representative sample of 4 351 South African adults. After adjusting for participant demographic characteristics and traumatic life events, post-traumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder and substance-related disorders were each associated with increased odds of failing to complete secondary education (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals 2.3, 1.0-5.1; 1.7, 1.2-2.5, and 1.7, 1.2-2.5, respectively). These data point to the role that early-life mental disorders may play in educational achievement and subsequent socio-economic position over the life course.Noneacademic achievement; adolescent; alcohol abuse; anxiety disorder; article; child; drug dependence; female; high school; human; major depression; male; mental disease; onset age; posttraumatic stress disorder; South Africa; substance abuse; adult; educational status; health survey; mental disease; psychological aspect; risk; risk factor; South Africa; Adolescent; Adult; Age of Onset; Child; Educational Status; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Male; Mental Disorders; Odds Ratio; Risk Factors; South AfricaNone
WoSWOS:000270674600019Monitoring the South African National Antiretroviral Treatment Programme, 2003-2007: The IeDEA Southern Africa collaborationAIDS So Africa leDEA-SA Collaborat,Boulle, Andrew,Cornell, Morna,Davies, Mary-Ann,Eley, Brian,Fairall, Lara,Giddy, Janet,MacPhail, Patrick,Maxwell, Nicola,Mohapi, Lerato,Moultrie, Harry,Prozesky, Hans,Rabie, Helena,Technau, Karl,van Cutsem, Gilles,Wood, R2009SAMJ SOUTH AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL999NoneStellenbosch University, University of Cape Town, University of Witwatersrand, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hosp, McCord Hosp, Med Sans Frontieres, Themba Lethu Clin"Boulle, Andrew: University of Cape Town","Davies, Mary-Ann: University of Cape Town","Fairall, Lara: University of Cape Town","Maxwell, Nicola: University of Cape Town","Mohapi, Lerato: University of Witwatersrand","Prozesky, Hans: Stellenbosch University","Rabie, Helena: Stellenbosch University","Wood, Robin: University of Cape Town",Objectives. To introduce the combined South African cohorts of the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) collaboration as reflecting the South African national antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme; to characterise patients accessing these services; and to describe changes in services and patients from 2003 to 2007. Design and setting. Multi-cohort study of 11 ART programmes in Gauteng, Western Cape, Free State and KwaZulu-Natal. Subjects. Adults and children (&lt; 16 years old) who initiated ART with &gt;= 3 antiretroviral drugs before 2008. Results. Most sites were offering free treatment to adults and children in the public sector, ranging from 264 to 17 835 patients per site. Among 45 383 adults and 6 198 children combined, median age (interquartile range) was 35.0 years (29.8 - 41.4) and 42.5 months (14.7 - 82.5), respectively. Of adults, 68% were female. The median CD4 cell count was 102 cells/mu l (44 - 164) and was lower among mates than females (86,34 - 150 v. 110, 50 - 1,69, p &lt; 0.001). Median CD4% among children was 12% (7 - 17.7). Between 2003 and 2007, enrolment increased 11-fold in adults and 3-fold in children. Median CD4 count at enrolment increased for all adults (67 - 111 cells/mu l, p &lt; 0.001) and for those in stage IV (39 - 89 cells/mu l, p &lt; 0.001). Among children &lt; 5 years, baseline CD4% increased over time (11.5 - 16.0%, p &lt; 0.001). Conclusions. IeDEA-SA provides a unique opportunity to report on the national ART programme. The study describes dramatically increased enrolment over time. Late diagnosis and ART initiation, especially of men and children, need attention. Investment in sentinel sites will ensure good individual-level data while freeing most sites to continue with simplified reporting.,ADULTS,EFAVIRENZ,MORTALITY,OUTCOMES,THERAPYNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33749074178Evaluation of insecticides for protecting southwestern ponderosa pines from attack by engraver beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)DeGomez T.E., Hayes C.J., Anhold J.A., McMillin J.D., Clancy K.M., Bosu P.P.2006Journal of Economic Entomology992NoneUniversity of Arizona, School of Natural Resources, NAU Box 15018, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, United States; USDA-Forest Service, Southwestern Region, Forestry and Forest Health, Arizona Zone, 2500 S. Pine Knoll Dr., Flagstaff, AZ 86001-6381, United States; USDA-Forest Service Research and Development, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 2500 S. Pine Knoll Drive, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-6381, United States; Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, University, P.O. Box 63, Kumasi, GhanaDeGomez, T.E., University of Arizona, School of Natural Resources, NAU Box 15018, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, United States; Hayes, C.J., University of Arizona, School of Natural Resources, NAU Box 15018, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, United States; Anhold, J.A., USDA-Forest Service, Southwestern Region, Forestry and Forest Health, Arizona Zone, 2500 S. Pine Knoll Dr., Flagstaff, AZ 86001-6381, United States; McMillin, J.D., USDA-Forest Service, Southwestern Region, Forestry and Forest Health, Arizona Zone, 2500 S. Pine Knoll Dr., Flagstaff, AZ 86001-6381, United States; Clancy, K.M., USDA-Forest Service Research and Development, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 2500 S. Pine Knoll Drive, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-6381, United States; Bosu, P.P., University of Arizona, School of Natural Resources, NAU Box 15018, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, United States, Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, University, P.O. Box 63, Kumasi, GhanaInsecticides that might protect pine trees from attack by engraver beetles (Ips spp.) have not been rigorously tested in the southwestern United States. We conducted two field experiments to evaluate the efficacy of several currently and potentially labeled preventative insecticides for protecting high-value ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl ex. Laws., from attack by engraver beetles. Preventative sprays (0.19% permethrin [Permethrin Plus C]; 0.03, 0.06, and 0.12% bifenthrin [Onyx]; and 1.0 and 2.0% carbaryl [Sevin SL] formulations) and systemic implants (0.875 g per capsule acephate [Acecap] and 0.650 g per capsule dinotefuran) were assessed on bolts (sections of logs) as a surrogate for live trees for a period of 13 mo posttreatment. The pine engraver, Ips pini (Say), was the most common bark beetle found attacking control and treated bolts, but sixspined ips, Ips calligraphus (Germar), and Ips lecontei Swain also were present. After ≈13 mo posttreatment in one experiment, the spray treatments with 2.0% carbaryl, 0.19% permethrin, and 0.06 or 0.12% bifenthrin prevented Ips attack on the bolts at a protection level of ≥70%. The acephate and dinotefuran systemic insecticides, and the 0.03% bifenthrin spray, provided inadequate (≤36%) protection in this experiment. For the other experiment, sprayed applications of 1.0% carbaryl, 0.19% permethrin, and 0.06% bifenthrin prevented beetle attack at protection levels of ≥90, ≥80, and ≥70%, respectively, when bolts were exposed to Ips beetle attack for ≈9-15 wk posttreatment. The sprays with 0.19% permethrin and 0.06% bifenthrin also provided ≥90% protection when bolts were exposed for ≈15-54 wk posttreatment. We concluded that under the conditions tested, 1.0 and 2.0% carbaryl, 0.19% permethrin, and 0.06 and 0.12% binfenthrin were acceptable preventative treatments for protecting ponderosa pine from successful engraver beetle attack for one entire flight season in the U.S. Southwest.Acephate; Bifenthrin; Carbaryl; Dinotefuran; Permethrininsecticide; animal; article; beetle; drug effect; parasitology; ponderosa pine; time; Animals; Beetles; Insecticides; Pinus ponderosa; Time Factors; Coleoptera; Curculionidae; Ips; Ips calligraphus; Ips lecontei; Ips pini; Onyx; Pinus ponderosa; ScolytinaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-67349094974Socioeconomic performance of West African fleets that target Atlantic billfishBrinson A.A., Die D.J., Bannerman P.O., Diatta Y.2009Fisheries Research99110.1016/j.fishres.2009.04.010University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Cooperative Unit for Fisheries Education and Research, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149, United States; Fisheries Department, Ghana Ministry of Food and Agriculture, PO Box BT 62, Tema, Ghana; Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire Ch. A. Diop, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Bp 206, Dakar, SenegalBrinson, A.A., University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Cooperative Unit for Fisheries Education and Research, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149, United States; Die, D.J., University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Cooperative Unit for Fisheries Education and Research, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149, United States; Bannerman, P.O., Fisheries Department, Ghana Ministry of Food and Agriculture, PO Box BT 62, Tema, Ghana; Diatta, Y., Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire Ch. A. Diop, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Bp 206, Dakar, SenegalManaging marine resources is a contentious and complicated process. There are various users with competing objectives, especially in the case of artisanal and recreational fisheries management. Managers must consider not only the biological sustainability of the resources, but also account for the socioeconomic objectives of the fishery users, particularly in developing countries. In-person surveys were implemented with artisanal fishers that target billfish in Ghana and with recreational charter boat anglers that target billfish in Senegal. Data from the survey were used to compile financial performance indicators that describe the sustainability of the operations. In addition social and resource management perception data were collected in each location. The results of the study indicate that both fleets exhibit positive profit levels. Although fishers in both study locations perceived a declining billfish resource, they were largely unwilling to accept management measures to improve the resource. If management measures were to be considered for the artisanal fleet, managers should simultaneously introduce mechanisms to improve the technological storage capacity of harvested fish and training on saving schemes for artisanal fishers. Managers should also monitor the number of recreational vessels and their effort in Senegal. Performance indicators such as these are applicable and appropriate for quantitatively assessing the profitability of fishing fleets.Artisanal; Billfish; Fisheries management; Performance indicators; Recreational; Socioeconomic; West AfricaXiphiidaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33751526274Testing antecedents to sales performance in postapartheid era: A field studyBarbuto Jr. J.E., Barbuto L., De La Rey P., Boshoff A.B., Ye X.2006Psychological Reports99210.2466/PR0.99.2.603-618University of Nebraska, Lincoln, United States; Future Leadership Consulting; University of Pretoria, South Africa; Stellenbosch University, South Africa; 306 Ag Hall, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0709, United StatesBarbuto Jr., J.E., University of Nebraska, Lincoln, United States, 306 Ag Hall, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0709, United States; Barbuto, L., Future Leadership Consulting; De La Rey, P., University of Pretoria, South Africa; Boshoff, A.B., Stellenbosch University, South Africa; Ye, X., University of Nebraska, Lincoln, United StatesThe predictors of objectively measured sales performance were assessed with 245 sales representatives from a large South African life insurance company. Sales representatives completed measures of their locus of control, entrepreneurial attitudes, biographical history, and performance was assessed from company records of sales, net commissions earned, and lapse ratios. The nature of employment contract, job status, and race explained significant differences in performance outcomes. The predictive nature of locus of control and entrepreneurial attitudes for performance outcomes was tested using structural equation modeling procedures, with limited validity. The implications for research and practice are also discussed. © Psychological Reports 2006.Noneachievement; adult; article; attitude; Caucasian; commercial phenomena; control; female; human; income; insurance; male; middle aged; Negro; personnel management; policy; psychological aspect; self concept; social problem; South Africa; statistics; Achievement; Adult; African Continental Ancestry Group; Attitude; Commerce; Employee Performance Appraisal; Entrepreneurship; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Humans; Income; Insurance, Life; Internal-External Control; Male; Middle Aged; Public Policy; Race Relations; Self Concept; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78649335405Syntheses of new imidazole ligand series and evaluation of 1-, 2- and 4,5-imidazole substituent electronic and steric effects on N-donor strengthsEseola A.O., Sun W.-H., Li W., Woods J.A.O.2010Journal of Molecular Structure98403-Jan10.1016/j.molstruc.2010.09.015Department of Chemical Sciences, Redeemer's University, Redemption City, Ogun State, Nigeria; Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of PEseola, A.O., Department of Chemical Sciences, Redeemer's University, Redemption City, Ogun State, Nigeria; Sun, W.-H., Key Laboratory of Engineering Plastics, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China; Li, W., Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China; Woods, J.A.O., Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaA series of new imidazole based heterocycles (5-(4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol- 2-yl)furan-2-yl)methyl acetate (Him-dp), (5-(1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazol-2-yl) furan-2-yl)methyl acetate (HIm-pt), (5-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthrolin-2- yl)furan-2-yl)methyl acetate (HIm-phen), 2-(2-nitrophenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H- imidazole (HIm-n), 1-methyl-2-(2-nitrophenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole (MeIm-n), N-(2-(1-ethyl-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)benzamide (EtIm-ba) and 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-(8-(1-ethyl-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-1,4- dihydroquinolin-2-yl)phenol (EtIm-q) were synthesized and studied for the dependence of their azole donor characteristics on substituent factors by means of experimentally determined ionization constant data (derived as pK as), spectroscopic analyses and calculated properties of their DFT optimized molecular geometries performed at the B3LYP/6-311 + G level. Results showed that the lowest donor strength recorded for HIm-pt (pKa = 2.67 ± 0.07) could be traced to the extensive electronic conjugation of the azole π-electrons with 4,5- and 2-substituents. On the other hand, the strongest imidazole donor strength in the series was obtained from EtIm-q (pKa = 4.61 ± 0.04) for which the substituents possessed negligible π-overlap with the azole ring. The experimental results and theoretical calculations lead to conclusions that effective conjugation between the imidazole ring and substituent aromatic groups is accountable for significant withdrawal of charge densities on the imidazole N-donor atom and vice versa. Furthermore, observed donor strengths in the series suggest that electronic inductive effects of the substituents provided lesser impact on donor strength modification of imidazole base and that alkylation of 1-imidazole position did not yield the anticipated push of electron density in favour of the N-donor atom. It is anticipated that the results should promote the understanding of azole-containing bio-macromolecular species and reactions as well as tuning and application of azole functions in molecular science. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.DFT calculations; Protonation-deprotonation; Spectroscopy; Substituent effects1H-imidazole; Aromatic group; Benzamides; DFT calculation; Donor atoms; Donor strength; Electron densities; Heterocycles; Imidazol; Inductive effects; Ionization constant; Methyl acetates; Molecular geometries; Molecular science; Steric effect; Substituent effect; Theoretical calculations; Amides; Phenols; Protonation; Spectroscopic analysis; Sulfur compounds; Impact strengthNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84920913660Isolation of α-linolenic acid biohydrogenation products by combined silver ion solid phase extraction and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatographyTurner T.D., Meadus W.J., Mapiye C., Vahmani P., López-Campos Ó., Duff P., Rolland D.C., Church J.S., Dugan M.E.R.2015Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences980None10.1016/j.jchromb.2014.11.038Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe Research Centre, 6000 C and E Trail, Lacombe, AB, Canada; Thompson Rivers University, 900 McGill Road, Kamloops, BC, Canada; Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, P. Bag X1, Matieland, South Africa; Livestock Gentec, 1400 College Plaza 8215 112 Street, Edmonton, AB, CanadaTurner, T.D., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe Research Centre, 6000 C and E Trail, Lacombe, AB, Canada, Thompson Rivers University, 900 McGill Road, Kamloops, BC, Canada; Meadus, W.J., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe Research Centre, 6000 C and E Trail, Lacombe, AB, Canada; Mapiye, C., Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, P. Bag X1, Matieland, South Africa; Vahmani, P., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe Research Centre, 6000 C and E Trail, Lacombe, AB, Canada; López-Campos, Ó., Livestock Gentec, 1400 College Plaza 8215 112 Street, Edmonton, AB, Canada; Duff, P., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe Research Centre, 6000 C and E Trail, Lacombe, AB, Canada; Rolland, D.C., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe Research Centre, 6000 C and E Trail, Lacombe, AB, Canada; Church, J.S., Thompson Rivers University, 900 McGill Road, Kamloops, BC, Canada; Dugan, M.E.R., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe Research Centre, 6000 C and E Trail, Lacombe, AB, CanadaPolyunsaturated fatty acids typically found in cattle feed include linoleic (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA). In the rumen, microbes metabolize these resulting in the formation of biohydrogenation products (BHP), which can be incorporated into meat and milk. Bioactivities of LA-BHP, including conjugated linoleic acid (cis (c) 9,trans (t) 11-18:2 and t10,c12-18:2) and trans fatty acid isomers (t9-, t10- and t11-18:1) have been investigated, but effects of several BHP unique to ALA have not been extensively studied, and most ALA-BHP are not commercially available. The objective of the present research was to develop methods to purify and collect ALA-BHP using silver ion (Ag+) chromatography in sufficient quantities to allow for convenient bioactivity testing in cell culture. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were prepared from perirenal adipose tissue from a cow enriched with ALA-BHP by feeding flaxseed. These were applied to Ag+-solid phase extraction, and eluted with hexane with increasing quantities of acetone (1, 2, 10, 20%) or acetonitrile (2%) to pre-fractionate FAME based on degree of unsaturation and double bond configuration. Fractions were collected, concentrated and applied to semi-preparative Ag+-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the isolation and collection of purified isomers, which was accomplished using isocratic elutions with hexane containing differing amounts of acetonitrile (from 0.015 to 0.075%). Purified trans-18:1 isomers collected ranged in purity from 88 to 99%. Purity of the ALA-BHP dienes collected, including c9,t13-18:2, t11,c15-18:2 and t10,c15-18:2, exceeded 90%, while purification of other dienes may require the use of other complementary procedures (e.g. reverse phase HPLC). © 2014.Ag+-HPLC; Ag+-SPE; Biohydrogenation; α-Linolenic acidAcetone; Acetonitrile; Bioactivity; Cell culture; Chromatography; Extraction; Hexane; High performance liquid chromatography; Isomers; Linoleic acid; Liquid chromatography; Liquids; Metal ions; Olefins; Phase separation; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Purification; Alpha linolenic acids; Biohydrogenation; Conjugated linoleic acid; Degree of unsaturations; Fatty acid methyl ester; Linolenic acids; Semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatographies; Solid-phase extraction; Fatty acids; acetone; acetonitrile; conjugated linoleic acid; fatty acid ester; hexane; linolenic acid; silver; trans fatty acid; linolenic acid; adipose tissue; animal cell; animal tissue; Article; biological activity; concentration (parameters); controlled study; cow; fractionation; high performance liquid chromatography; hydrogenation; isomer; linseed; nonhuman; priority journal; solid phase extraction; high performance liquid chromatography; isolation and purification; procedures; solid phase extraction; Bos; alpha-Linolenic Acid; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid; Linoleic Acids, Conjugated; Solid Phase ExtractionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84905223536Evaluation of three vacuum packaging methods for retail beef loin cutsStrydom P.E., Hope-Jones M.2014Meat Science98410.1016/j.meatsci.2014.05.030Animal Production Institute, Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South AfricaStrydom, P.E., Animal Production Institute, Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa; Hope-Jones, M., Animal Production Institute, Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South AfricaMeat from beef T-bone cuts was packaged as follows: (1) Sub-primal cuts vacuum packaged (VP) in shrink bags, aged for 14 days, portioned, VP again and aged for a further 7 days (VPR), (2) individual T-bone steaks VP in shrink bags aged for 21 days (VPP), and (3) individual T-bone steaks aged in vacuum-skin packaging (VSP) for 21 days. VSP recorded less purge and showed higher oxymyoglobin values after 2 days and higher chroma after 3 days of aerobic display (P < 0.001) than VPR and VPP. Similar differences in colour stability were recorded for VPP compared to VPR. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.Colour; Purge; Tenderness; Vacuum packaging; Vacuum-skin packagingBone; Color; Purging; Purging; Colour stability; Tenderness; Vacuum packaging; Beef; Color; analysis; animal; bovine; color; food packaging; food quality; meat; pigmentation; procedures; skeletal muscle; vacuum; Animals; Cattle; Color; Food Packaging; Food Quality; Meat; Muscle, Skeletal; Pigmentation; VacuumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84939881403Habitat simplification increases the impact of a freshwater invasive fishAlexander M.E., Kaiser H., Weyl O.L.F., Dick J.T.A.2014Environmental Biology of Fishes98210.1007/s10641-014-0278-zCentre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South Africa; Department of Ichythology and Fisheries Science, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, South Africa; South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity (SAIAB), Private Bag 1015, Grahamstown, South Africa; Centre for Invasion Biology, SAIAB, Private Bag 1015, Grahamstown, South Africa; Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, MBC, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United KingdomAlexander, M.E., Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South Africa; Kaiser, H., Department of Ichythology and Fisheries Science, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, South Africa; Weyl, O.L.F., South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity (SAIAB), Private Bag 1015, Grahamstown, South Africa, Centre for Invasion Biology, SAIAB, Private Bag 1015, Grahamstown, South Africa; Dick, J.T.A., Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, MBC, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United KingdomBiodiversity continues to decline at a range of spatial scales and there is an urgent requirement to understand how multiple drivers interact in causing such declines. Further, we require methodologies that can facilitate predictions of the effects of such drivers in the future. Habitat degradation and biological invasions are two of the most important threats to biodiversity and here we investigate their combined effects, both in terms of understanding and predicting impacts on native species. The predatory largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides is one of the World’s Worst Invaders, causing declines in native prey species, and its introduction often coincides with habitat simplification. We investigated the predatory functional response, as a measure of ecological impact, of juvenile largemouth bass in artificial vegetation over a range of habitat complexities (high, intermediate, low and zero). Prey, the female guppy Poecilia reticulata, were representative of native fish. As habitats became less complex, significantly more prey were consumed, since, even although attack rates declined, reduced handling times resulted in higher maximum feeding rates by bass. At all levels of habitat complexity, bass exhibited potentially population de-stabilising Type II functional responses, with no emergence of more stabilising Type III functional responses as often occurs in predator-prey relationships in complex habitats. Thus, habitat degradation and simplification potentially exacerbate the impact of this invasive species, but even highly complex habitats may ultimately not protect native species. The utilisation of functional responses under varying environmental contexts provides a method for the understanding and prediction of invasive species impacts. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.Freshwater fish; Functional response; Global change; Habitat complexity; Impact; Invasive speciesNoneDMR, Department of Science and Technology, Republic of South Africa; DST, Department of Science and Technology, Republic of South Africa; NRF, Department of Science and Technology, Republic of South Africa; 85,417, Department of Science and Technology, Re
Scopus2-s2.0-84883514870Impact of soil erosion associated factors on available feed resources for free-ranging cattle at three altitude regions: Measurements and perceptionsYisehak K., Belay D., Taye T., Janssens G.P.J.2013Journal of Arid Environments98None10.1016/j.jaridenv.2013.07.012College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, P.O. Box 307, Jimma, Ethiopia; Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Heide Straat 19, B-9820 Merelbeke, BelgiumYisehak, K., College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, P.O. Box 307, Jimma, Ethiopia; Belay, D., College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, P.O. Box 307, Jimma, Ethiopia; Taye, T., College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, P.O. Box 307, Jimma, Ethiopia; Janssens, G.P.J., Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Heide Straat 19, B-9820 Merelbeke, BelgiumThe study was conducted to assess the status and trends of soil erosion and relate the perceptions of farmers on cattle productivity and botanical indicators to measured ecological conditions of rangelands in three altitude regions of southwest Ethiopia. A total of 342 farmers were interviewed. In addition, the ecological condition of rangelands was assessed. Severe soil erosion, ranked as the primary restriction to free-ranging livestock, occurred predominantly in the lower altitude region (LAR) (. P<0.05). More farmers in LAR witnessed an inadequacy of palatable plant biomass, grazable pasture as well as increased gully formation and expansion, which are strong indicators of soil erosion (. P<0.001). In addition to a decrease in grass cover and productivity of cattle, botanical composition, species richness and grazing capacity of herbaceous plants, less fodder trees and shrubs were observed (. P<0.05). There was a corresponding increase in the percentage of bare ground and soil erosion status along the degradation gradients (. P<0.05). The reported shift in botanical composition, and especially encroachment of invading plant species, can be attributed to soil erosion (. P<0.001). The results suggest that erosion is associated with reduced availability of feed resources and is related to altitude variation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.Botanical composition; Cattle; Feed resources; Gilgel Gibe; Overgrazing; Soil erosionaltitude; biomass; cattle; community dynamics; farmers attitude; food availability; nature-society relations; overgrazing; palatability; pasture; perception; productivity; rangeland; soil erosion; Ethiopia; Gilgel Gibe RiverNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84942550935Evaluation of analytical assays efficiency to detect aflatoxin M<inf>1</inf> in milk from selected areas in Egypt and South AfricaMwanza M., Abdel-Hadi A., Ali A.M., Egbuta M.2015Journal of Dairy Science981010.3168/jds.2014-9220Department of Animal Health, Faculty of Agriculture and Technology, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho, South Africa; Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut, Egypt; College of Applied Medical Sciences, Medical laboratories Department, Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia; Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut, EgyptMwanza, M., Department of Animal Health, Faculty of Agriculture and Technology, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho, South Africa; Abdel-Hadi, A., Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut, Egypt, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Medical laboratories Department, Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia; Ali, A.M., Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut, Egypt; Egbuta, M., Department of Animal Health, Faculty of Agriculture and Technology, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho, South AfricaRecently, methods to analyze aflatoxin M<inf>1</inf> (AFM<inf>1</inf>) in milk and dairy products have been developed for both screening purposes (i.e., rapid, economical, and simple methods) and for confirmation by accurate, reproducible, and sensitive quantification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different rapid kits and techniques available on the market by using different analytical methods: thin layer chromatography (TLC), immunoaffinity column, AFM<inf>1</inf> immunochromatographic strip, and ELISA; some samples were also submitted to HPLC for comparison of results. One hundred thirty-eight samples were collected from rural subsistence and commercial dairy farms in selected areas of Egypt and South Africa and analyzed for the presence of AFM<inf>1</inf>. The results obtained by AFM<inf>1</inf> immunochromatographic strip indicated the lowest frequency of occurrence, with a detection incidence of 20.45% in Egyptian samples and 16% in South African samples. Aflatoxin M<inf>1</inf> was detected by ELISA in 65 (73.9%) Egyptian milk samples, with a range of 8.52 to 78.06 ng/L, and in 34 (68%) South African milk samples, with a range of 5 to 120 ng/L. A higher incidence of AFM<inf>1</inf> in Egyptian milk samples was shown by TLC (81.8%) compared with ELISA (73.9%). Samples analyzed by ELISA in South African milk samples demonstrated satisfactory correlation when compared with HPLC coupled with Coring cell (an electrochemical cell for the derivatization of AFM<inf>1</inf>). Among the positive samples, 18 of the Egyptian samples (20.45%) positive by ELISA had levels of AFM<inf>1</inf> above the European Union (EU) regulatory limit (50 ng/L), whereas 65 samples (73.9%) were above the Egyptian regulatory limit (0 ng/L). Six of the South African samples (12%) tested by ELISA were above the South African (50 ng/L) and EU regulatory limits. The mean concentration of AFM<inf>1</inf> was 25.79 ng/L in Egyptian samples and 17.06 ng/L by ELISA and 39 ng/L by HPLC in South African samples. These contamination levels would not represent a serious public health hazard according to EU legislation. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.Aflatoxin M<inf>1</inf>; ELISA; HPLC; Milk; Thin layer chromatographyNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84939270193The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System: Updates to the model and evaluation of version 6.5Van Amburgh M.E., Collao-Saenz E.A., Higgs R.J., Ross D.A., Recktenwald E.B., Raffrenato E., Chase L.E., Overton T.R., Mills J.K., Foskolos A.2015Journal of Dairy Science98910.3168/jds.2015-9378Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States; Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Goiás, Jataí, Brazil; Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Elanco Animal Health, Canastota, NY, United StatesVan Amburgh, M.E., Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States; Collao-Saenz, E.A., Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Goiás, Jataí, Brazil; Higgs, R.J., Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States; Ross, D.A., Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States; Recktenwald, E.B., Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States; Raffrenato, E., Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Chase, L.E., Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States; Overton, T.R., Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States; Mills, J.K., Elanco Animal Health, Canastota, NY, United States; Foskolos, A., Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United StatesNew laboratory and animal sampling methods and data have been generated over the last 10 yr that had the potential to improve the predictions for energy, protein, and AA supply and requirements in the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS). The objectives of this study were to describe updates to the CNCPS and evaluate model performance against both literature and on-farm data. The changes to the feed library were significant and are reported in a separate manuscript. Degradation rates of protein and carbohydrate fractions were adjusted according to new fractionation schemes, and corresponding changes to equations used to calculate rumen outflows and postrumen digestion were presented. In response to the feed-library changes and an increased supply of essential AA because of updated contents of AA, a combined efficiency of use was adopted in place of separate calculations for maintenance and lactation to better represent the biology of the cow. Four different data sets were developed to evaluate Lys and Met requirements, rumen N balance, and milk yield predictions. In total 99 peer-reviewed studies with 389 treatments and 15 regional farms with 50 different diets were included. The broken-line model with plateau was used to identify the concentration of Lys and Met that maximizes milk protein yield and content. Results suggested concentrations of 7.00 and 2.60% of metabolizable protein (MP) for Lys and Met, respectively, for maximal protein yield and 6.77 and 2.85% of MP for Lys and Met, respectively, for maximal protein content. Updated AA concentrations were numerically higher for Lys and 11 to 18% higher for Met compared with CNCPS v6.0, and this is attributed to the increased content of Met and Lys in feeds that were previously incorrectly analyzed and described. The prediction of postruminal flows of N and milk yield were evaluated using the correlation coefficient from the BLUP (R2<inf>BLUP</inf>) procedure or model predictions (R2<inf>MDP</inf>) and the concordance correlation coefficient. The accuracy and precision of rumen-degradable N and undegradable N and bacterial N flows were improved with reduced bias. The CNCPS v6.5 predicted accurate and precise milk yield according to the first-limiting nutrient (MP or metabolizable energy) with a R2<inf>BLUP</inf>=0.97, R2<inf>MDP</inf>=0.78, and concordance correlation coefficient=0.83. Furthermore, MP-allowable milk was predicted with greater precision than metabolizable energy-allowable milk (R2<inf>MDP</inf>=0.82 and 0.76, respectively, for MP and metabolizable energy). Results suggest a significant improvement of the model, especially under conditions of MP limitation. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System; Dairy cattle; Evaluation; UpdateAnimalia; Bacteria (microorganisms); BosNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84899993796The effect of supplementing leaves of four tannin-rich plant species with polyethylene glycol on digestibility and zootechnical performance of zebu bulls (Bos indicus)Yisehak K., De Boever J.L., Janssens G.P.J.2014Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition98310.1111/jpn.12068Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium; Institute for Agriculture and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Animal Sciences Unit, Scheldeweg, Melle, BelgiumYisehak, K., Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia, Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium; De Boever, J.L., Institute for Agriculture and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Animal Sciences Unit, Scheldeweg, Melle, Belgium; Janssens, G.P.J., Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, BelgiumThe effect of supplementing leaves of four tannin-rich plant species with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) on nutrient intake and digestibility as well as on weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and N retention of zebu bulls (Bos indicus) was studied. Leaves of Albizia gummifera, Grewia ferruginea, Prunus africana and Syzygium guineense, containing, respectively, 85, 55, 76 and 172 g condensed tannins (CT) per kg dry matter (DM), were combined with natural pasture hay in a ratio of 40:60 on DM basis. The four diets were fed both without and with addition of PEG, at a dose of 40 g per kg DM, to eight zebu bulls during trials of 25 days in an 8 × 8 randomized crossover design. Supplementation with PEG increased nutrient intake, digestibility, FCR, N retention and average daily gain (p < 0.01). A diet × PEG interaction was observed for nutrient intake as well as for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre digestibility (p < 0.05), but the effect size of PEG addition could not be attributed to the CT content as such, and also digestibility without PEG was not related to CT content of the diets. The reason why the efficacy of PEG addition did not relate to the CT content pointed the need to evaluate other factors that can help to predict the efficacy of PEG, for example, tannin type or interaction with other nutrients. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.Digestibility; N retention; Nutrient intake; Polyethylene glycol; Tannin; Zebu cattlemacrogol derivative; tannin derivative; analysis; animal; animal food; animal food; Bovinae; chemistry; controlled study; crossover procedure; diet; diet supplementation; digestion; drug effects; male; metabolism; physiology; plant leaf; randomized controlled trial; veterinary; Animal Feed; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Animals; Cattle; Cross-Over Studies; Diet; Dietary Supplements; Digestion; Male; Plant Leaves; Polyethylene Glycols; TanninsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84905228469Impact of season on the fatty acid profiles of male and female blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) musclesNeethling J., Britz T.J., Hoffman L.C.2014Meat Science98410.1016/j.meatsci.2014.06.030Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch, 7602, South AfricaNeethling, J., Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa, Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch, 7602, South Africa; Britz, T.J., Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; Hoffman, L.C., Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch, 7602, South AfricaThis study quantified the impact of season on fatty acid profiles of male and female blesbok muscles (longissimus thoracis et lumborum, biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, infraspinatus, and supraspinatus). Eight mature blesbok were harvested per season (winter and spring). Gender and muscle type influenced (p. <. 0.05) the fatty acid profiles of blesbok muscles, while season only influenced the C18:3ω3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA) percentages and therefore the total omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (total ω3 PUFA). Female muscles had higher C16:0 (palmitic acid) (21.01% ± 0.256 vs. 19.05% ± 0.296) and total MUFA percentages, while male muscles had higher (p. <. 0.05) C18:2ω6c, C20:5ω3, total ω3 PUFA (11.08% ± 0.382 vs. 8.50% ± 0.367), and total PUFA (43.03% ± 0.904 vs. 29.59% ± 1.164) percentages, contributing to higher poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios (PUFA:SFA ratios). Differences in fatty acid profiles were attributed more to gender and anatomical location of muscles, than seasonal differences in diets. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.Blesbok; Fatty acid; Game; Muscle; Season; VenisonFatty acids; Muscle; Saturated fatty acids; Muscle; Anatomical locations; Blesbok; Fatty acid profiles; Game; Linolenic acids; Season; Seasonal differences; Venison; Unsaturated fatty acids; Fatty acids; fatty acid; analysis; animal; antelope; diet; female; male; meat; metabolism; procedures; season; sex difference; skeletal muscle; South Africa; veterinary; Animals; Antelopes; Diet; Fatty Acids; Female; Male; Meat; Muscle, Skeletal; Seasons; Sex Factors; South Africa; Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi84633, NRF, Neurosurgical Research Foundation
Scopus2-s2.0-67049096368Mechanistic evaluation of alginate-HEC gelisphere compacts for controlled intrastriatal nicotine release in Parkinson's diseaseChoonara Y.E., Pillay V., Khan R.A., Singh N., Du Toit L.C.2009Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences98610.1002/jps.21590Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, Johannesburg, South Africa; Department of Industrial Chemistry, Integral University, Lucknow 226026, IndiaChoonara, Y.E., Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, Johannesburg, South Africa; Pillay, V., Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, Johannesburg, South Africa; Khan, R.A., Department of Industrial Chemistry, Integral University, Lucknow 226026, India; Singh, N., Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, Johannesburg, South Africa; Du Toit, L.C., Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, Johannesburg, South AfricaThis study focused on elucidating a mechanistic understanding in support of the multiple mechanisms which govern the formation of crosslinked alginate-hydroxyethylcellulose (Alg-HEC) gelispheres intended for the controlled intrastriatal release of nicotine as a neuroprotectant in Parkinson's Disease. HEC was incorporated as a reinforcing "protective" colloidal polymer to induce interactions between the free carboxyl groups of alginate with hydroxylated HEC monomers. Gelispheres were compressed within an external poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) matrix to further prolong the release of nicotine. Sol-gel interconversion mechanisms, matrix deformability moduli, matrix fracture energies and chemometric models of the associated energy paradigms were analyzed for their influence on the mechanism and extent of nicotine release. Textural profiling demonstrated higher fracture energies (7.94-26.69×10-4 J) and lower deformability moduli (12.24-58.36 N/mm) when gelispheres were cured in 2 MHCl as a postcuring step. Ba 2+ crosslinked gelispheres resulted in superiorly compact matrices with an increase in volume of 201-329% as compared to the Ca2+ and Zn2+ crosslinked matrices. The order of matrix compactness was as follows: Zn2+&lt;Ca2+&lt;Ba2+. Molecular mechanisms of formation, interaction, conversion, and stability of sol-gel transitions depended on the type of crosslinker, crosslinking time, energy transactions, and interactions with molecules of the hydration medium. Ba 2+ crosslinked gelispheres released nicotine slower than Ca 2+ and Zn2+ crosslinked gelispheres due to the higher energy requirement for interconversion to sol while the energy requirements for Ca2+ and Zn2+ was at a lower demand. Ba2+ crosslinked gelispheres within PLGA matrices therefore retarded nicotine release in a pseudo-zero-order manner over 21 days. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.Bioavailability; Biomaterials; Blood-brain barrier; Controlled release; Crosslinking; Gelispheres; Parkinson's disease; Polymers; Sol-gel interconversion; Targeted drug delivery; Textural profilingalginic acid; barium; calcium; hydroxyethylcellulose; monomer; nicotine; polyglactin; transferase; zinc; article; chemometric analysis; controlled drug release; controlled study; cross linking; drug release; energy; gel; hydration; neuroprotection; Parkinson disease; solid; surface property; Alginates; Cellulose; Cross-Linking Reagents; Drug Delivery Systems; Elasticity; Gels; Glucuronic Acid; Hexuronic Acids; Humans; Neuroprotective Agents; Nicotine; Parkinson Disease; Phase Transition; Surface Properties; Time Factors; WaterNone
Scopus2-s2.0-62749083911Performance data of screening mammography at a dedicated breast health centreApffelstaedt J.P., Steenkamp V., Baatjes K.2008South African Medical Journal9812NoneDepartment of Surgery, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, W. Cape, South Africa; Panorama, Western Cape, South AfricaApffelstaedt, J.P., Department of Surgery, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, W. Cape, South Africa; Steenkamp, V., Department of Surgery, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, W. Cape, South Africa; Baatjes, K., Panorama, Western Cape, South AfricaBackground. Mammographic screening has become part of routine health care. We present a first analysis of screening mammography in a dedicated breast health centre in Africa. Objective. To establish a performance benchmark and provide data for health care policy and funding decisions on screening mammography. Method. All mammography performed between January 2003 and August 2008 was entered into a prospective database. Mammography was performed exclusively by certified mammographers and double-read by experienced readers. Results. Outcomes were classified in a simplified classification system based on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS). In 40-49-year-old women, 3 192 mammograms led to a recall rate of 4.7%, a biopsy rate of 1.9% and a cancer diagnosis rate of 3.8 per 1000 examinations, for women of 50 years and older, the corresponding figures were 4 446, 5.4%, 2.6% and 9.7 per 1 000. Of the cancers detected, 31% were in situ and, of the invasive cancers, 81% were node-negative. These figures were established by a dedicated surgeon-led team and fall within the range expected in organised screening programmes in resource-rich environments, providing a first benchmark for screening mammography in Africa.Noneadult; Africa; age distribution; article; breast biopsy; breast cancer; cancer incidence; cancer invasion; cancer screening; carcinoma in situ; female; human; mammography; women's health; Adult; Breast Neoplasms; Female; Health Facilities; Humans; Mammography; Mass Screening; Middle Aged; Prospective Studies; Reproducibility of Results; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84941337682Effect of cooling regime on the residual performance of high-volume palm oil fuel ash concrete exposed to high temperaturesAwal A.S.M.A., Shehu I.A., Ismail M.2015Construction and Building Materials98None10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.09.001Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia; Department of Building, Federal Polytechnic, PMB 55Bida Niger State, NigeriaAwal, A.S.M.A., Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia; Shehu, I.A., Department of Building, Federal Polytechnic, PMB 55Bida Niger State, Nigeria; Ismail, M., Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, MalaysiaThis paper presents the experimental findings of a study on the effect of cooling method on the residual performance of concrete containing a high volume of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) exposed to high temperatures. In this study, concrete samples were made in which the ordinary Portland cement was replaced by 50%, 60% and 70% POFA. The test specimens were then thermally treated to elevated temperatures of 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C in an electric furnace for a period of 1 h. The specimens were cured by air cooling or water cooling and examined for ultrasonic pulse velocity and changes in weight and residual compressive strength. At higher temperatures, the reduction in the ultrasonic pulse velocity of concrete was higher for all of the mixes. Along with the loss of weight, the residual compressive strength of concrete was also reduced. Of the two regimes, the air-cooling system exhibited better performance in recovering the structural properties of concrete containing a high volume of POFA. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.Cooling regime; Elevated temperature; High volume; Palm oil fuel ash; Residual performanceAir; Compressive strength; Concretes; Cooling; Electric furnaces; Fuels; Light velocity; Oil shale; Palm oil; Portland cement; Residual fuels; Ultrasonics; Cooling regimes; Elevated temperature; High volumes; Ordinary Portland cement; Properties of concretes; Residual compressive strength; Residual performance; Ultrasonic pulse velocity; High performance concreteNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84908238636The progressive effects of a high-fat diet on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, growth performance and serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels in Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) and Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata)Donaldson J., Dangarembizi R., Mtetwa B., Madziva M.T., Erlwanger K.H.2014Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition98510.1111/jpn.12149Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaDonaldson, J., Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Dangarembizi, R., Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Mtetwa, B., Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Madziva, M.T., Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Erlwanger, K.H., Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaTo investigate the progressive effects of a high-fat diet on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, growth performance and serum lipid concentrations in Guinea fowl and Muscovy ducks, 36 Guinea fowl and 36 Muscovy ducks were divided into two groups, for each species, and fed either a standard (STD = commercial poultry feed) or high-fat diet (HFD = commercial poultry feed with 20% palm oil and 2% lard) for up to 12 weeks. After 4, 8 and 12 weeks on the diets, six birds from each group were euthanized and blood samples collected. Osmotic fragility was assessed by measuring the haemoglobin released by erythrocytes placed in serially diluted solutions of phosphate-buffered saline, spectrophotometrically. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were also determined. Fragiligrams from erythrocytes from both species of birds on the HFD were not different to those on the STD. However, Muscovy duck erythrocytes were more resistant to haemolysis compared with Guinea fowl erythrocytes. Final body mass and serum triglyceride levels were not significantly different (p > 0.05, ANOVA) between the birds in the HFD and STD groups, for both species of birds. In contrast, serum cholesterol levels were significantly higher in birds on the HFD compared with those on the STD, after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of feeding, for both species of birds. Feeding Guinea fowl and Muscovy ducks a high-fat diet for up to 12 weeks resulted in hypercholesterolaemia but had no effect on final body mass, erythrocyte osmotic fragility or serum triglyceride concentrations in either bird species. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.Avian; High-fat diet; Osmotic fragilityAves; Cairina moschata; Numida meleagris; cholesterol; fat intake; triacylglycerol; administration and dosage; analysis; animal; animal food; blood; controlled study; diet; drug effects; duck; erythrocyte; fat intake; Galliformes; growth, development and aging; metabolism; osmotic fragility; randomized controlled trial; species difference; veterinary; Animal Feed; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Animals; Cholesterol; Diet; Dietary Fats; Ducks; Erythrocytes; Galliformes; Osmotic Fragility; Species Specificity; TriglyceridesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-46249128527The evolving impact of HIV/AIDS on outpatient health services in KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaParikh A., Veenstra N.2008South African Medical Journal986NoneHealth Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South AfricaParikh, A., Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Veenstra, N., Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South AfricaBackground and objective. The high HIV prevalence in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) places immense pressure on the health system. The burden of HIV/AIDS on health services is evolving as the epidemic progresses and as antiretroviral treatment becomes more widely available. For health policy makers and managers, timely and appropriate information is needed to facilitate adaptive management of health services. Through longitudinal research covering outpatient health services in KZN we examined the dynamics of the evolving HIV/AIDS burden and the resource implications of this burden, necessary for resource allocation decisions. Methods. Data were collected between 2004 and 2005 in outpatient services across six health facilities in the province. The burden of HIV/ AIDS was measured by assessing the proportion of outpatients presenting as HIV positive, determined by a clinical diagnosis (and test result where available). The burden was also measured by looking at the types of diseases presenting at outpatient facilities. Moreover, the study assessed the burden experienced by health care workers and financial implications for health facilities. Results and conclusions. The study demonstrates that the burden on outpatient services is significant but has not been increasing over time, suggesting that people are not accessing care if and when they need it. However, in terms of resources, this burden has been increasing and shifting from tertiary services to more primary services. In order to accommodate the demands of HIV/AIDS, our focus therefore needs to turn towards outpatient services, in particular at the primary care level.Noneantiretrovirus agent; acquired immune deficiency syndrome; adult; article; caregiver burden; controlled study; drug cost; female; health care access; health care cost; health care facility; health care personnel; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence; information processing; laboratory diagnosis; longitudinal study; major clinical study; male; outpatient; outpatient care; primary medical care; resource allocation; South Africa; tertiary health care; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Adult; Ambulatory Care Facilities; Community Health Services; Female; Health Policy; Health Resources; Health Services Accessibility; Health Services Needs and Demand; HIV Infections; Humans; Male; Pilot Projects; Prevalence; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84864028338The indirect impact of encroaching trees on gully extension: A 64year study in a sub-humid grassland of South AfricaGrellier S., Kemp J., Janeau J.-L., Florsch N., Ward D., Barot S., Podwojewski P., Lorentz S., Valentin C.2012Catena98None10.1016/j.catena.2012.07.002IRD-BIOEMCO c/o School of Bioresources Engineering and Environmental Hydrology (BEEH), Rabie Saunders Building, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Box X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Stellenbosch, Private. Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; UMMISCO, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France; School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, John Bews Building, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; IRD-BIOEMCO, Site Ecole Normale Supérieure, 46 rue d'Ulm, 75230 Paris cedex 05, France; School of Bioresources Engineering and Environmental Hydrology (BEEH), Rabie Saunders Building, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Box X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; IRD-BIOEMCO, 32 av. H. Varagnat, 93143 Bondy cedex, FranceGrellier, S., IRD-BIOEMCO c/o School of Bioresources Engineering and Environmental Hydrology (BEEH), Rabie Saunders Building, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Box X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; Kemp, J., Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Stellenbosch, Private. Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; Janeau, J.-L., IRD-BIOEMCO c/o School of Bioresources Engineering and Environmental Hydrology (BEEH), Rabie Saunders Building, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Box X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; Florsch, N., UMMISCO, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France; Ward, D., School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, John Bews Building, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; Barot, S., IRD-BIOEMCO, Site Ecole Normale Supérieure, 46 rue d'Ulm, 75230 Paris cedex 05, France; Podwojewski, P., IRD-BIOEMCO c/o School of Bioresources Engineering and Environmental Hydrology (BEEH), Rabie Saunders Building, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Box X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; Lorentz, S., School of Bioresources Engineering and Environmental Hydrology (BEEH), Rabie Saunders Building, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Box X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; Valentin, C., IRD-BIOEMCO, 32 av. H. Varagnat, 93143 Bondy cedex, FranceGully erosion and woody plant encroachment are frequently observed in grasslands worldwide. Gully erosion driven by water processes is usually affected by topography, land-use change and vegetation cover. We hypothesised that trees, through their potential link with overland and subsurface flow, may have an impact on gully extension. However, very few studies have simultaneously considered tree encroachment and gullies. We used aerial photographs to study Acacia sieberiana encroachment and gully erosion in a South African grassland (KwaZulu-Natal Province) for a period lasting 64years. At the catchment scale, results showed that acacias started invading after 1976 and transformed the grassland into a savanna with 9.45% of tree cover in 2009. Gully area increased by 3.9% in the last 64years and represented 12.76% of catchment area in 2009. Mean estimated sediment loss was 200Mgha -1 of gully y -1, indicating a high erosion rate mainly due to the collapse of gully banks after swelling and shrinking. Volumetric retreat rate (V) of 15 gully heads was correlated with drainage area (Drain.A) by a power function explaining 64% of the variance: V=0.02*Drain.A 0.83. A positive correlation between gully retreat rate and Acacia canopy area was measured between 2001 and 2009 when established tree encroachment was observed. These results, associated with the susceptibility of this soil to subsurface flow and the observation of pipe erosion systems in the field, showed that both surface and subsurface processes occur in this sub-humid grassland and that trees can be indirectly associated with increased gully erosion. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..Acacia sieberiana; Aerial photographs; Erosion; Gully threshold; Soil piping; Subsurfaceaerial photograph; erosion rate; grassland; gully erosion; humid environment; land use change; legume; subsurface flow; threshold; topographic effect; vegetation cover; vegetation dynamics; woody plant; KwaZulu-Natal; South Africa; Acacia; Acacia sieberianaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33746728277Effect of progression of disease on cognitive performance in HIV/AIDSOdiase F., Ogunrin O., Ogunniyi A.2006Journal of the National Medical Association988NoneNeurology Unit, University Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria; Neurology Unit, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria; Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, NigeriaOdiase, F., Neurology Unit, University Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria; Ogunrin, O., Neurology Unit, University Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria; Ogunniyi, A., Neurology Unit, University College Hospital, Ibadan, NigeriaBackground: HIV infection causes a range of cognitive and behavioral symptoms that become more frequent and severe as the immune system deteriorates and symptomatic illness ensues. Objective: To determine the impact of disease progression on cognitive abilities of Nigerian Africans who present in the HIV/AIDS clinic of the university Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, using the CD4 levels as the measure of disease progression. Methods: A total of 288 subjects comprising 96 randomly selected symptomatic AIDS patients, 96 randomly selected asymptomatic HIV-positive patients and 96 HIV-negative controls participated in the study. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to detect HIV infection, and CD4 levels were obtained for all subjects. The Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSI 'D') was used to assess cognitive performance of subjects. Subjects were matched for age, sex and level of education. Results: Each category of subjects comprised 48 males and 48 females. The mean ages were 32.94 ± 8.0 years, 31.47 ± 6.7 years and 33.56 ± 7.1 years for the controls, asymptomatic HIV-positive and symptomatic AIDS subjects respectively (p=0.127). The mean CD4 levels were 684 ± 44/μL (controls), 284 ± 62/μL (asymptomatic HIV positive) and 142 ± 36/μL (symptomatic AIDS). The mean CSI 'D' scores were 66.46 ± 1.90 (controls), 66.31 ± 2.14 (asymptomatic HIV positive) and 56.62 ± 4.23 (symptomatic AIDS). Conclusion: Cognitive abilities of HIV/AIDS patients decline as the disease progresses. This is reflected in the cognitive performances of the symptomatic AIDS patients. The lower the CD4 levels, the worse the cognitive deficits. There was, however, no significant difference in the performance of asymptomatic HIV-positive patients and the controls.CD4 levels; Cognition; HIV/AIDSCD4 antigen; acquired immune deficiency syndrome; adult; article; CD4 lymphocyte count; cognition; cognitive defect; Community Screening Interview for Dementia; controlled study; deterioration; disease course; disease severity; enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; female; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; major clinical study; male; Nigeria; priority journal; rating scale; symptomatology; Adult; Cognition; Cognition Disorders; Disease Progression; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; Female; HIV; HIV Antibodies; HIV Infections; Humans; Male; Nigeria; Prevalence; PrognosisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-39749194120Is the Western Cape at risk of an outbreak of preventable childhood diseases? Lessons from an evaluation of routine immunisation coverageCorrigall J., Coetzee D., Cameron N.2008South African Medical Journal981NoneSchool of Public Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Unit, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Discipline of Community Health, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, W Cape, South AfricaCorrigall, J., School of Public Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Coetzee, D., Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Unit, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Cameron, N., Discipline of Community Health, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, W Cape, South AfricaObjective. To determine the routine immunisation coverage rates in children aged 12-23 months in the Western Cape. Design. Cross-sectional Household Survey using an adaptation of the '30 by 7' cluster survey technique. Setting. Households across the Western Cape. Subjects. A total of 3 705 caregivers of children aged 12-23 months who had been living in the Western Cape for at least 6 months. Outcome measures. Vaccination status (1 = fully vaccinated; 0 = partially vaccinated) as recorded on a Road-to-Health card or by history. Reasons for not vaccinating were established from a questionnaire. Results. The immunisation coverage was 76.8% for vaccines due by 9 months and 53.2% for those due by 18 months. The reasons given for not being immunised were clinic-related factors (47%), lack of information (27%), caregiver being unable to attend the clinic (23%), and lack of motivation (14%). Of the clinic factors cited, the two commonest ones were missed opportunities (34%) and being told by clinic staff to return another time (20%). Conclusion. While the coverage indicates that a great deal of good work is being done, the coverage is insufficient to prevent outbreaks of measles and other common childhood conditions, including polio. The coverage is too low to consider not running periodic mass campaigns for measles and polio. It will need to be sustainably improved before introducing rubella vaccine as part of the Expanded Programme on Immunisations (EPI) schedule. The reasons given by caregivers for their children not being immunised are valuable pointers as to where interventions should be focused.NoneBCG vaccine; diphtheria pertussis tetanus vaccine; measles vaccine; poliomyelitis vaccine; rubella vaccine; adult; article; caregiver; childhood disease; epidemic; female; health program; health survey; household; human; major clinical study; male; measles; medical information; medical record; motivation; poliomyelitis; preschool child; prevalence; preventive health service; questionnaire; risk assessment; rubella; South Africa; tuberculosis; vaccination; Cross-Sectional Studies; Disease Outbreaks; Female; Humans; Infant; Infection Control; Male; Population Surveillance; South Africa; VaccinationNone
WoSWOS:000259630400027The impact of universal access to antiretroviral therapy on HIV stigma in BotswanaHeisler, Michele,Iacopino, Vincent,Korte, Fiona Percy-de,Leiter, Karen,Phaladze, Nthabiseng,Steward, Wayne T.,Weiser, Sheri D.,Wolfe, William R.2008AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH981010.2105/AJPH.2007.122044University of Botswana, University of California San Francisco, University of California System, University of Michigan, University of Michigan System, University of Minnesota System, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Vet Affairs Ann Arbor Hlth Syst"Iacopino, Vincent: University of Minnesota System","Iacopino, Vincent: University of Minnesota Twin Cities","Phaladze, Nthabiseng: University of Botswana","Steward, Wayne T.: University of California San Francisco","Steward, Wayne T.: University of California System","Weiser, Sheri D.: University of California San Francisco","Weiser, Sheri D.: University of California System","Wolfe, William R.: University of California San Francisco","Wolfe, William R.: University of California System",Objectives. We sought to examine the impact of treatment access on HIV stigma in Botswana 3 years after the introduction of a national program of universal access to antiretroviral therapy. Methods. We studied the prevalence and correlates of HIV stigma in a population-based study of 1268 adults in Botswana in 2004. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess correlates of stigmatizing attitudes and a new measure, anticipated HIV stigma. Results. Overall, 38% of participants had at least 1 stigmatizing attitude: 23% would not buy food from a shopkeeper with HIV; 5% would not care for a relative with HIV. Seventy percent reported at least 1 measure of anticipated stigma: 54% anticipated ostracism after testing positive for HIV, and 31% anticipated mistreatment at work. Perceived access to antiretroviral therapy was strongly and independently associated with decreased odds of holding stigmatizing attitudes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.24, 0.74) and of anticipated stigma (AOR=0.09; 95% CI=0.03, 0.30). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that antiretroviral therapy access may be a factor in reducing HIV stigma. Nevertheless, the persistence of stigmatizing attitudes and significant anticipated stigma suggest that HIV stigma must be a target for ongoing intervention.,"AIDS-RELATED STIGMA",ATTITUDES,BARRIERS,BELIEFS,CHILDREN,"HIV/AIDS-RELATED STIGMA",KNOWLEDGE,PREVALENCE,SERVICES,SOUTH-AFRICANoneNone
WoSWOS:000258431700026An evaluation of the District Health Information System in rural South AfricaDlamini, L.,Garrib, A.,Govender, T.,Herbst, K.,McKenzie, A.,Rohde, J.,Stoops, N.2008SAMJ SOUTH AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL987NoneUniversity of Kwazulu Natal, Hlth Informat Syst Programme, KwaZulu Natal Provincial Dept Hlth"Dlamini, L.: University of Kwazulu Natal","Garrib, A.: University of Kwazulu Natal","Govender, T.: University of Kwazulu Natal","Herbst, K.: University of Kwazulu Natal",Background. Since reliable health information is essential for the planning and management of health services, we investigated the functioning of the District Health Information System (DHIS) in 10 rural clinics. Design and subjects. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with clinic managers, supervisors and district information staff. Data collected over a 12-month period for each clinic were assessed for missing data, data out of minimum and maximum ranges, and validation rule violations. Setting. Our investigation was part of a larger study on improving information systems for primary care in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Outcomes. We assessed data quality, the utilisation for facility management, perceptions of work burden, and usefulness of the system to clinic staff. Results. A high perceived work burden associated with data collection and collation was found. Some data collation tools were not used as intended. There was good understanding of the data collection and collation process but little analysis, interpretation or utilisation of data. Feedback to clinics occurred rarely. In the 10 clinics, 2.5% of data values were missing, and 25% of data were outside expected ranges without an explanation provided. Conclusions. The culture of information use essential to an information system having an impact at the local level is weak in these clinics or at the sub-district level. Further training and support is required for the DHIS to function as intended.,"DATA SET"NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-26844564684Evaluation of the efficacy of emodepside+praziquantel topical solution against cestone (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia taeniaeformis, and Echinicoccus multilocularis) infections in catsCharles S.D., Altreuther G., Reinemeyer C.R., Buch J., Settje T., Cruthers L., Kok D.J., Bowman D.D., Kazacos K.R., Jenkins D.J., Schein E.2005Parasitology Research97SUPPL. 110.1007/s00436-005-1442-3Bayer HealthCare LLC, Animal Health Division, KS, United States; Bayer HealthCare AG, Animal Health Division, R and D Parasiticides, 51368 Leverkusen, Germany; East Tennessee Clinical Research, Knoxville, TN, United States; Professional Laboratory Research Services, NC, United States; ClinVet International, Bloemfontein, South Africa; Cheri Hill Kennel R and D, MI, United States; School of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Medicine, Australian National University, ACT, Australia; Freie Universität Berlin, Institute for Parasitology and International Animal Health, Berlin, GermanyCharles, S.D., Bayer HealthCare LLC, Animal Health Division, KS, United States; Altreuther, G., Bayer HealthCare AG, Animal Health Division, R and D Parasiticides, 51368 Leverkusen, Germany; Reinemeyer, C.R., East Tennessee Clinical Research, Knoxville, TN, United States; Buch, J., Bayer HealthCare LLC, Animal Health Division, KS, United States; Settje, T., Bayer HealthCare LLC, Animal Health Division, KS, United States; Cruthers, L., Professional Laboratory Research Services, NC, United States; Kok, D.J., ClinVet International, Bloemfontein, South Africa; Bowman, D.D., Cheri Hill Kennel R and D, MI, United States; Kazacos, K.R., Cheri Hill Kennel R and D, MI, United States; Jenkins, D.J., School of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Medicine, Australian National University, ACT, Australia; Schein, E., Freie Universität Berlin, Institute for Parasitology and International Animal Health, Berlin, GermanyEmodepside+praziquantel topical solution was developed to provide broad-spectrum anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in cats. Eight controlled studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a topical solution of emodepside (3 mg/kg) and praziquantel (12 mg/kg) (Profender®, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) against feline infections with three species of cestodes. Studies featured naturally acquired infections of Dipylidium caninum or Taenia taeniaeformis, or experimental infections with Echinococcus multilocularis that were placebo-controlled, randomized and blinded. Cats were euthanatized and necropsied between 2 and 11 days after treatment, depending on the target parasite. The efficacy of emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was 100% against D. caninum and T. taeniaeformis, and 98.5- 100% against E. multilocularis. No significant systemic or local adverse reactions to treatment were noted in cats that received the combination. Topical treatment of cats with emodepside+praziquantel topical solution was safe and highly effective against cestode infections.Noneanthelmintic agent; emodepside; placebo; praziquantel; profender; unclassified drug; anthelmintic activity; article; autopsy; cat; cestodiasis; controlled study; drug efficacy; Echinococcus multilocularis; euthanasia; intestine parasite; nonhuman; priority journal; safety; Taenia taeniaeformis; Administration, Topical; Animals; Anthelmintics; Cat Diseases; Cats; Cestoda; Cestode Infections; Depsipeptides; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Drug Therapy, Combination; Praziquantel; Cestoda; Dipylidium caninum; Echinococcus multilocularis; Felidae; Taenia taeniaeformisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34848821622Evaluation of a rapid screening test for rifampicin resistance in re-treatment tuberculosis patients in the Eastern CapeAlbert H., Trollip A.P., Seaman T., Abrahams C., Mole R.J., Jordaan A., Victor T., Hoosain E.2007South African Medical Journal979NoneBiotec Laboratories Ltd., Somerset Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Medical Research Council Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, W Cape, South Africa; Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND), Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricaAlbert, H., Biotec Laboratories Ltd., Somerset Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND), Cape Town, South Africa; Trollip, A.P., Biotec Laboratories Ltd., Somerset Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Seaman, T., Biotec Laboratories Ltd., Somerset Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Abrahams, C., Biotec Laboratories Ltd., Somerset Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Mole, R.J., Biotec Laboratories Ltd., Somerset Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Jordaan, A., Medical Research Council Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, W Cape, South Africa; Victor, T., Medical Research Council Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg, W Cape, South Africa; Hoosain, E., Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality, Port Elizabeth, South AfricaBackground and objectives. Patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) are at high risk of treatment failure. It is anticipated that early identification of MDR-TB and appropriate treatment will improve patient outcome and disease control. We evaluated the rapid detection of rifampicin resistance in previously treated TB patients, directly from acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum using a phage-based test, FASTPlaque-Response (Biotec Laboratories Ltd, Ipswich, UK). The ability of rifampicin resistance to predict MDR-TB was also determined. Design. A prospective study was done comparing performance of the rapid phage test with conventional culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) in AFB-positive TB patients. Setting. Five primary health clinics and one TB referral centre in the Port Elizabeth Metropolitan area, Eastern Cape. Outcome measures. Sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of the phage test were determined compared with gold standard culture and DST. Discrepant results were resolved by molecular detection of mutations conferring rifampicin resistance. The proportion of rifampicin-resistant strains that were MDR was also determined. Results. Previously treated patients were at a high risk of MDR-TB (35.7%). Sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of FASTPlaque-Response for rifampicin resistance determination were 95.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 91.0-99.8%), 97.2% (95% CI: 94.5-99.9%) and 96.5% (95% CI: 94.1-98.9%) respectively compared with conventional DST (unresolved), calculated for specimens that had both FASTPlaque-Response and conventional DST results available. FASTPlaque-Response results were available in 2 days instead of 28-85 days with conventional DST. However, only 70.6% of FASTPlaque-Response results were interpretable compared with 86.3% of conventional DST results. The majority (95.5%) of rifampicin-resistant strains were MDR-TB. Conclusions. Rapid detection of rifampicin resistance using FASTPlaque-Response could contribute to improved management of patients at risk of MDR-TB, such as previously treated patients. However, improvement in control of specimen-related contamination is needed to ensure that a higher proportion of FASTPlaque-Response results are interpretable. Where indicated, early modification of therapy could improve patient prognosis and reduce disease transmission.Noneisoniazid; rifampicin; acid fast bacterium; antibiotic sensitivity; article; bacterial strain; bacteriophage typing; bacterium culture; bacterium isolate; bacterium isolation; clinical trial; controlled clinical trial; controlled study; diagnostic accuracy; drug treatment failure; human; lung tuberculosis; major clinical study; multicenter study; multidrug resistance; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; nonhuman; outcome assessment; prognosis; screening test; sensitivity and specificity; South Africa; sputum analysis; tuberculosis control; Antibiotics, Antitubercular; Bacteriophage Typing; Drug Resistance, Bacterial; Humans; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Predictive Value of Tests; Retreatment; Rifampin; South Africa; Sputum; Tuberculosis, Multidrug-ResistantNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34547910509The impact of safer breastfeeding practices on postnatal HIV-1 transmission in ZimbabwePiwoz E.G., Humphrey J.H., Tavengwa N.V., Iliff P.J., Marinda E.T., Zunguza C.D., Nathoo K.J., Mutasa K., Moulton L.H., Ward B.J.2007American Journal of Public Health97710.2105/AJPH.2006.085704Center for Nutrition, Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC, United States; ZVITAMBO Project, Harare, Zimbabwe; Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States; School of Public Health, University of Witswatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Harare City Health Department, Harare, Zimbabwe; College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; Montreal General Hospital Research Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; ZVITAMBO Project, #1 Borrowdale Rd, Borrowdale, Harare, ZimbabwePiwoz, E.G., Center for Nutrition, Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC, United States, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States; Humphrey, J.H., ZVITAMBO Project, Harare, Zimbabwe, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States, ZVITAMBO Project, #1 Borrowdale Rd, Borrowdale, Harare, Zimbabwe; Tavengwa, N.V., ZVITAMBO Project, Harare, Zimbabwe; Iliff, P.J., ZVITAMBO Project, Harare, Zimbabwe; Marinda, E.T., School of Public Health, University of Witswatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Zunguza, C.D., Harare City Health Department, Harare, Zimbabwe; Nathoo, K.J., College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; Mutasa, K., ZVITAMBO Project, Harare, Zimbabwe; Moulton, L.H., Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States; Ward, B.J., Montreal General Hospital Research Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, CanadaObjectives. We assessed the association between exposure to an educational intervention that emphasized safer breastfeeding practices and postnatal HIV transmission among 437 HIV-positive mothers in Zimbabwe, 365 of whom did not know their infection status. Methods. Mothers were tested for HIV and were encouraged - but not required - to learn their HIV status. Intervention exposure was assessed by a questionnaire, Turnbull methods were used to estimate postnatal HIV transmission, and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to assess the association between intervention exposure and postnatal HIV transmission. Results. Cumulative postnatal HIV transmission was 8.2%; each additional intervention contact was associated with a 38% reduction in postnatal HIV transmission. HIV-positive mothers who were exposed to both print and video materials were 79% less likely to infect their infants compared with mothers who had no exposure. These findings were similar for mothers who did not know their HIV status. Conclusions. The promotion of exclusive breastfeeding has the potential to reduce postnatal HIV transmission among women who do not know their HIV status, and child survival and HIV prevention programs should support this practice.Nonearticle; breast feeding education; controlled study; disease transmission; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; proton nuclear magnetic resonance; Zimbabwe; adult; breast feeding; breast milk; counseling; disease transmission; enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; female; health education; Human immunodeficiency virus 1; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; infant; methodology; newborn; outcome assessment; polymerase chain reaction; proportional hazards model; serodiagnosis; virology; Zimbabwe; Adult; AIDS Serodiagnosis; Breast Feeding; Counseling; Disease Transmission, Vertical; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; Female; Health Education; HIV Infections; HIV-1; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Milk, Human; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Polymerase Chain Reaction; Proportional Hazards Models; ZimbabweNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84921057084The impact of invasive alien Prosopis species (mesquite) on native plants in different environments in South AfricaShackleton R.T., Le Maitre D.C., Van Wilgen B.W., Richardson D.M.2015South African Journal of Botany97None10.1016/j.sajb.2014.12.008Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South Africa; Natural Resources and the Environment, CSIR, P.O. Box 320, Stellenbosch, South AfricaShackleton, R.T., Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South Africa; Le Maitre, D.C., Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South Africa, Natural Resources and the Environment, CSIR, P.O. Box 320, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Van Wilgen, B.W., Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South Africa; Richardson, D.M., Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South AfricaMany Prosopis species have been introduced to South Africa; some taxa and their hybrids have naturalised and become widespread invasive trees. These invasions have detrimental effects on biodiversity, ecosystem services and human livelihoods. Although several studies have documented these impacts, the studies have been limited to single sites or restricted areas. This study assessed the Prosopis population across the full invasive range of the genus in South Africa, and quantified the effects of invasions on native woody and herbaceous species. Basal areas of invasive Prosopis stands reached 9m2/ha, and were on average higher along perennial rivers than along ephemeral rivers (mean basal areas of 3.2 vs. 1.4m2/ha). Native woody species density, basal area, richness and diversity all decreased significantly as the basal area of Prosopis stands increased. For example, up to eight native woody species occurred at basal area of &lt;2m2/ha, this decreased to three native species or fewer at basal areas of &gt;4m2/ha. The cover of native perennial grasses and herbaceous plants declined from 15-20% where the basal area of Prosopis was &lt;2m2/ha to zero where the basal area of Prosopis was &gt;4.5m2/ha. The results highlight the widespread nature of the impacts across all invaded biomes. Current control of Prosopis has had limited success, and alternative, potentially more effective, options are controversial. In the light of the widespread impacts, we recommend that a thorough assessment of the problem be undertaken to inform policy. © 2014 South African Association of Botanists.Basal area; Biological invasions; Impacts; Invasive plants; Tree invasionsbasal area; biodiversity; biome; dicotyledon; ecosystem service; invasiveness; native species; risk assessment; woody plant; South Africa; Poaceae; ProsopisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84918798490Optimizing the design of small-sized nucleus breeding programs for dairy cattle with minimal performance recordingKariuki C.M., Komen H., Kahi A.K., van Arendonk J.A.M.2014Journal of Dairy Science971210.3168/jds.2014-8545Department of Animal Sciences, Chuka University, PO Box 109-60400, Chuka, Kenya; Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, PO Box 338, AH Wageningen, Netherlands; Animal Breeding and Genomics Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Egerton University, PO Box 536-20115, Egerton, KenyaKariuki, C.M., Department of Animal Sciences, Chuka University, PO Box 109-60400, Chuka, Kenya, Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, PO Box 338, AH Wageningen, Netherlands; Komen, H., Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, PO Box 338, AH Wageningen, Netherlands; Kahi, A.K., Animal Breeding and Genomics Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Egerton University, PO Box 536-20115, Egerton, Kenya; van Arendonk, J.A.M., Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, PO Box 338, AH Wageningen, NetherlandsDairy cattle breeding programs in developing countries are constrained by minimal and erratic pedigree and performance recording on cows on commercial farms. Small-sized nucleus breeding programs offer a viable alternative. Deterministic simulations using selection index theory were performed to determine the optimum design for small-sized nucleus schemes for dairy cattle. The nucleus was made up of 197 bulls and 243 cows distributed in 8 non-overlapping age classes. Each year 10 sires and 100 dams were selected to produce the next generation of male and female selection candidates. Conception rates and sex ratio were fixed at 0.90 and 0.50, respectively, translating to 45 male and 45 female candidates joining the nucleus per year. Commercial recorded dams provided information for genetic evaluation of selection candidates (bulls) in the nucleus. Five strategies were defined: nucleus records only [within-nucleus dam performance (DP)], progeny records in addition to nucleus records [progeny testing (PT)], genomic information only [genomic selection (GS)], dam performance records in addition to genomic information (GS+DP), and progeny records in addition to genomic information (GS+PT). Alternative PT, GS, GS+DP, and GS+PT schemes differed in the number of progeny per sire and size of reference population. The maximum number of progeny records per sire was 30, and the maximum size of the reference population was 5,000. Results show that GS schemes had higher responses and lower accuracies compared with other strategies, with the higher response being due to shorter generation intervals. Compared with similar sized progeny-testing schemes, genomic-selection schemes would have lower accuracies but these are offset by higher responses per year, which might provide additional incentive for farmers to participate in recording. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.Breeding program; Genetic gain; Genomic selection; Minimal recordingBosNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84931559925Evaluation of antioxidant potentials of Morinda morindoides leaf extractAkinloye D.I., Sunmonu T.O., Omotainse S.O., Balogun E.A.2015Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry97210.1080/02772248.2015.1031667Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria; Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Hikmah University, Ilorin, Nigeria; Department of Veterinary Pathology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria; DepartmenAkinloye, D.I., Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria; Sunmonu, T.O., Department of Biological Sciences, Al-Hikmah University, Ilorin, Nigeria; Omotainse, S.O., Department of Veterinary Pathology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria; Balogun, E.A., Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, NigeriaThis study investigated antioxidant status of animals given aqueous extract of Morinda morindoides leaves using the levels of reduced glutathione, total-thiol, vitamin C, and vitamin E as well as malondialdehyde concentrations as indices, and its in vitro antioxidant capacity. Thirty rats divided into five groups were used. Group A served as control and were administered distilled water while groups B, C, D, and E were given 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg per kilogram body weight of water-extracted constituents of M. morindoides for 28 days. Total phenolic compounds amounted to 83.6 ± 5.9 mg g−1 gallic acid equivalent, while total flavonoid content was 9.5 ± 0.9 mg g−1 pyrocathecol equivalent. Malondialdehyde in plasma was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner, ranging from 21% in groups B and C to 84% in groups D and E. Vitamins C and E were significantly increased, in group E by 91% and 17% compared with control. Total thiols and glutathione in plasma were significantly increased, with group E having 2.5-fold and 4.2-fold higher values than control. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.antioxidant; evaluation; leaf extract; Morinda morindoidesAldehydes; Peptides; Antioxidant capacity; Antioxidant potential; Dose-dependent manner; evaluation; Leaf extracts; Morinda morindoides; Total flavonoid contents; Total phenolic compounds; Antioxidants; antioxidant; aqueous solution; concentration (composition); dicotyledon; dose-response relationship; leaf; phenolic compound; plant extract; plasma; Animalia; Morinda morindoides; RattusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-35548954633Performance of in situ rainwater conservation tillage techniques on dry spell mitigation and erosion control in the drought-prone North Wello zone of the Ethiopian highlandsMcHugh O.V., Steenhuis T.S., Berihun Abebe, Fernandes E.C.M.2007Soil and Tillage Research97110.1016/j.still.2007.08.002Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, 206 Riley Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-5701, United States; Dryland Agriculture and Community Participation Consultant, TESFA, Meket, Amhara State, Ethiopia; Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, The World Bank, ESSD-ARD, 1818 H Street, Washington, DC 20433, United StatesMcHugh, O.V., Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, 206 Riley Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-5701, United States; Steenhuis, T.S., Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, 206 Riley Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-5701, United States; Berihun Abebe, Dryland Agriculture and Community Participation Consultant, TESFA, Meket, Amhara State, Ethiopia; Fernandes, E.C.M., Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, The World Bank, ESSD-ARD, 1818 H Street, Washington, DC 20433, United StatesGrain production shortfalls in northern Ethiopia are commonly associated with occurrence of intra-seasonal dry spells or droughts and rapid land degradation which adversely impact crop yields. Suitable practices that use available rainwater more efficiently to mitigate impact of dry spells on crops and that protect soil are needed to stabilize and improve grain yields in the predominately rainfed agriculture. During three cropping seasons on-farm experiments tested conservation tillage techniques implemented with oxen-drawn plows on clay loam soil. Tested tillage techniques are subsoiling, open and tied ridges, no till, and conventional tillage with the local maresha plow (the control). Effectiveness in improving root zone soil moisture, limiting soil erosion, and improving sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) grain yield were determined. Results demonstrate that performance of the tillage techniques varied with seasonal rainfall distribution and intensity and land slope gradient. Tied and open ridge increased seasonal root zone soil moisture 15-24%. Subsoiling slightly (3%) increased and no till slightly decreased soil moisture but were not statistically different from conventional tillage. Tied ridge and no till significantly reduced seasonal soil loss by up to 11 Mg ha-1 during seasons with moderate intensity storms, but during a season with high intensity storms tied ridge on over 9% slope gradient increased soil loss (up to 35 Mg ha-1). The increased soil disturbance of subsoiling led to higher soil loss rates (up to 32 Mg ha-1) than conventional tillage during all seasons. Grain yield decreased and runoff and erosion rates increased rapidly with increasing land slope gradient. During a season with moderate intensity rainfall open and tied ridge increased sorghum yield by 67-73% over the control (730 kg ha-1) while no till decreased yield by 25%. During a season when high intensity rainfall events damaged the ridges, subsoiling had the best sorghum yield with 42% increase over the control (1430 kg ha-1). Poor early season rainfall and fungus attacks resulted in low chickpea yields (200-320 kg ha-1) and statistically insignificant differences between tillage methods. Overall results of the study suggest that on slopes below 8% gradient oxen-drawn ridge tillage and subsoiling, to a lesser degree, can effectively improve conditions that mitigate impact of short dry spells especially during seasons with less intense rainfall events. © 2007.Drought mitigation; On-farm trial; Ridge tillage; Soil erosion; Soil moisture; SubsoilingCrops; Drought; Erosion; Rain; Soil moisture; Storms; Drought mitigation; On-farm trial; Ridge tillage; Soil erosion; Subsoiling; Water conservation; clay loam; conservation tillage; crop yield; drought; erosion control; land degradation; rainwater; soil erosion; soil moisture; sorghum; subsoil; upland region; Africa; East Africa; Ethiopia; Sub-Saharan Africa; Bos; Cicer arietinum; Fungi; Sorghum bicolorNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79451473123Impact of using the ICF framework as an assessment tool for students in paediatric physiotherapy: A preliminary studyJelsma J., Scott D.2011Physiotherapy97110.1016/j.physio.2010.09.004Department of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South AfricaJelsma, J., Department of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa; Scott, D., Department of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South AfricaObjective: To determine if clinical assessment of children with neurological conditions by physiotherapy students was improved through the overt use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Design and participants: A retrospective, pragmatic audit of practice using written patient assessments completed by third-year physiotherapy students. Assessments completed by third-year students in 2008 were compared with assessments completed by third-year students in 2009. The assessment format used in 2008 was very loosely based on the ICF model, while the 2009 assessments made rigorous use of the ICF approach. Setting: Two schools for children with special needs to which physiotherapy students from the Department of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, University of Cape Town are sent for clinical exposure. Method: A score sheet was drawn up to evaluate specific criteria in each assessment, using a five-point marking scheme. The mark sheet was tested for reliability. All assessments were evaluated independently using the score sheet by two external physiotherapists who were blind to the purpose of the exercise. Results: There was a significant difference between the scores obtained on the score sheet for the 2008 group and the 2009 group. The 2009 group obtained a median score of 60, compared with a median score of 50 for the 2008 group (median difference between groups 9.2, 95% confidence interval 4.2 to 14.1). The overall impression mark given to the 2009 group was also higher than that given to the 2008 group, with a median difference between the groups of 5.9 (95% confidence interval 3.2 to 12.7). It would appear that the 2009 students, using the ICF framework for assessing patients, were able to include more function-related information in their assessments, resulting in a more holistic assessment. Conclusion: Teaching students to use the ICF framework when assessing paediatric patients encourages clinical reasoning and an improved holistic approach to identifying the patient's problems in context. This, in turn, enables the student to plan a more appropriate intervention treatment, to the patient's benefit. © 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy.Clinical assessment; Education; ICF; Physiotherapyarticle; cerebral palsy; clinical assessment tool; clinical practice; controlled study; human; International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health; medical student; paraplegia; patient assessment; pediatrics; physiotherapy; priority journal; reliability; retrospective study; scoring system; Child; Disability Evaluation; Disabled Children; Humans; Pediatrics; Physical Therapy Specialty; Retrospective StudiesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-19444377376Phylogenetic and morphological re-evaluation of the Botryosphaeria species causing diseases of Mangifera indicaSlippers B., Johnson G.I., Crous P.W., Coutinho T.A., Wingfield B.D., Wingfield M.J.2005Mycologia971NoneDepartment of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; ACIAR, P.O. Box 1571, Canberra, ACT 101, Australia; Centraalbureau Voor Schimmelcultures, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, NetherlandsSlippers, B., Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Johnson, G.I., ACIAR, P.O. Box 1571, Canberra, ACT 101, Australia; Crous, P.W., Centraalbureau Voor Schimmelcultures, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, Netherlands; Coutinho, T.A., Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Wingfield, B.D., Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Wingfield, M.J., Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaSpecies of Botryosphaeria are among the most serious pathogens that affect mango trees and fruit. Several species occur on mangoes, and these are identified mainly on the morphology of the anamorphs. Common taxa include Dothiorella dominicana, D. mangiferae (= Natrassia mangiferae), D. aromatica and an unidentified species, Dothiorella 'long'. The genus name Dothiorella, however, is acknowledged as a synonym of Diplodia. This study aimed to characterize and name the Botryosphaeria spp. associated with disease symptoms on mangoes. To achieve this isolates representing all four Dothiorella spp. mentioned above were compared with the anamorphs of known Botryosphaeria spp., based on conidial morphology and DNA sequence data. Two genomic regions were analyzed, namely the ITS rDNA and β-tubulin regions. The morphological and molecular results confirmed that the fungi previously identified from mango as species of Dothiorella belong to Fusicoccum. Dothiorella dominicana isolates were identical to isolates of F. parvum (teleomorph = B. parva). A new epithet, namely F. mangiferum, is proposed for isolates previously treated as D. mangiferae or N. mangiferae. Isolates of D. aromatica were identified as F. aesculi (teleomorph = B. dothidea). A fourth Fusicoccum sp. also was identified as those isolates previously known as Dothiorella 'long'. A key is provided to distinguish these species based on anamorph morphology in culture. This study provides a basis for the identification of Botryosphaeria species from mango, which is important for disease control and to uphold quarantine regulations. © 2005 by The Mycological Society of America.Conidia; Dieback; Fusicoccum; Identification; Mango; Phylogeny; Soft rot; Stem-end rot; Taxonomyfungal DNA; ribosomal spacer DNA; RNA 5.8S; tubulin; fungal disease; identification method; phylogeny; taxonomy; article; Ascomycetes; classification; DNA sequence; genetics; mango; microbiological examination; microbiology; molecular genetics; nucleotide sequence; pathogenicity; phylogeny; plant disease; RNA gene; species difference; ultrastructure; Ascomycota; DNA, Fungal; DNA, Ribosomal Spacer; Genes, rRNA; Mangifera; Molecular Sequence Data; Mycological Typing Techniques; Phylogeny; Plant Diseases; RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Species Specificity; Tubulin; Botryosphaeria; Botryosphaeria dothidea; Diplodia; Dothidea; Dothiorella; Fungi; Fusicoccum; Mangifera indicaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84881234577Rangeland management impacts on the properties of clayey soils along grazing gradients in the semi-arid grassland biome of South AfricaKotzé E., Sandhage-Hofmann A., Meinel J.-A., du Preez C.C., Amelung W.2013Journal of Arid Environments97None10.1016/j.jaridenv.2013.07.004Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; Inst. of Crop Science and Resource Conservation - Soil Science and Soil Ecology, University of Bonn, Nussallee 13, 53115 Bonn, GermanyKotzé, E., Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; Sandhage-Hofmann, A., Inst. of Crop Science and Resource Conservation - Soil Science and Soil Ecology, University of Bonn, Nussallee 13, 53115 Bonn, Germany; Meinel, J.-A., Inst. of Crop Science and Resource Conservation - Soil Science and Soil Ecology, University of Bonn, Nussallee 13, 53115 Bonn, Germany; du Preez, C.C., Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; Amelung, W., Inst. of Crop Science and Resource Conservation - Soil Science and Soil Ecology, University of Bonn, Nussallee 13, 53115 Bonn, GermanyThe grassland biome of South Africa is a major resource for livestock farming; yet the soils of these rangelands are stressed differently by various management systems. The aim of this study was to investigate how basic soil properties respond to different management systems. For this purpose we sampled rangeland management systems under communal (continuous grazing), commercial (rotational grazing) and land reform (mixture of grazing systems) farming. Within each of these systems a grazing gradient was identified with decreasing grazing pressure with increasing distance to the water points. Results showed that communal farms with continuous grazing were generally depleted in the respective nutrient stocks. The depletion increased with rising grazing pressure. Along that line there was a breakdown of macroaggregates with losses of the C and N stored therein. However, the commercial farms also exhibited a decline of macroaggregates and their associated C content nearby the water points. Aggregate fractionation is a sensitive indicator for detecting the beginning of soil degradation in this biome; yet, degradation was less pronounced under the rotational grazing of the commercial farms than under communal property right conditions. Hence, soil analyses confirm that fences and appropriate grazing periods are needed to manage these rangelands sustainably. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.Continuous grazing; Piosphere; Rangeland management systems; Rotational grazing; Soil aggregates; Soil organic matteraggregate; biome; clay soil; fractionation; grazing pressure; land management; land reform; livestock farming; nutrient budget; rangeland; semiarid region; soil degradation; soil organic matter; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-38549166141Screening for diabetic retinopathy in primary care with a mobile fundal camera - Evaluation of a South African pilot projectMash B., Powell D., du Plessis F., van Vuuren U., Michalowska M., Levitt N.2007South African Medical Journal9712 INoneDivision of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Department of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, W Cape, South Africa; Eye Care Services, Cape Town Metropolitan District Health Services, South Africa; Cape Town Metropolitan District Health Services, South Africa; Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricaMash, B., Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Department of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, W Cape, South Africa; Powell, D., Eye Care Services, Cape Town Metropolitan District Health Services, South Africa; du Plessis, F., Eye Care Services, Cape Town Metropolitan District Health Services, South Africa; van Vuuren, U., Cape Town Metropolitan District Health Services, South Africa; Michalowska, M., Cape Town Metropolitan District Health Services, South Africa; Levitt, N., Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricaBackground and aims. In South Africa diabetes makes a significant contribution to the burden of disease. Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of adult blindness, and screening can reduce the incidence. This project aimed to implement and evaluate a new service for retinal screening that uses a non-mydriatic mobile fundal camera in primary care. This is the first time such a service has been evaluated in an African primary care context. Methods. The service was implemented as an operational research study at three community health centres and data were collected to evaluate the operational issues, screening, reporting and referral of patients. Results. Out of 400 patients screened 84% had a significantly reduced visual acuity, 63% had retinopathy (22% severe non-proliferative, 6% proliferative and 15% maculopathy), 2% of eyes could not be screened and 14% of patients required dilatation. Referral was necessary in 27% of cases for cataracts, in 7% for laser treatment and in 4% for other specialist services. Repeat photography was needed in 8% and urgent follow-up in 12%. A SWOT analysis of the pilot project was completed and recommendations were made on how to integrate it into the district health system. Conclusion. Screening with a fundal camera improved the quality of care for diabetic patients and is feasible in the South African public sector, primary care setting. A single technician should be able to photograph almost 10 000 patients a year.Noneadult; article; cataract; controlled study; diabetic retinopathy; disease severity; feasibility study; female; follow up; health care quality; health center; human; low level laser therapy; major clinical study; male; medical specialist; mobile fundal camera; ophthalmoscopy; patient referral; pilot study; primary medical care; retina maculopathy; screening test; South Africa; visual acuity; Adult; Diabetic Retinopathy; Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological; Equipment Design; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Fundus Oculi; Humans; Incidence; Male; Mass Screening; Middle Aged; Photography; Pilot Projects; Primary Health Care; Reproducibility of Results; Retina; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-37349057834The impact of HIV/AIDS on blood transfusion practice in South Africa: Some ethical issuesJenkins T.2007South African Medical Journal9711 IIINoneDivision of Human Genetics, Faculty of Health Services, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaJenkins, T., Division of Human Genetics, Faculty of Health Services, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaBlood transfusion has become an essential component of modern medical practice. However, worldwide epidemics of viral diseases - in particular, HIV/AIDS - have made the practice of blood transfusion therapy hazardous, motivating scientists to devise techniques and strategies to ensure the supply of safe blood and blood components for clinical use. The challenges are particularly great in sub-Saharan Africa, where clinicians have become so accustomed to using blood transfusion that it may be difficult for them to reduce their dependence on it. A number of ethical issues raised by the practice of blood transfusion in medicine are raised and discussed.Noneblood substitute; acquired immune deficiency syndrome; article; blood analysis; blood donor; blood transfusion; health care policy; history of medicine; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; informed consent; medical ethics; medical practice; needs assessment; patient safety; population research; professional secrecy; public health; resource allocation; risk assessment; South Africa; virus infection; virus transmission; Blood Substitutes; Blood Transfusion; HIV Infections; Humans; Informed Consent; Privacy; Resource Allocation; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34047135322Design and performance evaluation of a medium power PM-assisted reluctance synchronous traction machine using bonded PM-sheetsSibande S.E., Kamper M.J., Wang R.2006SAIEE Africa Research Journal971NoneElectrical Machines and Drives Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland, 7602, South AfricaSibande, S.E., Electrical Machines and Drives Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland, 7602, South Africa; Kamper, M.J., Electrical Machines and Drives Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland, 7602, South Africa; Wang, R., Electrical Machines and Drives Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland, 7602, South AfricaThis paper describes the optimum design of a permanent-magnet-assisted reluctance rotor of a 110 kW reluctance synchronous traction machine. Previous studies show that the performance of the pure reluctance synchronous machine drive deteriorates fast in the flux-weakening speed region. To address this problem, thin bonded permanent-magnet sheet material is used inside the flux barriers of the reluctance rotor to improve the performance of the drive, especially in the flux-weakening speed region. A design optimization algorithm is implemented to minimize the volume and hence the cost of the permanent-magnet material, subject to voltage and torque constraints. The calculated and measured results show clearly that the performance of the reluctance synchronous traction machine with a minimum amount of permanent-magnet material in the rotor compares favorably with the performance of the conventional induction machine drive at both rated and maximum speeds. Copyright © 2004 IEEE.Finite element; Optimisation; Permanent magnet; Reluctance synchronous machineDesign optimization; Finite Element; Flux barrier; Flux weakening; Induction machine drive; Maximum speed; Measured results; Optimisation; Optimisations; Optimum designs; Performance evaluation; Reluctance synchronous machine; Sheet material; Torque constraints; Traction machines; Magnetic devices; Optimization; Permanent magnets; Synchronous motors; Traction (friction); Machine designNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77249095073Torque performance of optimally designed three- and five-phase reluctance synchronous machines with two rotor structuresRakgati E.T., Kamper M.J.2006SAIEE Africa Research Journal971NoneElectrical Machines and Drives Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland (Stellenbosch) 7602, South AfricaRakgati, E.T., Electrical Machines and Drives Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland (Stellenbosch) 7602, South Africa; Kamper, M.J., Electrical Machines and Drives Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland (Stellenbosch) 7602, South AfricaIn this paper the torque performance of optimally designed three- and five-phase reluctance synchronous machines with different normal laminated rotor structures are studied. Both the round rotor with internal flux barriers and salient-pole rotor with no internal flux barriers but only cut-outs are investigated. The effect on the torque performance by adding third harmonic current component to the phase currents in a five-phase reluctance synchronous machine is also studied. The magnetostatic finite-element field solution with skew taken into account is used directly by an optimisation algorithm to optimise in multi-dimensions the design of the machines under same copper losses and volume. It is found that the torque increase due to third harmonic current injection is only 4% in the case of the five-phase machine with salient-pole rotor; the three-phase machine with round, internal-flux-barrier rotor is shown to outperform this machine in terms of torque by 28%. The measured torque results of the three-phase machine with round, internal-flux-barrier rotor are presented and compared with calculated results.Copyright © 2004 IEEE.Design optimization; Finite element method; Five-phase; Reluctance synchronous machine; Rotor structuresCopper loss; Cut out; Design optimization; Finite-element fields; Five-phase machines; Internal fluxes; Laminated rotors; Optimisations; Phase currents; Reluctance synchronous machine; Rotor structures; Third harmonic; Third harmonic current injection; Three-phase machines; Finite element method; Optimal systems; Poles; Structural optimization; Torque; Machine designNone
Scopus2-s2.0-36049012726Evaluation and improvement of sticky traps as monitoring tools for Glossina austeni and G. brevipalpis (Diptera: Glossinidae) in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaGreen K.K., Venter G.J.2007Bulletin of Entomological Research97610.1017/S0007485307005238Entomology Division, ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X5, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, University of Pretoria, South AfricaGreen, K.K., Entomology Division, ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X5, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa, Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, University of Pretoria, South Africa; Venter, G.J., Entomology Division, ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X5, Onderstepoort 0110, South AfricaThe attractiveness of various colours, colour combinations and sizes of sticky traps of the 3-dimensional trap (3DT), cross-shaped target (XT), rectangular screen (RT) and monopanels were evaluated for their efficacy to capture Glossina austeni Newstead and G. brevipalpis Newstead in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The 3-dimensional shapes of the XT and 3DT in light blue (l.blue) and white were significantly (ca. 3.1-6.9 times) better than the RT for G. austeni. On bicoloured XTs, G. austeni landed preferentially on electric blue (e.blue) (58%) and black (63%) surfaces when used with white; while for G. brevipalpis, significantly more landed on e.blue (60-66%) surfaces when used with l.blue, black or white surfaces. Increased trap size increased the catches of G. brevipalpis females and both sexes of G. austeni significantly. Temoocid and polybutene sticky materials were equally effective and remained durable for 2-3 weeks. The glossy shine of trap surfaces did not have any significant effect on the attraction and landing responses of the two species. The overall trap efficiency of the e.blue/l.blue XT was 23% for G. brevipalpis and 28% for G. austeni, and that of the e.blue/black XT was 16% for G. brevipalpis and 51% for G. austeni. Larger monopanels, painted e.blue/black on both sides, increased the catches of G. austeni females significantly by up to four times compared to the standard e.blue/black XT. This monopanel would be recommended for use as a simple and cost effective survey tool for both species in South Africa. © 2007 Cambridge University Press.Glossina spp.; South Africa; Sticky traps; Trap efficiency; Tsetse fliesadhesive agent; biological survey; capture method; comparative study; cost; efficiency measurement; monitoring; trap (equipment); tsetse fly; animal; article; color; environmental monitoring; equipment design; insect control; methodology; South Africa; tsetse fly; Adhesives; Animals; Color; Environmental Monitoring; Equipment Design; Insect Control; South Africa; Tsetse Flies; Africa; KwaZulu-Natal; South Africa; Southern Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; Diptera; Glossina (genus); Glossina austeni; Glossina brevipalpis; GlossinidaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-38549103532Evaluation of a locally produced rapid urease test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infectionLevin D.A., Watermeyer G., Mohamed N., Epstein D.P., Hlatshwayo S.J., Metz D.C.2007South African Medical Journal9712 INoneGastrointestinal Clinic, University of Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenferology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, PA, United StatesLevin, D.A., Gastrointestinal Clinic, University of Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Watermeyer, G., Gastrointestinal Clinic, University of Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Mohamed, N., Gastrointestinal Clinic, University of Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Epstein, D.P., Gastrointestinal Clinic, University of Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Hlatshwayo, S.J., Gastrointestinal Clinic, University of Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Metz, D.C., Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenferology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, PA, United StatesBackground. The rapid urease test (RUT) is used at Groote Schuur Hospital flor diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection. This is an in-house method, which has not been validated. Objective. To validate our practice of reading the RUT immediately after endoscopy (RUT0), by comparing this with a reading at 24 hours (RUT24) and with histological analysis. Design. Ninety consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy over a 6-week period from October 2005 to November 2005, and in whom rapid urease testing was indicated, were included in the study. Patients with recent exposure (within 2 weeks of endoscopy) to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histamine receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and antibiotics (confounders) were noted and included in the cohort. Two antral and two body biopsies were taken for histological examination and a third antral biopsy was placed in the RUT bottle. Both haematoxylin and eosin and modified Giemsa staining methods were used to identify H. pylori. The RUT was read immediately (within 5 minutes of upper endoscopy) (RUT0), as per our current practice, and each specimen was re-read at 24 hours (RUT24). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and the impact of confounders were calculated. Results. Of the 90 patients undergoing rapid urease testing, 39% were male and 61% were female, with a mean age of 55 years (range 22 - 79 years). Histological examination revealed H. pylori in 67.8% (N=61) of the biopsy specimens. In the 65 patients without confounders, the sensitivity and specificity of the RUT0 were 65.9% and 100% respectively, and 90.9% and 100% for RUT24. After including the 25 patients with confounders, the sensitivity and specificity were 68.8% and 100% for RUT0, and 90.1% and 100% for RUT24 respectively. Thirteen RUT0 specimens (30.9%) that were initially negative became positive at the RUT24 reading. There were 6 (9.8%) RUT0- and RUT24-negative but histology-positive specimens. Four of these 6 false-negative RUT24 results could be accounted for by a low H. pylori density on histological analysis (2 patients were taking PPIs). Confounders did not alter the sensitivity and specificity outcomes or impact on the number of false-negative RUTs. Conclusions. Our locally prepared RUT is a specific test for the detection of H. pylori infection. The sensitivity is greatly enhanced by reading the test at 24 hours. The use of PPIs, H2RAs and antibiotics preceding endoscopy did not impact significantly on the results.Noneantibiotic agent; eosin; hematoxylin; histamine H2 receptor antagonist; proton pump inhibitor; urease; adult; aged; article; cohort analysis; controlled study; endoscopy; false negative result; female; gastritis; Giemsa stain; Helicobacter infection; Helicobacter pylori; histopathology; human; human tissue; intermethod comparison; laboratory test; major clinical study; male; prediction; rapid urease test; sensitivity and specificity; stomach biopsy; validation process; Adult; Aged; Biopsy; Diagnosis, Differential; Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal; Female; Helicobacter Infections; Helicobacter pylori; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Predictive Value of Tests; Pyloric Antrum; Retrospective Studies; Sensitivity and Specificity; Severity of Illness Index; UreaseNone
WoSWOS:000302143600011Continuous EEG monitoring in Kenyan children with non-traumatic comaChengo, Edwin,Fegan, Gregory,Garrashi, Harrun,Gwer, Samson,Idro, Richard,Kirkham, Fenella J.,Newton, Charles R.,White, Steve2012ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD97410.1136/archdischild-2011-300935Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Makerere University, University College London, University of London, University of Oxford, University of Southampton, Afya Res Africa, Southampton Gen Hosp, Wellcome Trust Res Programme"White, Steve: Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust","White, Steve: University College London","White, Steve: University of London",Background The aim of this study was to describe the EEG and clinical profile of seizures in children with non-traumatic coma, compare seizure detection by clinical observations with that by continuous EEG, and relate EEG features to outcome. Methods This prospective observational study was conducted at the paediatric high dependency unit of Kilifi District Hospital, Kenya. Children aged 9 months to 13 years presenting with acute coma were monitored by EEG for 72 h or until they regained consciousness or died. Poor outcome was defined as death or gross motor deficits at discharge. Results 82 children (median age 2.8 (IQR 2.0-3.9) years) were recruited. An initial medium EEG amplitude (100-300 mV) was associated with less risk of poor outcome compared to low amplitude (&lt;= 100 mV) (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.7; p&lt;0.01). 363 seizures in 28 (34%) children were observed: 240 (66%) were electrographic and 112 (31%) electroclinical. In 16 (20%) children, electrographic seizures were the only seizure types detected. The majority (63%) of electroclinical seizures had focal clinical features but appeared as generalised (79%) or focal with secondary generalisation (14%) on EEG. Occurrence of any seizure or status epilepticus during monitoring was associated with poor outcome (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 8.7; p=0.02 and OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 15.3; p&lt;0.01, respectively). Conclusion Initial EEG background amplitude is prognostic in paediatric non-traumatic coma. Clinical observations do not detect two out of three seizures. Seizures and status epilepticus after admission are associated with poor outcome.,BACTERIAL-MENINGITIS,"CEREBRAL MALARIA",CHILDHOOD,CLINICAL-FEATURES,ENCEPHALOPATHY,INTENSIVE-CARE-UNIT,"NONCONVULSIVE STATUS EPILEPTICUS",RISK-FACTORS,SEIZURES,"SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA"NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34447109866HIV/AIDS impact on health service - Lessons learntQuinlan T., Veenstra N.2007South African Medical Journal976NoneHealth Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricaQuinlan, T., Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; Veenstra, N., University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa[No abstract available]Noneantiretrovirus agent; acquired immune deficiency syndrome; article; cost benefit analysis; epidemic; health care access; health care cost; health economics; health program; health service; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; patient attitude; patient care; patient compliance; public hospital; social psychology; South Africa; Community Health Services; Cost of Illness; HIV Infections; Humans; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34547096232Impact of an exotic parasitoid on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) population dynamics, damage and indigenous natural enemies in KenyaLöhr B., Gathu R., Kariuki C., Obiero J., Gichini G.2007Bulletin of Entomological Research97410.1017/S0007485307005068International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, PO Box 30772, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Katumani Research Centre, PO Box 340, 90700 Machakos, Kenya; Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Muguga Research Centre, PO Box 30148, 00100 Nairobi, KenyaLöhr, B., International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, PO Box 30772, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya; Gathu, R., International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, PO Box 30772, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya; Kariuki, C., Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Katumani Research Centre, PO Box 340, 90700 Machakos, Kenya; Obiero, J., Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Muguga Research Centre, PO Box 30148, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya; Gichini, G., International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, PO Box 30772, 00100 Nairobi, KenyaDiadegma semiclausum (Hellén) (Hymenoptera: lchneumonidae), an exotic diamondback moth parasitoid, was released in two pilot areas (Werugha in Coast Region and Tharuni in Central Province) in Kenya. Fifteen month before release, observations on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), and local natural enemy population dynamics and pest damage were initiated in both areas and continued for three years after release. The P. xylostella population was bimodal with higher records during dry seasons. At Werugha, the peak population of P. xylostella was 16.8 per plant (October 2001); at Tharuni it was 12.8 (February 2002). Populations at Werugha declined from three months after release and decreased from 5.4 per plant (before release) to 0.8 (year 3 after release). Concurrently, average damage (1.9 to 1.5) (on a 0-5 scale), proportion of attacked plants (72 to 31%) and proportion of plants in damage group >2 (plants with head damage) decreased (21.4 to 5.3%), while total parasitism increased from 14.4 (before) to 52.5% (year 3 after release, 90% due to D. semiclausum). At Tharuni, D. semiclausum was only recovered 3 months after release. Average populations of P. xylostella declined from 5.9 per plant (before release) to 2.4 (year 3 after release) and damage scores from 2.3 to 1.7. The proportion of plants in damage group >2 declined from 39.7 to 4.5% while overall parasitism increased from 4.2 to 40.6% (98.3% by D. semiclausum). Four species of indigenous parasitoids (Diadegma mollipla (Holmgren), Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov), Apanteles sp. and Itoplectis sp., all primary parasitoids) were almost completely displaced by D. semiclausum. Possible reasons for the different parasitoid development between the two release areas and the displacement of the indigenous species are discussed. © 2007 Cambridge University Press.Biocontrol impact; Biological control; Diadegma semiclausum; Indigenous parasitoids; Parasitoid displacement; Plutella xylostellabiocontrol agent; biological control; moth; natural enemy; parasitoid; pest damage; population dynamics; wasp; animal; article; biological pest control; Brassica; ecosystem; host parasite interaction; Kenya; moth; parasitology; physiology; pilot study; population dynamics; wasp; weather; Animals; Brassica; Ecosystem; Host-Parasite Relations; Kenya; Moths; Pest Control, Biological; Pilot Projects; Population Dynamics; Wasps; Weather; Africa; East Africa; Kenya; Sub-Saharan Africa; Apanteles sp.; Diadegma mollipla; Diadegma semiclausum; Hymenoptera; Itoplectis sp.; Lepidoptera; Oomyzus sokolowskii; Plutella xylostella; PlutellidaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84945447390Evaluation of micro- and nano-carbon-based adsorbents for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutionsAsmaly H.A., Abussaud B., Ihsaah, Saleh T.A., Bukhari A.A., Laoui T., Shemsi A.M., Gupta V.K., Atieh M.A.2015Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry97910.1080/02772248.2015.1092543KACST – Technology Innovation Centre on Carbon Capture and Sequestration (KACST-TIC on CCS), King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; Department of Chemical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; Chemistry Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; Center for Environment &Water, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India; Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa; Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha, QatarAsmaly, H.A., KACST – Technology Innovation Centre on Carbon Capture and Sequestration (KACST-TIC on CCS), King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; Abussaud, B., Department of Chemical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; Ihsaah, Department of Chemical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; Saleh, T.A., Chemistry Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; Bukhari, A.A., Center for Environment &Water, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; Laoui, T., Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; Shemsi, A.M., Center for Environment &Water, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; Gupta, V.K., Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India, Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa; Atieh, M.A., Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha, QatarThis work reports on the adsorption efficiency of two classes of adsorbents: nano-adsorbents including carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs); and micro-adsorbents including activated carbon (AC) and fly ash (FA). The materials were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area, zeta potential, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and UV spectroscopy. The adsorption experimental conditions such as pH of the solution, agitation speed, contact time, initial concentration of phenol, and adsorbent dosage were optimized for their influence on the phenol. The removal efficiency of the studied adsorbents has the following order: AC > CNTs > FA > CNFs. The capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm was found to be 1.348, 1.098, 1.007, and 0.842 mg/g of AC, CNTs, FA, and CNFs, respectively, at 2 hours of contact time, pH 7, an adsorbent dosage of 50 mg, and a speed of 150 rpm. The higher adsorption of phenol on AC can be attributed to its high surface area and its dispersion in water. The optimum values of these variables for maximum removal of phenol were also determined. The experimental data were fitted well to Langmuir than Freundlich isotherm models. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.activated carbon; carbon nanofibers; carbon nanotubes; fly ash; phenolActivated carbon; Adsorbents; Carbon nanofibers; Carbon nanotubes; Chemicals removal (water treatment); Efficiency; Electron microscopy; Field emission microscopes; Fly ash; High resolution transmission electron microscopy; Isotherms; Nanofibers; Nanotubes; Phenols; Scanning electron microscopy; Solutions; Thermogravimetric analysis; Transmission electron microscopy; Ultraviolet spectroscopy; Yarn; Adsorption efficiency; Adsorption of phenol; Dispersion in water; Experimental conditions; Field emission scanning electron microscopy; Freundlich isotherm model; Initial concentration; Removal efficiencies; Adsorption; activated carbon; adsorption; aqueous solution; concentration (composition); efficiency measurement; fly ash; fullerene; pH; phenol; pollutant removal; scanning electron microscopy; thermogravimetry; transmission electron microscopy; ultraviolet radiationKACST, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology; AR-30-92, KFUPM, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
Scopus2-s2.0-33745470983Neuromuscular factors determining 5 km running performance and running economy in well-trained athletesNummela A.T., Paavolainen L.M., Sharwood K.A., Lambert M.I., Noakes T.D., Rusko H.K.2006European Journal of Applied Physiology97110.1007/s00421-006-0147-3KIHU - Research Institute for Olympic Sports, Rautpohjankatu 6, 40700 Jyväskylä, Finland; Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, FinlandNummela, A.T., KIHU - Research Institute for Olympic Sports, Rautpohjankatu 6, 40700 Jyväskylä, Finland; Paavolainen, L.M., KIHU - Research Institute for Olympic Sports, Rautpohjankatu 6, 40700 Jyväskylä, Finland; Sharwood, K.A., Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Lambert, M.I., Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Noakes, T.D., Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Rusko, H.K., KIHU - Research Institute for Olympic Sports, Rautpohjankatu 6, 40700 Jyväskylä, Finland, Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, FinlandThis study investigated the effects of the neuromuscular and force-velocity characteristics in distance running performance and running economy. Eighteen well-trained male distance runners performed five different tests: 20 m maximal sprint, running economy at the velocity of 4.28 m s-1, 5 km time trial, maximal anaerobic running test (MART), and a treadmill test to determine VO2max. The AEMG ratio was calculated by the sum average EMG (AEMG) of the five lower extremity muscles during the 5 km divided by the sum AEMG of the same muscles during the maximal 20 m sprinting. The runners' capacity to produce power above VO2max (MART VO2gain) was calculated by subtracting VO2max from the oxygen demand of the maximal velocity in the MART (VMART). Velocity of 5 km (V5K) correlated with VMART (r=0.77, p&lt;0.001) and VO2max (r=0.49, p&lt;0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that MART VO2gain and VO2max explained 73% of the variation in V5K. A significant relationship also existed between running economy and MART VO2gain (r=0.73, p&lt;0.01). A significant correlation existed between V5K and AEMG ratio during the ground contact phase at the 3 km (r=0.60, p&lt;0.05) suggesting that neural input may affect distance running performance. The results of the present study support the idea that distance running performance and running economy are related to neuromuscular capacity to produce force and that the VMART can be used as a determinant of distance-running performance. © Springer-Verlag 2006.Distance running performance; EMG; Ground contact time; Running economy; Stride lengthadolescent; adult; anaerobic exercise; analysis of variance; article; athlete; correlation analysis; electromyogram; exercise physiology; exercise test; human; human experiment; leg muscle; male; multiple linear regression analysis; muscle force; muscle function; muscle strength; neuromuscular function; normal human; oxygen consumption; physical capacity; priority journal; running; task performance; Adult; Electromyography; Exertion; Humans; Male; Muscle Contraction; Muscle, Skeletal; Oxygen Consumption; Physical Endurance; Psychomotor Performance; RunningNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34447626839Evaluation of a diagnostic algorithm for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected adultsSaranchuk P., Boulle A., Hilderbrand K., Coetzee D., Bedelu M., van Cutsem G., Meintjes G.2007South African Medical Journal977NoneMédecins Sans Frontières, Cape Town, South Africa; Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; HIV Service, Department of Medicine, G F Jooste Hospital, South Africa; Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricaSaranchuk, P., Médecins Sans Frontières, Cape Town, South Africa; Boulle, A., Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Hilderbrand, K., Médecins Sans Frontières, Cape Town, South Africa; Coetzee, D., Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Bedelu, M., Médecins Sans Frontières, Cape Town, South Africa; van Cutsem, G., Médecins Sans Frontières, Cape Town, South Africa; Meintjes, G., HIV Service, Department of Medicine, G F Jooste Hospital, South Africa, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricaObjectives. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of and reduction in diagnostic delay attributable to a clinical algorithm used for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPTB) in HIV-infected adults. Design. An algorithm was designed to facilitate clinico-radioiogical diagnosis of pulmonary TB (PTB) in HIV-infected smear-negative adult patients. A folder review was performed on the first 58 cases referred for empirical TB treatment using this algorithm. Setting. Nolungile HIV Clinic, Site C, Khayelitsha. Subjects. Subjects included 58 HIV-infected adult patients with suspected PTB consecutively referred to the local TB clinic for outpatient TB treatment using this algorithm between 12 February 2004 and 30 April 2005. Outcome measures. Outcome measures were response of C-reactive protein, haemoglobin, weight and symptoms to TB treatment and TB culture result. Diagnostic delay (in days) was calculated. Results. Thirty-two of the 58 patients (55%) had positive TB cultures (definite TB). Initiation of TB treatment occured on average 19.5 days before the positive culture report. A further 21 patients (36%) demonstrated clinical improvement on empirical treatment (probable/ possible TB). Two patients did not improve and subsequently died without a definitive diagnosis. Three patients defaulted treatment. Conclusions. SNPTB is more common in HIV-infected patients and leads to diagnostic delay. This algorithm allowed for earlier initiation of TB treatment in HIV-infected patients presenting with symptoms of PTB and negative smears or non-productive cough in a high TB incidence setting.Noneamoxicillin; amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid; C reactive protein; ciprofloxacin; cotrimoxazole; doxycycline; erythromycin; flucloxacillin; hemoglobin; metronidazole; tuberculostatic agent; adult; algorithm; article; bacterium culture; controlled study; coughing; delayed diagnosis; diagnostic accuracy; diagnostic value; drug withdrawal; fatality; female; hemoglobin blood level; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient; lung tuberculosis; major clinical study; male; outcome assessment; protein blood level; sputum analysis; sputum smear; thorax radiography; treatment outcome; weight reduction; Adult; Algorithms; Antitubercular Agents; Female; HIV Infections; Humans; Male; Primary Health Care; Reproducibility of Results; South Africa; Sputum; Treatment Outcome; Tuberculosis, PulmonaryNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84925070811Ethnopharmacological evaluation of a traditional herbal remedy used to treat gonorrhoea in Limpopo province, South AfricaMulaudzi R.B., Ndhlala A.R., Van Staden J.2015South African Journal of Botany97None10.1016/j.sajb.2014.12.007Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, South Africa; Agriculture Research Council-Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, Private Bag X293, Pretoria, South AfricaMulaudzi, R.B., Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, South Africa, Agriculture Research Council-Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, Private Bag X293, Pretoria, South Africa; Ndhlala, A.R., Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, South Africa, Agriculture Research Council-Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, Private Bag X293, Pretoria, South Africa; Van Staden, J., Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, South AfricaThe indigenous people from Limpopo regard herbal remedies as the most effective way of treating Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). There are several herbal remedies that they use for various purposes. This study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a popular herbal remedy used to treat STIs by testing for its antimicrobial activity, enzyme inhibition against HIV-type 1 reverse-transcriptase (HIV-RT) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2). The safety of the remedy was evaluated by testing for its mutagenic and anti-mutagenic effects. The herbal remedy evaluated in this study was manufactured by a traditional healer from Madiwana village in Limpopo province, South Africa. The mixture was derived from nine plant species, which were also evaluated individually. The herbal remedy was evaluated for its antimicrobial properties against two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), three Gram-negative (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria and a fungus, Candida albicans. It was assessed for its pharmacological and genotoxicity properties. The extracts of the nine plant species were evaluated in the antigonococcal bioassay only. The herbal remedy exhibited moderate activity against N. gonorrhoeae (66%) but showed good activity against E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus with MIC values ranging from 0.78 to 1.56. mg/ml. The mixture exhibited low antifungal activity against C. albicans. The remedy exhibited insignificant and moderate activities against COX-2 and HIV-RT respectively. The remedy was non-mutagenic. Acetone extracts of Catharanthus roseus, Senna italica, Gomphocarpus fruticosus and Solanum panduriforme showed the best antigonoccol activity >. 70%. The observed activities of the herbal remedy may offer a lead to explore new multi-target drugs against gonorrhoea and other STIs. © 2014 South African Association of Botanists.Antimicrobial; Gonorrhoea; Herbal remedy; HIV-type 1 reverse transcriptase; Mutagenicityantimicrobial activity; bacterium; bioassay; drug; efficiency measurement; enzyme activity; fungus; genotoxicity; herb; human immunodeficiency virus; indigenous population; inhibition; mutagenicity; plant extract; safety; sexually transmitted disease; traditional medicine; Limpopo; South Africa; Bacillus subtilis; Candida albicans; Catharanthus roseus; Escherichia coli; Fungi; Gomphocarpus fruticosus; Human immunodeficiency virus 1; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Negibacteria; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Posibacteria; Senna italica; Solanum panduriforme; Staphylococcus aureusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34948840889Understanding the impact of a microfinance-based intervention on women's empowerment and the reduction of intimate partner violence in South AfricaKim J.C., Watts C.H., Hargreaves J.R., Ndhlovu L.X., Phetla G., Morison L.A., Busza J., Porter J.D.H., Pronyk P.2007American Journal of Public Health971010.2105/AJPH.2006.095521Rural AIDS and Development Action Research Programme, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Acornhoek, South Africa; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; RADAR, PO Box 2, Acornhoek, 1360, South AfricaKim, J.C., Rural AIDS and Development Action Research Programme, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Acornhoek, South Africa, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, RADAR, PO Box 2, Acornhoek, 1360, South Africa; Watts, C.H., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Hargreaves, J.R., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Ndhlovu, L.X., Rural AIDS and Development Action Research Programme, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Acornhoek, South Africa; Phetla, G., Rural AIDS and Development Action Research Programme, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Acornhoek, South Africa; Morison, L.A., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Busza, J., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Porter, J.D.H., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Pronyk, P., Rural AIDS and Development Action Research Programme, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Acornhoek, South Africa, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United KingdomObjectives. We sought to obtain evidence about the scope of women's empowerment and the mechanisms underlying the significant reduction in intimate partner violence documented by the Intervention With Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE) cluster-randomized trial in rural South Africa. Methods. The IMAGE intervention combined a microfinance program with participatory training on understanding HIV infection, gender norms, domestic violence, and sexuality. Outcome measures included past year's experience of intimate partner violence and 9 indicators of women's empowerment. Qualitative data about changes occurring within intimate relationships, loan groups, and the community were also collected. Results. After 2 years, the risk of past-year physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner was reduced by more than half (adjusted risk ratio=0.45; 95% confidence interval=0.23, 0.91). Improvements in all 9 indicators of empowerment were observed. Reductions in violence resulted from a range of responses enabling women to challenge the acceptability of violence, expect and receive better treatment from partners, leave abusive relationships, and raise public awareness about intimate partner violence. Conclusions. Our findings, both qualitative and quantitative, indicate that economic and social empowerment of women can contribute to reductions in intimate partner violence.Noneacquired immune deficiency syndrome; article; controlled study; empowerment; female; financial management; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; partner violence; rural area; sexual abuse; sexuality; South Africa; wellbeing; women's health; adolescent; adult; aged; clinical trial; controlled clinical trial; domestic violence; economics; male; middle aged; organization; organization and management; psychological aspect; randomized controlled trial; rural population; women's rights; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Domestic Violence; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Organizational Objectives; Rural Population; South Africa; Women's RightsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-50649087055The impact of closed-loop power flow control strategies on power system stability characteristics in a single generator systemAlly A., Rigby B.S.2006SAIEE Africa Research Journal971NoneSchool of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South AfricaAlly, A., School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa; Rigby, B.S., School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South AfricaThis paper presents a theoretical study into the influence of closed-loop control of ac power flow on the small signal and transient stability characteristics of a single-generator study system. Both the constant power and constant angle modes of power flow control are examined for a range of controller response times. The results indicate that the effect of a power flow controller on system stability is dependent on both the mode of the controller and its response time. Copyright © 2004 IEEE.Power flow control; Small-signal stability; Thyristor controlled series capacitor; Transient stabilityAC power flow; Closed-loop; Closed-loop control; Constant power; Generator systems; Power flow controllers; Power flow controls; Power system stability; Response time; Small signal; Small signal stability; Theoretical study; Thyristor controlled series capacitor; Transient stability; Capacitance; Capacitors; Closed loop control systems; Control system stability; Controllers; Electric switchgear; Flow control; Heterojunction bipolar transistors; Response time (computer systems); Thyristors; System stabilityNone
Scopus2-s2.0-31944449074The relationship between some chemical parameters and sensory evaluations for plain black tea (Camellia sinensis) produced in Kenya and comparison with similar teas from Malawi and South AfricaOkinda Owuor P., Obanda M., Nyirenda H.E., Mphangwe N.I.K., Wright L.P., Apostolides Z.2006Food Chemistry97410.1016/j.foodchem.2005.04.027Tea Research Foundation of Kenya, P.O. Box 820, Kericho, Kenya; Tea Research Foundation (Central Africa), P.O. Box 51, Mulanje, Malawi; Department of Biochemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa; Department of Chemistry, Maseno University, P.O. Box 333-40105, Maseno, Kenya; Department of Botany and Horticulture, Maseno Univeristy, P.O. Box 333-40105, Maseno, KenyaOkinda Owuor, P., Tea Research Foundation of Kenya, P.O. Box 820, Kericho, Kenya, Department of Chemistry, Maseno University, P.O. Box 333-40105, Maseno, Kenya; Obanda, M., Tea Research Foundation of Kenya, P.O. Box 820, Kericho, Kenya, Department of Botany and Horticulture, Maseno Univeristy, P.O. Box 333-40105, Maseno, Kenya; Nyirenda, H.E., Tea Research Foundation (Central Africa), P.O. Box 51, Mulanje, Malawi; Mphangwe, N.I.K., Tea Research Foundation (Central Africa), P.O. Box 51, Mulanje, Malawi; Wright, L.P., Department of Biochemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa; Apostolides, Z., Department of Biochemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South AfricaReliable and accurately measurable chemical parameters that can be used to estimate black tea quality are desirable in trade, research and breeding programmes. Using plain Kenyan black tea from 11 cultivars, which gave some significant differences in their plain black tea quality parameters, the individual theaflavins composition, total theaflavins, thearubigins, theaflavin digallate equivalent, total colour and brightness were determined. The parameters were regressed against sensory evaluation scores of two tasters A and B. The theaflavin digallate equivalent (TDE) showed the strongest relationship (r = 0.71 (P ≤ 0.01) and r = 0.80 (P ≤ 0.001)) for A and B′, respectively. The simple (non gallated) theaflavin and thearubigins did not show significant relationships with sensory evaluation. Of the liquor characteristics, there were significant relationships between liquor brightness and sensory evaluation by A and B (r = 0.58 (P ≤ 0.06) and r = 0.59 (P ≤ 0.05)), respectively. In consequence, TDE and brightness can be used in tea breeding programmes as quality indicators or to estimate plain black tea quality potential in the tea trade. Optimising their levels can also help to produce good quality Kenyan black teas during processing. Comparison of these results with work published earlier indicates that, of the individual theaflavins, theaflavin-3,3′-digallate correlates best with tea taster scores for the 11 Kenyan cultivars, whereas the simple theaflavin correlates best with tea tasters' scores for 40 Malawian cultivars. However, the derived parameter, TDE correlates very well with tea tasters' scores for all of the above cultivars. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Black tea; Brightness; Camellia sinensis; Central and Southern Africa; Colour; Eastern Africa; Kenya; Malawi; Quality; South Africa; Theaflavin digallate equivalents; Theaflavinsblack tea extract; theaflavin; article; chemical parameters; chemical structure; food composition; food quality; Kenya; Malawi; sensory evaluation; South Africa; tea; Camellia sinensisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84903513630The impact of exogenous ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the induced production of pro- and anti-inflammatory prostaglandins and leukotrienes in Atlantic salmon head kidney cells using a full factorial design and LC-MS/MSAraujo P., Lucena E., Yang Y., Ceemala B., Mengesha Z., Holen E.2014Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences964None10.1016/j.jchromb.2014.01.018National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), PO Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen, Norway; Centro de Biofísica y Bioquímica, Laboratorio de Fisiología Celular, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Caracas, Venezuela; Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen, Norway; Department of Industrial Chemistry, Bahir Dar University, PO Box 79, Bahir Dar, EthiopiaAraujo, P., National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), PO Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen, Norway; Lucena, E., National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), PO Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen, Norway, Centro de Biofísica y Bioquímica, Laboratorio de Fisiología Celular, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Caracas, Venezuela; Yang, Y., National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), PO Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen, Norway, Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen, Norway; Ceemala, B., National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), PO Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen, Norway; Mengesha, Z., National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), PO Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen, Norway, Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen, Norway, Department of Industrial Chemistry, Bahir Dar University, PO Box 79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Holen, E., National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), PO Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen, NorwayThe production of prostaglandins (PGE2, PGE3) and leukotrienes (LTB4, LTB5) in salmon head kidney cell cultures, exposed to different combinations of 20:4ω-6, 20:5ω-3 and 22:6ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), was evaluated by means of a two level factorial design and LC-MS/MS. The method was selective for the pro- and anti-inflammatory analytes and their corresponding stable-isotope labelled internal standards. The regression models were linear over the concentration range 0.5-150ng/ml with limits of detection of 0.25ng/ml and quantification of 0.40ng/ml for the analysed metabolites. The recovery ranged from 78 to 107% for prostaglandins and 73 to 115% for leukotrienes. The analysis of the samples exposed to different combinations of PUFAs revealed that the presence of single ω-3 PUFAs brought an enhancement of the metabolites from the lipooxygenase pathway, specially LTB4, and a reduction of the metabolites from the cyclooxygenase pathway (PGE2 and PGE3), while the two-term interactions generated the opposite effect (high concentration of prostaglandins and low concentrations of leukotrienes). To our knowledge, this is the first implementation of a fully crossed design for investigating the impact of ω-6 and ω-3 PUFAs on the production of eicosanoids not only through their individual but also through their combined effects on Atlantic salmon head kidney cells. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.Eicosanoids; Experimental design; Leukotrienes; Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Prostaglandins; Salmon head kidney cell culturesBiomolecules; Design of experiments; Isotopes; Liquid chromatography; Mass spectrometry; Metabolites; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Regression analysis; Eicosanoids; Leukotrienes; Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; Prostaglandins; Salmon heads; Cell culture; icosanoid; leukotriene B4; leukotriene B5; lipoxygenase; omega 3 fatty acid; omega 6 fatty acid; prostaglandin E2; prostaglandin E3; prostaglandin synthase; leukotriene; omega 3 fatty acid; omega 6 fatty acid; prostaglandin; animal cell; article; Atlantic salmon; cell culture; controlled study; factorial design; head kidney; incubation time; intervention study; isotope labeling; kidney cell; limit of detection; liquid chromatography; metabolite; nonhuman; priority journal; tandem mass spectrometry; animal; Atlantic salmon; chemistry; evaluation study; head kidney; liquid chromatography; metabolism; procedures; tandem mass spectrometry; Salmo salar; Animals; Chromatography, Liquid; Fatty Acids, Omega-3; Fatty Acids, Omega-6; Head Kidney; Leukotrienes; Limit of Detection; Prostaglandins; Salmo salar; Tandem Mass SpectrometryNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77953322359Long-term anthropogenic and ecological dynamics of a Mediterranean landscape: Impacts on multiple taxaSirami C., Nespoulous A., Cheylan J.-P., Marty P., Hvenegaard G.T., Geniez P., Schatz B., Martin J.-L.2010Landscape and Urban Planning96410.1016/j.landurbplan.2010.03.007Centre d'Écologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive UMR 5175 -, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1919 route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cedex, France; Climate Change and BioAdaptation Division, South African National Biodiversity Institute, P/Bag X7, Claremont 7735 Cape Town, South Africa; Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa; Étude des Structures, de Processus d'Adaptation et des Changements de L'Espace, UMR 6102 - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, 74 rue Louis Pasteur - Case n17, 84029 Avignon Cedex, France; Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, Avenue Agropolis, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France; Centre Français de Recherche en Sciences Sociales USR 3138, CNRS-MAEE, Vysehradska, 49, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic; University of Alberta, Augustana Campus, 4901-46 Avenue, Camrose, Alta. T4V 2R3, Canada; Centre d'É, 1919 route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cedex, FranceSirami, C., Centre d'Écologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive UMR 5175 -, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1919 route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cedex, France, Climate Change and BioAdaptation Division, South African National Biodiversity Institute, P/Bag X7, Claremont 7735 Cape Town, South Africa, Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa; Nespoulous, A., Centre d'Écologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive UMR 5175 -, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1919 route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cedex, France; Cheylan, J.-P., Étude des Structures, de Processus d'Adaptation et des Changements de L'Espace, UMR 6102 - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, 74 rue Louis Pasteur - Case n17, 84029 Avignon Cedex, France, Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, Avenue Agropolis, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France; Marty, P., Centre d'Écologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive UMR 5175 -, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1919 route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cedex, France, Centre Français de Recherche en Sciences Sociales USR 3138, CNRS-MAEE, Vysehradska, 49, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic; Hvenegaard, G.T., Centre d'Écologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive UMR 5175 -, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1919 route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cedex, France, University of Alberta, Augustana Campus, 4901-46 Avenue, Camrose, Alta. T4V 2R3, Canada; Geniez, P., Centre d'É, 1919 route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cedex, France; Schatz, B., Centre d'Écologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive UMR 5175 -, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1919 route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cedex, France; Martin, J.-L., Centre d'Écologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive UMR 5175 -, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1919 route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cedex, FranceMediterranean landscapes resulted from the complex and ancient interaction of ecosystems and societies. Today they represent one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. These landscapes have a fine-grained mosaic and a high resilience to disturbances. However, during the last century, human pressures have led to new landscape structures and dynamics and an overall decrease in biological diversity. Within a Mediterranean landscape from southern France, we assessed the effects of land use changes on land cover and biodiversity over the last 60 years. The major land use changes involved a substantial decrease in sheep grazing and wood cutting corresponding to the abandonment of 70% of the study area. This resulted in a reduction in land use diversity which was usually high in the Mediterranean. Although land cover in the study area changed gradually (2.2% per year), over 74% changed between 1946 and 2002. This habitat shift had a subsequent impact on species distribution. Apart from amphibians and insects, most species of birds, reptiles, orchids and rare plants that responded positively to these changes were associated with woodlands, while species that responded negatively were associated with open habitats. In the Mediterranean, most rare and endemic species are associated with open habitats and are thus threatened by land abandonment. As a result, land abandonment is contributing to a decrease in local species richness and a decrease in rare and endemic species. Since similar patterns of change have been observed over most of the north-western Mediterranean, land abandonment represents a major threat for biodiversity in the Mediterranean. © 2010.Grazing; Land abandonment; Land cover changes; Landscape heterogeneity; Open habitatsBiological diversity; Ecological dynamics; Endemic species; Grazing land; Hotspots; Land cover; Land use diversity; Land-cover change; Land-use change; Landscape structures; Similar pattern; Species distributions; Species richness; Study areas; Western Mediterranean; Wood cutting; Biodiversity; Ecology; Landforms; Land use; abandoned land; ecological approach; ecosystem resilience; grazing pressure; heterogeneity; hot spot; human activity; land cover; land use change; long-term change; Mediterranean environment; sheep; species richness; France; Amphibia; Aves; Hexapoda; Orchidaceae; Ovis aries; ReptiliaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84863548712Effect of supplementing rhodes grass hay (Chloris gayana) with berchemia discolor or zizyphus mucronata on the performance of growing goats in KenyaOsuga I.M., Abdulrazak S.A., Muleke C.I., Fujihara T.2012Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition96410.1111/j.1439-0396.2011.01189.xDepartment of Agricultural Resource Management, School of Agriculture and Enterprise Development, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; National Council for Science and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Animal Sciences, Egerton University, Nakuru, Kenya; Faculty of Bioresources, Mie University, Mie city, JapanOsuga, I.M., Department of Agricultural Resource Management, School of Agriculture and Enterprise Development, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; Abdulrazak, S.A., National Council for Science and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya; Muleke, C.I., Department of Animal Sciences, Egerton University, Nakuru, Kenya; Fujihara, T., Faculty of Bioresources, Mie University, Mie city, JapanTwenty growing Small East African goats were used to determine the effects of feeding sun-dried leaves of the browse forages Berchemia discolor and Zizyphus mucronata as supplements to low-quality basal diet, Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay, on voluntary feed intake (VFI), digestibility and growth performance. The grass hay and maize bran were used as a control. The dried leaves were then included at the rates of 15% and 30% of the dry matter intake (DMI). Berchemia discolor had the highest crude protein (CP) content of 195.5g/kg DM, while Z. mucronata had CP content of 169.5g/kg DM. The grass hay had the lowest CP content of 50.9g/kg DM. The browse forages had low fibre content [Neutral detergent fibre (NDF); 257.9-369.5g/kg DM], while the grass hay had high fibre content (NDF; 713.1g/kg DM). Goats in the groups supplemented with either of the browse forages had higher total DMI, nitrogen (N) intake and retention and live-weight gains than those in the control diet group. The digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) was not affected by supplementation, but the CP digestibility increased with supplementation. The use of the browse forages as supplements for goats fed on poor-quality basal diets would enhance the performance of the animals. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.Browse forages; Goat performance; Grass hay; Supplementationanimal; animal disease; animal food; article; chemistry; controlled clinical trial; controlled study; diet; goat; growth, development and aging; jujube; Kenya; male; Poaceae; randomized controlled trial; Rhamnaceae; Animal Feed; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Animals; Diet; Goats; Kenya; Male; Poaceae; Rhamnaceae; Ziziphus; Animalia; Berchemia discolor; Capra hircus; Chloris gayana; Zea mays; Ziziphus; Ziziphus mucronataNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84890285823Lipid and protein stability and sensory evaluation of ostrich (Struthio camelus) droëwors with the addition of rooibos tea extract (Aspalathus linearis) as a natural antioxidantHoffman L.C., Jones M., Muller N., Joubert E., Sadie A.2014Meat Science96310.1016/j.meatsci.2013.10.036Department of Animal Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa; Department of Food Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa; Post-Harvest and Wine Technology Division, ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa; Department of Genetics, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South AfricaHoffman, L.C., Department of Animal Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa; Jones, M., Department of Animal Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa, Department of Food Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa; Muller, N., Department of Food Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa; Joubert, E., Department of Food Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa, Post-Harvest and Wine Technology Division, ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa; Sadie, A., Department of Genetics, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South AfricaThe effect of rooibos tea extract (RBTE 0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.00%) as a natural antioxidant on the lipid and protein stability of ostrich droëwors (traditional South African dried sausage) after a 15. day drying period was investigated. The lipid stability of the droëwors increased with 0.25% RBTE having lower TBARS. The protein stability of the droëwors did not differ (P. ≥. 0.05) between treatments. The heme-iron content did not differ (P. ≥. 0.05) between the treatments and increased from day 0 to day 15. Drying resulted in a decrease in the total moisture content by 45% and a corresponding increase in all other components. There were no differences between the moisture, fat and ash contents between treatments within a specific day. The droëwors had high concentrations of oleic acid, palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The addition of RBTE also improved the sensory attributes and can thus be added and marketed as a natural flavourant from 'out of Africa' for a traditional South African meat product. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.Aspalathus linearis; Lipid and protein stability; Natural antioxidant; Ostrich droëwors; Rooibos tea extractAsh contents; Aspalathus linearis; Meat products; Natural antioxidants; Protein stability; Rooibos teas; Sensory attributes; Sensory evaluation; Antioxidants; Birds; Drying; Linoleic acid; Proteins; Stability; antioxidant; linoleic acid; oleic acid; palmitic acid; plant extract; rooibos tea extract; thiobarbituric acid reactive substance; animal; article; Aspalathus; Aspalathus linearis; beverage; chemistry; food handling; human; Lipid and protein stability; meat; Natural antioxidant; ostrich; Ostrich droëwors; protein stability; taste; Aspalathus linearis; Lipid and protein stability; Natural antioxidant; Ostrich droëwors; Rooibos tea extract; Animals; Antioxidants; Aspalathus; Beverages; Food Handling; Humans; Linoleic Acid; Meat Products; Oleic Acid; Palmitic Acid; Plant Extracts; Protein Stability; Struthioniformes; Taste; Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive SubstancesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-24944546571Evaluation of the maintenance management function for a control plant at a substationJacobs T.D., Visser J.K.2005SAIEE Africa Research Journal963NoneDepartment of Engineering and Technology Management, University of Pretoria, South AfricaJacobs, T.D., Department of Engineering and Technology Management, University of Pretoria, South Africa; Visser, J.K., Department of Engineering and Technology Management, University of Pretoria, South AfricaMaintenance has historically been regarded as a "necessary evil" and the potential benefits of effective maintenance management practices towards a company's bottom line have only recently been realised. This is especially true for capital-intensive industries like an electric utility such as Eskom. A research project was conducted to evaluate maintenance management as applied by the Electricity Delivery Department of Eskom, which is responsible for the maintenance of a control plant in the Distribution Division, and compare it with a "world class" benchmark. The evaluation revealed that the Electricity Delivery Department is on the right track with respect to the way that the maintenance of the control plant is managed. However, a few areas that require attention in order to optimise the maintenance management function are highlighted. Copyright © 2004 IEEE.Control plant; Maintenance; Management; SubstationCapital-intensive industries; Control plant; Management practices; Potential benefits; Electric power distribution; Electric substations; Electric utilities; Industrial management; Industrial plants; Maintenance; Electric industryNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84878076609Field evaluation of predacious mites (acari: Phytoseiidae) for biological control of citrus red mite, panonychus citri (trombidiformes: Tetranychidae)Fadamiro H.Y., Akotsen-Mensah C., Xiao Y., Anikwe J.2013Florida Entomologist96110.1653/024.096.0111Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, United States; Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Mid-Florida REC, Apopka, FL, United States; Department of Zoology, University of Lagos, Lagos, NigeriaFadamiro, H.Y., Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, United States; Akotsen-Mensah, C., Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, United States; Xiao, Y., Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, United States, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Mid-Florida REC, Apopka, FL, United States; Anikwe, J., Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, United States, Department of Zoology, University of Lagos, Lagos, NigeriaWe evaluated 3 species of predacious mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae), Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt), Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californiens (McGregor), as biological control agents for citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae), on citrus in southern Alabama. Three separate experiments were carried out during 2008 and 2011 to evaluate various factors (i.e. release rate, release frequency and initial prey density) that may impact the performance of the predacious mites. In the first experiment conducted in 2008 on trees with moderate initial prey densities (i.e. < 4 P. citri motiles per leaf), one single release of P. persimilis or G. occidentalis at a rate of 100 or 200 per tree effectively prevented the prey from exceeding the economic threshold (5 motiles/leaf) for the entire duration (35 d) of the experiment. The result of the second experiment in 2008 on trees with high initial prey densities (i.e. ≥ 5 motiles per leaf) showed that 2 releases of P. persimilis or G. occidentalis at a rate of 100 or 200 per tree per release could not provide adequate suppression of P. citri below the economic threshold. In both experiments, P. citri densities were significantly lower in most predacious mite treatments compared to the control (no release). Also, lower P. citri densities were recorded at the higher release rate (200 per tree) compared to the lower rate, but this was only significant in a few cases. The third experiment conducted in 2011 in large plots on trees with low initial P. citri densities (i.e. < 1 motile per leaf) showed that 2 releases of N. californiens or P. persimilis at a rate of 200 per tree per release effectively maintained P. citri at low densities (< 1.5 motiles per leaf) throughout the duration (56 d) of the experiment. Limited observations in spring 2012 confirmed the establishment of the predacious mites released in the 2011 study. These results showed that all 3 phytoseiid species were effective in reducing P. citri densities on citrus. However, initial prey density may be an important factor influencing their performance.biological control; Galendromus occidentalis; Neoseiulus californicus; Panonychus citri; Phytoseiulus persimilis; satsuma citrusbiocontrol agent; biological control; field survey; fruit; mite; Alabama; United StatesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33751377243Impact of the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act on maternal morbidity and mortality in the west of PretoriaMbele A.M., Snyman L., Pattinson R.C.2006South African Medical Journal9611NoneDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Pretoria, MRC Muternal and Infant Health Care Strategies Research Unit, Pretoria, South AfricaMbele, A.M., Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Pretoria, MRC Muternal and Infant Health Care Strategies Research Unit, Pretoria, South Africa; Snyman, L., Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Pretoria, MRC Muternal and Infant Health Care Strategies Research Unit, Pretoria, South Africa; Pattinson, R.C., Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Pretoria, MRC Muternal and Infant Health Care Strategies Research Unit, Pretoria, South AfricaAim. To evaluate the impact of the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act on maternal morbidity and mortality in the west of Pretoria. Setting. Indigent South Africans managed in two public hospitals in the west of Pretoria. Method. Data were collected on all abortions (incomplete or induced) treated in the hospitals in the study area in 1997-1998 and 2003-2005. All cases of severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal deaths due to abortion were identified for these time periods. Data exclude referrals from outside the west of Pretoria. Outcome measures. The case fatality rate (CFR), mortality index (MI) and maternal mortality ratio (MMR) due to abortions. Results. In 1997-1998 there were 2 050 abortions, of which 80.2% were regarded as being incomplete, and in 2003-2005 there were 3 999 abortions, of which 42.8% were regarded as incomplete. Twenty-four women who were critically ill due to complications of abortion presented in 1997-1998 (a rate of 3.05/1 000 births), compared with 50 (2.76/1 000 births) in 2003-2005. There were 5 deaths in 1997-1998 (CFR of 2.4/1 000 abortions) compared with 1 death in 2003-2005 (CFR 0.25/1 000 abortions) (p=0.01, relative risk (RR) 0.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.89). The MI fell from 21.7% to 2.0% (p=0.02, RR 0.1, 95% CI 0.01-0.89). The MMR was 63.6/100 000 births in 1997-1998 compared with 5.54/100 000 in 2003-2005 (p=0.017, RR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01-0.74). Conclusion: The introduction of the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act has been associated with a massive reduction in women presenting with incomplete abortions. The prevalence of critically ill women due to complications of abortion has not changed, but the CFR, MI and MMR have declined significantly.Nonearticle; clinical article; confidence interval; controlled study; critically ill patient; disease severity; female; human; indigent; induced abortion; law enforcement; maternal morbidity; maternal mortality; pregnancy termination; public hospital; risk assessment; South Africa; spontaneous abortion; statistical significance; Abortion, Legal; Abortion, Spontaneous; Data Collection; Female; Humans; Maternal Mortality; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications; Prevalence; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33645964957Performance of a trained traditional bonesetter in primary fracture careOnuminya J.E.2006South African Medical Journal964NoneDepartment of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, NigeriaOnuminya, J.E., Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, NigeriaBackground. In developing nations traditional bonesetters (TBSs) play a significant role in primary fracture care. However, despite high patronage the TBS remains an untrained quack whose practice is often associated with high morbidity. This study evaluated the performance of a trained TBS in primary fracture care. Methods. Between 2002 and 2004 a prospective study was undertaken comparing the performance of a trained TBS with that of an untrained TBS at two separate locations. The two centres selected were both popular in traditional bone setting. A 1-day instructional course was given to the TBS at Afuje study centre, while the TBS at Ogua control centre received no instruction. The outcome of treatment of tibial shaft fractures at the two centres was evaluated and compared to assess the success of the course. Results. There was a considerable decrease in the rate of gangrenous limbs, infection, non-union and malunion at the trained TBS centre compared with the untrained TBS centre (2.5% v. 10%, 5% v. 12.5%, 7.5% v. 15%, and 20.0% v. 30%, respectively). The observed difference between the trained and untrained TBSs was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion. It appears that training TBSs can reduce morbidity rates fo llowing TBS treatment.Noneadult; aged; article; bone infection; clinical trial; competence; controlled clinical trial; controlled study; education program; female; fracture healing; gangrene; health practitioner; human; major clinical study; male; morbidity; Nigeria; paramedical education; primary health care; professional practice; tibia fracture; traditional medicine; treatment outcome; Adult; Aged; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Fracture Fixation; Health Care Surveys; Humans; Male; Medicine, African Traditional; Middle Aged; Nigeria; Prospective Studies; Rural Population; Tibial Fractures; Treatment OutcomeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-9644290819Phytochemical screening and pharmacological evaluations for the antifertility effect of the methanolic root extract of Rumex steudeliiGebrie E., Makonnen E., Debella A., Zerihun L.2005Journal of Ethnopharmacology964237110.1016/j.jep.2004.08.026Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa Univ., P.O. Box 9086, A., Ethiopia; Department of Drug Research, Ethiopian Hlth. and Nutr. Res. Inst., P.O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Ethiopia; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa Univ., P.O. Box 9086, A., EthiopiaGebrie, E., Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa Univ., P.O. Box 9086, A., Ethiopia; Makonnen, E., Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa Univ., P.O. Box 9086, A., Ethiopia; Debella, A., Department of Drug Research, Ethiopian Hlth. and Nutr. Res. Inst., P.O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Ethiopia; Zerihun, L., Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa Univ., P.O. Box 9086, A., EthiopiaThe practice of traditional medicine for the control of fertility in most parts of Ethiopia is based on the uses of plant medicines for many years. The fact that herbal medicines have been employed for such a long time does not guarantee their efficacy and safety. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to carry out phytochemical screening, efficacy and safety studies on one of the traditionally used antifertility plants: Rumex steudelii. The secondary metabolites of the root of this plant were determined. The methanolic extract of the roots of this plant were investigated for their antifertility activity in female rats and oral LD 50 was determined in mice. The identification of the secondary metabolites showed that the roots of the plant contained phytosterols and polyphenols. It was found that the extract reduced significantly (p &lt; 0.01) the number of litters. It also produced antifertility effect in a dose dependent manner and the contraceptive effect was manifested for a definite period of time. Furthermore, the extract prolonged significantly the estrus cycle (p &lt; 0.05) and the diestrous phase (p &lt; 0.01) of the rats. The wet weights of the ovaries and uterus were shown to be reduced significantly (p &lt; 0.01) and (p &lt; 0.05), respectively. The oral LD 50 of the extract was found to be 5 g/kg in mice. All these observations suggest that the extract has antifertility effect and is safe at the effective antifertility doses employed in this study. © 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Antifertility; Estrus cycle; Female rats; LD 50; Rumex steudelii extract; Secondary metabolitesplant extract; Rumex steudelii extract; unclassified drug; animal experiment; article; contraception; controlled study; diestrus; drug effect; drug efficacy; drug safety; drug screening; estrus cycle; female; LD 50; male; medicinal plant; nonhuman; ovary; plant root; rat; rumex steudelii; statistical significance; uterus; Animals; Body Weight; Contraceptive Agents, Female; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Estrous Cycle; Female; Lethal Dose 50; Male; Methanol; Mice; Organ Size; Ovary; Plant Extracts; Plant Roots; Pregnancy; Rats; Rumex; UterusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77955665640Online monitoring and control of froth flotation systems with machine vision: A reviewAldrich C., Marais C., Shean B.J., Cilliers J.J.2010International Journal of Mineral Processing964237310.1016/j.minpro.2010.04.005Department of Process Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africa; Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, United KingdomAldrich, C., Department of Process Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africa; Marais, C., Department of Process Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africa; Shean, B.J., Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom; Cilliers, J.J., Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, United KingdomResearch and development into the application of machine vision in froth flotation systems has continued since its introduction in the late 1980s. Machine vision is able to accurately and rapidly extract froth characteristics, both physical (e.g. bubble size) and dynamic (froth velocity) in nature, from digital images and present these results to operators and/or use the results as inputs to process control systems. Currently, machine vision has been implemented on several industrial sites worldwide and the technology continues to benefit from advances in computer technology. Effort continues to be directed into linking concentrate grade with measurable attributes of the froth phase, although this is proving difficult. As a result other extracted variables, such as froth velocity, have to be used to infer process performance. However, despite more than 20 years of development, a long-term, fully automated control system using machine vision is yet to materialise. In this review, the various methods of data extraction from images are investigated and the associated challenges facing each method discussed. This is followed by a look at how machine vision has been implemented into process control structures and a review of some of the commercial froth imaging systems currently available. Lastly, the review assesses future trends and draws several conclusions on the current status of machine vision technology. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Flotation; Image analysis; Machine vision; Modelling; Process controlAutomated control systems; Bubble size; Computer technology; Concentrate grade; Control structure; Current status; Data extraction; Digital image; Froth characteristics; Future trends; Industrial sites; Machine vision; Machine vision technologies; Modelling; Online monitoring; Process performance; Research and development; Computer vision; Control systems; Froth flotation; Image analysis; Online systems; Process controlNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33646012002Rapid scale-up of a community-based HIV treatment service: Programme performance over 3 consecutive years in Guguletu, South AfricaBekker L.-G., Myer L., Orrell C., Lawn S., Wood R.2006South African Medical Journal964NoneDesmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Clinical Research Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United KingdomBekker, L.-G., Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Myer, L., Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Orrell, C., Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Lawn, S., Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Wood, R., Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricaBackground. Despite rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa there are few longitudinal data describing programme performance during rapid scale-up. Methods. We compared mortality, viral suppression and programme retention in 3 consecutive years of a public sector community-based ART clinic in a South African township. Data were collected prospectively from establishment of services in October 2002 to the censoring date in September 2005. Viral load and CD4 counts were monitored at 4-monthly intervals. Community-based counsellors provided adherence and programme support. Results. During the study period 1139 ART-naïve patients received ART (161, 280 and 698 in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd years respectively). The median CD4 cell counts were 84 cells/μl (interquartile range (IQR) 42 -139), 89 cells/μl (IQR 490 - 149), and 110 cells/μl (IQR 55 -172), and the proportions of patients with World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stages 3 and 4 were 90%, 79% and 76% in each sequential year respectively. The number of counsellors increased from 6 to 28 and the median number of clients allocated to each counsellor increased from 13 to 33. The overall loss to follow-up was 2.9%. At the date of censoring, the Kaplan-Meier estimates of the proportion of patients still on the programme were 82%, 86% and 91%, and the proportion who were virally suppressed (< 400 copies/ml) were 100%, 92% and 98% for the 2002, 2003 and 2004 cohorts respectively. Conclusions. While further operational research is required into optimal models of care in different populations across sub-Saharan Africa, these results demonstrate that a single community-based public sector ART clinic can extend care to over 1000 patients in an urban setting without compromising programme performance.Noneantiretrovirus agent; cotrimoxazole; dapsone; didanosine; efavirenz; lamivudine; lopinavir plus ritonavir; nevirapine; RNA directed DNA polymerase inhibitor; stavudine; zidovudine; adolescent; adult; article; blood toxicity; CD4 lymphocyte count; child; cohort analysis; community care; controlled study; disease classification; female; follow up; health care distribution; health practitioner; health program; human; human cell; Human immunodeficiency virus; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; liver toxicity; longitudinal study; major clinical study; male; mortality; nonhuman; patient compliance; patient monitoring; public health service; South Africa; treatment outcome; virus inhibition; virus load; world health organization; Adolescent; Adult; Anti-HIV Agents; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; Child; Child, Preschool; DNA, Viral; Female; Follow-Up Studies; HIV; HIV Infections; Humans; Incidence; Infant; Male; Middle Aged; Pregnancy; Program Evaluation; Prospective Studies; South Africa; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome; Viral LoadNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33646425590Tomato fruit size, maturity and α-tomatine content influence the performance of larvae of potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)Mulatu B., Applebaum S.W., Kerem Z., Coll M.2006Bulletin of Entomological Research96210.1079/BER2005412Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization, PO Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Department of Entomology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel; Institute of Biochemistry Food Science and Nutrition, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, IsraelMulatu, B., Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization, PO Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Applebaum, S.W., Department of Entomology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel; Kerem, Z., Institute of Biochemistry Food Science and Nutrition, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel; Coll, M., Department of Entomology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, IsraelVarious physical and chemical properties of host plants influence insect larval performance and subsequent adult fitness. Tomato plants are relatively new hosts to the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), with the fruit being its preferred feeding site. However, it is unclear how the biochemical and physical properties of tomato fruits relate to potato tuber moth performance. Significant amounts of α-tomatine were detected in maturing green and ripening fruits of cherry (cv. Ceres) and processing (cv. Serio) types of tomatoes whereas none was detected in a fresh market variety (cv. Marglobe), at comparable stages. α-Tomatine is negatively and significantly correlated with development rate (head capsule size) of larvae reared in the fruits of the cherry and processing type tomatoes. Generally, survival, growth and development were significantly superior for larvae reared in the ripening fruits of the fresh market cultivar. At this stage, the fruits of this cultivar are also the largest. Based on these results it is concluded that fruit α-tomatine content, as well as fruit size and maturity, all affect performance of P. operculella larvae in the fruits of cultivated tomatoes. © CAB International, 2006.Herbivory; Insect-plant interactions; Phthorimaea operculella; Potato tuber moth; Secondary plant compounds; Tomatine; Tomatotomatine; cultivar; fruit production; growth and development; host plant; larval development; moth; analysis of variance; animal; article; body weight; chemistry; comparative study; drug effect; growth, development and aging; larva; Lepidoptera; parasitology; physiology; survival; tomato; Analysis of Variance; Animals; Body Weight; Larva; Lepidoptera; Lycopersicon esculentum; Survival Analysis; Tomatine; Ceres; Gelechiidae; Insecta; Lepidoptera; Lycopersicon esculentum; Phthorimaea operculella; Solanum tuberosumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84929692702Phylogeny to function: PE/PPE protein evolution and impact on Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenicityFishbein S., van Wyk N., Warren R.M., Sampson S.L.2015Molecular Microbiology96510.1111/mmi.12981Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States; DST/NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, SAMRC Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South AfricaFishbein, S., Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States, DST/NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, SAMRC Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa; van Wyk, N., DST/NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, SAMRC Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa; Warren, R.M., DST/NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, SAMRC Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa; Sampson, S.L., DST/NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, SAMRC Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South AfricaThe pe/ppe genes represent one of the most intriguing aspects of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. These genes are especially abundant in pathogenic mycobacteria, with more than 160 members in M. tuberculosis. Despite being discovered over 15 years ago, their function remains unclear, although various lines of evidence implicate selected family members in mycobacterial virulence. In this review, we use PE/PPE phylogeny as a framework within which we examine the diversity and putative functions of these proteins. We report on the evolution and diversity of the respective gene families, as well as the implications thereof for function and host immune recognition. We summarize recent findings on pe/ppe gene regulation, also placing this in the context of PE/PPE phylogeny. We collate data from several large proteomics datasets, providing an overview of PE/PPE localization, and discuss the implications this may have for host responses. Assessment of the current knowledge of PE/PPE diversity suggests that these proteins are not variable antigens as has been so widely speculated; however, they do clearly play important roles in virulence. Viewing the growing body of pe/ppe literature through the lens of phylogeny reveals trends in features and function that may be associated with the evolution of mycobacterial pathogenicity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Nonebacterial protein; PE PPE protein; unclassified drug; bacterial antigen; bacterial protein; membrane protein; PE-PGRS protein, Mycobacterium; PPE14 protein, Mycobacterium tuberculosis; PPE2 protein, Mycobacterium tuberculosis; adaptive immunity; Article; bacterial gene; bacterial secretion system; bacterial survival; bacterial virulence; cellular distribution; immune response; macrophage; Mycobacterium smegmatis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; nonhuman; pe ppe gene; phagocytosis; phylogeny; priority journal; protein function; protein localization; proteomics; transcription regulation; tuberculosis; animal; antigenic variation; classification; genetics; guinea pig; immunology; molecular evolution; multigene family; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; pathogenicity; phylogeny; physiology; virulence; Corynebacterineae; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Animals; Antigenic Variation; Antigens, Bacterial; Bacterial Proteins; Evolution, Molecular; Guinea Pigs; Membrane Proteins; Multigene Family; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Phylogeny; VirulenceNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33748963805Enhancement of GMM speaker identification performance using complementary feature setsLerato L., Mashao D.J.2005SAIEE Africa Research Journal961NoneIntelleca Voice and Mobile (Pty) Ltd., P O Box 1537, Parklands, 2121, South Africa; Speech Technology and Research (STAR), Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7800, South AfricaLerato, L., Intelleca Voice and Mobile (Pty) Ltd., P O Box 1537, Parklands, 2121, South Africa; Mashao, D.J., Speech Technology and Research (STAR), Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7800, South AfricaThis paper describes a way of enhancing speaker identification (SiD) performance using N-best list method which utilises complementary feature sets. The SiD process is first done by training the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) classifier using parameterised feature sets (PFS) to form speaker models. During testing, the likelihood of a speaker, given a set of speaker models is her score. Performance scores of SiD system is normally degraded as the population of speakers increases. This paper addresses this problem by using linear prediction cepstral coefficients (LPCC) to complement the results obtained from the PFS and the final identification is performed on a smaller population set. Results obtained using 2-best list indicate performance improvement.LPCC; N-best list; PFS; Speaker identificationLinear prediction cepstral coefficients (LPCC); N-best list; Parameterised feature sets (PFS); Speaker identification; Classification (of information); Identification (control systems); Linear systems; Mathematical models; Problem solving; Speech recognitionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33751357810Evaluation of a strict protocol approach in managing women with severe disease due to abortionPattinson R.C., Snyman L.C., Macdonald A.P.2006South African Medical Journal9611NoneMRC Maternal and Infant Health Care Strategies Research Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaPattinson, R.C., MRC Maternal and Infant Health Care Strategies Research Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Snyman, L.C., MRC Maternal and Infant Health Care Strategies Research Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Macdonald, A.P., MRC Maternal and Infant Health Care Strategies Research Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaAim. To evaluate whether the introduction of a strict protocol approach based on the systemic evaluation of critically ill pregnant women with complications of abortion affected outcome. Setting. Indigent South Africans managed in the regional and tertiary hospitals of the Pretoria Academic Complex. Method. Since 1997 a standard definition of severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) has been used in the Pretoria Academic Complex. All cases of SAMM and maternal deaths were entered on the Maternal Morbidity and Mortality Audit System programme. A comparison of outcome of severely ill women who had complications of abortion was made between 1997-1998 (original protocol) and 2002-2004 (strict protocol). Outcome measures. The mortality index and prevalence of organ system failure or dysfunction. Results. In 1997-1998 there were 43 women with SAMM who survived and a further 10 maternal deaths due to complications of abortion, compared with 107 women with SAMM and 7 maternal deaths during 2002-2004. The mortality index declined from 18.9% in 1997-1998 to 6.1% in 2002-2004 (p=0.02, odds ratio 0.28, 95% confidence limits 0.10-0.79). Significantly more women had hypovolaemic shock in 2002-2004 compared with 1997-1998 (54.4% v. 35.8%, p=0.04), but fewer women had immune system failure including septic shock (18.4% v. 47.2%, p=0.0002) and metabolic dysfunction (0 v. 5.7%, p=0.03) and there was a trend to less renal failure (10.5% v. 22.6%, p=0.06) and cardiac failure (4.4% v. 13.2%, p=0.08). Conclusion. The strict protocol approach based on systemic evaluation in managing critically ill pregnant women with complications of abortion, coupled with an intensive, regular feedback mechanism, has been associated with a reduction in the mortality index.Nonecephalosporin derivative; gentamicin; metronidazole; abortion; antibiotic therapy; article; brain disease; clinical article; clinical protocol; controlled study; critically ill patient; disease severity; female; fluid resuscitation; heart failure; hematologic disease; human; hypovolemic shock; immunopathology; indigent; kidney failure; liver failure; maternal morbidity; maternal mortality; medical audit; metabolic disorder; outcomes research; risk reduction; septic abortion; septic shock; South Africa; tertiary health care; trophoblastic disease; Abortion, Induced; Adult; Critical Care; Female; Humans; Maternal Mortality; Middle Aged; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications; Quality of Health Care; Severity of Illness Index; South Africa; Survival AnalysisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-30944468171Evaluation of the buffering capacity of powdered cow's, goat's and soy milk and non-prescription antacids in the treatment of non-ulcer dyspepsiaLutchman D., Pillay S., Naidoo R., Shangase N., Nayak R., Rughoobeer A.2006South African Medical Journal961NoneSchool of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South AfricaLutchman, D., School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Pillay, S., School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Naidoo, R., School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Shangase, N., School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Nayak, R., School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Rughoobeer, A., School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South AfricaBackground. Non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) is the term most commonly used to describe a heterogeneous and often ill-defined group of dyspepsia patients whose symptoms of upper abdominal pain, discomfort or nausea persist in the absence of identifiable cause. Treatment choice commonly includes over-the-counter medicines and home remedies, e.g. milk. Objective. To determine the relative buffering capacity of goat's, cow's and soy milk, non-prescription antacid drugs and combinations thereof. Methods. The buffering capacities of 25 ml aliquots of each of the powdered milk products, the antacids alone and the combination of antacid and milk were determined. Statistical analysis was used to determine any significant differences in buffering capacity. Results. When the antacids were examined alone, significant differences in buffering capacity were observed. When powdered milk products were examined alone, cow's milk had a significantly higher buffering capacity than either goat's or soy milk. There was no significant difference between goat's and soy milk. In the combination of cow's milk with each of the antacids, brand A and B had a similar buffering capacity, significantly higher than that observed with brand C. Conclusions. The combination with best observed buffering capacity was brand A with cow's milk, and the weakest buffering capacity was observed with brand C with soy milk. The results obtained can be attributed to the chemical constituents of the antacids and the milk products.Nonealginic acid; aluminum hydroxide; aluminum hydroxide plus magnesium trisilicate; antacid agent; bicarbonate; buffer; calcium; calcium carbonate; magnesium carbonate; magnesium trisilicate; milk protein; non prescription drug; phosphate; article; artificial milk; cow; drug determination; drug efficacy; drug formulation; drug mechanism; dyspepsia; goat; nonhuman; pH measurement; soybean milk; statistical analysis; stomach pH; Acid-Base Equilibrium; Animals; Antacids; Buffers; Drugs, Non-Prescription; Dyspepsia; Goats; Humans; Milk; Powders; Soy Milk; Treatment OutcomeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-59449084522Reliability of community-based data monitoring in the Olifants River estuary (South Africa)Carvalho A.R., Williams S., January M., Sowman M.2009Fisheries Research964240310.1016/j.fishres.2008.08.017UCT University of Cape Town, Environmental Evaluation Unit (EEU), South Africa; UEG State University of Goiás, UEG/UnUCET, Laboratory of Ecological Research and Public Science, Brazil; Av. Dona Elvira 150/904-B, Santa Maria de Nazare, Anapolis/GO, CEP 75.113-360, BrazilCarvalho, A.R., UCT University of Cape Town, Environmental Evaluation Unit (EEU), South Africa, UEG State University of Goiás, UEG/UnUCET, Laboratory of Ecological Research and Public Science, Brazil, Av. Dona Elvira 150/904-B, Santa Maria de Nazare, Anapolis/GO, CEP 75.113-360, Brazil; Williams, S., UCT University of Cape Town, Environmental Evaluation Unit (EEU), South Africa; January, M., UCT University of Cape Town, Environmental Evaluation Unit (EEU), South Africa; Sowman, M., UCT University of Cape Town, Environmental Evaluation Unit (EEU), South AfricaThe promulgation of new fisheries policies and laws in South Africa in the late 1990s has provided opportunities for historically disadvantaged communities to access resources that were unequally distributed in the past. The Marine Living Resources Act of 1998, is one such piece of legislation that aims to create more equitable access to marine resources. However, research suggests that post-apartheid policy and legal reform in the fisheries sector have neglected artisanal fishers. This sector is still restricted in their access to fisheries resources, and their input into management, particularly with regard to their role as partners in the assessment, monitoring and management of resources, has been largely overlooked. In this paper, the analysis of information generated by a community-based monitoring program in a gillnet fishery on the Olifants River (Western Cape, South Africa) confirms the value of involving local fishers in the collection and analysis of data related to their fishing activities. Results demonstrated that: (1) Fisheries data collected by community-based monitors are reliable and can make a useful contribution to management decisions; (2) 63% of the target species captured are mature fish and the resource appears to be sustainably exploited; and (3) the incidental catch is negligible. Furthermore, the results provide useful information that might influence government policy proposals to implement a total ban on gillnetting in all South African estuaries. © 2008.Co-management; Community monitoring; Estuary; Olifants River; South AfricaNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77956011911Impact of livestock hygiene education programs on mastitis in smallholder water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Chitwan, NepalNg L., Jost C., Robyn M., Dhakal I.P., Bett B., Dhakal P., Khadka R.2010Preventive Veterinary Medicine9604-Mar10.1016/j.prevetmed.2010.06.012Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA 01581, United States; International Livestock Research Institute, Box 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya; Tribhuvan University Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science Veterinary School, Rampur, Chitwan, NepalNg, L., Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA 01581, United States; Jost, C., International Livestock Research Institute, Box 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya; Robyn, M., Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA 01581, United States; Dhakal, I.P., Tribhuvan University Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science Veterinary School, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal; Bett, B., International Livestock Research Institute, Box 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya; Dhakal, P., Tribhuvan University Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science Veterinary School, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal; Khadka, R., Tribhuvan University Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science Veterinary School, Rampur, Chitwan, NepalA project implemented from 2003 to 2005 trained women in Chitwan District, Nepal, in hygienic dairy production using a process of social mobilization. The aim of this research was to assess if the prevalence of mastitis in water buffalo in the households of women who were trained was lower one year after training than in untrained households, if the training influenced knowledge and practices for the prevention or control of mastitis, and if these practices and knowledge were associated with a lower prevalence of mastitis. A total of 202 households from Eastern and Western Chitwan District were included in the study. Of these, 60 households had participated in the project and 142 had not. Milk samples were collected from 129 households (33 project households and 96 non-project households). Clinical mastitis was determined using visual inspection of udders and detection of macroscopic clots and flakes in milk. The California Mastitis Test was used to diagnose sub-clinical mastitis from milk samples, and the IDEXX SNAP test to identify the presence of tetracycline residues. The prevalence of mastitis in trained households (39.4%) was 43.78% of that in untrained households (60.4%), lower but not significantly so (p=0.08, 95% CI 0.17-1.12). Thirteen indicators of knowledge or practice for the control or prevention of mastitis were more likely to occur in trained households, four significantly so (not consuming milk from sick buffalo (p=0.001), using soap to wash hands before milking (p=0.001), discarding milk after antibiotic usage (p=0.01), and choosing appropriate flooring for their livestock (p=0.03)). Trained households that discarded milk from sick buffalo were 2.96 times more likely to have at least one animal with mastitis in the household (p=0.03, 95% CI 1.15-7.65). Trained households that knew to wash buffalos' teats after milking were less likely (OR 0.25) to have mastitis in their herd (p=0.02, 95% CI 0.08-0.80). Of the 138 buffalos tested, only one tested positive for tetracycline residues. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.Antibiotics; Bubalus bubalis; Education; Mastitis; Nepal; Training; Water buffaloantiinfective agent; drug residue; tetracycline; animal; animal disease; article; buffalo; chemistry; dairying; education; female; hygiene; mastitis; microbiology; milk; Nepal; prevalence; standard; Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Buffaloes; Dairying; Drug Residues; Female; Hygiene; Mastitis; Milk; Nepal; Prevalence; Tetracycline; Animalia; Bubalus; Bubalus bubalisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79961045624Evaluation of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and Pseudomonas fluorescens for Panama disease controlBelgrove A., Steinberg C., Viljoen A.2011Plant Disease95810.1094/PDIS-06-10-0409Agricultural Research Council-Grain Crops Institute, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa; Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa; INRA-Université de Bourgogne, Microbiology of Soil and Environment, Dijon, France; Department of Plant Pathology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland 7602, South AfricaBelgrove, A., Agricultural Research Council-Grain Crops Institute, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa, Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa; Steinberg, C., INRA-Université de Bourgogne, Microbiology of Soil and Environment, Dijon, France; Viljoen, A., Department of Plant Pathology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland 7602, South AfricaNonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum endophytes from healthy banana roots were evaluated for their ability to reduce Fusarium wilt of banana (Panama disease). Isolates were identified morphologically and by using species-specific primers. Pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculating banana plantlets in the greenhouse. Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolates were grouped into 14 haplotype groups by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the intergenic spacer region, and representative isolates evaluated for biocontrol of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. In the greenhouse, 10 nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolates were able to significantly reduce Fusarium wilt of banana. The isolate that protected banana plantlets best in the greenhouse, a nonpathogenic F. oxysporum from the root rhizosphere, and Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS 417 were then field tested. When the putative biological control organisms were tested in the field, neither the nonpathogenic F. oxysporum, P. fluorescens, nor combinations thereof reduced Fusarium wilt development significantly. A number of factors could contribute to the lack of field protection, including soil microbial and chemical composition and reduced survival of biocontrol organisms in banana roots. A lack of knowledge regarding the etiology of Fusarium wilt of 'Cavendish' banana in the subtropics and the effect of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense race and banana cultivar in protection of banana by biocontrol organisms should be further investigated. © 2011 The American Phytopathological Society.NoneFusarium; Fusarium oxysporum; Fusarium sp.; Musa acuminata; Pseudomonas fluorescensNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79952403882Dietary impact on circulating glucose profiles in the white rhinocerosBerkeley E.V., Linklater W.L., Dierenfeld E.S.2011Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition95210.1111/j.1439-0396.2010.01047.xCentre for Biodiversity and Restoration Ecology, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand; Centre for African Conservation Ecology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; Novus International, Inc., St. Charles, MO, United StatesBerkeley, E.V., Centre for Biodiversity and Restoration Ecology, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand; Linklater, W.L., Centre for Biodiversity and Restoration Ecology, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand, Centre for African Conservation Ecology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; Dierenfeld, E.S., Novus International, Inc., St. Charles, MO, United StatesExcess dietary glucose may be a factor in several captive wildlife diseases and reproductive abnormalities. The first step in understanding the health consequences of diets high in glucose is to characterize how dietary glucose concentrations change circulating glucose profiles. We adapted the glycemic index approach to detect differences in blood glucose concentrations in white rhinos in response to different meals. Six white rhinos were fasted overnight then randomly assigned to be fed 5kg of grass hay and one of five meals varying in digestible energy (DE) availability and source (10% DE glucose, 5% DE glucose, 10% DE pelleted horse feed, 10% DE lucerne hay, 10% DE grass hay). After eating, the blood glucose response peaked 45-90min later and remained elevated up to 180min. Area under the curve results demonstrated that the blood glucose response was not different between diets. However, at 90min, serum glucose levels in rhinos eating the 10% lucerne hay diet were significantly lower than the 5% glucose and 10% glucose diets but not the 10% pellet nor 10% grass hay diets. The changes in blood glucose responses to different diets were similar in magnitude to reported domestic horse profiles but are higher than predicted by allometric scaling. We conclude that the grass hay, lucerne hay and low glycemic index horse pellets fed in this study resulted in similar blood glucose responses in white rhinos. The validation of the methodology used in this study is a first step towards elucidating the relationship between glucose, obesity, health and reproduction in rhinos. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.Ceratotherium simum; Oral glucose tolerance test; Perissodactyla; Zoo nutritionglucose; animal; animal disease; animal food; article; blood; diet; female; glucose blood level; metabolism; Perissodactyla; Animal Feed; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Animals; Blood Glucose; Diet; Female; Glucose; Perissodactyla; Ceratotherium simum; Equidae; Equus caballus; Medicago sativa; PerissodactylaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-82855175182Occurrence and persistence of water level/salinity states and the ecological impacts for St Lucia estuarine lake, South AfricaLawrie R.A., Stretch D.D.2011Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science95110.1016/j.ecss.2011.08.007Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041, South AfricaLawrie, R.A., Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041, South Africa; Stretch, D.D., Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041, South AfricaThe St Lucia estuarine lake in South Africa forms part of a World Heritage Site and is an important local source of biodiversity. Like many estuarine systems worldwide, St Lucia has experienced significant anthropogenic impacts over the past century. Abstractions have decreased fresh water inflows from the lake catchments by about 20%. Furthermore the Mfolozi river, which previously shared a common inlet with St Lucia and contributed additional fresh water during droughts, was diverted from the system in 1952 because of its high silt loads. The separated St Lucia mouth was subsequently kept artificially open until the onset of a dry period in 2002 when the mouth was left to close naturally. These changes and the current drought have placed the system under severe stress with unprecedented hypersaline conditions coupled with desiccation of large portions of the lake. Long-term simulations of the water and salt balance were used to estimate the occurrence and persistence of water levels and salinities for different management scenarios. The risks of desiccation and hyper-salinity were assessed for each case. The results show that the configuration of the Mfolozi/St Lucia inlets plays a key role in the physicochemical environment of the system. Without the Mfolozi link desiccation (of about 50% of the lake area) would occur for 32% of the time for an average duration of 15 months. Artificially maintaining an open mouth would decrease the chance of desiccation but salinities would exceed 65 about 17% of the time. Restoring the Mfolozi link would reduce the occurrence of both desiccation and hypersaline conditions and a mostly open mouth state would occur naturally. Integrating these modeled scenarios with observed biological responses due to changes in salinity and water depth suggests that large long-term changes in the biological structure can be expected in the different management scenarios. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.Biological responses; Persistence times; Salinity; St Lucia; Water levelanthropogenic effect; biodiversity; desiccation; long-term change; physicochemical property; restoration ecology; salinity; water depth; water level; World Heritage Site; KwaZulu-Natal; Lake Saint Lucia; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79952625965Placebo-mediated, Naloxone-sensitive suggestibility of short-term memory performanceStern J., Candia V., Porchet R.I., Krummenacher P., Folkers G., Schedlowski M., Ettlin D.A., Schönbächler G.2011Neurobiology of Learning and Memory95310.1016/j.nlm.2011.01.005Collegium Helveticum, ETH and University of Zurich, Schmelzbergstr. 25, 8092 CH-Zurich, Switzerland; Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EB, United Kingdom; Medical Psychology and Behavioral Immunobiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, 45122 D-Essen, Germany; Center for Oral Medicine, Dental and Maxillo-Facial Surgery, University of Zurich, Plattenstrasse 11, 8032 CH-Zurich, Switzerland; Department of Psychology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South AfricaStern, J., Collegium Helveticum, ETH and University of Zurich, Schmelzbergstr. 25, 8092 CH-Zurich, Switzerland; Candia, V., Collegium Helveticum, ETH and University of Zurich, Schmelzbergstr. 25, 8092 CH-Zurich, Switzerland; Porchet, R.I., Collegium Helveticum, ETH and University of Zurich, Schmelzbergstr. 25, 8092 CH-Zurich, Switzerland, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EB, United Kingdom; Krummenacher, P., Collegium Helveticum, ETH and University of Zurich, Schmelzbergstr. 25, 8092 CH-Zurich, Switzerland; Folkers, G., Collegium Helveticum, ETH and University of Zurich, Schmelzbergstr. 25, 8092 CH-Zurich, Switzerland; Schedlowski, M., Medical Psychology and Behavioral Immunobiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, 45122 D-Essen, Germany; Ettlin, D.A., Center for Oral Medicine, Dental and Maxillo-Facial Surgery, University of Zurich, Plattenstrasse 11, 8032 CH-Zurich, Switzerland; Schönbächler, G., Collegium Helveticum, ETH and University of Zurich, Schmelzbergstr. 25, 8092 CH-Zurich, Switzerland, Department of Psychology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South AfricaPhysiological studies of placebo-mediated suggestion have been recently performed beyond their traditional clinical context of pain and analgesia. Various neurotransmitter systems and immunological modulators have been used in successful placebo suggestions, including Dopamine, Cholecystokinin and, most extensively, opioids. We adhered to an established conceptual framework of placebo research and used the μ-opioid-antagonist Naloxone to test the applicability of this framework within a cognitive domain (e.g. memory) in healthy volunteers. Healthy men (n= 62, age 29, SD = 9) were required to perform a task-battery, including standardized and custom-designed memory tasks, to test short-term recall and delayed recognition. Tasks were performed twice, before and after intravenous injection of either NaCl (0.9%) or Naloxone (both 0.15. mg/kg), in a double-blind setting. While one group was given neutral information (S-), the other was told that it might receive a drug with suspected memory-boosting properties (S+). Objective and subjective indexes of memory performance and salivary cortisol (as a stress marker) were recorded during both runs and differences between groups were assessed. Short-term memory recall, but not delayed recognition, was objectively increased after placebo-mediated suggestion in the NaCl-group. Naloxone specifically blocked the suggestion effect without interfering with memory performance. These results were not affected when changes in salivary cortisol levels were considered. No reaction time changes, recorded to uncover unspecific attentional impairment, were seen. Placebo-mediated suggestion produced a training-independent, objective and Naloxone-sensitive increase in memory performance. These results indicate an opioid-mediated placebo effect within a circumscribed cognitive domain in healthy volunteers. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.Naloxone; Opioids; Placebo; Short-term recall; Suggestion; Working memoryhydrocortisone; naloxone; opiate; sodium chloride; adult; article; cognition; controlled study; drug sensitivity; human; human experiment; male; mental performance; normal human; placebo effect; reaction time; saliva level; short term memory; suggestion; Adult; Analysis of Variance; Double-Blind Method; Drug Interactions; Humans; Hydrocortisone; Male; Memory; Memory, Short-Term; Mental Recall; Naloxone; Narcotic Antagonists; Placebo Effect; Reaction Time; Recognition (Psychology); Reference Values; Saliva; Statistics, Nonparametric; SuggestionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84930338805Genetic parameter estimation and evaluation of duroc boars for feed efficiency and component traitsMacNeil M.D., Kemp R.A.2015Canadian Journal of Animal Science95210.4141/CJAS-2014-089Delta G, 145 Ice Cave Rd., Miles City, MT, United States; Animal and Grassland Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa; RAK Genetic Consulting Ltd, 54 Coachwood Point W, Lethbridge, AB, CanadaMacNeil, M.D., Delta G, 145 Ice Cave Rd., Miles City, MT, United States, Animal and Grassland Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa; Kemp, R.A., RAK Genetic Consulting Ltd, 54 Coachwood Point W, Lethbridge, AB, CanadaMacNeil, M. D. and Kemp, R. A. 2015. Genetic parameter estimation and evaluation of Duroc boars for feed efficiency and component traits. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 95: 155-159. The objective of this research was to produce a genetic evaluation for traits related to feed efficiency of Duroc boars. Meeting this objective required partitioning phenotypic (co)variance into additive genetic and environmental components for feed intake and traits indicative of growth and body composition. Boars (N=3291) were housed in group pens of 22 to 24 animals with two electronic feeders per pen and feed intake was recorded for 8 to 14 wk. Body weight was recorded for each boar at the start and end of test, at approximately 100 kg and at up to three times during the test. The pedigree used contained sire and dam of each boar with at least one recorded phenotype (N=4651) and their maternal and paternal grandsires. Variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood for animal models in a series of uni-variate and bi-variate analyses. Two multiple trait genetic evaluations were conducted to predict estimated breeding value for feed intake using animal models. The first evaluation included feed intake (h2=0.33±0.05), age at 100 kg (h2=0.31±0.04), and subcutaneous fat depth (h2=0.47±0.05). The second genetic evaluation included feed intake, average daily gain (h2=0.27±0.04), mid-test weight (h2=0.33±0.05), and subcutaneous fat depth. Genetic correlations of feed intake with age at 100 kg and fat depth were -0.80±0.05 and  0.57±0.08, respectively. Estimated breeding values for measures of feed efficiency (residual feed intake and residual gain) were calculated from the results of the second analysis and the associated additive genetic (co)variance components.Feed efficiency; Production; Swine; Variance componentsNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84877353707First evaluation of unfermented and fermented rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) in preventing lipid oxidation in meat productsCullere M., Hoffman L.C., Dalle Zotte A.2013Meat Science95110.1016/j.meatsci.2013.04.018Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health, University of Padova, Agripolis, Viale dell'Università, 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy; Department of Animal Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Western Cape, Stellenbosch, 7602, South AfricaCullere, M., Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health, University of Padova, Agripolis, Viale dell'Università, 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy; Hoffman, L.C., Department of Animal Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Western Cape, Stellenbosch, 7602, South Africa; Dalle Zotte, A., Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health, University of Padova, Agripolis, Viale dell'Università, 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), ItalyThis study consisted of two trials aiming to evaluate, for the first time, the antioxidant potential of rooibos in meat products. With this purpose, the first trial evaluated three unfermented (green) rooibos forms (dried leaves, water extract, freeze-dried extract) added at 2% inclusion level to ostrich meat patties on an 8-day shelf-life trial. A Control group without green rooibos inclusion was also considered. The second trial evaluated the addition of different concentrations (0%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1%) of a fermented rooibos extract to nitrite-free ostrich salami. The 2% green rooibos inclusion considerably lowered the TBARS content of ostrich patties, in this way extending their shelf-life. The fermented form (0.5% and 1%) was also effective in delaying lipid oxidation in ostrich salami until 15 days of ripening. The antioxidant potential of both green and fermented forms of rooibos in meat products was confirmed, even if its effect on lipid oxidation requires further study and long-term effects are not yet fully understood. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.Lipid oxidation; Ostrich meat; Rooibos; Salami; TBARSLipid oxidation; Ostrich meats; Rooibos; Salami; TBARS; Oxidation; Meats; antioxidant; plant extract; thiobarbituric acid reactive substance; animal; article; Aspalathus; chemistry; color; drug effect; fermentation; lipid metabolism; meat; ostrich; oxidation reduction reaction; pH; plant leaf; analysis; Aspalathus; drug effects; lipid metabolism; meat; oxidation reduction reaction; Animals; Antioxidants; Aspalathus; Color; Fermentation; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Lipid Metabolism; Meat Products; Oxidation-Reduction; Plant Extracts; Plant Leaves; Struthioniformes; Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances; Animals; Antioxidants; Aspalathus; Color; Fermentation; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Lipid Metabolism; Meat Products; Oxidation-Reduction; Plant Extracts; Plant Leaves; Struthioniformes; Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive SubstancesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-23144457110Evaluation of protein degradation characteristics and metabolisable protein of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and locally available protein supplementsKabi F., Bareeba F.B., Havrevoll Ø., Mpofu I.D.T.2005Livestock Production Science954237110.1016/j.livprodsci.2004.12.013Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Makerere University, P.O.Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda; Department of Animal Science, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5025, N-1432 Aas, Norway; Department of Animal Science, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mt. Pleasant, Harare, ZimbabweKabi, F., Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Makerere University, P.O.Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda; Bareeba, F.B., Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Makerere University, P.O.Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda; Havrevoll, Ø., Department of Animal Science, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5025, N-1432 Aas, Norway; Mpofu, I.D.T., Department of Animal Science, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mt. Pleasant, Harare, ZimbabweDegradation characteristics of crude protein (CP) and metabolisable protein (MP) of feeds for early-weaned, growing and finishing beef bulls were evaluated in three experiments. Feeds in experiment 1 were fresh elephant grass (FEG) and molasses supplemented with sweet potato vines (SPV) in diet 1, supplemental (GCM) compounded from gliricidia, cottonseed cake (CSC), maize bran and NaCl in diet 2 and a commercial concentrate (CC) in diet 3. Feeds in experiment 2 were basal maize stover mixed with molasses (MSM) and FEG supplemented with SPV in diet 1, GCM in diet 2 and CC in diet 3. In experiment 3, MSM and FEG were supplemented with compounded supplemental protein feeds with varying levels of gliricidia inclusion. Supplemental (GM) containing gliricidia, maize bran and NaCl were used in diet 1, GCM in diet 2 and supplemental (CM) containing CSC, maize bran and NaCl in diet 3. Degradabilities of experimental feeds were measured at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h by the nylon bag technique using two rumen fistulated steers (300±10 kg). Effective CP degradabilities of FEG in the three experiments varied (P&lt;0.05) with the supplements. In experiment 1, effective CP degradabilities of the supplements varied (P&lt;0.05) from 668.3 g kg-1 CP in CC to 722.1 g kg-1 CP in SPV and 743.7 g kg-1 CP in GCM. Effective rumen degradable protein (ERDP), digestible udegradable protein (DUP) and MP varied (P&lt;0.05) among the supplements. In experiment 2, effective CP degradabilities of the supplements did not vary but ERDP varied (P&lt;0.05) from 83.7 g kg-1 CP in SPV to 116.6 g kg-1 CP in GCM and 123.8 g kg-1 CP in CC and MP followed similar trends. In experiment 3, effective CP degradabilities of the supplements decreased (P&lt;0.05) with increasing gliricidia inclusion. ERDP increased (P&lt;0.05) with lower gliricidia while DUP varied (P&lt;0.05) from 18.2 g kg-1 CP in CM to 23.6 g kg-1 CP in GCM and 36.6 g kg-1 CP in GM. These data have shown that the majority of locally available feeds evaluated in this study are not similar in CP degradation characteristics and MP but compounded GCM is more suitable in providing degradable and undegradable protein for beef bulls in Uganda. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Cottonseed cake; Degradability; Fresh elephant grass; Gliricidia; Metabolisable protein; Supplemental protein; Sweet potato vinesGliricidia; Ipomoea batatas; Micropus; Pennisetum glaucum; Pennisetum purpureum; Swinepox virus (STRAIN KASZA); Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79952433913Replacement effects of Panicum maximum with Ficus polita on performance of West African dwarf goatsAbegunde T.O., Akinsoyinu A.O.2011Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition95210.1111/j.1439-0396.2010.01040.xDepartment of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaAbegunde, T.O., Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Akinsoyinu, A.O., Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaThe replacement value of Ficus polita for Panicum maximum was evaluated on 32 female post-weaned West African dwarfs goats. Ficus polita was fed with P. maximum at different proportions of 0:90 (F. polita:P. maximum), 30:60, 60:30 and 90:0 constituting diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Each diet was supplemented with 10% cassava peels. Dry matter intake per kg metabolic weight of goats was not significantly (p>0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. However, crude protein intake per kg metabolic weight was higher (p<0.05) in animals fed 60% and 90%F. polita than those fed sole P. maximum diet. Daily weight gain of goats fed diet 3 (60%F. polita) was higher (p<0.05) (27.3g) than those fed diets 4 (18.9g), 2 (20.8g) and the control (6.6g). Dry matter (DM), organic matter, crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre digestibilities were higher (p<0.05) in goats fed 60%F. polita than those fed other diets, except for DM digestibility which was statistically similar to diets 2 and 4 but higher than those fed diet 1 without F. polita. Organic matter and CP digestibility were highest (72.0 and 65.7% respectively) in animals fed 60%F. polita. Nitrogen retention of goats fed 60%F. polita (diet 3) was higher (p<0.05) than that obtained with other diets. The results suggest that feeding combination of F. polita and P. maximum at ratio 60:30 respectively has associative effects that can enhance growth rate, feed intake, nutrients digestibility and nitrogen utilization for goat production during dry season in the tropics. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.Digestion; Ficus polita; Goats; Growth; Panicum maximumanimal; animal disease; animal food; article; cassava; chemistry; clinical trial; controlled clinical trial; controlled study; diet; digestion; female; Ficus; goat; growth, development and aging; millet; randomized controlled trial; Animal Feed; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Animals; Diet; Digestion; Female; Ficus; Goats; Manihot; Panicum; Animalia; Capra hircus; Manihot esculenta; Panicum maximumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84945575156Evaluation of the performance of sorghumgenotypes using gge biplotGasura E., Setimela P.S., Souta C.M.2015Canadian Journal of Plant Science95610.4141/CJPS-2015-119Department of Crop Science, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, P.O. Box MP163, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Rattray Arnold Research Station, Seed Co. Pvt Ltd, P.O. Box CH142, Chisipite, Harare, ZimbabweGasura, E., Department of Crop Science, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Setimela, P.S., International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, P.O. Box MP163, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Souta, C.M., Rattray Arnold Research Station, Seed Co. Pvt Ltd, P.O. Box CH142, Chisipite, Harare, ZimbabweIn spite of sorghum’s drought tolerance, it is largely affected by genotype´environment interaction (GE), making it difficult and expensive to select and recommend new sorghum genotypes for different environments. The objectives of this study were to examine the nature of GE for sorghum grain yield, to identify superior sorghum genotypes for sorghum production environments and determine ideal testing locations for future breeding activities in Zimbabwe. The grain yield of 20 sorghum genotypes from Seed Co. Pvt. Ltd. were evaluated for 2 yr (2011/2012 and 2012/ 2013 cropping seasons) at five locations in different agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe. Combined analyses of variance showed significant differences for genotypes (PB0.01), environments (PB0.001) and genotype-location (PB0.01). Genotype´environment variance component was seven times greater than that of genotypes. Genotype-environment interaction was attributed to the variability in the predictable biotic and abiotic factors associated with the different locations. The genotype main effect plus GE biplot showed that the experimental sorghum genotypes W07, W09, W05, G06 and OP46 were high yielding and stable, and possessed other desirable agronomic traits. The most discriminating and representative location was Rattray Arnold Research Station. © 2015, Agricultural Institute of Canada. All rights reserved.Genotype×environment interaction; Ideal testing environment; Sorghum; Stabilityagricultural ecosystem; agronomy; crop performance; crop yield; drought resistance; environmental factor; genotype-environment interaction; grass; spatiotemporal analysis; variance analysis; ZimbabweNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84884127422Evaluation of molecular assays for identification Campylobacter fetus species and subspecies and development of a C. fetus specific real-time PCR assayvan der Graaf-van Bloois L., van Bergen M.A.P., van der Wal F.J., de Boer A.G., Duim B., Schmidt T., Wagenaar J.A.2013Journal of Microbiological Methods95110.1016/j.mimet.2013.06.005Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80165, 3508 TD Utrecht, Netherlands; Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, Netherlands; WHO Collaborating Center for Campylobacter, OIE Reference Laboratory for Campylobacteriosis, Netherlands; Allerton Provincial Veterinary Laboratory, Private Bag X2, Cascades, 3202, South Africavan der Graaf-van Bloois, L., Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80165, 3508 TD Utrecht, Netherlands, WHO Collaborating Center for Campylobacter, OIE Reference Laboratory for Campylobacteriosis, Netherlands; van Bergen, M.A.P., Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, Netherlands, WHO Collaborating Center for Campylobacter, OIE Reference Laboratory for Campylobacteriosis, Netherlands; van der Wal, F.J., Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, Netherlands, WHO Collaborating Center for Campylobacter, OIE Reference Laboratory for Campylobacteriosis, Netherlands; de Boer, A.G., Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, Netherlands, WHO Collaborating Center for Campylobacter, OIE Reference Laboratory for Campylobacteriosis, Netherlands; Duim, B., Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80165, 3508 TD Utrecht, Netherlands, WHO Collaborating Center for Campylobacter, OIE Reference Laboratory for Campylobacteriosis, Netherlands; Schmidt, T., Allerton Provincial Veterinary Laboratory, Private Bag X2, Cascades, 3202, South Africa; Wagenaar, J.A., Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80165, 3508 TD Utrecht, Netherlands, Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, Netherlands, WHO Collaborating Center for Campylobacter, OIE Reference Laboratory for Campylobacteriosis, NetherlandsPhenotypic differentiation between Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) subspecies fetus and C. fetus subspecies venerealis is hampered by poor reliability and reproducibility of biochemical assays. AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) and MLST (multilocus sequence typing) are the molecular standards for C. fetus subspecies identification, but these methods are laborious and expensive. Several PCR assays for C. fetus subspecies identification have been described, but a reliable comparison of these assays is lacking.The aim of this study was to evaluate the most practical and routinely implementable published PCR assays designed for C. fetus species and subspecies identification. The sensitivity and specificity of the assays were calculated by using an extensively characterized and diverse collection of C. fetus strains. AFLP and MLST identification were used as reference. Two PCR assays were able to identify C. fetus strains correctly at species level. The C. fetus species identification target, gene nahE, of one PCR assay was used to develop a real-time PCR assay with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, but the development of a subspecies venerealis specific real-time PCR (ISC. fe1) failed due to sequence variation of the target insertion sequence and prevalence in other Campylobacter species. None of the published PCR assays was able to identify C. fetus strains correctly at subspecies level. Molecular analysis by AFLP or MLST is still recommended to identify C. fetus isolates at subspecies level. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.AFLP; Bovine genital campylobacteriosis; Campylobacter fetus; MLST; Real-time PCR; Subspecies identificationamplified fragment length polymorphism; article; bacterium identification; Campylobacter fetus; controlled study; gene insertion sequence; multilocus sequence typing; nonhuman; nucleotide sequence; priority journal; real time polymerase chain reaction; sensitivity and specificity; species identification; strain identification; subspecies; Bovinae; Campylobacter; Campylobacter fetus; AFLP; Bovine genital campylobacteriosis; Campylobacter fetus; MLST; Real-time PCR; Subspecies identification; Animals; Bacteriological Techniques; Campylobacter fetus; Campylobacter Infections; Cattle; Cattle Diseases; Molecular Diagnostic Techniques; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction; Sensitivity and SpecificityNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78650715330Effects of spectral variation on the device performance of copper indium diselenide and multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modulesOkullo W., Munji M.K., Vorster F.J., Van Dyk E.E.2011Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells95210.1016/j.solmat.2010.10.018Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth, South AfricaOkullo, W., Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; Munji, M.K., Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; Vorster, F.J., Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; Van Dyk, E.E., Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth, South AfricaWe present results of an experimental investigation of the effects of the daily spectral variation on the device performance of copper indium diselenide and multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules. Such investigations are of importance in characterization of photovoltaic devices. The investigation centres on the analysis of outdoor solar spectral measurements carried out at 10 min intervals on clear-sky days. We have shown that the shift in the solar spectrum towards infrared has a negative impact on the device performance of both modules. The spectral bands in the visible region contribute more to the short circuit current than the bands in the infrared region while the ultraviolet region contributes least. The quantitative effects of the spectral variation on the performance of the two photovoltaic modules are reflected on their respective device performance parameters. The decrease in the visible and the increase in infrared of the late afternoon spectra in each case account for the decreased current collection and hence power and efficiency of both modules. © 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V.CuInSe2; Multi-crystalline silicon; Performance; Photovoltaic modules; Spectral variationCuInSe2; Multi-crystalline silicon; Performance; Photovoltaic modules; Spectral variation; Crystalline materials; Indium; Selenium compounds; Photovoltaic effectsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-17844407191Evaluation of an HIV/AIDS peer education programme in a South African workplaceSloan N.M., Myers J.E.2005South African Medical Journal954NoneDepartment of Public Health, National Health Service Ayrshire and Arran, United Kingdom; School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricaSloan, N.M., Department of Public Health, National Health Service Ayrshire and Arran, United Kingdom; Myers, J.E., School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricaObjectives. To evaluate a South African workplace HIV/AIDS peer-education programme running since 1997. Methods. In 2001 a cross-setional study was, done of 900 retail-section employees in three geographical areas, The study measured HIV/AIDS knowledge,,attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS, belief about self-risk of infection, and condom use as a practice indicator. The impact of an HIV/AIDS peer-education programme on these outcomes was examined. Results. Training by peer educators had no significant impact on any outcome. Fifty-nine per cent of subjects had a good knowledge score, 62% had positive attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS, 34% used condoms frequently, and the majority of participants (73%) believed they were at low risk of infection. Logistical regression showed that a very small proportion of the variance in the four outcomes was explained by potential determinants of interest (8% for knowledge, 6% for attitude, 7% for risk and 17% for condom use). Conclusions. The HIV peer-education programme was found to be ineffective and may have involved an opportunity cost. The programme contrast with more costly comprehensive care that includes antiretrovirals. The private sector appears to have been as tardy as the public sector in addressing the epidemic effectively.Noneantiretrovirus agent; acquired immune deficiency syndrome; adolescent; adult; aged; article; awareness; condom; controlled study; cost benefit analysis; education program; employee; epidemic; female; frequency analysis; geography; health behavior; health education; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; infection risk; logistic regression analysis; male; occupational health; outcomes research; private practice; public health service; risk assessment; scoring system; South Africa; statistical significance; workplace; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Condoms; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Health Education; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; HIV Infections; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Peer Group; Risk Factors; South Africa; WorkplaceNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84948714237Simultaneous staining of sputum smears for acid-fast and lipid-containing Myobacterium tuberculosis can enhance the clinical evaluation of antituberculosis treatmentsKayigire X.A., Friedrich S.O., Van Der Merwe L., Donald P.R., Diacon A.H.2015Tuberculosis95610.1016/j.tube.2015.08.001Division of Medical Physiology, MRC Centre for Tuberculosis Research, DST/NRF, Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa; Task Applied Science, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Statistics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South AfricaKayigire, X.A., Division of Medical Physiology, MRC Centre for Tuberculosis Research, DST/NRF, Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa, Task Applied Science, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa; Friedrich, S.O., Division of Medical Physiology, MRC Centre for Tuberculosis Research, DST/NRF, Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa, Task Applied Science, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa; Van Der Merwe, L., Department of Statistics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa; Donald, P.R., Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa; Diacon, A.H., Division of Medical Physiology, MRC Centre for Tuberculosis Research, DST/NRF, Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa, Task Applied Science, Bellville, Cape Town, South AfricaDormant, slow-growing, antibiotic-tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis undermine the shortening of tuberculosis treatment to less than 6 months and are thought to be characterised by intracellular lipid bodies. Antibiotic effects on such persisting bacilli escape evaluation as they cannot be readily cultured. We identified cells containing lipid bodies in sputum smears from 86 newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients and monitored these cells daily in 42 patients over the first 14 days of treatment with rifampicin, the experimental compound SQ-109, or both agents combined. Counts of Nile-Red-positive lipid-body containing cells were correlated with those of Auramine-O-positive cells and colony forming units of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis on agar plates. Rifampicin but not SQ-109 significantly reduced colony forming units but all treatments distinctively and significantly changed the proportions of lipid body-containing bacilli and viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Monitoring lipid-body containing bacilli in sputum during treatment with experimental antituberculosis regimens may identify putative treatment-shortening regimens. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.Dormancy; Fluorescence microscopy; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Rifampicinagar; auramine; lipid; n (2 adamantyl) n' geranylethylenediamine; rifampicin; acid fast bacterium; adult; Article; cell counting; clinical article; clinical evaluation; colony forming unit; confocal laser microscopy; human; lung tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; priority journal; sputum culture; sputum smear; treatment durationNone
NoneNoneEvaluation of distribution of presbyopic correction through primary healthcare centres in Zanzibar, East AfricaLaviers H., Burhan I., Omar F., Jecha H., Gilbert C.2011British Journal of Ophthalmology95610.1136/bjo.2010.186890International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom; Eye Department, Mnazi Mmoja Hospital, Stonetown, Zanzibar, TanzaniaLaviers, H., International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom; Burhan, I., Eye Department, Mnazi Mmoja Hospital, Stonetown, Zanzibar, Tanzania; Omar, F., Eye Department, Mnazi Mmoja Hospital, Stonetown, Zanzibar, Tanzania; Jecha, H., Eye Department, Mnazi Mmoja Hospital, Stonetown, Zanzibar, Tanzania; Gilbert, C., International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, United KingdomAim: A pilot scheme was developed to integrate the distribution of ready-made near spectacles into primary eye-care delivery in six primary healthcare facilities in Zanzibar, East Africa. With the aim of scaling it up to national level, the scheme was evaluated in terms of relevance, effectiveness, equality, sustainability and replicability. Methods: Six medical officers were trained in ocular anatomy, history taking, blindness definitions, ocular abnormalities, preventable blindness, distance visual acuity, near visual acuity, eye examination, record keeping and referral criteria. Each clinic was supplied with 200 near spectacles. The evaluation team revisited the units 6 months later to assess the scheme. Results: The evaluation team recommendations included: a structured approach to planning from the outset, facility selection criteria, raising awareness through community meetings, funding through a revolving fund and the introduction of referral monitoring systems. 372 of the 574 patients attending the facilities had eye complaints; 285 eye infections, 29 distance vision problems and 173 near vision problems. 173 near vision spectacles were dispensed, and 74 people were referred. All medical officers and participants recommended continuing with the scheme. Conclusions: The project is highly relevant and timely, given that presbyopia is now a priority with the WHO. The scheme could easily be adopted at the national level in Zanzibar and other areas in East Africa.Noneadult; aged; anamnesis; article; awareness; blindness; child; eye disease; eye examination; eye infection; female; financial management; health care access; health care quality; health program; human; infant; major clinical study; male; medical documentation; patient referral; presbyopia; primary health care; priority journal; school child; spectacles; staff training; Tanzania; visual acuity; visual disorder; Age Distribution; Cost-Benefit Analysis; Delivery of Health Care; Eyeglasses; Female; Humans; Male; Patient Satisfaction; Pilot Projects; Presbyopia; Tanzania; Visual AcuityNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84945538270Consistency of performance of early-maturing maize cultivars in striga-infested and striga-free environmentsBadu-Apraku B., Yallou C., Oyekunle M., Akinwale R., Aweke G., Kamara A.2015Canadian Journal of Plant Science95610.4141/CJPS-2015-056International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), IITA (UK) Ltd, Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Road, Croydon, United Kingdom; INRAB, Cotonou, Benin; Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, NigeriaBadu-Apraku, B., International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), IITA (UK) Ltd, Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Road, Croydon, United Kingdom; Yallou, C., INRAB, Cotonou, Benin; Oyekunle, M., International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), IITA (UK) Ltd, Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Road, Croydon, United Kingdom; Akinwale, R., Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; Aweke, G., International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), IITA (UK) Ltd, Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Road, Croydon, United Kingdom; Kamara, A., International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), IITA (UK) Ltd, Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Road, Croydon, United KingdomDespite the immense potential of maize (Zea mays L.) in savannas of West and Central Africa (WCA), production and productivity is constrained by Strigahermonthica parasitism. Sixteen early-maturing cultivars were evaluated at two locations in Nigeria and three locations in the Republic of Benin from 2007 to 2009 to assess the grain yield, stability and the consistency of the rankings of the cultivars under Striga-infested and Striga-free environments. The combined analysis of variance showed significant (P<0.01) cultivar and cultivar´environment interactions for grain yield and other traits under Striga-infested and Striga-free environments. The test of concordance was significant (P<0.001) for grain yield (W=0.68), number of emerged Striga plants (W=0.74) and Striga damage (W=0.56) under Striga infestation, indicating stability of resistance in the cultivars developed from diverse sources under artificial S. hermonthica infestation across environments. There was high consistency of the rankings of the cultivars for grain yield and other Striga-resistance traits under Striga-infested and Striga-free environments in Benin and Nigeria. The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) biplot analysis for grain yield revealed POOL15SR/ACR94TZECOMP5-W/ACR94TZECOMP5-W and 2004 TZE-Y Pop DT STR C4 as the most stable cultivars with above-average mean grain yield in Striga-infested environments and they can be combined with other crop management options to control the parasite in the Striga endemic environments. Cultivars TZE Comp 5-W C7F2 and TZE Comp5-Y C6 S6 (Set B) had less Striga damage and number of emerged Striga plants across test environments. These cultivars could therefore serve as unique sources of favorable alleles for improving Striga resistance in maize in different production environments and farming systems. © 2015, Agricultural Institute of Canada. All rights reserved.Early-maturing cultivar; Genotype × environment interaction; Host plant resistance; Savanna; Stability of performance; Striga infestationcrop yield; cultivar; dicotyledon; disease resistance; genotype-environment interaction; host plant; infectivity; maize; maturation; parasitic plant; parasitism; performance assessment; savanna; spatiotemporal analysis; variance analysis; Benin [West Africa]; Central Africa; Nigeria; Striga; Striga hermonthica; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-28044457932Impact of DDT re-introduction on malaria transmission in KwaZulu-NatalMaharaj R., Mthembu D.J., Sharp B.L.2005South African Medical Journal9511 INoneMalaria Research Programme, Medical Research Council, Durban, South Africa; Malaria Control Programme, Department of Health, Jozini, KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaMaharaj, R., Malaria Research Programme, Medical Research Council, Durban, South Africa; Mthembu, D.J., Malaria Control Programme, Department of Health, Jozini, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; Sharp, B.L., Malaria Research Programme, Medical Research Council, Durban, South AfricaObjectives. To determine whether the re-introduction of DDT in KwaZulu-Natal had any effects on malaria transmission in the province. Design, setting and subjects. The 2000 malaria epidemic in KwaZulu-Natal has been attributed to pyrethroid-resistant anopheles mosquitoes in the area. Previous studies have shown that these mosquitoes are still susceptible to DDT. To determine whether DDT re-introduction had any impact on malaria transmission in KwaZulu-Natal, the following variables (pre- and post-epidemic) were investigated: (i) the number of reported cases; and (ii) the distribution of Anopheles funestus in relation to the insecticides sprayed. Outcome measures. The notified malaria cases and the distribution of A. funestus were measured to determine the effects of DDT re-introduction on malaria transmission. Results and conclusion. After DDT re-introduction, the number of malaria cases decreased to levels lower than those recorded before the epidemic. A. funestus appears to have been eradicated from the province. The combination of an effective insecticide and effective antimalarial drugs in KwaZulu-Natal has resulted in a 91% decline in the malaria incidence rate. Unfortunately the continued exclusive use of DDT within the malarious areas of the province is threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance.Noneantimalarial agent; artemisinin; chlorphenotane; insecticide; pyrethroid; Anopheles; anopheles funestus; article; epidemic; human; incidence; insecticide resistance; malaria; malaria control; outcomes research; parasite vector; South Africa; vector control; Animals; Anopheles; DDT; Disease Outbreaks; Humans; Insect Vectors; Malaria; Mosquito Control; Pesticides; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-57049149645Impact of the copper solvent extraction reagent LIX 984N on the growth and activity of selected acidophilesWatling H.R., Perrot F.A., Shiers D.W., Grosheva A., Richards T.N.2009Hydrometallurgy954243310.1016/j.hydromet.2008.07.004Parker Centre for Integrated Hydrometallurgy Solutions, CSIRO Minerals, PO Box 7229, Karawara, WA 6152, Australia; Laboratory of Chemical Thermodynamics, Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonossov State University, Leninskie Gory 1-3, Moscow, 119992, Russian Federation; Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 Cape Town, South AfricaWatling, H.R., Parker Centre for Integrated Hydrometallurgy Solutions, CSIRO Minerals, PO Box 7229, Karawara, WA 6152, Australia; Perrot, F.A., Parker Centre for Integrated Hydrometallurgy Solutions, CSIRO Minerals, PO Box 7229, Karawara, WA 6152, Australia; Shiers, D.W., Parker Centre for Integrated Hydrometallurgy Solutions, CSIRO Minerals, PO Box 7229, Karawara, WA 6152, Australia; Grosheva, A., Laboratory of Chemical Thermodynamics, Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonossov State University, Leninskie Gory 1-3, Moscow, 119992, Russian Federation; Richards, T.N., Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 Cape Town, South AfricaThe effects of the copper extractant LIX 984N 20% v/v in Shellsol 2046 on the abilities of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans to catalyse copper extraction from a chalcopyrite concentrate and to oxidise ferrous ion to ferric ion were compared and the possible role of Acidiphilium cryptum in ameliorating the effects of the SX reagent was examined. The SX reagent up to 250 mg/L was found to have little impact on the extraction of copper from a chalcopyrite concentrate using At. ferrooxidans. In contrast, with S. thermosulfidooxidans, copper extraction was reduced to about one third in the presence of 50 mg/L SX reagent and at 250 mg/L SX reagent, was barely more than for an abiotic test. The SX reagent strongly inhibited ferrous ion biooxidation by several bacterial species in contrast to At. ferrooxidans. The presence of 50 mg/L SX reagent caused oxidation rates to drop to between 0 and 12% of those in controls in approximately 40-hour tests. The most toxic component of the SX reagent was found to be 4-nonylphenol. A. cryptum tolerated 250 mg/L SX reagent but did not utilise it as an energy source. Bioleaching of chalcopyrite concentrate was not enhanced significantly when A. cryptum was added to test inocula. It is proposed that A. cryptum utilises fungal biomass as an energy source in managed heaps with solution recycle via solvent extraction plants. While it shares the environment with iron- and sulfur-oxidising acidophiles, it does not contribute directly to copper extraction from sulfide minerals. Crown Copyright © 2008.Acidiphilium; Acidithiobacillus; Bioleaching; Ferrous ion oxidation; Organic reagents; SulfobacillusBioleaching; Biomass; Chemical oxygen demand; Copper; Copper compounds; Extraction; Ions; Iron; Oxidation; Phenols; Renewable energy resources; Solvent extraction; Solvents; Sulfide minerals; Sulfur; Acidiphilium; Acidithiobacillus; Ferrous ion oxidation; Organic reagents; Sulfobacillus; Rate constantsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-17844411492Impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on non-communicable disease preventionPuoane T., Hughes G.D.2005South African Medical Journal954NoneSchool of Public Health, University of Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa; Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Division of General Internal Medicine, Oxford, MS, United StatesPuoane, T., School of Public Health, University of Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa; Hughes, G.D., Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Division of General Internal Medicine, Oxford, MS, United States[No abstract available]Noneacquired immune deficiency syndrome; article; awareness; behavior modification; cardiovascular disease; cultural factor; diabetes mellitus; health behavior; health care policy; health education; health program; health promotion; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; hypertension; lifestyle; mortality; obesity; risk factor; South Africa; stroke; wasting syndrome; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Cultural Characteristics; Health Behavior; Health Education; HIV Infections; Humans; Primary Prevention; Risk Factors; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-29844446793The effect of nitrogen fertilizer application to maize and sorghum on the bionomics of Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the performance of its larval parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)Jiang N., Schulthess F.2005Bulletin of Entomological Research95610.1079/BER2005381Stemborer Biological Control Project, International Centre of Insect Ecology and Physiology, PO Box 30772, 00100, Nairobi, KenyaJiang, N., Stemborer Biological Control Project, International Centre of Insect Ecology and Physiology, PO Box 30772, 00100, Nairobi, Kenya; Schulthess, F., Stemborer Biological Control Project, International Centre of Insect Ecology and Physiology, PO Box 30772, 00100, Nairobi, KenyaLaboratory and field trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of plant species (maize, sorghum), plant age (young, middle, old) and four different nitrogen fertilization levels (N0-N3) on the bionomics of the invasive crambid Chilo partellus and the performance of its braconid larval parasitoid Cotesia flavipes. Plant N varied significantly between N0 and N1-N3, but the differences among the latter were not significant. Intrinsic rates of increase and net-reproductive rates of C. partellus followed the same trends: they were lowest with N0 and similar among the other treatments. On maize only, mortality of C. partellus and parasitism by C. flavipes tended to decrease with age of the plant while the percentage of borers reaching adulthood (i.e. pupation) increased. Borer mortality and parasitism was lower and pupation higher on sorghum than on maize. On both host plants, percent dry matter content of frass, which could affect ingress of the parasitoid into the borer tunnel, did not vary with nitrogen level but varied with age of the host plants: on maize, it was highest on young plants and on sorghum on old plants. Tunnels were shorter on young maize and sorghum plants; longer tunnels on older plants indicated compensatory feeding by the larva as a result of lower nutritive value of the food source. Consequently, larval weight was lower on older than younger plants. The level of nitrogen fertilization had no effect on food conversion efficiency of C. partellus. Nitrogen did not affect number of C. flavipes progeny while egg load of progeny increased significantly with nitrogen level, on both plant species. Differences in egg load between sorghum and maize were mostly not significant. It was concluded that on depleted soils only, an increase in nitrogen via mulching, rotation with a leguminous crop or fertilization would increase survival of C. partellus on both maize and sorghum and an increase in acreage of maize and in application of nitrogen fertilizer in an area would also increase the parasitism of C. flavipes. © CAB International, 2005.Bionomics; Chilo partellus; Cotesia flavipes; Frass; Maize; Nitrogen; Plant age; Sorghum; Tunnelfertilizer; nitrogen; phosphorus; potassium; fertilizer; maize; nitrogen; parasitoid; sorghum; animal; article; chemistry; drug effect; feces; growth, development and aging; host parasite interaction; maize; moth; parasite identification; parasitology; plant leaf; plant stem; population dynamics; reproduction; sex ratio; sorghum; statistics; wasp; Animals; Feces; Fertilizers; Host-Parasite Relations; Moths; Nitrogen; Parasite Egg Count; Phosphorus; Plant Leaves; Plant Stems; Population Dynamics; Potassium; Reproduction; Sex Ratio; Sorghum; Wasps; Zea mays; Braconidae; Chilo partellus; Cotesia flavipes; Crambinae; Hymenoptera; Lepidoptera; Zea maysNone
WoSWOS:000228804800024Evaluation of an HlV/AlDS peer education programme in a South African workplaceMYERS, JE,Sloan, NM2005SAMJ SOUTH AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL954NoneUniversity of Cape TownNoneObjectives. To evaluate a South African workplace HIV/AIDS peer-education programme running since 1997. Methods. In 2001 a cross-sectional study was done of 900 retail-section. employees in three geographical areas. The study measured HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS, belief about self-risk of infection, and condom use as a practice indicator. The impact of an HIV/AIDS peer-education programme on these outcomes was examined. Results. Training by peer educators had no significant impact on any outcome. Fifty-nine per cent of subjects had a good knowledge score, 62% had a positive attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS, 34% used condoms frequently, and the majority of participants (73%) believed they were at low risk of infection. Logistical regression showed that a very small proportion of the variance in the four outcomes was.. explained by potential determinants of interest,(8% for knowledge, 6% for attitude, 7% for risk and 17% for condom use). Conclusions. The HIV peer-education programme was found to be ineffective and may have involved an opportunity cost. The programme contrasts with more costly comprehensive, care that includes antiretrovirals. The private sector appears to have been as tardy as the public sector in addressing them epidemic effectively.,HIV,HIV/AIDSNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84903143000Evaluating the impact of red-edge band from Rapideye image for classifying insect defoliation levelsAdelabu S., Mutanga O., Adam E.2014ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing95None10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.05.013University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Geography Department, P/Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3209, South Africa; University of Witwatersrand Johannesburg, School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, Private Bag X3, Wits 2050, Johannesburg, South AfricaAdelabu, S., University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Geography Department, P/Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3209, South Africa; Mutanga, O., University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Geography Department, P/Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3209, South Africa; Adam, E., University of Witwatersrand Johannesburg, School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, Private Bag X3, Wits 2050, Johannesburg, South AfricaThe prospect of regular assessments of insect defoliation using remote sensing technologies has increased in recent years through advances in the understanding of the spectral reflectance properties of vegetation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the red edge channel of Rapideye imagery to discriminate different levels of insect defoliation in an African savanna by comparing the results of obtained from two classifiers. Random Forest and Support vector machine classification algorithms were applied using different sets of spectral analysis involving the red edge band. Results show that the integration of information from red edge increases classification accuracy of insect defoliation levels in all analysis performed in the study. For instance, when all the 5 bands of Rapideye imagery were used for classification, the overall accuracies increases about 19% and 21% for SVM and RF, respectively, as opposed to when the red edge channel was excluded. We also found out that the normalized difference red-edge index yielded a better accuracy result than normalized difference vegetation index. We conclude that the red-edge channel of relatively affordable and readily available high-resolution multispectral satellite data such as Rapideye has the potential to considerably improve insect defoliation classification especially in sub-Saharan Africa where data availability is limited. © 2014 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).NDVI; NDVI-RE; Random forest; Support vector machineDecision trees; Spectrum analysis; Support vector machines; Classification accuracy; Multispectral satellite data; NDVI; NDVI-RE; Normalized difference vegetation index; Random forests; Remote sensing technology; Support vector machine classification; Classification (of information); accuracy assessment; algorithm; classification; defoliation; image analysis; NDVI; plant-insect interaction; remote sensing; satellite data; satellite imagery; savanna; spectral reflectance; Africa; HexapodaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84888778448Evaluation of a collection of rice landraces from Burkina Faso for resistance or tolerance to rice yellow mottle virusKam H., Laing M.D., Séré Y., Thiémélé D., Ghesquière A., Ahmadi N., Ndjiondjop M.-N.2013Journal of Plant Pathology95310.4454/JPP.V95I3.014University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences (SAEES), College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; AfricaRice, 01 BP 2031, Cotonou, Benin; Institut de Recherche et Développement (IRD), Montpellier, France; Centre de Coopération International en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, Montpellier, FranceKam, H., University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences (SAEES), College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Laing, M.D., University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences (SAEES), College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Séré, Y., AfricaRice, 01 BP 2031, Cotonou, Benin; Thiémélé, D., Institut de Recherche et Développement (IRD), Montpellier, France; Ghesquière, A., Institut de Recherche et Développement (IRD), Montpellier, France; Ahmadi, N., Centre de Coopération International en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, Montpellier, France; Ndjiondjop, M.-N., AfricaRice, 01 BP 2031, Cotonou, BeninA collection of accessions of Burkina Faso rice germplasm was evaluated for resistance using four Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) isolates: Ng122, Ng144, B27 and BF1. B27, an isolate from Benin was used first, followed by Ng122 and Ng144 (isolates from Niger), and BF1 an aggressive isolate from Burkina Faso was used last to assess the accessions status against RYMV. Fourteen-day-old plantlets were inoculated and symptoms scored fortnightly from 14 to 56 days post inoculation (dpi). Plant height of all accessions was recorded at 49 dpi with isolates Ng122 and Ng144. The Oryza sativa accessions of the collection were highly susceptible except one (BM24), which combined partial resistance and tolerance. Twenty one O. glaberrima accessions out of 48 were found resistant to Ng122 and Ng144. When these 21 accessions were subsequently screened with the aggressive RYMV strain BF1, eight of them displayed a delay in the appearance of RYMV symptoms while two showed resistance. The new sources of resistance identified in this study, could be exploited in breeding to control the spread of RYMV in Africa.Disease management; Evaluation for resistance; Germplasm; Plant viruses; RiceNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84855824913Impact of reproductive activities on the tissues of zonocerus variegatus grasshopper adults (Orthoptera: Pygomorphidae)Olutoyin Ademolu K., Adewunmi Idowu B., Oke O.A.2011Florida Entomologist94410.1653/024.094.0437Biological Sciences Department, University of Agriculture, P.M.B 2240, Abeokuta, NigeriaOlutoyin Ademolu, K., Biological Sciences Department, University of Agriculture, P.M.B 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria; Adewunmi Idowu, B., Biological Sciences Department, University of Agriculture, P.M.B 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria; Oke, O.A., Biological Sciences Department, University of Agriculture, P.M.B 2240, Abeokuta, NigeriaThe adult phase of insects' life is primarily for reproduction of young ones that makes continuity of life possible. The influence of reproductive activities like mating and oviposition were investigated in adult males and females variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus. The adult stage was divided into four phases according to activities performed following days of emergence, namely: early somatic phase, late somatic phase, copulation and oviposition. During each phase, the insects were dissected and the somatic tissues (haemolymph, fat body and femoral muscles) were removed analyzed for both organic and inorganic substances. The mean concentration of organic substances (protein, glucose and lipids) and inorganic substances (Na +, K +,ca 2+, and Cl -) in both sexes' tissues increased significantly (p &lt; 0.05) from early somatic to late somatic phase. However, there was a significant decrease in concentration of the metabolites in the three tissues during copulation in both sexes which further decreased during oviposition in female adult. In contrast to the female, there was increase in the concentration of the metabolites after copulation in the male adult. Copulation and oviposition are activities that exhaust tissues nutrients in adult Zonocerus variegatus.Copulation; nutrients; oviposition; tissues; Zonocerus variegatusadult; body size; copulation; glucose; grasshopper; lipid; metabolite; muscle; nutrient limitation; oviposition; protein; reproductive biology; Hexapoda; Orthoptera; Zonocerus variegatusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84870778474Simulating impact of seasonal climatic variation on the response of maize (Zea mays L.) to inorganic fertilizer in sub-humid GhanaFosu-Mensah B.Y., MacCarthy D.S., Vlek P.L.G., Safo E.Y.2012Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems944240310.1007/s10705-012-9539-4Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, Walter-Flex Strasse 3, 53113 Bonn, Germany; Soil and Irrigation Research Centre, Kpong, College of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences, Institute of Agricultural Research, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG 68, Legon, Accra, Ghana; Department of Crops and Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, GhanaFosu-Mensah, B.Y., Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, Walter-Flex Strasse 3, 53113 Bonn, Germany; MacCarthy, D.S., Soil and Irrigation Research Centre, Kpong, College of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences, Institute of Agricultural Research, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG 68, Legon, Accra, Ghana; Vlek, P.L.G., Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, Walter-Flex Strasse 3, 53113 Bonn, Germany; Safo, E.Y., Department of Crops and Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, GhanaUnder low input subsistence farming systems, increased pressure on land use and decreased fallow periods have led to a decline in soil productivity. The soils in sub-humid region of Ghana are generally poor and require mineral fertilizer to increase crop productivity. This paper presents the use of Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate the long term influence of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on maize (Zea mays L.) yield in Sub-humid Ghana. The APSIM model was evaluated at two sites in Ejura, on a rainfed experiment carried out on maize in 2008 major and minor seasons, under various nitrogen and phosphorus rates. The model was able to reproduce the response of maize to water, N and P, and hence simulated maize grain yields with a coefficient of correlation (R2) of 0. 90 and 0. 88 for Obatanpa and Dorke cultivars, respectively. A 21-year long term simulation, with different rates of N and P mineral fertilizer application, revealed that moderate application of N (60 kg N ha-1) and 30 kg P ha-1 improves both the long term average and the minimum yearly guaranteed yield. Variability in grain yield increased with increasing application of N fertilizer in both seasons. Treatments with P fertilizer application shows a similar trend for the major season and reverse trend for the minor season, thereby suggesting an interactive effect with rainfall amounts and distribution. Application of 30 kg P ha-1 significantly increased the response to N. The response to mineral fertilizer (N and P) applications varied between seasons, suggesting the need to have a range of fertilizer recommendations to be applied based on seasonal weather forecast. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.Maize; Modelling; Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Productivity; Simulationagricultural production; cultivar; ecological modeling; farming system; fertilizer application; humid environment; maize; mineral; nitrogen; numerical model; phosphorus; physiological response; rainfall; reproduction; seasonal variation; weather forecasting; Ghana; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84908133635Diagnostic performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for tuberculous lymphadenitis on fine needle aspirates from EthiopiaBiadglegne F., Mulu A., Rodloff A.C., Sack U.2014Tuberculosis94510.1016/j.tube.2014.05.002College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Institute of Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; Institute of Clinical Immunology, University Hospital, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; Institute of Medical Virology, University Hospital, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine (TRM)-Leipzig, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, GermanyBiadglegne, F., College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany, Institute of Clinical Immunology, University Hospital, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany, Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine (TRM)-Leipzig, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; Mulu, A., College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia, Institute of Medical Virology, University Hospital, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; Rodloff, A.C., Institute of Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; Sack, U., Institute of Clinical Immunology, University Hospital, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany, Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine (TRM)-Leipzig, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, GermanyThe Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) test is a novel automated molecular diagnostic recently endorsed by the World Health Organization for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Nevertheless, performance related data from high TB prevalence regions to investigate clinically suspected TB lymphadenitis are limited. To evaluate the performance of Xpert test for direct detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance in lymph node aspirates, a cross-sectional study was conducted at four main hospitals in northern Ethiopia. Culture served as a reference standard for growth of MTBC and phenotypic and MTBDRplus drug susceptibility testing for detecting RIF resistance. Two-hundred-thirty-one fine needle aspirate (FNAs) specimens were processed simultaneously for smear, culture, and Xpert test. When compared to culture, the Xpert test correctly identified 29 out of 32 culture positive cases, 5 out of 11 contaminated cases, and 56 out of 188 culture negative cases. The overall sensitivity of the test was 93.5% [95% CI, 78.3-98.9%] and specificity 69.2% [95% CI, 66.4-70.0%]. The Xpert test identified the rpoB mutations associated with RIF resistance concordant with GenoType MTBDRplus and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. In conclusion, the Xpert assay was found to perform well in detecting MTBC and RIF resistance in TB lymphadenitis patients. Furthermore, the test is simple and suitable to use in remote and rural areas for the diagnosis of TB lymphadenitis directly from FNAs in Ethiopia where TB/MDR-TB is rampant. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Fine needle aspirates; TB lymphadenitis; Xpert testrifampicin; RNA polymerase beta subunit; bacterial protein; diagnostic kit; rifampicin; rpoB protein, Mycobacterium tuberculosis; tuberculostatic agent; adolescent; adolescent; antibiotic resistance; antibiotic resistance; antibiotic sensitivity; antibiotic sensitivity; Article; Article; bacterial growth; bacterial growth; bacterium culture; bacterium culture; bacterium detection; bacterium detection; controlled study; controlled study; cross-sectional study; cross-sectional study; diagnostic accuracy; diagnostic accuracy; diagnostic test accuracy study; diagnostic test accuracy study; diagnostic value; diagnostic value; Ethiopia; Ethiopia; female; female; fine needle aspiration biopsy; fine needle aspiration biopsy; gene mutation; gene mutation; human; human; lymph node biopsy; lymph node biopsy; major clinical study; major clinical study; male; male; molecular diagnosis; molecular diagnosis; multicenter study; multicenter study; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis test kit; Mycobacterium tuberculosis test kit; nonhuman; nonhuman; phenotype; phenotype; sensitivity and specificity; sensitivity and specificity; tuberculous lymphadenitis; tuberculous lymphadenitis; antibiotic resistance; cell culture; clinical trial; comparative study; diagnostic kit; drug effects; evaluation study; fine needle aspiration biopsy; genetics; genotype; isolation and purification; lymph node; microbial sensitivity test; microbiology; mutation; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; nucleotide sequence; predictive value; prevalence; procedures; real time polymerase chain reaction; Tuberculosis, Lymph Node; Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant; Adolescent; Antitubercular Agents; Bacterial Proteins; Biopsy, Fine-Needle; Cells, Cultured; Cross-Sectional Studies; DNA Mutational Analysis; Drug Resistance, Bacterial; Ethiopia; Female; Genotype; Humans; Lymph Nodes; Male; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Mutation; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Phenotype; Predictive Value of Tests; Prevalence; Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction; Rifampin; Tuberculosis, Lymph Node; Tuberculosis, Multidrug-ResistantDAAD, German Academic Exchange Service
Scopus2-s2.0-84939624471Assessment of enzyme supplementation on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility in diets containing undecorticated sunflower seed meal in layer chicksFafiolu A.O., Oduguwa O.O., Jegede A.V., Tukura C.C., Olarotimi I.D., Teniola A.A., Alabi J.O.2015Poultry Science94810.3382/ps/pev136College of Animal Science and Livestock Production, Department of Animal Nutrition, World Bank Centre of Excellence in Agricultural Development and Sustainable Environment, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria; Federal CollegeFafiolu, A.O., College of Animal Science and Livestock Production, Department of Animal Nutrition, World Bank Centre of Excellence in Agricultural Development and Sustainable Environment, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria; Oduguwa, O.O., College of Animal Science and Livestock Production, Department of Animal Nutrition, World Bank Centre of Excellence in Agricultural Development and Sustainable Environment, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria; Jegede, A.V., College of Animal Science and Livestock Production, Department of Animal Nutrition, World Bank Centre of Excellence in Agricultural Development and Sustainable Environment, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria; Tukura, C.C., College of Animal Science and Livestock Production, Department of Animal Nutrition, World Bank Centre of Excellence in Agricultural Development and Sustainable Environment, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria, National Universities Commission, FCT, Abuja, Nigeria; Olarotimi, I.D., College of Animal Science and Livestock Production, Department of Animal Nutrition, World Bank Centre of Excellence in Agricultural Development and Sustainable Environment, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria; Teniola, A.A., College of Animal Science and Livestock Production, Department of Animal Nutrition, World Bank Centre of Excellence in Agricultural Development and Sustainable Environment, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria, Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, Moor Plantation, Ibadan. Oyo State, Nigeria; Alabi, J.O., College of Animal Science and Livestock Production, Department of Animal Nutrition, World Bank Centre of Excellence in Agricultural Development and Sustainable Environment, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, NigeriaSix hundred and forty one-day-old layer chicks were used to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with undecorticated sunflower seed meal protein for protein at 0, 25, 50, and 75% levels. Diets were without enzyme supplementation or with enzyme supplementation with four replications of twenty birds. Growth performance and nutrient utilization were determined. Proximate composition of the undecorticated sunflower seed meal used revealed that undecorticated sunflower seed meal contained 925.9, 204.5, 336.2, 215.1, 52.0 and 192.2g/kg dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ash and soluble carbohydrates, respectively. Results showed that the final weight of 484.4g/bird was obtained for birds on 75% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet, while the lowest value of 472.2g/bird was obtained for birds on 25% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet. Weight gain per bird per day was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Feed intake per bird per day increased (P < 0.05) across the treatment as a result of increased undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet. However, enzyme supplementation of the diets showed marked (P < 0.05) improvements in feed intake, weight gain, and final weight as well as the feed to gain ratio. Survivability was not affected by the treatments imposed. Dry matter digestibility were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced due to high undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet while crude protein digestibility progressively reduced (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diet. Ash digestibility values were, however, increased (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Birds on enzyme-supplemented diets consistently showed superior (P < 0.05) digestibility values than those on diets without enzyme supplementation. However ether extract digestibility was not affected by enzyme supplementation. The results indicated that higher inclusion levels of undecorticated sunflower seed meal in the diets of layer chicks showed a similar body weight gain/bird/day with the control. Undecorticated sunflower seed meal used in this study is a good source of crude protein, ether extract, and amino acids and had the potential to serve as feeding stuffs as replacement for soybeans. The nutritive value of undecorticated sunflower seed meal was improved for layer chicks with exogenous enzyme supplementation. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.enzyme supplementation; layer chicks; nutrient utilization; undecorticated sunflower seed mealAves; Glycine max; Helianthus; enzyme; analysis; animal; animal food; chemistry; chicken; controlled study; diet; diet supplementation; dose response; female; plant seed; randomized controlled trial; sunflower; veterinary; Animal Feed; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Animals; Chickens; Diet; Dietary Supplements; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Enzymes; Female; Helianthus; SeedsNone
NoneNoneEvaluation of essential oils as seed treatment for the control of xanthomonas spp. associated with the bacterial leaf spot of tomato in TanzaniaMbega E.R., Mabagala R.B., Mortensen C.N., Wulff E.G.2012Journal of Plant Pathology942NoneDanish Seed Health Centre for Developing Countries, Department of Agriculture and Ecology, University of Copenhagen, Hoejbakkegaard, Allé 13, 2630 Taastrup, Denmark; African Seed Health Centre, Department of Crop Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O.BOX 3005, Morogoro, TanzaniaMbega, E.R., Danish Seed Health Centre for Developing Countries, Department of Agriculture and Ecology, University of Copenhagen, Hoejbakkegaard, Allé 13, 2630 Taastrup, Denmark, African Seed Health Centre, Department of Crop Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O.BOX 3005, Morogoro, Tanzania; Mabagala, R.B., African Seed Health Centre, Department of Crop Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O.BOX 3005, Morogoro, Tanzania; Mortensen, C.N., Danish Seed Health Centre for Developing Countries, Department of Agriculture and Ecology, University of Copenhagen, Hoejbakkegaard, Allé 13, 2630 Taastrup, Denmark; Wulff, E.G., Danish Seed Health Centre for Developing Countries, Department of Agriculture and Ecology, University of Copenhagen, Hoejbakkegaard, Allé 13, 2630 Taastrup, DenmarkBacterial leaf spot (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas spp. is a serious and a major constraint to tomato production worldwide. The seed-borne nature of BLS, the complex nature of the disease, which is caused by different bacterial species and the current ineffective control measures have made the evaluation of alternative control compounds for seed treatment necessary. Therefore, the efficacy of 11 essential oils applied as seed treatments to control Xanthomonas perforans in tomato and the effect on seed germination and seedling growth was evaluated. Seed treatment with oils of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus of-ficinalis L.) and niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Sol. ex Gaertn.) at 2% concentration inhibited the growth of X. perforans in the in vitro assays and consistently reduced the incidence and severity of BLS in planta tests. Negative effects on seed germination and seedling growth were not observed when tomato seeds were treated with the essential oils of eucalyptus and rosemary. Therefore, eucalyptus and rosemary oils can be used for seed treatment to control BLS in tomato. Further investigation is required on the shelf life of these oils, mode of action and their effects on other seed-borne pathogens of tomato and in other crop systems in Tanzania.Bacterial disease; Control; Essential oils; Seed treatment; XanthomonadsNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84940875454Impact of response criteria (tibia ash weight vs. percent) on phytase relative non phytate phosphorus equivalanceLi W., Angel R., Kim S.-W., Jiménez-Moreno E., Proszkowiec-Weglarz M., Plumstead P.W.2015Poultry Science94910.3382/ps/pev156Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States; Danisco Animal Nutrition, DuPont Industrial Biosciences, Marlborough, United Kingdom; Danisco Animal Science, DuPont Industrial Biosciences, Marlborough, United Kingdom; Cargill Animal Nutrition, Mequinenza, Zaragoza, Spain; Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaLi, W., Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States, Danisco Animal Science, DuPont Industrial Biosciences, Marlborough, United Kingdom; Angel, R., Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States; Kim, S.-W., Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States; Jiménez-Moreno, E., Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States, Cargill Animal Nutrition, Mequinenza, Zaragoza, Spain; Proszkowiec-Weglarz, M., Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States; Plumstead, P.W., Danisco Animal Nutrition, DuPont Industrial Biosciences, Marlborough, United Kingdom, Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaThe current study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of using tibia ash percentage or ash weight as the response criteria on estimated phytase relative equivalence. Straight run broilers were fed treatment (Trt) diets from 7 to 21 d age (6 birds/pen, 8 pens/Trt). The corn-soy based Trt were formulated to contain 0.80% Ca and 4 non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) concentrations (0.20, 0.27, 0.34, and 0.40%). Monocalcium phosphate was the inorganic phosphate source added to achieve 4 different dietary nPP concentrations and against which the nPP relative equivalence of phytase was determined. A 6-phytase (Danisco Animal Nutrition, DuPont Industrial Biosciences, Marlborough, UK) was added at 500 or 1,000 phytase unit (FTU)/kg to the 0.20% nPP diet resulting 6 total Trts. Tibia ash was determined at 21 d age. Phytase fed at 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg increased tibia ash weight and ash percentage compared to that of birds fed 0.20% nPP diet without phytase (P < 0.05). Graded nPP were log transformed and regressed against tibia ash (weight and percentage) to calculate phytase nPP relative equivalence. The R2 obtained from pen value regressions were 0.81 and 0.84, for tibia ash weight and percentage, respectively. Ash percentage from birds fed 500 and 1,000 FTU phytase/kg fell within the range obtained with the MCP additions. Ash weight (842 mg/tibia) from birds fed 1,000 FTU phytase/kg exceeded (P < 0.05) maximum weight (773 mg/tibia) measured in birds fed the greatest nPP Trt (0.40%), thus the nPP relative equivalence was only calculated in birds fed 500 FTU phytase/kg Trt. The nPP relative equivalence in birds fed 500 FTU phytase/kg were 0.117 and 0.168% based on ash percentage and weight, respectively (P < 0.05). The nPP relative equivalence in birds fed 1,000 FTU phytase/kg was 0.166% for ash percentage. Results suggested that ash weight better reflects the amount of bone mineralization as compared to ash percentage and using ash percentage may lead to an underestimation of phytase efficacy. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.ash percentage; ash weight; broiler chicken; nPP relative phytase equivalence; tibia ashbone ash; mineral; phosphate intake; phytase; administration and dosage; analysis; animal; animal food; biological model; chemistry; chicken; diet; drug effects; phosphate intake; physiology; randomization; tibia; veterinary; 6-Phytase; Animal Feed; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Animals; Chickens; Diet; Minerals; Models, Biological; Phosphorus, Dietary; Random Allocation; TibiaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84892672125Impact of season on the chemical composition of male and female blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) musclesNeethling J., Hoffman L.C., Britz T.J.2014Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture94310.1002/jsfa.6281Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, Stellenbosch, 7602, South Africa; Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South AfricaNeethling, J., Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, Stellenbosch, 7602, South Africa, Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South Africa; Hoffman, L.C., Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, Stellenbosch, 7602, South Africa; Britz, T.J., Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602, South AfricaBACKGROUND: The harvesting and consumption of game meat in South Africa is not limited to season. The study was thus aimed at investigating the seasonal impact on the chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat and ash contents) of male and female blesbok muscles (N = 32; longissimus dorsi, biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, infraspinatus and supraspinatus). RESULTS: A significant interaction (P ≤ 0.01) existed between season and muscle type. Selected muscles had higher (P ≤ 0.01) mean protein contents with a higher plane of nutrition (spring of 2009), while longissimus dorsi muscles had the highest (P ≤ 0.01) mean intramuscular fat content (33.52 g kg-1). A strong negative correlation (r = -0.82; P ≤ 0.01) existed between the muscles' moisture and protein content. The chemical composition of blesbok semimembranosus muscles was significantly different between seasons, while the other muscles were least affected by seasonal differences in blesbok plane of nutrition and activity levels. CONCLUSION: The seasonal and muscle differences were statistically significant, but numerically small. It is therefore debatable whether this is of biological relevance relating to human nutrition. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.Blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi); Chemical composition; Game meat; Plane of nutrition; Season; Sustainable utilization; VenisonDamaliscus pygargus phillipsi; muscle protein; water; animal; article; blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi); bovids; chemical composition; chemistry; diet; fat intake; female; game meat; male; meat; metabolism; nutritional value; plane of nutrition; protein intake; season; skeletal muscle; South Africa; sustainable utilization; venison; wild animal; blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi); chemical composition; game meat; plane of nutrition; season; sustainable utilization; venison; Animals; Animals, Wild; Diet; Dietary Fats; Dietary Proteins; Female; Male; Meat; Muscle Proteins; Muscle, Skeletal; Nutritive Value; Ruminants; Seasons; South Africa; WaterNone
Scopus2-s2.0-67650227057The effect of molecular composition and heterogeneity on the environmental stress cracking resistance (ESCR) of propylene impact copolymersvan Reenen A.J., Shebani A.N.2009Polymer Degradation and Stability94910.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2009.04.018Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africavan Reenen, A.J., Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africa; Shebani, A.N., Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South AfricaThe ESCR of three propylene impact copolymers in the presence of isopropanol was investigated and the variation in stress crack resistance was evaluated in terms of polymer characteristics. The effect of removing both soluble and crystalline material from the copolymers on the ESCR was evaluated. The stress crack resistance appears to be dependent on the crystallinity of the materials, but not solely so. The amount and distribution of the rubbery copolymer in these materials appears to play a role as well. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Fraction removal; Propylene copolymers; Stress crack resistance; Temperature rising elution fractionationCrystallinity; Environmental stress crackings; Fraction removal; Impact copolymers; Iso-propanol; Molecular compositions; Polymer characteristics; Propylene copolymers; Stress crack resistance; Temperature rising elution fractionation; Copolymerization; Copolymers; Cracks; Cryogenic equipment; Crystalline materials; Impact resistance; Plastic products; PropyleneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77957777259Impacts of the Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia on livestock and tree holdings of rural householdsAndersson C., Mekonnen A., Stage J.2011Journal of Development Economics94110.1016/j.jdeveco.2009.12.002Department of Economics, Umeå University, SE 901 87 Umeå, Sweden; Department of Economics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 640, 405 30 Göteborg, SwedenAndersson, C., Department of Economics, Umeå University, SE 901 87 Umeå, Sweden; Mekonnen, A., Department of Economics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Stage, J., Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 640, 405 30 Göteborg, SwedenWe evaluated the impacts of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on rural households' holdings of livestock and forest assets/trees. We found no indication that participation in PSNP induces households to disinvest in livestock or trees. In fact, households that participated in the program increased the number of trees planted, but there was no increase in their livestock holdings. We found no strong evidence that the PSNP protects livestock in times of shock. Shocks appear to lead households to disinvest in livestock, but not in trees. Our results suggest that there is increased forestry activity as a result of PSNP, and that improved credit access encourages households to increase their livestock holdings. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.Ethiopia; Livestock; Safety nets; Treesforestry production; household expenditure; livestock; participatory approach; rural economy; rural finance; rural society; social security; EthiopiaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-32544440191Calculating age-adjusted cancer survival estimates when age-specific data are sparse: An empirical evaluation of various methodsGondos A., Parkin D.M., Chokunonga E., Brenner H.2006British Journal of Cancer94310.1038/sj.bjc.6602976Department of Epidemiology, German Centre for Research on Ageing, Bergheimer Str. 20, Heidelberg 69115, Germany; Unit of Descriptive Epidemiology, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France; Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Zimbabwe National Cancer Registry, Harare, ZimbabweGondos, A., Department of Epidemiology, German Centre for Research on Ageing, Bergheimer Str. 20, Heidelberg 69115, Germany; Parkin, D.M., Unit of Descriptive Epidemiology, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Chokunonga, E., Zimbabwe National Cancer Registry, Harare, Zimbabwe; Brenner, H., Department of Epidemiology, German Centre for Research on Ageing, Bergheimer Str. 20, Heidelberg 69115, GermanyWe evaluated empirically the performance of various methods of calculating age-adjusted survival estimates when age-specific data are sparse. We have illustrated that a recently proposed alternative method of age adjustment involving the use of balanced age groups or age truncation may be useful for enhancing calculability and reliability of adjusted survival estimates. © 2006 Cancer Research UK.Age-adjusted survival; Cancer survival; Sparse dataadolescent; adult; aged; article; cancer survival; child; data analysis; human; infant; mathematical analysis; priority journal; reliability; survival; Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Child; Child, Preschool; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Middle Aged; Neoplasms; Research DesignNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84903904852Performance measure of laplace transforms for pricing path dependent optionsNwozo C.R., Fadugba S.E.2014International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics94210.12732/ijpam.v94i2.5Department of Mathematics, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, NigeriaNwozo, C.R., Department of Mathematics, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Fadugba, S.E., Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, NigeriaThis paper presents a performance measure of Laplace transforms for pricing path dependent options. We obtain a simple expression for the double transform by means of Fourier and Laplace transforms, (with respect to the logarithm of the strike and time to maturity) of the price of continuously monitored Asian options. The double transform is expressed in terms of Gamma functions only. The computation of the price requires a multivariate numerical inversion. Under jump-diffusion model, we show that the Laplace transforms of lookback options can be obtained through a recursion involving only analytical formulae for standard European call and put options. We also show that the numerical inversion can be performed with great accuracy and low computational cost. © 2014 Academic Publications, Ltd.Asian option; Exotic option; Laplace transform; Lookback option; Path dependent optionNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84927135099Exposure to cigarette smoke impacts myeloid-derived regulatory cell function and exacerbates airway hyper-responsivenessWang Y., Jin T.H., Farhana A., Freeman J., Estell K., Zmijewski J.W., Gaggar A., Thannickal V.J., Schwiebert L.M., Steyn A.J., Deshane J.S.2014Laboratory Investigation941210.1038/labinvest.2014.126Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1900 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL, United States; Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States; Department of Cell Developmental and Integrative Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States; KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for Tuberculosis and HIV, Durban, South AfricaWang, Y., Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1900 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL, United States; Jin, T.H., Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1900 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL, United States; Farhana, A., Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States; Freeman, J., Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States; Estell, K., Department of Cell Developmental and Integrative Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States; Zmijewski, J.W., Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1900 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL, United States; Gaggar, A., Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1900 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL, United States; Thannickal, V.J., Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1900 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL, United States; Schwiebert, L.M., Department of Cell Developmental and Integrative Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States; Steyn, A.J., Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States, KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for Tuberculosis and HIV, Durban, South Africa; Deshane, J.S., Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1900 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL, United StatesCigarette smoking enhances oxidative stress and airway inflammation in asthma, the mechanisms of which are largely unknown. Myeloid-derived regulatory cells (MDRC) are free radical producing immature myeloid cells with immunoregulatory properties that have recently been demonstrated as critical regulators of allergic airway inflammation. NO (nitric oxide)-producing immunosuppressive MDRC suppress T-cell proliferation and airway-hyper responsiveness (AHR), while the O 2 •- (superoxide)-producing MDRC are proinflammatory. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke (CS) exposure may impact MDRC function and contribute to exacerbations in asthma. Exposure of bone marrow (BM)-derived NO-producing MDRC to CS reduced the production of NO and its metabolites and inhibited their potential to suppress T-cell proliferation. Production of immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly inhibited, while proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-and IL-33 were enhanced in CS-exposed BM-MDRC. Additionally, CS exposure increased NF-κB activation and induced BM-MDRC-mediated production of O 2 •-, via NF-κB-dependent pathway. Intratracheal transfer of smoke-exposed MDRC-producing proinflammatory cytokines increased NF-κB activation, reactive oxygen species and mucin production in vivo and exacerbated AHR in C57BL/6 mice, mice deficient in Type I IFNR and MyD88, both with reduced numbers of endogenous MDRC. Thus CS exposure modulates MDRC function and contributes to asthma exacerbation and identifies MDRC as potential targets for asthma therapy. © 2014 USCAP, Inc All rights reserved.Nonecigarette smoke; interleukin 10; interleukin 1beta; interleukin 33; interleukin 6; myeloid differentiation factor 88; reactive oxygen metabolite; tumor necrosis factor alpha; Il33 protein, mouse; immunoglobulin enhancer binding protein; interleukin 33; interleukin derivative; nitric oxide; reactive oxygen metabolite; smoke; adoptive transfer; animal cell; animal experiment; animal model; Article; bone marrow cell; cell activation; cell function; controlled study; cytokine production; disease exacerbation; lymphocyte proliferation; mouse; nonhuman; oxidative stress; priority journal; respiratory tract allergy; respiratory tract inflammation; adverse effects; animal; biosynthesis; bone marrow cell; Bronchial Hyperreactivity; C57BL mouse; cell culture; metabolism; physiology; smoke; tobacco; Adoptive Transfer; Animals; Bone Marrow Cells; Bronchial Hyperreactivity; Cells, Cultured; Interleukin-33; Interleukins; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Myeloid Cells; NF-kappa B; Nitric Oxide; Reactive Oxygen Species; Smoke; TobaccoAI076389, NIH, National Institutes of Health
Scopus2-s2.0-80051800673Swashed away? Storm impacts on sandy beach macrofaunal communitiesHarris L., Nel R., Smale M., Schoeman D.2011Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science94310.1016/j.ecss.2011.06.013Department of Zoology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa; School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa; Port Elizabeth Museum at Bayworld, P.O. Box 13147, Humewood 6013, South Africa; School of Environmental Science, University of Ulster, Ulster, IrelandHarris, L., Department of Zoology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa, School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa; Nel, R., Department of Zoology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa; Smale, M., Department of Zoology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa, Port Elizabeth Museum at Bayworld, P.O. Box 13147, Humewood 6013, South Africa; Schoeman, D., Department of Zoology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa, School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa, School of Environmental Science, University of Ulster, Ulster, IrelandStorms can have a large impact on sandy shores, with powerful waves eroding large volumes of sand off the beach. Resulting damage to the physical environment has been well-studied but the ecological implications of these natural phenomena are less known. Since climate change predictions suggest an increase in storminess in the near future, understanding these ecological implications is vital if sandy shores are to be proactively managed for resilience. Here, we report on an opportunistic experiment that tests the a priori expectation that storms impact beach macrofaunal communities by modifying natural patterns of beach morphodynamics. Two sites at Sardinia Bay, South Africa, were sampled for macrofauna and physical descriptors following standard sampling methods. This sampling took place five times at three- to four-month intervals between April 2008 and August 2009. The second and last sampling events were undertaken after unusually large storms, the first of which was sufficiently large to transform one site from a sandy beach into a mixed shore for the first time in living memory. A range of univariate (linear mixed-effects models) and multivariate (e.g. non-metric multidimensional scaling, PERMANOVA) methods were employed to describe trends in the time series, and to explore the likelihood of possible explanatory mechanisms. Macrofaunal communities at the dune-backed beach (Site 2) withstood the effects of the first storm but were altered significantly by the second storm. In contrast, macrofauna communities at Site 1, where the supralittoral had been anthropogenically modified so that exchange of sediments with the beach was limited, were strongly affected by the first storm and showed little recovery over the study period. In line with predictions from ecological theory, beach morphodynamics was found to be a strong driver of temporal patterns in the macrofaunal community structure, with the storm events also identified as a significant factor, likely because of their direct effects on beach morphodynamics. Our results also support those of other studies suggesting that developed shores are more impacted by storms than are undeveloped shores. Whilst recognising we cannot generalise too far beyond our limited study, our results contribute to the growing body of evidence that interactions between sea-level rise, increasing storminess and the expansion of anthropogenic modifications to the shoreline will place functional beach ecosystems under severe pressure over the forthcoming decades and we therefore encourage further, formal testing of these concepts. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.(E): 25° 30' 21.94″ E; (S): 34° 02' 25.67″ S; (W): 25° 29' 14.05″ E; Bounding co-ordinates: (N): 34° 01' 50.99″ S; Burrowing organisms; Climatic changes; Coastal erosion; Dynamic response; Eastern Cape; Ecosystem resilience; Port Elizabeth; Sardinia Bay;anthropogenic effect; beach; climate change; community structure; ecosystem resilience; environmental impact; experimental study; habitat conservation; linearity; management practice; morphodynamics; multivariate analysis; numerical model; prediction; pressure effect; sampling; storm; time series; volume; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33847607120Impact of tillage and nitrogen fertilization on yield, nitrogen use efficiency of tef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) and soil propertiesHabtegebrial K., Singh B.R., Haile M.2007Soil and Tillage Research94110.1016/j.still.2006.07.002Department of Plant and Environment Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway; Department of Land Resource Management, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, EthiopiaHabtegebrial, K., Department of Plant and Environment Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway, Department of Land Resource Management, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Singh, B.R., Department of Plant and Environment Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway; Haile, M., Department of Land Resource Management, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, EthiopiaA 3-yr (2003-2005) study was conducted to assess the effect of two tillage methods: conventional tillage (CT, with four ploughings using a traditional plough, maresha) and minimum tillage (MT, with a single pass prior to sowing) and of N-fertilization, on tef yield, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), weed infestation and soil properties at two locations in the rainfed semiarid conditions of Ethiopia. The experimental design was a split plot with three replications, with tillage treatments as main plots and N-rates as subplots. The N-fertilization rates were 0 kg N ha-1 (ZN), 30 kg N ha-1 (LN), 60 kg N ha-1 (MN) and 90 kg N ha-1 (HN). The minimum tillage practice produced as high yields as conventional tillage. Both total dry matter (DM) and grain yields were increased by N-fertilization. At both locations and in all years, there was a linear increase in dry matter production when N was increased from ZN to HN. The grain yield showed a similar increasing trend up to MN level but decreased from MN to HN. Available moisture content was relatively higher for minimum till (MT) than for conventional till (CT). In the dry years of the 2003 and 2004 cropping seasons, the average available moisture content in the plough layer was higher in MT than in CT by 0.004 m (2003) and 0.003 m (2004). Weed infestation was significantly higher in MT than in CT, with weed numbers 96 higher and weights 102 g m-2 higher in MT. Nitrogen use efficiency decreased with increased N but was not affected by tillage methods. Average N recoveries for CT and MT were generally similar (about 43%). Nitrogen fertilization significantly affected the soil total N and C/N ratio at lower depth (0.15-0.30 m). Average total N at the lower depth increased by 35.2 kg ha-1 yr-1 (203%) when N application rate was increased from MN to HN, suggesting that higher N levels are to be avoided to reduce excessive leaching to lower depths. Thus, the adoption of MT in the semiarid conditions could benefit soil and moisture conservations and reduce costs for resource poor farmers in Ethiopia without significantly affecting yield. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Available moisture; Conventional tillage; Minimum tillage; Semiarid; Weeds infestationArid regions; Nitrogen fertilizers; Plants (botany); Soil mechanics; Available moisture; Conventional tillage; Minimum tillage; Semiarid; Weeds infestation; Agriculture; cereal; crop yield; fertilizer application; moisture content; nitrogen; nutrient use efficiency; semiarid region; soil property; tillage; weed; Agriculture; Fertilizers; Moisture; Nitrogen; Soil Mechanics; Weeds; Africa; East Africa; Ethiopia; Sub-Saharan Africa; Eragrostis; Eragrostis tefNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33847685696Interdisciplinary on-site evaluation of stone bunds to control soil erosion on cropland in Northern EthiopiaNyssen J., Poesen J., Gebremichael D., Vancampenhout K., D'aes M., Yihdego G., Govers G., Leirs H., Moeyersons J., Naudts J., Haregeweyn N., Haile M., Deckers J.2007Soil and Tillage Research94110.1016/j.still.2006.07.011Division Soil and Water Management, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium; Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Physical and Regional Geography Research Group, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium; Relief Society of Tigray, P.O. Box 20, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; Faculty of Business and Economics, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Department of Agriculture and Forestry Economics, Royal Museum for Central Africa, B-3080 Tervuren, Belgium; ADCS Food Security Project, P.O. Box 163, Adigrat, EthiopiaNyssen, J., Division Soil and Water Management, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium, Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia, Physical and Regional Geography Research Group, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium; Poesen, J., Physical and Regional Geography Research Group, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium; Gebremichael, D., Physical and Regional Geography Research Group, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium, Relief Society of Tigray, P.O. Box 20, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Vancampenhout, K., Division Soil and Water Management, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium; D'aes, M., Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; Yihdego, G., Faculty of Business and Economics, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Govers, G., Physical and Regional Geography Research Group, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium; Leirs, H., Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; Moeyersons, J., Department of Agriculture and Forestry Economics, Royal Museum for Central Africa, B-3080 Tervuren, Belgium; Naudts, J., Division Soil and Water Management, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium, ADCS Food Security Project, P.O. Box 163, Adigrat, Ethiopia; Haregeweyn, N., Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia, Physical and Regional Geography Research Group, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium; Haile, M., Physical and Regional Geography Research Group, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium; Deckers, J., Division Soil and Water Management, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Heverlee, BelgiumSince two decades, stone bunds have been installed in large areas of the Tigray Highlands, Northern Ethiopia, to control soil erosion by water. Field studies were conducted to quantify the effectiveness, efficiency, side effects and acceptance of stone bunds. Based on measurements on 202 field parcels, average sediment accumulation rate behind 3-21 year old stone bunds is 58 t ha-1 year-1.The Universal Soil Loss Equation's P-factor for stone bunds was estimated at 0.32. Sediment accumulation rates increase with slope gradient and bund spacing, but decrease with bund age. Truncation of the soil profile at the lower side of the bund does not lead to an important soil fertility decrease, mainly because the dominant soil types in the study area (Regosols, Vertisols and Vertic Cambisols) do not have pronounced vertical fertility gradients. Excessive removal of small rock fragments from the soil surface during stone bund building may lead to a three-fold increase in sheet and rill erosion rates. Negative effects of runoff concentration or crop burial by sediment deposition due to bunds were only found over 60 m along 4 km of studied bunds. As the rodent problem is widespread and generally not specific to stone bunds, it calls for distinct interventions. On plots with stone bunds of different ages (between 3 and 21 years old), there is an average increase in grain yield of 53% in the lower part of the plot, as compared to the central and upper parts. Taking into account the space occupied by the bunds, stone bunds led in 2002 to a mean crop yield increase from 0.58 to 0.65 t ha-1. The cost of stone bund building averages €13.6 ha-1 year-1, which is nearly the same as the value of the induced crop yield increase in 2002 (€13.2 ha-1 year-1). Besides positive off-site effects such as runoff and flood regulation, the enhanced moisture storage in deep soil horizons on both sides of the bunds indicates that the stone bund areas can be made more productive through tree planting. We conclude that from the technical, ecological and economical point of view, the extensive use of stone bunds, involving people's participation, is a positive operation. Overall, 75% of the farmers are in favour of stone bund building on their land, which is a clear indication that the local community perceives this conservation measure as being beneficial. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Crop yield; Progressive terraces; Rodent infestations; Soil and water conservation; Surface rock fragments; TigrayAgriculture; Erosion; Sediments; Crop yield; Soil and water conservation; Stone bund building; Soils; crop yield; deposition; embankment; farmers attitude; interdisciplinary approach; local participation; perception; soil conservation; soil erosion; soil profile; soil type; Agriculture; Farm Crops; Infestation; Rodents; Soil Erosion; Yield; Africa; East Africa; Ethiopia; Sub-Saharan Africa; Tigray; RodentiaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84907364089Wild flower harvesting on the Agulhas Plain, South Africa: Impact of harvesting intensity under a simulated commercial harvesting regime for two re-seeding and two re-sprouting fynbos speciesPrivett S.D.J., Krug R.M., Forbes G., Gaertner M.2014South African Journal of Botany94None10.1016/j.sajb.2014.06.015Fynbos Ecoscapes, Witkrans, Gansbaai 7220, South Africa; CapeNature, Walker Bay Nature Reserve, 16 17th Avenue, Hermanus, 7200, South Africa; Laboratoire de l'Ecology, Systématique et Evolution, Université Paris Sud XI, Orsay, France; Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag x1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; Environmental Resource Management Department (ERMD), Westlake Conservation Office, City of Cape Town, Ou Kaapse Weg, Tokai 7966, Cape Town, South AfricaPrivett, S.D.J., Fynbos Ecoscapes, Witkrans, Gansbaai 7220, South Africa; Krug, R.M., Laboratoire de l'Ecology, Systématique et Evolution, Université Paris Sud XI, Orsay, France, Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag x1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; Forbes, G., CapeNature, Walker Bay Nature Reserve, 16 17th Avenue, Hermanus, 7200, South Africa; Gaertner, M., Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag x1, Matieland 7602, South Africa, Environmental Resource Management Department (ERMD), Westlake Conservation Office, City of Cape Town, Ou Kaapse Weg, Tokai 7966, Cape Town, South AfricaWe present a simple method for assessing the medium-term sustainability of different flower harvesting intensities (i.e. percentage of number of stems harvested per individual) for two re-seeders and re-sprouters of fynbos plants on the Agulhas Plain in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. We interpret our results from an ecological point of view, looking at impacts of harvesting on vegetative re-growth and survival of frequently harvested fynbos species, and an economic point of view, determining the cumulative number of stems harvested per year.We analysed the impact of different harvesting intensities on two obligate re-seeding (Erica corifolia (L.) and Erica imbricata (L.)) and two strongly re-sprouting species (Brunia laevis (Thunb.) and Staavia radiata (L. Dahl)) on different flower farms. Seventy-five randomly selected plants of each species were experimentally harvested in the same way as is done by flower harvesters. Fifteen plants of each species were left as controls (un-harvested) and 15 each were harvested (cut 15-20. cm below the inflorescence) such that 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the inflorescences were removed. Harvested stems were labelled and the number of new shoots counted. Additionally we recorded plant height and mortality.100% harvesting resulted in high mortality rates for both re-seeders (for both species 100% of the individuals were dead at the end of the experiment) and resprouters (for one species all 15 individuals were dead at the end of the experiment and for the other species 4 of 15). Re-seeders in particular were highly susceptible to harvesting below the first branching node, which generally also resulted in plant death. Both guilds can survive up to 75% harvesting (resprouters experienced no mortality for one species, while in the other 4 out of 15 died; of the re-seeders, 9 out of 15 died in the one species, while only 1 out of 15 in the other) and are still able to grow in height. For both seeders and resprouters we recommend that flower harvesters do not harvest in young veld. To ensure sufficient seed set and to avoid seed bank depletion we recommend to preferably only harvest between 25 and 50% of stems per individual. © 2014 South African Association of Botanists.Cape Floristic Region; Conservation; Flower farming; Fynbos; Thresholdflower; growth response; mortality; seed bank; species diversity; wild population; Agulhas Plain; South Africa; Western CapeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84889087057Evaluation of the microbial community, acidity and proximate composition of akamu, a fermented maize foodObinna-Echem P.C., Kuri V., Beal J.2014Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture94210.1002/jsfa.6264School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, United Kingdom; Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, PMB 5080, NigeriaObinna-Echem, P.C., School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, United Kingdom, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, PMB 5080, Nigeria; Kuri, V., School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, United Kingdom; Beal, J., School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, United KingdomBACKGROUND: Akamu is a lactic acid-fermented cereal-based food that constitutes a major infant complementary food in most West African countries. The identities of LAB populations from DGGE analysis and conventionally isolated LAB and yeasts from traditionally fermented akamu were confirmed by PCR sequencing analysis. The relationships between pH, acidity and lactic acid levels and proximate composition of the akamu samples were investigated. RESULTS: The LAB communities in the akamu samples comprised mainly Lactobacillus species, including Lb. fermentum, Lb. plantarum, Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Lb. helveticus, as well as Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris. Identified yeasts were Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Clavispora lusitaniae and Saccharomyces paradoxus. Low pH (3.22-3.95) was accompanied by high lactic acid concentrations (43.10-84.29 mmol kg-1). Protein (31.88-74.32 g kg-1) and lipid (17.74-36.83 g kg-1) contents were negatively correlated with carbohydrate content (897.48-926.20 g kg-1, of which ≤1 g kg-1 was sugars). Ash was either not detected or present only in trace amounts (≤4 g kg-1). Energy levels ranged from 17.29 to 18.37 kJ g-1. CONCLUSION: The akamu samples were predominantly starchy foods and had pH &lt; 4.0 owing to the activities of fermentative LAB. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.Acidity; Akamu; Lactic acid bacteria; Proximate composition; YeastsBacteria (microorganisms); Candida albicans; Candida tropicalis; Clavispora lusitaniae; Lactobacillus; Lactococcus lactis; Saccharomyces paradoxus; Zea mays; lactic acid; acidity; akamu; article; bacterial count; chemistry; diet; fermentation; food control; genetics; human; lactic acid bacterium; Lactobacillus; maize; microbiology; microflora; pH; plant seed; polymerase chain reaction; proximate composition; yeast; acidity; akamu; lactic acid bacteria; proximate composition; yeasts; Colony Count, Microbial; Diet; Fermentation; Food Microbiology; Humans; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Lactic Acid; Lactobacillus; Microbiota; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Seeds; Yeasts; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84861556100On the burrowing impacts of ice rats Otomys sloggetti robertsi at a wetland fringe in the Afro-alpine zone, LesothoGrab S.2012South African Geographical Journal94110.1080/03736245.2012.678174School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, WITS 2050, South AfricaGrab, S., School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, WITS 2050, South AfricaRecent work has indicated that the southern African ice rat (Otomys sloggetti robertsi) is responsible for negative habitat change due to its foraging and burrowing activities in the Lesotho Highlands. Previous work has only focused on short-term (≤1 year) monitoring and thus the impact of such rodent activity over longer temporal scales remains unknown. To this end, the current study evaluates vegetation cover and O. s. robertsi's burrowing over a 10-year period (1998-2009) across a portion of a wetland fringe/wetland in eastern Lesotho. A 6m × 11m plot was established in 1998 and marked out with permanent stakes. Percentage cover and number of tunnels were recorded, with repeat measurements taken in 2001, 2005 and 2009. The findings indicate an overall 69.2% increase in vegetation cover and associated 71% decrease in burrow densities between 1998 and 2009. The area monitored closest to the wetland fringe recorded the most substantial burrow density decrease (by 80%) and vegetation recovery (by 43%) within a three-year period from 1998 to 2001. With a slight shift of burrow density increases towards the wetland centre, particularly between 2001 and 2005, the standard deviation of burrow density (per m 2) from the wetland periphery towards the wetland centre had decreased from 1.25 to 0.32 over the 10-year period. It is proposed that the environmental influence of O. s. robertsi may be less dramatic at some landscape and longer temporal (i.e. years rather than months) scales due to spatial shifts of colonies, bioengineering and rapid vegetation recovery at abandoned, formerly 'degraded' burrow sites. © 2012 Society of South African Geographers.burrowing; cover change; ice rat; Lesothoburrowing organism; environmental degradation; environmental impact; environmental monitoring; foraging behavior; habitat structure; rodent; vegetation cover; wetland; Lesotho; Otomys sloggetti; Rattus; RodentiaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84890961454Impact of farmland use on population density and activity patterns of serval in South AfricaRamesh T., Downs C.T.2013Journal of Mammalogy94610.1644/13-MAMM-A-063.1School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, 3209, South AfricaRamesh, T., School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, 3209, South Africa; Downs, C.T., School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, 3209, South AfricaThe Drakensberg Midlands, South Africa are experiencing unprecedented levels of habitat change. Despite the serval (Leptailurus serval) being a near-threatened wetland specialist, no studies have investigated their response to land use. To assess their abundance, we used camera trapping at 3 sites differing in intensity of farmland use with capture-recapture models. A total of 1,320 camera trap nights across the 3 sites yielded 26 and 28 servals. We detected no major difference in servals/100 km2 among the 3 sites using spatially explicit maximum-likelihood (7.6 ± 2.3; 6.5 ± 2.7; 6.5 ± 2.6) and Bayesian (7.7 ± 1.6; 6.2 ± 1.9; 6.9 ± 2.1) methods in sites A, B, and C, respectively. Servals were mainly crepuscular and nocturnal. The Mardia-Watson-Wheeler test showed significant difference in activity in A and C compared with B, whereas it showed no difference between A and C. Servals avoided activity during the day in the intensively farmed B. Abundance analysis at the broader habitat scale may not have detected variation among sites. Differences need to be tested at smaller spatial scales. The statistical approaches in this study provide the 1st robust estimation of serval population size. This estimation of a medium-sized felid with changing land use can assist their management and conservation. © 2013 American Society of Mammalogists.Camera trap; capture-recapture models; conservation; land use; Leptailurus serval; South Africaabundance; activity pattern; agricultural land; felid; habitat conservation; land use change; population density; population size; DrakensbergNone
Scopus2-s2.0-20344392413Cycling time trial performance during different phases of the menstrual cycleOosthuyse T., Bosch A.N., Jackson S.2005European Journal of Applied Physiology94310.1007/s00421-005-1324-5School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, South Africa; UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Sport Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands 7725, South Africa; Department of Human and Animal Physiology, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South AfricaOosthuyse, T., School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, South Africa; Bosch, A.N., UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Sport Science Institute of South Africa, Newlands 7725, South Africa; Jackson, S., Department of Human and Animal Physiology, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South AfricaSubmaximal exercise performance has not previously been assessed in the late follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, which is associated with a pre-ovulatory surge in oestrogen. Therefore, we compared cycling time trial performance during the early follicular (EF), late follicular (LF) and mid-luteal (ML) phase of the menstrual cycle in trained and untrained eumenorrhoeic women who cycled 30 and 15 km, respectively, in a non-fasted state. The women completed the three cycling time trials on a conventional racing bicycle mounted on an air-braked ergometer. We required resting oestrogen to increase by at least twofold above EF phase values in both the LF and ML phases and this resulted in a number of exclusions reducing the sample size of each group. No significant difference was noted in the finishing time between the different menstrual phases in trained (n = 5) or untrained (n = 8) group, albeit limited by sample size. However, analysis of the combined trained and untrained group data (n = 13) revealed a trend for a faster finishing time (P=0.027) in the LF phase compared to the EF phase as 73% of the subjects showed improvements with an average of 5.2±2.9% (or 2.1±1.1 min) in the LF phase (for α=0.05 requires P < 0.017). Combined group analysis yielded no difference between performance in the EF and ML phase or between the LF and ML phase. Thus, further research is encouraged to confirm the tendency for a faster time trial in the LF phase, which coincides with the pre-ovulatory surge in oestrogen. © Springer-Verlag 2005.Endurance performance; Eumenorrhoeic women; Ovarian hormonesestrogen; luteinizing hormone; adult; article; bicycle ergometry; clinical trial; controlled clinical trial; controlled study; estrogen blood level; exercise; female; follicular phase; heart rate; human; human experiment; luteal phase; luteinizing hormone blood level; menstrual cycle; normal human; oxygen consumption; physical capacity; priority journal; progesterone blood level; statistical analysis; statistical significance; Adult; Bicycling; Estrogens; Exercise Test; Female; Follicular Phase; Humans; Luteal Phase; Menstrual Cycle; Physical Education and Training; Task Performance and Analysis; Time FactorsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79953714555Validation study of immunoaffinity column chromatography coupled with solution fluorometry or HPLC for the detection of aflatoxin in peanuts and corn: Performance Tested MethodSM 050901Lupo A., Quain A., Fitzsimmons A., Allan A., Popping B., Trucksess M., Shephard G.2011Journal of AOAC International942NoneSubmitting Company, Neogen Corp., 620 Lesher Pl, Lansing, MI 48912, United States; Trilogy Analytical Laboratories, 870 Vossbrink Dr., Washington, MO 63090, United States; Eurofins, CTC, Neulaender Gewerbepark 1, D-21078, Hamburg, Germany; U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy, College Park, MD 20740, United States; AOAC General Referee, Mycotoxins, PROMEC, Medical Research Council, South AfricaLupo, A., Submitting Company, Neogen Corp., 620 Lesher Pl, Lansing, MI 48912, United States, Trilogy Analytical Laboratories, 870 Vossbrink Dr., Washington, MO 63090, United States; Quain, A., Submitting Company, Neogen Corp., 620 Lesher Pl, Lansing, MI 48912, United States, Trilogy Analytical Laboratories, 870 Vossbrink Dr., Washington, MO 63090, United States; Fitzsimmons, A., Submitting Company, Neogen Corp., 620 Lesher Pl, Lansing, MI 48912, United States, Trilogy Analytical Laboratories, 870 Vossbrink Dr., Washington, MO 63090, United States; Allan, A., Submitting Company, Neogen Corp., 620 Lesher Pl, Lansing, MI 48912, United States, Trilogy Analytical Laboratories, 870 Vossbrink Dr., Washington, MO 63090, United States; Popping, B., Eurofins, CTC, Neulaender Gewerbepark 1, D-21078, Hamburg, Germany; Trucksess, M., U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy, College Park, MD 20740, United States; Shephard, G., AOAC General Referee, Mycotoxins, PROMEC, Medical Research Council, South AfricaNeogen Corp. has developed the Neocolumn for Aflatoxin DR for the detection of total aflatoxin by HPLC or solution fluorometry. The purpose of this study was to validate the method under the requirements of the AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested MethodsSM (PTM) program. There are several AOAC Official MethodsSM for detection of total aflatoxin in corn; they consist of rapid and analytical-based methods and two rapid methods (PTMs 030701 and 050901) that have been performance tested by the AOAC Research Institute. A widely used reference method, however, is AOAC Official MethodSM 991.31, which uses immumoaffinity cleanup followed by HPLC or solution fluorometry and is referred to as the reference method in this document. In internal studies, the Neocolumn method coupled with solution fluorometry demonstrated a relative recovery from peanuts of 101.6% of the reference value, with a CV of 3.9% across all levels analyzed; when coupled with HPLC, the Neocolumn method demonstrated a relative recovery from peanuts of 103.0% of the reference value with a CV of 3.5% across all levels analyzed. The Neocolumn method coupled with solution fluorometry demonstrated a relative recovery from corn of 116.9% of the reference value with a CV of 6.1% across all levels analyzed; when coupled with HPLC, the Neocolumn method demonstrated a relative recovery from corn of 91.2% of the reference value, with a CV of 5.4% across all levels analyzed. Calculations were made by comparison with the mean result obtained by the HPLC reference method, which showed respective CV values of 3.9 and 2.0% for recoveries from peanuts and corn, respectively.NoneCV value; Immunoaffinity columns; Rapid method; Reference method; Reference values; Research institutes; Total aflatoxins; Validation study; Aflatoxins; Column chromatography; Fluorometers; High performance liquid chromatography; Recovery; aflatoxin; article; chemistry; chromatography; fluorometry; food analysis; high performance liquid chromatography; maize; methodology; peanut; reproducibility; sensitivity and specificity; Aflatoxins; Arachis hypogaea; Chromatography; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid; Fluorometry; Food Analysis; Reproducibility of Results; Sensitivity and Specificity; Zea mays; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84938526082Use of the MSCR test to characterize the asphalt binder properties relative to HMA rutting performance - A laboratory studyZhang J., Walubita L.F., Faruk A.N.M., Karki P., Simate G.S.2015Construction and Building Materials94None10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.06.044Texas AandM University, College Station, TX, United States; Texas AandM Transportation Institute, Texas AandM University System, College Station, TX, United States; School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits 2050, Johannesburg, South AfricaZhang, J., Texas AandM University, College Station, TX, United States; Walubita, L.F., Texas AandM Transportation Institute, Texas AandM University System, College Station, TX, United States; Faruk, A.N.M., Texas AandM Transportation Institute, Texas AandM University System, College Station, TX, United States; Karki, P., Texas AandM Transportation Institute, Texas AandM University System, College Station, TX, United States; Simate, G.S., School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits 2050, Johannesburg, South AfricaAbstract Permanent deformation (or rutting) is one of the common distresses occurring in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. HMA is predominantly composed of aggregates and asphalt binder; and the asphalt binder plays a significant role in the HMA performance including permanent deformation and rutting resistance. In order to characterize the properties of the asphalt binder related to HMA rutting, the Superpave performance grade system uses the high-temperature grade, which is determined based on the complex shear modulus (|G∗|) and phase angle (δ) parameter (G∗/sinδ) that is measured from the Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) test. However, G∗/sinδ is not a performance-based parameter. Therefore, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has developed a performance-based PG binder test, the Multiple Stress Creep and Recovery (MSCR) test, to supplement the conventional DSR high temperature test. The primary objective of this laboratory study was to compare the two asphalt binder tests (the MSCR and the DSR high-temperature grade) and two HMA rutting related performance tests (the Hamburg Wheel Tracking Test [HWTT] and the Repeated Loading Permanent Deformation [RLPD] Test) for characterizing the asphalt binder high temperature properties relative to HMA permanent deformation and rutting performance. For the asphalt binders and HMA evaluated, the MSCR showed a better correlation with the two rutting related performance tests (HWTT and RLPD) than the DSR high temperature grade. Thus, the MSCR test results shows promise to supplement or serve as a surrogate to the existing DSR test in characterizing the asphalt binder high temperature properties that are related to HMA rutting. However, more lab testing and field validation is still warranted to complement the results and findings reported herein. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.Asphalt binder; DSR; G∗; HWTT; J<inf>nr</inf>; MSCR; Permanent deformation; RLPD; RuttingAsphalt; Asphalt pavements; Creep; Deformation; High temperature properties; Highway administration; Asphalt binders; DSR; HWTT; MSCR; Permanent deformations; RLPD; Rutting; BindersTxDOT, Texas Department of Transportation
Scopus2-s2.0-34248152588Long-term impact of reduced tillage and residue management on soil carbon stabilization: Implications for conservation agriculture on contrasting soilsChivenge P.P., Murwira H.K., Giller K.E., Mapfumo P., Six J.2007Soil and Tillage Research94210.1016/j.still.2006.08.006TSBF-CIAT, P.O. Box MP228, Mt . Pleasant Harare,, Zimbabwe; Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United States; Plant Production Systems, Department of Plant Sciences, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 430, 6700 AK Wageningen, Netherlands; Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mt . Pleasant Harare,, ZimbabweChivenge, P.P., TSBF-CIAT, P.O. Box MP228, Mt . Pleasant Harare,, Zimbabwe, Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United States; Murwira, H.K., TSBF-CIAT, P.O. Box MP228, Mt . Pleasant Harare,, Zimbabwe; Giller, K.E., Plant Production Systems, Department of Plant Sciences, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 430, 6700 AK Wageningen, Netherlands; Mapfumo, P., Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mt . Pleasant Harare,, Zimbabwe; Six, J., Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United StatesResidue retention and reduced tillage are both conservation agricultural management options that may enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization in tropical soils. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of long-term tillage and residue management on SOC dynamics in a Chromic Luvisol (red clay soil) and Areni-Gleyic Luvisol (sandy soil) in Zimbabwe. At the time of sampling the soils had been under conventional tillage (CT), mulch ripping (MR), clean ripping (CR) and tied ridging (TR) for 9 years. Soil was fully dispersed and separated into 212-2000 μm (coarse sand), 53-212 μm (fine sand), 20-53 μm (coarse silt), 5-20 μm (fine silt) and 0-5 μm (clay) size fractions. The whole soil and size fractions were analyzed for C content. Conventional tillage treatments had the least amount of SOC, with 14.9 mg C g-1 soil and 4.2 mg C g-1 soil for the red clay and sandy soils, respectively. The highest SOC content was 6.8 mg C g-1 soil in the sandy soil under MR, whereas for the red clay soil, TR had the highest SOC content of 20.4 mg C g-1 soil. Organic C in the size fractions increased with decreasing size of the fractions. In both soils, the smallest response to management was observed in the clay size fractions, confirming that this size fraction is the most stable. The coarse sand-size fraction was most responsive to management in the sandy soil where MR had 42% more organic C than CR, suggesting that SOC contents of this fraction are predominantly controlled by amounts of C input. In contrast, the fine sand fraction was the most responsive fraction in the red clay soil with a 66% greater C content in the TR than CT. This result suggests that tillage disturbance is the dominant factor reducing C stabilization in a clayey soil, probably by reducing C stabilization within microaggregates. In conclusion, developing viable conservation agriculture practices to optimize SOC contents and long-term agroecosystem sustainability should prioritize the maintenance of C inputs (e.g. residue retention) to coarse textured soils, but should focus on the reduction of SOC decomposition (e.g. through reduced tillage) in fine textured soils. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Conservation tillage; Particulate organic matter; Residue management; Soil organic carbon; Tillage; Tropical agro ecosystemsCarbon; Soils; Waste management; Conservation tillage; Particulate organic matter; Residue management; Soil organic carbon; Tillage; Tropical agro ecosystems; Agricultural wastes; agricultural ecosystem; agricultural management; agricultural soil; conservation tillage; crop residue; Luvisol; mulch; particulate organic matter; red soil; sandy soil; soil carbon; stabilization; Plant Residues; Ripping; Waste Management; Africa; Southern Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; ZimbabweNone
WoSWOS:000332441200023Impact of family planning health talks by lay health workers on contraceptive knowledge and attitudes among HIV-infected patients in rural KenyaBlat, Cinthia,Bukusi, Elizabeth A.,Cohen, Craig R.,Grossman, Daniel,Miles, Sondra,Newmann, Sara J.,Onono, Maricianah,Owuor, Kevin,Steinfeld, Rachel,Wekesa, Pauline2014PATIENT EDUCATION AND COUNSELING94310.1016/j.pec.2013.11.008University of California San Francisco, University of California System, Ibis Reprod Hlth, Kenya Med Res Inst KEMRI"Blat, Cinthia: University of California San Francisco","Blat, Cinthia: University of California System","Cohen, Craig R.: University of California San Francisco","Cohen, Craig R.: University of California System","Miles, Sondra: University of California San Francisco","Miles, Sondra: University of California System","Newmann, Sara J.: University of California San Francisco","Newmann, Sara J.: University of California System","Steinfeld, Rachel: University of California San Francisco","Steinfeld, Rachel: University of California System",Objective: To determine if a health talk on family planning (FP) by community clinic health assistants (CCHAs) will improve knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions about contraception in HIV-infected individuals. Methods: A 15-min FP health talk was given by CCHAs in six rural HIV clinics to a sample of 49 HIV-infected men and women. Effects of the health talk were assessed through a questionnaire administered before the health talk and after completion of the participant's clinic visit. Results: Following the health talk, there was a significant increase in knowledge about contraceptives (p &lt; .0001), side-effects (p &lt; .0001), and method-specific knowledge about IUCDs (p &lt; .001), implants (p &lt; .0001), and injectables (p &lt; .05). Out of 31 women and 18 men enrolled, 14 (45%) women and 6 (33%) men intended to try a new contraceptive. Participant attitudes toward FP were high before and after the health talk (median 4 of 4). Conclusion: A health talk delivered by CCHAs can increase knowledge of contraception and promote the intention to try new more effective contraception among HIV-infected individuals. Practice implications: FP health talks administered by lay-health providers to HIV-infected individuals as they wait for HIV services can influence FP knowledge and intention to use FP. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved."COMMUNITY HEALTH WORKERS",CONTRACEPTION,"FAMILY PLANNING","health talk",HIV,KNOWLEDGE,AFRICA,CARE,"UNMET NEED"NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84890152411Damage evaluation in gap tubular truss 'K' bridge joints using SFEMJiki P.N., Agber J.U.2014Journal of Constructional Steel Research93None10.1016/j.jcsr.2013.10.010Civil Engineering Department, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria; Electrical Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, NigeriaJiki, P.N., Civil Engineering Department, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria; Agber, J.U., Electrical Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, NigeriaA damage stiffness parameter a of the shell element is calculated analytically using the fracture mechanics concept. A smooth quad T4 element was modified using the calculated parameter α. The modified element was introduced at the junction between the chord/brace connection where welding defect had taken place, while the unmodified same element was used elsewhere on the joint. Thereafter, a finite element analysis was carried out using thin shell theory and the smooth element formulation to investigate the effect of brace spacing on the distribution of stress concentrations in the welded tubular 'K' joint. This was done in order to investigate the level of stress concentrations and damage in the welded connection in the tubular joint. The joint was first modelled with no gap between the braces and a finite element computer run was made. Thereafter, the joint was modelled with brace gaps from 10 mm to 70 mm and finite element computer runs were made. The results obtained were then compared with those published in the literature. It was found that the presence of variable gaps between braces of the joint together with pre-crack affects the strength of tubular 'K' joints appreciably. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.Computer simulation; Effect of bracing; Smoothed finite element; Stress concentration; Stress distribution; Structural joints; Tubular truss bridgesEffect of bracing; Element formulation; Smoothed finite elements; Stiffness parameters; Structural joints; Thin shell theory; Tubular truss; Welded connections; Computer simulation; Fracture mechanics; Trusses; Welding; Stress concentrationNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77649197354Biological relevance of ion energy in performance of human endothelial cells on ion-implanted flexible polyurethane surfacesÖzkucur N., Richter E., Wetzel C., Funk R.H.W., Monsees T.K.2010Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A93110.1002/jbm.a.32541Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, TU Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, D-01307 Dresden, Germany; Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Department of Ion Beam Physics and Material Research, Dresden, Germany; Department of Ion Beam and Plasma Technique, Fraunhofer Institute, Dresden, Germany; Department of Medical Biosciences, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South AfricaÖzkucur, N., Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, TU Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, D-01307 Dresden, Germany; Richter, E., Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Department of Ion Beam Physics and Material Research, Dresden, Germany; Wetzel, C., Department of Ion Beam and Plasma Technique, Fraunhofer Institute, Dresden, Germany; Funk, R.H.W., Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, TU Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, D-01307 Dresden, Germany; Monsees, T.K., Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, TU Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, D-01307 Dresden, Germany, Department of Medical Biosciences, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South AfricaTo improve the biocompatibility of polyurethane (PUR), we modified the surface by irradiation with different ions (Carbon; C, Oxygen; O, Nitrogen; N, or Argon; Ar) at 0.3-50 keV energy and doses of 1,00E+13 - 1,00E+15 ions/cm 2. The effects of ion implantation using different ion energies and densities were observed on adhesion, proliferation, and viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The long-term in vitro stability of ion-implanted PUR was also investigated. Ion irradiation moderately affected the surface roughness (Ra), but strongly enhanced the work of adhesion (Wa). Cell adhesion was markedly improved on O-, N-, and Ar-, but not on C-implanted PUR surfaces. Medium ion energies and lower ion doses produced the best HUVEC attachment and proliferation, indicating the importance of choosing the proper range of energy applied during ion irradiation. In addition, apoptosis rates were significantly reduced when compared with unmodified PUR (uPUR). N implantation significantly protected the surface, although C implantation led to stronger surface erosions than on uPUR. In total, ion implantation on flexible PUR surfaces strongly improved the material surface characteristics and biocompatibility. Electron beam ion implantation within an appropriate energy window is thus a key to improving flexible PUR surfaces for clinical use to support endothelial cell performance. Thus, it can contribute to designing small-diameter grafts, which are in great demand, towards vascular tissue engineering applications. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Adhesion; Biocompatibility; HUVECs; Ion implantation; PolyurethaneApoptosis rates; Clinical use; Energy windows; Flexible Polyurethanes; Human endothelial cells; Human umbilical vein endothelial cells; HUVECs; In-vitro; Ion dose; Ion energies; Ion irradiation; Material surface; N implantation; Small-diameter; Surface erosion; Vascular tissue engineering; Work of adhesion; Adhesion; Argon; Biocompatibility; Blood vessel prostheses; Cell adhesion; Cell death; Electron beams; Ion bombardment; Ion implantation; Oxygen; Self assembly; Surface properties; Surface roughness; Tissue engineering; Endothelial cells; argon; carbon; ion; nitrogen; oxygen; polyurethan; apoptosis; article; biocompatibility; cell adhesion; cell count; cell density; cell proliferation; cell structure; cell viability; concentration response; controlled study; electron beam; endothelium cell; energy; human; human cell; implantation; irradiation; surface property; umbilical vein; Apoptosis; Cell Adhesion; Cell Count; Cell Proliferation; Cell Shape; Cell Survival; Cells, Cultured; Culture Media; Endothelial Cells; Humans; Implants, Experimental; Ions; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Pliability; Polyurethanes; Surface Properties; ThermodynamicsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84868622336Effect of cottonseed oilcake inclusion on ostrich growth performance and meat chemical compositionDalle Zotte A., Brand T.S., Hoffman L.C., Schoon K., Cullere M., Swart R.2013Meat Science93210.1016/j.meatsci.2012.08.027Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health, University of Padova, Agripolis, Viale dell'Università, 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy; Elsenburg Institute for Animal Production, Western Cape, Department of Agriculture, Private Bag XI, Elsenburg 7606, South Africa; Department of Animal Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Western Cape, Stellenbosch, 7602, South AfricaDalle Zotte, A., Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health, University of Padova, Agripolis, Viale dell'Università, 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy; Brand, T.S., Elsenburg Institute for Animal Production, Western Cape, Department of Agriculture, Private Bag XI, Elsenburg 7606, South Africa, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Western Cape, Stellenbosch, 7602, South Africa; Hoffman, L.C., Department of Animal Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Western Cape, Stellenbosch, 7602, South Africa; Schoon, K., Department of Animal Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Western Cape, Stellenbosch, 7602, South Africa; Cullere, M., Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health, University of Padova, Agripolis, Viale dell'Università, 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy; Swart, R., Elsenburg Institute for Animal Production, Western Cape, Department of Agriculture, Private Bag XI, Elsenburg 7606, South AfricaThis study investigated the effect of replacing dietary soybean oilcake meal with increasing levels of cottonseed oilcake meal (CSOCM) on the growth performance and meat (Iliofibularis muscle) chemical composition of ostriches in order to decrease total feed costs. A total of 105 ostriches were divided into five feeding groups according to the CSOCM inclusion level in the whole diet: Control (0% CSOCM), 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% CSOCM (of the whole diet), and fed with experimental diets from 6 to 13. months of age. As a result of feeding CSOCM, the final live weight and the average daily gain significantly increased in the 12% CSOCM group. The proximate composition, cholesterol content, mineral and fatty acid profile of the meat remained unaffected. Thus CSOCM may be used as an alternative protein source to the more expensive soybean oilcake meal in ostrich nutrition. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.Cottonseed oilcake; Feeding; Growth performance; Meat quality; OstrichChemical compositions; Cholesterol content; Cottonseed oilcake; Fatty acid profiles; Feeding group; Growth performance; Meat quality; Ostrich; Protein sources; Proximate compositions; Feeding; Meats; Nutrition; Oilseeds; Glycine max; Micropus; Struthioniformes; cholesterol; cotton seed oil; fatty acid; trace element; animal; animal food; article; body composition; body weight; diet; food quality; growth, development and aging; meat; metabolism; ostrich; soybean; statistical model; Animal Feed; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Animals; Body Composition; Body Weight; Cholesterol; Cottonseed Oil; Diet; Fatty Acids; Food Quality; Linear Models; Meat; Soybeans; Struthioniformes; Trace ElementsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84858299725Fuzzy logic-based modeling of the impact of industrial activities on the environmental status of an industrial estate in NigeriaAgunbiade F.O., Awe A.A., Adebowale K.O.2011Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry931010.1080/02772248.2011.623678Department of Chemical Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Redeemer's University, km 46 Lagos-Ibadan Expressway, Redemption City, Mowe, Ogun State, Nigeria; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaAgunbiade, F.O., Department of Chemical Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Redeemer's University, km 46 Lagos-Ibadan Expressway, Redemption City, Mowe, Ogun State, Nigeria; Awe, A.A., Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Adebowale, K.O., Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaIndustrial growth is being attributed with adverse environmental effects and has necessitated stricter environmental management policies. Formulating such policies is limited by the difficulty in understanding the trends of monitoring data. This study is aimed at the application of fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA) to integrate environmental contaminants in Agbara industrial estate, Nigeria, to measure the extent of impact of industrial activities on the host community. Samples of water, plants (Pteridium aquilinum, Sacciolepis africana, and Panicum maximum), soil, and sediments were collected within the estate. Water samples were analyzed for quality parameters using standard methods. Metals (Co, Cr, Cd, Cu, and Mn) were investigated in all the samples using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data were modeled with FCA. The results showed Cr as the major contaminant (34-252 μgL -1). High phosphate contributed to large plant growth in the area. FCA results showed that water samples were in the pristine classification; sediment samples were extremely impacted. The vegetation growth and the sediment precipitation were responsible for the cleaning-up of the pollutants discharged downstream. The FCA of the plants indicated high metal bioaccumulation and not only showed the plants' phyto-remediation potential but also that the metals may pose threats to human health through the food web. The activities in the estate are contributing contaminants to the environment with potential negative effects. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.biomonitoring; environment; fuzzy comprehensive assessment; health; industrial activities; modelingAtomic absorption spectrophotometer; Biomonitoring; environment; Environmental contaminant; Food webs; Fuzzy comprehensive assessment; Human health; Industrial activities; Industrial estate; Industrial growth; Large plants; Logic-based modeling; Metal bioaccumulation; Nigeria; Panicum maximum; Potential negative effects; Quality parameters; Sediment samples; Standard method; Vegetation growth; Water samples; Anoxic sediments; Cadmium; Chromium; Environmental management; Fuzzy logic; Health; Health risks; Impurities; Industry; Manganese; Models; Sedimentology; Plant life extension; biomonitoring; environmental fate; environmental impact assessment; environmental management; food web; fuzzy mathematics; health risk; industrial practice; phytotoxicity; public health; sediment pollution; soil pollution; water pollution; Nigeria; Panicum; Panicum maximum; Pteridium aquilinum; SacciolepisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79960688661Evaluation of the performance of rural wastewater treatment plants using chemical measurements in combination with statistical techniques: A case studyManungufala T.E., Chimuka L., Cukrowska E., Tutu H.2011Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry93610.1080/02772248.2011.581243Department of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Venda, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa; School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050, South AfricaManungufala, T.E., Department of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Venda, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa; Chimuka, L., School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa; Cukrowska, E., School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa; Tutu, H., School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050, South AfricaThe performance of a wastewater treatment plant was assessed statistically using multivariate cluster and principle component analysis. This was after measuring some physico-chemical properties in the influent, effluent, downstream, and upstream waters over a 4-month period. The cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into three clusters: relatively non-polluted (upstream), medium polluted (downstream), and polluted (influent and effluent). The polluted water was further subdivided into very highly (influent) and highly (effluent) polluted. The grouping of influent and effluent into one cluster was due to some water quality parameters such as amount of copper, lead, and phosphates that are not efficiently removed by the plant. Using principal component analysis, samples from the same site taken over a period of 4 months were scattered, indicating inconsistencies in the performance of the plant. This was more pronounced during the rainy season, suggesting that increased water volumes from open sewers make the already poorly performing plant worse. The major loading factors found by principle component analysis were phosphate, lead, iron, zinc, copper, pH, and conductivity. Generally, the wastewater treatment system was found to be efficient in removing heavy metals and these were found in the sludge, but not anions. The mean percentage metal removal could be arranged in the following decreasing order: iron (85%)&gt;zinc (57%)&gt;copper (40%) and lead (38%) following the concentrations (mg kg -1) found in the sludge: iron (11,300)&gt;zinc (820)&gt;copper (180)&gt;lead (20)&gt;cadmium (3). Phosphate and iron concentrations in the effluent were found to be above the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) recommendations. The major cause of poor performance is the high volume of the wastewater, exceeding the capacity of the plant 10 times. © 2011 Taylor &amp; Francis.Biological wastewater treatment; Cluster and principle component analysis; Physical-chemical properties; Population increase; Rural townsBiological waste water treatment; Chemical measurements; Iron concentrations; Loading factors; Mean percentage; Metal removal; Physical-chemical properties; Physicochemical property; Polluted water; Poor performance; Population increase; Principle component analysis; Rainy seasons; Sampling site; South african bureau of standards; Statistical techniques; Wastewater treatment plants; Wastewater treatment system; Water quality parameters; Water volumes; Biological water treatment; Cadmium; Chemical properties; Cluster analysis; Copper; Effluents; Heavy metals; Iron; Metal analysis; Principal component analysis; Reclamation; Rivers; Sewage pumping plants; Toxicity; Wastewater; Wastewater treatment; Water pollution; Water quality; Water treatment plants; Zinc; Chemicals removal (water treatment); anion; cluster analysis; concentration (composition); electrical conductivity; heavy metal; performance assessment; pH; physicochemical property; pollutant removal; principal component analysis; sampling; sewer network; waste facility; wastewater; water level; water quality; water treatmentNone
Scopus2-s2.0-48449089170Simulation of West African monsoon using RegCM3 Part II: Impacts of deforestation and desertificationAbiodun B.J., Pal J.S., Afiesimama E.A., Gutowski W.J., Adedoyin A.2008Theoretical and Applied Climatology9304-Mar10.1007/s00704-007-0333-1Department of Meteorology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria; Earth System Physics Group, International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy; Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science, Loyola Marymount University,Abiodun, B.J., Department of Meteorology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria, Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, 3134 Agronomy Building, Ames, IA, United States; Pal, J.S., Earth System Physics Group, International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science, Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, CA, United States; Afiesimama, E.A., WMO Regional Research and Training Institute, Lagos, Nigeria; Gutowski, W.J., Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, 3134 Agronomy Building, Ames, IA, United States; Adedoyin, A., Department of Physics, University of Botswana, Gaborone, BotswanaIn this study, we investigate the feedback mechanisms between land cover and the monsoon in West African using the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model (RegCM3). A series of multi-year simulations are performed using reanalysis boundary conditions under three idealised vegetation states (potential, desertified and deforested). The study shows that both desertification and deforestation tend to increase the monsoon flow over the Guinean region, although the mechanisms for change are different in each case. Desertification increases the flow mainly by increasing the meridional temperature gradient. While this reduces rainfall over the desertification region, it increases rainfall to the south. On the other hand, deforestation increases the monsoon flow mainly due to the reduced surface friction experienced by the flow over the Guinean region. This reduces rainfall over the entire West African region. The study furthershows that desertification and deforestation also increase the speed and specific humidity of the mid-tropospheric easterly flow, to the south of the African easterly jet. Consequently, the flow transports more moisture away from the West Africa region at the expense of low-level moisture, resulting in less moisture available for rainfall over the region. Overall, this study suggests that the state of the biosphere in West Africa may play an important role in determining the characteristics of the monsoon and rainfall pattern. © Springer-Verlag 2007.Nonebiosphere; boundary condition; deforestation; desertification; feedback mechanism; land cover; monsoon; rainfall; regional climate; relative humidity; temperature gradient; troposphere; Africa; Guinea; Sub-Saharan Africa; West AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80053941647Femoral fracture fixation in developing countries: An evaluation of the Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) intramedullary nailSekimpi P., Okike K., Zirkle L., Jawa A.2011Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series A931910.2106/JBJS.J.01322Department of Orthopaedics, Mulago Hospital, P.O. Box 7051, Kampala, Uganda; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, United States; Surgical Implant Generation Network, 451 Hills Street, Richland, WA 99354, United States; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, 2 North, 850 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02118, United StatesSekimpi, P., Department of Orthopaedics, Mulago Hospital, P.O. Box 7051, Kampala, Uganda; Okike, K., Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, United States; Zirkle, L., Surgical Implant Generation Network, 451 Hills Street, Richland, WA 99354, United States; Jawa, A., Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, 2 North, 850 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02118, United StatesBackground: The Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) intramedullary nailing system was designed to treat femoral fractures in developing countries where real-time imaging, power equipment, and fracture tables are often not available. We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on femoral shaft fractures treated with the SIGN intramedullary nailing system. Methods: Seventy consecutive patients with a closed diaphyseal femoral fracture were treated with the SIGN intramedullary nail at Mulago National Hospital in Uganda between February 2007 and March 2008, and fifty of these patients (the study cohort) were followed for at least six months or until fracture-healing. Results: The mean time to surgery was 13.2 days (range, zero to thirty-three days). All fractures healed, although two required dynamization for treatment of delayed union. No hardware failures occurred. An interlocking screw missed the nail in two patients, but both fractures healed without complications. One superficial and one deep infection developed; the latter required nail removal after fracture union. Including these patients, complications requiring further treatment occurred in 14% (seven) of the fifty patients. Conclusions: The SIGN intramedullary nailing system promotes predictable healing of femoral fractures in settings with limited resources including lack of real-time imaging, lack of power reaming, and delayed presentation to the operating room. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2011 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.Noneadolescent; adult; aged; article; controlled clinical trial; controlled study; developing country; diaphysis; female; femur shaft fracture; follow up; fracture fixation; fracture healing; fracture nonunion; human; interlocking nail; intramedullary nail; intramedullary nailing; joint characteristics and functions; leg length inequality; length of stay; major clinical study; male; open reduction; outcome assessment; patella fracture; postoperative infection; priority journal; real time echography; retrospective study; traction therapy; traffic accident; Uganda; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Bone Nails; Developing Countries; Female; Femoral Fractures; Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary; Fracture Healing; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Reoperation; Retrospective Studies; Treatment Outcome; Uganda; Young AdultNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84924292420Design, synthesis and evaluation of small molecule imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles as inhibitors of transforming growth factor-β type-I receptor kinase (ALK5)Patel H.M., Sing B., Bhardwaj V., Palkar M., Shaikh M.S., Rane R., Alwan W.S., Gadad A.K., Noolvi M.N., Karpoormath R.2015European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry93None10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.09.002Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville Campus), Private Bag X54001, Durban, South Africa; Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, ASBASJSM College of Pharmacy, Bela (Ropar), Punjab, India; Department of Biotechnology, Bioinformatics and Pharmacy, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India; Faculty of Medical Sciences, EWMS Complex, Mt. Hope, University of the West Indies, West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago; Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College, Kim (Surat), Gujarat, IndiaPatel, H.M., Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville Campus), Private Bag X54001, Durban, South Africa; Sing, B., Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, ASBASJSM College of Pharmacy, Bela (Ropar), Punjab, India; Bhardwaj, V., Department of Biotechnology, Bioinformatics and Pharmacy, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India; Palkar, M., Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville Campus), Private Bag X54001, Durban, South Africa; Shaikh, M.S., Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville Campus), Private Bag X54001, Durban, South Africa; Rane, R., Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville Campus), Private Bag X54001, Durban, South Africa; Alwan, W.S., Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville Campus), Private Bag X54001, Durban, South Africa; Gadad, A.K., Faculty of Medical Sciences, EWMS Complex, Mt. Hope, University of the West Indies, West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago; Noolvi, M.N., Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College, Kim (Surat), Gujarat, India; Karpoormath, R., Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville Campus), Private Bag X54001, Durban, South AfricaA new series of imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles 5(a-g), 6(a-g), 9(a-i) and 12(a-h) were synthesized as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) type I receptor (also known as activin receptor-like kinase 5 or ALK5) inhibitors. These compounds were evaluated for their ALK5 inhibitory activity in an enzyme assay and their TGF-β -induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation inhibitory activity in a cell-based assay. Compound 6d, 2-(5-((2-cyclopropyl-6-(4-fluorophenyl) imidazo [2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazol-5-yl)methylene)-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl) acetic acid, shows prominent ALK5 inhibition (IC50 Combining double low line 0.0012 μM) and elective inhibition (91%) against the P38αkinase at10 μM. The binding mode of compound 6d by XP docking studies shows that it fits well into the active site cavity of ALK5 by forming broad and tight interactions. Lipinski's rule and in silico ADME pharmacokinetic parameters are within the acceptable range defined for human use thereby indicating their potential as a drug-like molecules. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.ALK5; Lipinski's rule; Synthesis imidazo [2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole; XP docking2 (2 m tolylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazol 6 yl)phenol; 2 (2,4 dichlorophenyl) 6 phenylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazole; 2 (5 ((2 cyclopropyl 6 (2,4 dichlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiazol 5 yl)methylene) 4 oxo 2 thioxothiazolidin 3 yl)acetic acid; 2 (5 ((2 cyclopropyl 6 (2,4 dihydroxyphenyl)imidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazol 5 yl)methylene) 4 oxo 2 thioxothiazolidin 3 yl)acetic acid; 2 (5 ((2 cyclopropyl 6 phenylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazol 5 yl)methylene) 4 oxo 2 thioxothiazolidin 3 yl)acetic acid; 2 (5 ((6 (3 aminophenyl) 2 cyclopropylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazol 5 yl)methylene) 4 oxo 2 thioxothiazolidin 3 yl)acetic acid; 2 (5 ((6 (4 bromophenyl) 2 cyclopropylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazol 5 yl)methylene) 4 oxo 2 thioxothiazoldin 3 yl)acetic acid; 2 (5 ((6 (4 bromophenyl) 2 cyclopropylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazol 5 yl)methylene) 4 oxo 2 thioxothiazolidin 3 yl)acetic acid; 2 (5 ((6 (4 chlorophenyl) 2 cyclopropylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazol 5 yl)methylene) 4 oxo 2 thioxothiazolidin 3 yl)acetic acid; 2 cyclopropyl 6 (2,4 dichlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4] thiadiazole 5 carbaldehyde; 2 cyclopropyl 6 (2,4 dihydroxyphenyl)imidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4] thiadiazole 5 carbaldehyde; 2 cyclopropyl 6 (4 fluorophenyl)imidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazole 5 carbaldeyde; 2 cyclopropyl 6 phenylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazole 5 carbaldehyde; 3 (2 (2,4 dichlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazol 6 yl)aniline; 3 (2 m tolylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazol 6 yl)aniline; 4 (2 (2,4 dichlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazol 6 yl)benzene 1,3 diol; 4 (2 m tolylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazol 6 yl)aniline; 4 (2 m tolylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazol 6 yl)benzene 1,3 diol; 6 (2,4 dichlorophenyl) 2 m tolylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazole; 6 (3 aminophenyl) 2 cyclopropylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazole 5 carbaldehyde; 6 (4 bromophenyl) 2 (2,4 dichlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazole; 6 (4 bromophenyl) 2 cyclopropylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazole 5 carbaldeyde; 6 (4 bromophenyl) 2 m tolylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazole; 6 (4 chlorophenyl) 2 cyclopropylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazole 5 carbaldehyde; 6 (4 chlorophenyl) 2 m tolylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazole; 6 (4 methoxyphenyl) 2 m tolylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazole; 6 phenyl 2 m tolylimidazo[2,1 b][1,3,4]thiadiazole; thiadiazole derivative; transforming growth factor beta receptor 1; unclassified drug; unindexed drug; protein kinase inhibitor; protein serine threonine kinase; TGF-beta type I receptor; thiadiazole derivative; transforming growth factor beta receptor; Article; cell assay; computer model; drug design; drug inhibition; drug synthesis; IC50; protein phosphorylation; antagonists and inhibitors; CACO 2 cell line; chemical structure; chemistry; drug design; human; protein conformation; synthesis; Caco-2 Cells; Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic; Drug Design; Humans; Models, Molecular; Protein Conformation; Protein Kinase Inhibitors; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; ThiadiazolesNational Research Foundation; National Research Foundation
Scopus2-s2.0-84893487553Synthesis and antibacterial evaluation of 3-Farnesyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid from Piper multiplinerviumMalami I., Gibbons S., Malkinson J.P.2014Fitoterapia93None10.1016/j.fitote.2014.01.005Department of Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacy, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, P.M.B 2346 Sokoto, Nigeria; Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Chemistry, UCL School of Pharmacy, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, United KingdomMalami, I., Department of Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacy, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, P.M.B 2346 Sokoto, Nigeria; Gibbons, S., Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Chemistry, UCL School of Pharmacy, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, United Kingdom; Malkinson, J.P., Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Chemistry, UCL School of Pharmacy, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, United Kingdom3-Farnesyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid is an antibacterial agent isolated from the leaves of Piper multiplinervium. This compound has activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Helicobacter pylori. This research aimed to synthesize a natural antibacterial compound and its analogs. The synthesis of 3-Farnesyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid consists of three steps: straightforward synthesis involving protection of phenolic hydroxyl group, coupling of suitable isoprenyl chain to the protected aromatic ring at ortho position followed by carboxylation with concomitant deprotection to give the derivatives of the salicylic acid. All the three prenylated compounds synthesized were found to exhibit spectrum of activity against S. aureus (ATCC) having MIC: 5.84 × 10- 3, 41.46 × 10- 2 and 6.19 × 10 - 1 μmol/ml respectively. The compounds also displayed activity against resistance strain of S. aureus (SA1119B) having MIC: 5.84 × 10- 3, 7.29 × 10- 3 and 3.09 × 10 - 1 μmol/ml respectively. This synthesis has been achieved and accomplished with the confirmation of it structure to that of the original natural product, thus producing the first synthesis of the natural product and providing the first synthesis of its analogs with 3-Farnesyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid having biological activity higher than that of the original natural product. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.3-Farnesyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid; Antibacterial; Piper multiplinervium; Prenylated salicylic acid; Staphylococcus aureus1, 3 dibromo 2 methoxymethoxybenzene; 2 bromo 6 dimethlyallyl 1 methoxymethoxybenzene; 2 bromo 6 farnesyl 1 methoxymethoxybenzene; 2 bromo 6 geranyl 1 methoxymethoxybenzene; 3 dimethylallyl 2 hydroxybenzoic acid; 3 farnesyl 2 hydroxybenzoic acid; 3 geranyl 2 hydroxybenzoic acid; antiinfective agent; aromatic compound; natural product; norfloxacin; phenol; salicylic acid; unclassified drug; 3-farnesyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid; antiinfective agent; farnesol; hydroxybenzoic acid derivative; antibacterial activity; article; biological activity; carboxylation; controlled study; deprotection reaction; drug isolation; drug screening; drug synthesis; Escherichia coli; Gram negative bacterium; Gram positive bacterium; Helicobacter pylori; isoprenylation; minimum inhibitory concentration; nonhuman; Piper (plant); Piper multiplinervium; plant leaf; prenylation; priority journal; Staphylococcus aureus; structure activity relation; analogs and derivatives; chemistry; medicinal plant; microbial sensitivity test; Piper (plant); synthesis; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Farnesol; Hydroxybenzoates; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Piper; Plants, MedicinalNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79960682565Sensorimotor performance deficits induced by chronic chlorpyrifos exposure in wistar rats: Mitigative effect of vitamin CAmbali S.F., Ayo J.O.2011Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry93610.1080/02772248.2011.585991Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, NigeriaAmbali, S.F., Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria; Ayo, J.O., Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, NigeriaThis study was aimed at evaluating the ameliorative effect of vitamin C on chlorpyrifos-induced sensorimotor changes involving postural reflex, limb placing, and vibrissae touch in Wistar rats. Forty adult Wistar rats of either sex were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals in each group. Group I was administered soya oil (2mLkg -1) while group II was given vitamin C (100mg kg -1); group III was dosed with chlorpyrifos (10.6 mgkg -1, i.e. ~1/8th of the LD 50); group IV was administered vitamin C (100mg kg -1) and then exposed to chlorpyrifos (10.6 mgkg -1), 30 min later. The regimens were administered by gavage once daily for a period of 17 weeks. Neurobehavioral parameters involving postural reflex, limb placing, and vibrissae touch responses measured at various intervals revealed a deficit in postural reflex, limb placing, and vibrissae touch responses in the CPF group, which was mitigated by vitamin C pretreatment. The neuronal and glial cell degeneration, increased brain malonaldehyde concentration, and decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and acetylcholinesterase activities recorded in the group given chlorpyrifos were ameliorated by vitamin C. Therefore, vitamin C was shown to mitigate chlorpyrifos-induced sensorimotor deficits partly due to its antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase restoration properties. © 2011 Taylor &amp; Francis.Chlorpyrifos; Limb placing; Oxidative stress; Postural reflex; Vibrissae touch; Vitamin CChlorpyrifos; Limb placing; Postural reflex; Vibrissae touch; Vitamin C; Aldehydes; Animals; Brain; Cell death; Oxygen; Rats; Vitamins; aldehyde; antioxidant; ascorbic acid; biochemistry; brain; chlorpyrifos; enzyme activity; neurology; pollution effect; pollution exposure; rodent; Animalia; Glycine max; Rattus norvegicusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84857024488Performance of environmental impact assessment (EIA) screening in South Africa: A comparative analysis between the 1997 and 2006 EIA regimesRetief F., Welman C.N.J., Sandham L.2011South African Geographical Journal93210.1080/03736245.2011.592263Environmental Assessment Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North West University (Potchefstroom Campus), Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South AfricaRetief, F., Environmental Assessment Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North West University (Potchefstroom Campus), Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa; Welman, C.N.J., Environmental Assessment Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North West University (Potchefstroom Campus), Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa; Sandham, L., Environmental Assessment Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North West University (Potchefstroom Campus), Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South AfricaBetween September 1997 and March 2006, 43,423 environmental impact assessment (EIA) applications were submitted in South Africa. This exceptionally high number reflects a particular weakness in the ability of the EIA system to effectively screen EIA applications. The 2006 EIA Regulations intended to reduce the number of EIA applications by 20%. This paper presents a comparative analysis of screening performance before and following the 2006 EIA Regulations in order to determine the improvement of screening effectiveness (and hence the EIA process) since the interventions introduced in the 2006 EIA Regulations. Changes in the number of EIA applications as well as the types of activities requiring EIA are analysed. The results show that the average number of EIA applications submitted per month reduced by 27% nationally from 1997 to 2006. Although the 20% reduction target has been achieved, the number of EIA applications remains high compared with international trends and considered against the available administrative capacity. Analysis of the Free State Province also shows that, for both periods, very similar types of activities triggered the majority of EIA applications, with transformation of land, construction of masts and storage of fuel being the most common. To improve EIA screening, it is recommended that the reduction target be reconsidered and that additional screening methods such as environmental management frameworks and norms and standards be implemented. © 2011 Copyright Society of South African Geographers.environmental impact assessment; performance evaluation; screeningenvironmental impact assessment; environmental legislation; environmental management; implementation process; performance assessment; regulatory framework; standard (regulation); Free State; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84879307225Assessing the representativeness and repeatability of test locations for genotype evaluationBadu-Apraku B., Akinwale R.O., Obeng-Antwi K., Haruna A., Kanton R., Usman I., Ado S.G., Coulibaly N., Yallou G.C., Oyekunle M.2013Canadian Journal of Plant Science93410.4141/CJPS2012-136International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (UK) Limited, Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Road, Croydon, CR9 3EE, United Kingdom; Department of Crop Production and Protection, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ife-Ife, Nigeria; Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana; Savanna Agricultural Research Institute, Tamale, Ghana; Institut d'Economie Rurale, Bamako, Mali; Institut National de Recherches Agricoles du Bénin, Cotonou, Benin; Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, NigeriaBadu-Apraku, B., International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (UK) Limited, Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Road, Croydon, CR9 3EE, United Kingdom; Akinwale, R.O., Department of Crop Production and Protection, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ife-Ife, Nigeria; Obeng-Antwi, K., Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana; Haruna, A., Savanna Agricultural Research Institute, Tamale, Ghana; Kanton, R., Savanna Agricultural Research Institute, Tamale, Ghana; Usman, I., Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Nigeria; Ado, S.G., Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Nigeria; Coulibaly, N., Institut d'Economie Rurale, Bamako, Mali; Yallou, G.C., Institut National de Recherches Agricoles du Bénin, Cotonou, Benin; Oyekunle, M., International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (UK) Limited, Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Road, Croydon, CR9 3EE, United KingdomThe selection of suitable breeding and testing sites is crucial to the success of a maize (Zea mays L.) improvement programme. Twelve early-maturing maize cultivars were evaluated for 3 yr at 16 locations in West Africa to determine the representativeness, discriminating ability, and repeatability of the testing sites and to identify core testing sites. Genotype main effect plus genotype by environment interaction (GGE) biplot analysis revealed that Zaria (Nigeria), Nyankpala (Ghana), and Ejura (Ghana) displayed the highest discriminating ability. Two mega-environments were identified. Bagou, Nyankpala, Bagauda, Ikenne, and Mokwa constituted the first mega-environment (ME1); Ejura, Ina and Sotuba represented the second (ME2). The ME1 would be more useful for evaluating early maize genotypes for tolerance to drought than ME2 because locations in ME1 were more strongly correlated to Ikenne (managed drought stress site). Among the test locations, Bagou and Mokwa were found to be closely related to Ikenne in their ranking of the cultivars for drought tolerance; Zaria was the exact opposite, indicating that this was the least suitable location for evaluating genotypes for drought tolerance. Nyankpala and Ikenne were identified as the core testing sites for ME1 and Ejura for ME2. TZE Comp 3 C2F2 was identified as the highest yielding cultivar for ME1 and Syn DTE STR-Y for ME2, indicating that they could be used as check cultivars. Ikenne, Nyankpala, and Ejura had moderately high repeatability. They were closer to the average environment axis of each mega-environment and will be useful for culling unstable genotypes during multi-locational testing. Other sites were less representative and not repeatable and will not be useful for evaluating early maize cultivars for drought tolerance.Core testing sites; drought stress; GGE biplot; maize; repeatabilitycorrelation; crop improvement; culling; cultivar; discriminant analysis; genotype; maize; maturation; adaptation; assessment method; drought stress; reproductive behavior; selection; tolerance; West Africa; Zea maysNone
NoneNoneUsing the Hawthorne effect to examine the gap between a doctor's best possible practice and actual performanceLeonard K.L., Masatu M.C.2010Journal of Development Economics93210.1016/j.jdeveco.2009.11.001University of Maryland College Park, 2200 Symons Hall, MD 20742, United States; Centre for Educational Development in Health, Arusha (CEDHA), P.O. Box 1162, Arusha, TanzaniaLeonard, K.L., University of Maryland College Park, 2200 Symons Hall, MD 20742, United States; Masatu, M.C., Centre for Educational Development in Health, Arusha (CEDHA), P.O. Box 1162, Arusha, TanzaniaMany doctors in developing countries provide considerably lower quality care to their patients than they have been trained to provide. The gap between best possible practice and actual performance (often referred to as the know-do gap) is difficult to measure among doctors who differ in levels of training and experience and who face very different types of patients. We exploit the Hawthorne effect-in which doctors change their behavior when a researcher comes to observe their practices-to measure the gap between best and actual performance. We analyze this gap for a sample of doctors and also examine the impact of the organization for which doctors work on their performance. We find that some organizations succeed in motivating doctors to work at levels of performance that are close to their best possible practice. This paper adds to recent evidence that motivation can be as important to health care quality as training and knowledge. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.Hawthorne effect; Health care; Motivation; Practice quality; Tanzaniadeveloping world; health care; health worker; performance assessment; training; TanzaniaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84928138418Land suitability evaluation to optimize land management of small-scale farms in the Gerado catchment, North-Eastern EthiopiaBahir A.L., Ahmed M.A., Antille D.L.2015Tropical Agriculture921NoneAddis Ababa University, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; University of Southern Queensland, National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture, Toowoomba, QLD, AustraliaBahir, A.L., Addis Ababa University, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Ahmed, M.A., Addis Ababa University, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Antille, D.L., University of Southern Queensland, National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture, Toowoomba, QLD, AustraliaBiophysical and socio-economic constraints and sub-optimal utilization of soil and water resources have resulted in progressive reduction of land productivity in Ethiopia. This study investigated the suitability of land mapping units of the Gerado catchment for subsistence rainfed cultivation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and teff (Eragrostis tef Zucc.). A land resource survey was conducted and it identified nine different land mapping units (LMU). The FAO maximum limitation method was used to assess LMU and determine land suitability subclasses. The study indicated that soil erosion, soil wetness, soil fertility status, and soil workability were the main limiting factors affecting land quality within the catchment. We suggest that drainage using traditional ditches may be a cost-effective method to reduce the incidence of waterlogging conditions. Long-term fertility management requires the implementation of suitable fertilization programs that consider the use of organic materials such as manure and compost. Such programs need to account for nutrient budgets over the entire crop rotation to maximize use efficiency and minimize environmental losses. Soil erosion may be mitigated through stone terracing, soil bunding and by adopting a more conservative approach to agriculture, that is, by matching land use with land capability based on the correct assessment of land suitability. Implementation of the proposed approach to optimizing land management in the Gerado catchment will deliver a range of socio-economic and agri-environmental benefits to the local communities. © 2015 Trop. Agric.Environmental quality; Land capability; Land-use optimization; Small-scale farming; Sustainable soil management; Tropical rainfed subsistence-agricultureEragrostis tef; Triticum aestivum; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84946190421Growth performance, blood metabolic responses, and carcass characteristics of grower and finisher south african windsnyer-type indigenous and large white × landrace crossbred pigs fed diets containing ensiled corncobsKanengoni A.T., Chimonyo M., Erlwanger K.H., Ndimba B.K., Dzama K.2014Journal of Animal Science921210.2527/jas2014-8067Agricultural Research Council-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, South Africa; Discipline of Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag X 3, Wits, South Africa; Agricultural Research Council, Proteomics Research and Services Unit, Infruitech-Nietvoorbij Institute, Department of Biotechnology, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, South AfricaKanengoni, A.T., Agricultural Research Council-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, South Africa, Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, South Africa; Chimonyo, M., Discipline of Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Erlwanger, K.H., School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag X 3, Wits, South Africa; Ndimba, B.K., Agricultural Research Council, Proteomics Research and Services Unit, Infruitech-Nietvoorbij Institute, Department of Biotechnology, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa; Dzama, K., Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, South AfricaA study was taken to evaluate growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolite concentrations when ensiled corncobs were included in indigenous and commercial pig diets. Fifty Large White × Landrace (LW×LR) crossbred pigs and 30 South African Windsnyer-type indigenous pigs (SAWIP) were evaluated. They were fed a control (CON), a low inclusion of ensiled corncob (LMC), and a high inclusion of ensiled corncob (HMC) diet in a completely randomized block design. The LW×LR crosses had greater (P < 0.05) final weight, ADFI, DMI, ADG, and G:F ratios than the SAWIP at both the grower and finisher stages. The SAWIP consumed more feed per metabolic BW (BW0.75) than LW×LR crosses at the grower stage while LW×LR crosses consumed more than SAWIP at the finisher stage (P < 0.05). The finishers’ G:F ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in the CON than in the HMC diet. The LW×LR growers and finishers had greater (P < 0.05) warm carcass weight (WCW), cold carcass weight (CCW), carcass length, drip loss, pH at 24 h, eye muscle area, and lean percent than those of SAWIP growers and finishers. The LW×LR finishers on the CON diet had greater (P < 0.05) WCW and CCW than those on the HMC and LMC diets. There were diet × breed interactions for dorsal fat thickness at first rib (DFT1), dorsal fat thickness at last lumbar vertebra (DFT3), backfat thickness (BFT), and hindquarter weight proportion (HQWP) in the growers. The LW×LR growers and finishers had greater values (P < 0.05) of hindquarter length, hindquarter circumference, HQWP, and shoulder weight proportion than the SAWIP growers and finishers, respectively. The SAWIP growers and finishers had greater values (P < 0.05) of DFT1, dorsal fat thickness at last rib, DFT3, and BFT than the LW×LR growers and finishers, respectively. There were breed × diet interactions (P < 0.05) for alanine aminotransferase and amylase (AMYL). The LW×LR crosses had greater (P < 0.05) values of creatinine, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, and AMYL than the SAWIP. The breed of pig influenced most of the growth performance and carcass parameters more than the diet did. There was no clear link between the blood metabolite levels and the diets. Since the inclusion of ensiled corncobs in diets did not affect negatively the selected important commercial pork cuts in South Africa, this could imply that they have a greater role as a pig feed resource. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.Blood metabolites; Fermentation; Fiber; Pig genotypes; Serum enzymesPieris brassicae; SuidaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-55649120019Evaluation of supplementary stevia (Stevia rebaudiana, bertoni) leaves and stevioside in broiler diets: Effects on feed intake, nutrient metabolism, blood parameters and growth performanceAtteh J.O., Onagbesan O.M., Tona K., Decuypere E., Geuns J.M.C., Buyse J.2008Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition92610.1111/j.1439-0396.2007.00760.xDepartment of Animal Production, University of Ilorin, Nigeria; Laboratory for Physiology and Immunology of Domestic Animals, KU Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium; Laboratory for Functional Biology, KU Leuven, Heverlee, BelgiumAtteh, J.O., Department of Animal Production, University of Ilorin, Nigeria, Laboratory for Physiology and Immunology of Domestic Animals, KU Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium; Onagbesan, O.M., Laboratory for Physiology and Immunology of Domestic Animals, KU Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium; Tona, K., Laboratory for Physiology and Immunology of Domestic Animals, KU Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium; Decuypere, E., Laboratory for Physiology and Immunology of Domestic Animals, KU Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium; Geuns, J.M.C., Laboratory for Functional Biology, KU Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium; Buyse, J., Laboratory for Physiology and Immunology of Domestic Animals, KU Leuven, Heverlee, BelgiumA perennial schrub, stevia, and its extracts are used as a natural sweetener and have been shown to possess antimicrobial properties. Stevia contains high levels of sweetening glycosides including stevioside which is thought to possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Little is known about the nutritional value of the schrub in livestock. This study determined the potential use of the shrub as a prebiotic animal feed supplement in light of the recent ban on the use of antibiotics in animal feed and the role of its constituent stevioside in the effects of the shrub. Male Cobb broiler chicks were fed a basal broiler diet without antibiotic but with performance enhancing enzyme mix (positive control), a basal diet without antibiotic and enzymes (negative control), or diets in which 2% of the negative control diet was replaced with either dried ground stevia leaves or 130 ppm pure stevioside during 2 week starter and 2 week grower periods. Body weight gains, feed conversion, abdominal fat deposition, plasma hormone and metabolites and caecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured in the broilers at 2 and 4 weeks of age. There was no significant effect of the treatments on feed intake during the starter period but birds fed diet supplemented with stevia leaves and stevioside consumed more feed (p &lt; 0.05) than those fed the positive control diet during the grower period. Weight gain by birds fed the positive control and stevioside diets was higher (p &lt; 0.05) than those fed other diets only during the starter period. Feed/gain ratio of birds fed the positive control and stevioside diets was superior (p &lt; 0.05) to others. There was no effect of the treatments on nutrient retention and water content of the excreta. Dietary stevia leave and stevioside decreased total concentration of SCFA and changed their profile in the ceca. There was no effect of the treatments on pancreas weight. Dietary stevia reduced blood levels of glucose, triglycerides and triiodothyronine (T3) but had no effect on non-esterified fatty acids. In contrast, stevioside only decreased T3. Both the stevia leaves and stevioside diets significantly increased abdominal fat content. It is concluded that dietary enzyme growth promoters are beneficial to the broilers only during the starter stage and that inclusion of stevia leaves or stevioside has no beneficial effect on the performance of broilers. © 2008 The Authors.Blood parameters; Broiler chickens; Feed supplement; Growth; Steviaantiinfective agent; fatty acid; glucoside; kaurane derivative; probiotic agent; stevioside; volatile fatty acid; animal; animal food; article; body composition; cecum; chemistry; chicken; drug effect; eating; growth, development and aging; male; metabolism; nutritional value; physiology; plant leaf; randomization; Stevia; weight gain; Animal Feed; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Body Composition; Cecum; Chickens; Diterpenes, Kaurane; Eating; Fatty Acids; Fatty Acids, Volatile; Glucosides; Male; Nutritive Value; Plant Leaves; Probiotics; Random Allocation; Stevia; Weight Gain; Animalia; Aves; Gallus gallus; Stevia rebaudianaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-29644442273Heterozygous disruption of SERCA2a is not associated with impairment of cardiac performance in humans: Implications for SERCA2a as a therapeutic target in heart failureMayosi B.M., Kardos A., Davies C.H., Gumedze F., Hovnanian A., Burge S., Watkins H.2006Heart92110.1136/hrt.2004.051037Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom; Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom; Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; INSERM U563, Purpan Hospital, Toulouse, France; Department of Dermatology, Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom; Cardiac Clinic, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Cardiology, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, United StatesMayosi, B.M., Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom, Cardiac Clinic, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Kardos, A., Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom; Davies, C.H., Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom, Department of Cardiology, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR, United States; Gumedze, F., Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Hovnanian, A., INSERM U563, Purpan Hospital, Toulouse, France; Burge, S., Department of Dermatology, Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom; Watkins, H., Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United KingdomObjective: To verify whether a deficiency in the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum pump SERCA2a causes cardiac dysfunction in humans. Design: Cardiac performance was measured in a serendipitous human model of primary SERCA2a deficiency, Darier's disease, an autosomal dominant skin disorder caused by mutations inactivating one copy of the ATP2A2 gene, which encodes SERCA2a. Methods: Systolic and diastolic function and contractility were assessed by echocardiography at rest and during exercise in patients with Darier's disease with known mutations. Fourteen patients with Darier's disease were compared with 14 normal controls and six patients with dilated cardiomyopathy with stable heart failure. Results: Resting systolic and diastolic function was normal in patients with Darier's disease and in controls. The increase in systolic function during exercise was not different between patients with Darier's disease and normal controls; neither was there a difference in contractility. As expected, patients with dilated cardiomyopathy had impaired diastolic and systolic function with depressed contractility at rest and during exercise. Conclusion: Contrary to expectations, heterozygous disruption of SERCA2a is not associated with the impairment of cardiac performance in humans. Attempts to increase SERCA2a levels in heart failure, although showing promise in rodent studies, may not be addressing a critical causal pathway in humans.Noneadenosine triphosphatase (calcium); calcium adenosine triphosphatase 2a; unclassified drug; adult; article; autosomal dominant disorder; congestive cardiomyopathy; controlled study; Darier disease; diastolic blood pressure; disease association; drug targeting; echocardiography; enzyme deficiency; exercise; expectation; female; functional assessment; gene disruption; gene mutation; genetic code; heart failure; heart muscle contractility; heart performance; heterozygote; human; male; priority journal; rest; rodent; sarcoplasmic reticulum; systolic blood pressure; Calcium-Transporting ATPases; Cardiomyopathy, Dilated; Case-Control Studies; Exercise Tolerance; Female; Gene Therapy; Heart Failure, Congestive; Heterozygote; Humans; Keratosis Follicularis; Male; Middle Aged; Mutation; Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPasesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-22144479818Technical article: A fuzzy-logic-based approach to cleaner production evaluation for surface finishing plantsTelukdarie A., Brouckaert C., Huang Y.2005Plating and Surface Finishing925NoneDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Durban Institute of Technology, Durban 4000, South Africa; University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United StatesTelukdarie, A., Department of Chemical Engineering, Durban Institute of Technology, Durban 4000, South Africa; Brouckaert, C., University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Huang, Y., Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United StatesThe evaluation of environmental cleanliness of an electroplating facility, as compared to the best available practice, has been a challenge, particularly in small or mid-sized plants. This is mainly due to the fact that the detailed plant data necessary for evaluation is always difficult to obtain completely and precisely. To alleviate the data-scarce and lack-of-skill related problems in environmental performance evaluation for cleaner production, a fuzzy-logic-based decision analysis approach is introduced in this paper. The attractiveness of the approach is illustrated by the analysis of rinse system management. The approach is general and thus is suitable for any type of environmental cleanliness problems in the electroplating industry.NoneClean rooms; Decision theory; Evaluation; Fuzzy sets; Metal cleaning; Metal finishing; Plating; Production engineering; Waste management; Waste treatment; Cleaner production evaluation; Electroplating industry; Fuzzy logic based approach; Rinse system management; Surface finishing plants; Electroplating shopsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-74349116766Seasonal variation assessment of impact of industrial effluents on physicochemical parameters of surface water of River Challawa, Kano, NigeriaWakawa R.J., Uzairu A., Kagbu J.A., Balarabe M.L.2010Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry92110.1080/02772240902927528Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria; Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, NigeriaWakawa, R.J., Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria; Uzairu, A., Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria; Kagbu, J.A., Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria; Balarabe, M.L., Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, NigeriaThe physicochemical characteristics of the River Challawa in the Kumbotso Local Government Area of Kano State were studied across four seasons (warm and dry, cold and dry, hot and dry, and warm and wet seasons) between October 2006 and August 2008. Physicochemical parameters like pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDSs), total suspended solids (TSS), alkalinity, turbidity, hardness, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and phosphate were analyzed and compared with standard permissible limits. The mean range of parameters determined across the seasons revealed: 8.36-8.59 for pH; 209.57-335.27 μS cm-1 for EC; 134.05-208.5 mg L-1 for TDS; 182.4-273.45 mg L-1 for TSS; 125.3-276.07 mg L-1 for hardness; 16.11-40 mg L-1 of CaCO3 for alkalinity; 2.76-3.78 mg L-1 for DO; 1.9-43.33 mg L-1 for BOD; 231.67-310.06 mg L-1 for COD; 221.67-441.67 mg L-1 for turbidity; 17.98-35.89 mg L-1 for chloride; 5.12-8.89 mg L-1 for nitrate; 37-558.83 mg L-1 for sulfate; and 0.47-0.81 mg L-1 for phosphate. Data showed that all parameters determined were significantly different among the various sampled sites across seasons. With the exception of COD, EC, and phosphate, all other parameters determined were within the WHO and USPH standard limits. © 2010 Taylor &amp; Francis.Assessment; Challawa; Seasonal; Sediment qualityBiological oxygen demand; Electrical conductivity; Industrial effluent; Local government areas; Nigeria; Physicochemical characteristics; Physicochemical parameters; Sampled sites; Seasonal variation; Sediment quality; Total dissolved solids; Total suspended solids; Wet season; Alkalinity; Biochemical oxygen demand; Chlorine compounds; Dissolution; Dissolved oxygen sensors; Effluents; Electric conductivity measurement; Electric conductivity of solids; Hardness; pH effects; Sedimentology; Sewage; Turbidity; Dissolved oxygen; electrical conductivity; hydrochemistry; industrial waste; pH; physicochemical property; sampling; seasonal variation; sediment analysis; surface water; turbidity; Challawa River; Kano [Nigeria]; NigeriaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-35748951293On the fast track to land degradation? A case study of the impact of the Fast Track Land Reform Programme in Kadoma District, ZimbabweFox R.C., Chigumira E., Rowntree K.M.2007Geography923NoneDepartment of Geography, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140, South AfricaFox, R.C., Department of Geography, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa; Chigumira, E., Department of Geography, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa; Rowntree, K.M., Department of Geography, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140, South AfricaThe Fast Track Land Reform Programme is the defining instrument for Zimbabwe's future development prospects. In the three-year period from 2000 to 2002, 300,000 families were resettled on 11 million hectares, thus bringing to an end the colonial division of land. The process which displaced the commercial farm workers and farm owners was chaotic, violent and disorderly. Subsequent legislation and government agricultural initiatives have attempted to impose, retroactively, technocratic order to the sweeping changes that have taken place. Our study finds that the dire macro-economic situation coupled with trends of HIV/AIDS prevalence combine, at the local scale, with variable rainfall and poor soils to make commercial agricultural production a difficult proposition. Three case studies in Kadoma District show that there have been multiple outcomes to the resettlement process. In some instances individual households have benefitted in the short term, but this has only occurred where climatic and soil conditions have been particularly favourable. Geography © 2007.Noneagricultural policy; agricultural production; land degradation; land reform; rural planning; Africa; Southern Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; ZimbabweNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79953044219Impact of antioxidant additives on the oxidation stability of biodiesel produced from Croton Megalocarpus oilKivevele T.T., Mbarawa M.M., Bereczky A., Laza T., Madarasz J.2011Fuel Processing Technology92610.1016/j.fuproc.2011.02.009Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Department of Energy Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Muegyetem rkp. 3-9, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary; Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Muegyetem rkp. 3-9, H-1111 Budapest, HungaryKivevele, T.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Mbarawa, M.M., Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Bereczky, A., Department of Energy Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Muegyetem rkp. 3-9, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary; Laza, T., Department of Energy Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Muegyetem rkp. 3-9, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary; Madarasz, J., Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Muegyetem rkp. 3-9, H-1111 Budapest, HungaryThe increase in crude petroleum prices, limited resources of fossil fuels and environmental concerns have led to the search of alternative fuels, which promise a harmonious correlation with sustainable development, energy conservation, efficiency and environmental preservation. Biodiesel is well positioned to replace petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel is a non-toxic, biodegradable and renewable biofuel. But the outstanding technical problem with biodiesel is that, it is more susceptible to oxidation owing to its exposure to oxygen present in the air and high temperature. This happens mainly due to the presence of varying numbers of double bonds in the free fatty acid molecules. This study evaluates oxidation stability of biodiesel produced from Croton megalocarpus oil. Thermal and Oxidation stability of Croton Oil Methyl Ester (COME) were determined by Rancimat and Thermogravimetry Analysis methods respectively. It was found that oxidation stability of COME did not meet the specifications of EN 14214 (6 h). This study also investigated the effectiveness of three antioxidants: 1,2,3 tri-hydroxy benzene (Pyrogallol, PY), 3,4,5-tri hydroxy benzoic acid (Propyl Gallate, PG) and 2-tert butyl-4-methoxy phenol (Butylated Hydroxyanisole, BHA) on oxidation stability of COME. The result showed that the effectiveness of these antioxidants was in the order of PY > PG > BHA. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Biodiesel; Croton Oil; Fuel properties; Oxidation stabilityAntioxidant additives; Benzoic acid; Croton Oil; Double bonds; EN 14214; Environmental concerns; Environmental preservation; Free fatty acid; Fuel properties; High temperature; Methoxy; Methyl esters; Oxidation stability; Petroleum prices; Propyl gallate; Rancimat; Technical problem; Thermogravimetry analysis; Alternative fuels; Benzene; Biodiesel; Crude oil; Esters; Fatty acids; Fossil fuels; Oxygen; Phenols; Stability; Sustainable development; Thermogravimetric analysis; Vegetable oils; OxidationNone
Scopus2-s2.0-43649098407Impact of self-reported visual impairment on quality of life in the Ibadan study of ageingBekibele C., Gureje O.2008British Journal of Ophthalmology92510.1136/bjo.2007.124859Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaBekibele, C., Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Gureje, O., Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaBackground: Information is lacking on the impact of visual impairment on the quality of life of elderly Africans. This study aims to examine the impact of self-reported visual impairment on the quality life of an elderly Nigerian sample. Results: Four hundred and fifty-three (22.3%) of the respondents reported impairment for distant vision, 377 (18.4%) reported near vision, and 312 (15.2) reported impairment for both far and near. Impairment of near vision had a significant impact on all domains of quality of life. Distant vision had less impact, with a significant decrement only in the domain of environment. After adjusting for the possible effects of age, sex, and co-occurring chronic physical illness, near-vision impairment accounted for 3.92% decrement in the overall quality of life of elderly persons. Conclusion: Impairment of vision is associated with significant decrement in diverse areas of quality of life in this elderly sample. Problems with near vision were nevertheless more likely than those of distant vision to affect quality of life.Noneaged; aging; article; controlled study; elderly care; environmental factor; female; human; major clinical study; male; physical disease; priority journal; psychological aspect; quality of life; self report; social aspect; visual impairment; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging; Developing Countries; Educational Status; Female; Geriatric Assessment; Health Status; Health Surveys; Humans; Male; Nigeria; Presbyopia; Quality of Life; Self Disclosure; Visual Acuity; Visually Impaired PersonsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79961033423Cryptic herbivores mediate the strength and form of ungulate impacts on a long-lived savanna treeMaclean J.E., Goheen J.R., Doak D.F., Palmer T.M., Young T.P.2011Ecology92810.1890/10-2097.1Department of Zoology and Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada; Mpala Research Centre, P.O. Box 555, Nanyuki, Kenya; Department of Zoology and Physiology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, United States; Department of Botany, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, United States; Department of Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States; Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, United StatesMaclean, J.E., Department of Zoology and Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada, Mpala Research Centre, P.O. Box 555, Nanyuki, Kenya; Goheen, J.R., Mpala Research Centre, P.O. Box 555, Nanyuki, Kenya, Department of Zoology and Physiology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, United States, Department of Botany, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, United States; Doak, D.F., Mpala Research Centre, P.O. Box 555, Nanyuki, Kenya, Department of Zoology and Physiology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, United States; Palmer, T.M., Mpala Research Centre, P.O. Box 555, Nanyuki, Kenya, Department of Zoology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States; Young, T.P., Mpala Research Centre, P.O. Box 555, Nanyuki, Kenya, Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, United StatesPlant populations are regulated by a diverse array of herbivores that impose demographic filters throughout their life cycle. Few studies, however, simultaneously quantify the impacts of multiple herbivore guilds on the lifetime performance or population growth rate of plants. In African savannas, large ungulates (such as elephants) are widely regarded as important drivers of woody plant population dynamics, while the potential impacts of smaller, more cryptic herbivores (such as rodents) have largely been ignored. We combined a largescale ungulate exclusion experiment with a five-year manipulation of rodent densities to quantify the impacts of three herbivore guilds (wild ungulates, domestic cattle, and rodents) on all life stages of a widespread savanna tree. We utilized demographic modeling to reveal the overall role of each guild in regulating tree population dynamics, and to elucidate the importance of different demographic hurdles in driving population growth under contrasting consumer communities. We found that wild ungulates dramatically reduced population growth, shifting the population trajectory from increase to decline, but that the mechanisms driving these effects were strongly mediated by rodents. The impact of wild ungulates on population growth was predominantly driven by their negative effect on tree reproduction when rodents were excluded, and on adult tree survival when rodents were present. By limiting seedling survival, rodents also reduced population growth; however, this effect was strongly dampened where wild ungulates were present. We suggest that these complex interactions between disparate consumer guilds can have important consequences for the population demography of long-lived species, and that the effects of a single consumer group are often likely to vary dramatically depending on the larger community in which interactions are embedded. © 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.Acacia drepanolobium; African savanna; Demography; Herbivory; Kenya; Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment; Lambda; Matrix model; Mpala Research Centre; Rodent; Seed predation; Tree recruitment; Ungulatecattle; exclusion experiment; growth rate; guild; herbivore; life cycle; plant community; plant-herbivore interaction; population decline; population growth; population modeling; population regulation; rodent; savanna; seedling emergence; survival; ungulate; woody plant; Acacia; Africa; animal; antelope; article; cattle; ecosystem; elephant; feeding behavior; horse; physiology; rodent; tree; Acacia; Africa; Animals; Antelopes; Cattle; Ecosystem; Elephants; Equidae; Feeding Behavior; Rodentia; Trees; Kenya; Acacia drepanolobium; Bos taurus; Elephantidae; Rodentia; UngulataNone
Scopus2-s2.0-20044361824Caudal fin allometry in the white shark Carcharodon carcharias: Implications for locomotory performance and ecologyLingham-Soliar T.2005Naturwissenschaften92510.1007/s00114-005-0614-4Department of Zoology, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville Campus), Private Bag X54001, 4000 Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaLingham-Soliar, T., Department of Zoology, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville Campus), Private Bag X54001, 4000 Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaAllometric scaling analysis was employed to investigate the consequences of size evolution on hydrodynamic performance and ecology in the white shark Carcharodon carcharias. Discriminant analysis using the power equation y=ax b was negative for caudal fin span (S) versus fork length (FL) in C. carcharias. In contrast in two delphinid species, Delphinus capensis and Tursiops aduncus, the span of the flukes versus fork length rises in positive allometric fashion, and strong positive allometry of S versus √A (area) was also recorded. The latter reflects a high lift/drag ratio. S versus √A in C. carcharias displays negative allometry and consequently a lower lift/drag ratio. A lower aspect ratio (AR) caudal fin in C. carcharias compared to that of the delphinids (mean 3.33 and 4.1, respectively) and other thunniform swimmers provides the potential for better maneuverability and acceleration. The liver in sharks is frequently associated with a buoyancy function and was found to be positively allometric in C. carcharias. The overall findings suggest that the negatively allometric caudal fin morphometrics in C. carcharias are unlikely to have deleterious evolutionary fitness consequences for predation. On the contrary, when considered in the context of positive liver allometry in C. carcharias it is hereby suggested that buoyancy may play a dominant role in larger white sharks in permitting slow swimming while minimizing energy demands needed to prevent sinking. In contrast hydrodynamic lift is considered more important in smaller white sharks. Larger caudal fin spans and higher lift/drag ratio in smaller C. carcharias indicate greater potential for prolonged, intermediate swimming speeds and for feeding predominantly on fast-moving fish, in contrast to slow-swimming search patterns of larger individuals for predominantly large mammalian prey. Such data may provide some answers to the lifestyle and widespread habitat capabilities of this still largely mysterious animal. © Springer-Verlag 2005.Noneallometry; locomotion; morphology; shark; allometry; article; controlled study; discriminant analysis; ecology; energy metabolism; evolution; hydrodynamics; lifestyle; liver; locomotion; mammal; morphometrics; motor performance; nonhuman; predation; prey; shark; species difference; swimming; Animal Structures; Animals; Body Size; Ecosystem; Motor Activity; Sharks; Animalia; Carcharodon carcharias; Chondrichthyes; Delphinidae; Delphinus capensis; Lamnidae; Mammalia; Tursiops aduncusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84960842493Effect of dietary intervention on the performance and biochemical indices of chicken broilers challenged with Aspergillus flavusBolu S.A., Olatunde O.A., Ojo V.2015Tropical Agriculture924NoneDept of Animal Production, University of Ilorin, NigeriaBolu, S.A., Dept of Animal Production, University of Ilorin, Nigeria; Olatunde, O.A., Dept of Animal Production, University of Ilorin, Nigeria; Ojo, V., Dept of Animal Production, University of Ilorin, NigeriaA study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary interventions of vitamins A and C, methionine and lysine singly and in combination on broilers challenged with Aspergillus flavus. The interventions were Vitamins A+C (A+C), Methionine+Lysine (METH+LYS) and Vitamins A+C+METH+LYS. The experiment which was conducted for 8 weeks employed a completely randomized design. Feed intake, weight gain, nutrient retention and feed conversion efficiency were significantly influenced (p<0.05) by dietary supplementation of the Aspergillus challenged birds. Highest feed intake (42.81g/bird/day) was observe for Aspergillus challenged birds supplemented with A+C+METH+LYS which compared favourably with the positive control birds (42.48g/bird/day). The lowest feed intake was observed for the negative control birds (Aspergillus challenged without dietary intervention). Weight gain was highest for the positive control bird (20.14g/bird/day). This value was similar to the value obtained for Aspergillus challenged birds supplemented with A+C+METH+LYS. Lowest weight gain was observed in the negative control birds (12.44g/bird/day). These birds also recorded significantly (p<0.05) lowest feed conversion efficiency (3.09). Haematological and serum indices showed no significant differences (p>0.05) however, higher lymphocytes values were observed in challenged birds with dietary intervention. As a general immune modulator, vitamins A and C with lysine and methionine may be an attractive alternative to the on-farm use of vaccines in poultry in the management of aspergillosis. © 2015 Trop. Agric. (Trinidad).Aspergillus challenged birds; Lysine; Methionine; Vitamins A,CNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84930346162Factors affecting the academic performance of optometry students in MozambiqueShah K., Naidoo K., Bilotto L., Loughman J.2015Optometry and Vision Science92610.1097/OPX.0000000000000606Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland; Brien Holden Vision Institute, Durban, South Africa; African Vision Research Institute, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Optometry Department, Dublin Institute of Technology, 19A Kevin Street, Dublin 8, IrelandShah, K., Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland, Optometry Department, Dublin Institute of Technology, 19A Kevin Street, Dublin 8, Ireland; Naidoo, K., Brien Holden Vision Institute, Durban, South Africa, African Vision Research Institute, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Bilotto, L., Brien Holden Vision Institute, Durban, South Africa; Loughman, J., Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland, African Vision Research Institute, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South AfricaPurpose. The Mozambique Eyecare Project is a higher education partnership for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a model of optometry training at UniLúrio in Mozambique. There are many composite elements to the development of sustainable eye health structures, and appropriate education for eye health workers remains a key determinant of successful eye care development. However, from the first intake of 16 students, only 9 students graduated from the program, whereas only 6 graduated from the second intake of 24 students. This low graduation rate is attributable to a combination of substandard academic performance and student dropout. The aim of this article was to identify factors affecting the academic performance of optometry students in Mozambique. Methods. Nine lecturers (the entire faculty) and 15 students (9 from the first intake and 6 from the second) were recruited to the study. Clinical competency assessments were carried out on the students, semistructured individual interviews were conducted with the course lecturers, and a course evaluation questionnaire was completed by students. The results were combined to understand the complexities surrounding the optometry student training and performance. Results. One student out of nine from the first intake and three students out of six from the second were graded as competent in all the elements of the refraction clinical competency examination. Analysis of data from the interviews and questionnaire yielded four dominant themes that were viewed as important determinants of student refraction competencies: student learning context, teaching context, clinic conditions and assessment, and the existing operating health care context. Conclusions. The evaluations have helped the university and course partners to better structure the teaching and adapt the learning environments by recommending a preparatory year and a review of the curriculum and clinic structure, implementing more transparent entry requirements, increasing awareness of the program, and improving Internet infrastructure. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Optometry.academic performance; course evaluation questionnaire; learning context; lecturer interviews; Mozambique; optometry students; teaching contextComputer aided instruction; Curricula; Education; Education computing; Optometers; Refraction; Surveys; Teaching; Vision; Academic performance; Course evaluations; Learning context; lecturer interviews; Mozambique; Students; clinical competence; curriculum; education; female; human; middle aged; Mozambique; optometry; questionnaire; standards; teaching; Clinical Competence; Curriculum; Educational Measurement; Female; Humans; Middle Aged; Mozambique; Optometry; Questionnaires; TeachingNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78650524187Carbonation of brine impacted fractionated coal fly ash: Implications for CO2 sequestrationNyambura M.G., Mugera G.W., Felicia P.L., Gathura N.P.2011Journal of Environmental Management92310.1016/j.jenvman.2010.10.008Environmental and Nano Sciences Group, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Ecology and Resource Management, School of Environmental studies, University of Venda, Private bag, X5050, Thohoyandou, 0950, Limpopo, South AfricaNyambura, M.G., Environmental and Nano Sciences Group, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535, Cape Town, South Africa; Mugera, G.W., Department of Ecology and Resource Management, School of Environmental studies, University of Venda, Private bag, X5050, Thohoyandou, 0950, Limpopo, South Africa; Felicia, P.L., Environmental and Nano Sciences Group, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535, Cape Town, South Africa; Gathura, N.P., Environmental and Nano Sciences Group, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535, Cape Town, South AfricaCoal combustion by-products such as fly ash (FA), brine and CO2 from coal fired power plants have the potential to impact negatively on the environment. FA and brine can contaminate the soil, surface and ground water through leaching of toxic elements present in their matrices while CO2 has been identified as a green house gas that contributes significantly towards the global warming effect. Reaction of CO2 with FA/brine slurry can potentially provide a viable route for CO2 sequestration via formation of mineral carbonates. Fractionated FA has varying amounts of CaO which not only increases the brine pH but can also be converted into an environmentally benign calcite. Carbonation efficiency of fractionated and brine impacted FA was investigated in this study. Controlled carbonation reactions were carried out in a reactor set-up to evaluate the effect of fractionation on the carbonation efficiency of FA. Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of fresh and carbonated ash were evaluated using XRF, SEM, and XRD. Brine effluents were characterized using ICP-MS and IC. A factorial experimental approach was employed in testing the variables. The 20-150μm size fraction was observed to have the highest CO2 sequestration potential of 71.84kg of CO2 per ton of FA while the &gt;150μm particles had the lowest potential of 36.47kg of CO2 per ton of FA. Carbonation using brine resulted in higher degree of calcite formation compared to the ultra-pure water carbonated residues. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.Brine; Carbonation efficiency; CO2 sequestration; Fly ashcalcium carbonate; carbon dioxide; coal; sea water; atmospheric pollution; brine; calcite; carbon dioxide; carbon sequestration; chemical alteration; coal; coal-fired power plant; fly ash; fuel consumption; greenhouse gas; pH; article; carbon sequestration; fly ash; fractional anisotropy; greenhouse effect; mass spectrometry; pH; scanning electron microscopy; X ray diffraction; Calcium Carbonate; Carbon; Carbon Dioxide; Coal; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Particulate Matter; Sodium Chloride; X-Ray DiffractionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-54049158499Effect of housefly maggot meal (magmeal) diets on the performance, concentration of plasma glucose, cortisol and blood characteristics of oreochromis niloticus fingerlingsOgunji J.O., Kloas W., Wirth M., Neumann N., Pietsch C.2008Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition92410.1111/j.1439-0396.2007.00745.xInstitute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany; Department of Endocrinology, Institute of Biology, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany; Department of Animal Production and Fisheries Management, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B. 053,Ogunji, J.O., Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany, Department of Animal Production and Fisheries Management, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B. 053, Abakaliki, Nigeria; Kloas, W., Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany, Department of Endocrinology, Institute of Biology, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany; Wirth, M., Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany; Neumann, N., Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany; Pietsch, C., Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, GermanyA 56-day feeding trial was conducted to access the effect of housefly maggot meal (magmeal) diets on the performance, concentration of plasma glucose, cortisol and blood characteristics of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. Seven feeds formulated to contain 36% protein and 20 kJ g)1 gross energy (dry matter basis), were prepared by replacing fish meal with magmeal. Fifteen fingerlings (initial average weight 2.0 ± 0.1 g) stocked per experimental tank were fed in triplicates at 5% body weight in two portions per day (a level previously established). Growth and food conversion ratio were adequate and comparable without any significant differences (p < 0.5) between feeding groups. Mean values for haematocrit and plasma glucose were not significantly different (p < 0.05) among the feeding groups. Fish group fed control diet (containing highest inclusion level of fish meal and without magmeal) gave the lowest haemoglobin concentration (5.96 ± 0.22 g dl)1). This value was significantly different from other feeding groups. Stressful conditions in fish and in mammals are associated with decreased growth, haematocrit (packed cell volume) and haemoglobin values, increased whole blood glucose (hyperglycaemia) and plasma cortisol concentrations. No such physiological changes were observed in this study. Results suggest that feeding O. niloticus fingerling with magmeal diets did not cause any form of physiological stress. Magmeal can be used as a good alternative protein source in tilapia diets. © 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Fishmeal; Housefly maggot meal; Oreochromis niloticus; Stress responseMammalia; Musca domestica; Oreochromis niloticus; Tilapia; hemoglobin; hydrocortisone; animal; animal disease; animal food; article; blood; blood analysis; cichlid; diet; glucose blood level; growth, development and aging; hematocrit; house fly; larva; metabolism; randomization; Animal Feed; Animal Nutrition Physiology; Animals; Blood Chemical Analysis; Blood Glucose; Cichlids; Diet; Hematocrit; Hemoglobins; Houseflies; Hydrocortisone; Larva; Random AllocationNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84939635274Impact of the energy-loss spatial profile and shear-viscosity to entropy-density ratio for the Mach cone versus head-shock signals produced by a fast-moving parton in a quark-gluon plasmaAyala A., Castaño-Yepes J.D., Dominguez I., Tejeda-Yeomans M.E.2015Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics92210.1103/PhysRevC.92.024910Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, México Distrito Federal, Mexico; Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa; Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Ciudad Universitaria, Avenida de las Américas y Boulevard Universitarios, Culiacán, Sinaloa, Mexico; Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora, Boulevard Luis Encinas J. y Rosales, Colonia Centro, Hermosillo, Sonora, MexicoAyala, A., Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, México Distrito Federal, Mexico, Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa; Castaño-Yepes, J.D., Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, México Distrito Federal, Mexico; Dominguez, I., Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Ciudad Universitaria, Avenida de las Américas y Boulevard Universitarios, Culiacán, Sinaloa, Mexico; Tejeda-Yeomans, M.E., Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, México Distrito Federal, Mexico, Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora, Boulevard Luis Encinas J. y Rosales, Colonia Centro, Hermosillo, Sonora, MexicoWe compute the energy and momentum deposited by a fast-moving parton in a quark-gluon plasma using linear viscous hydrodynamics with an energy loss per unit length profile proportional to the path length and with different values of the shear-viscosity to entropy-density ratio. We show that when varying these parameters, the transverse modes dominate over the longitudinal ones and thus energy and momentum is preferentially deposited along the head-shock, as in the case of a constant energy loss per unit length profile and the lowest value for the shear-viscosity to entropy-density ratio. © 2015 American Physical Society. ©2015 American Physical Society.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-46849092427Evaluation of soybean germplasm for resistance to soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) in NigeriaTwizeyimana M., Ojiambo P.S., Ikotun T., Ladipo J.L., Hartman G.L., Bandyopadhyay R.2008Plant Disease92610.1094/PDIS-92-6-0947International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NCTwizeyimana, M., International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria, Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Ojiambo, P.S., Department of Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, United States; Ikotun, T., Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Ladipo, J.L., Department of Plant Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun, Nigeria; Hartman, G.L., United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, United States; Bandyopadhyay, R., IITA, NigeriaSoybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is one of the most important constraints to soybean production worldwide. The absence of high levels of host resistance to the pathogen has necessitated the continued search and identification of sources of resistance. In one set of experiments, 178 soybean breeding lines from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture were rated for rust severity in the field in 2002 and 2003 at Ile-Ife, Yandev, and Ibadan, Nigeria. Thirty-six lines with disease severity ≤3 (based on a 0-to-5 scale) were selected for a second round of evaluation in 2004 at Ibadan. In the third round of evaluation under inoculated field conditions, 11 breeding lines with disease severity ≤2 were further evaluated for rust resistance at Ibadan in 2005 and 2006. The breeding lines TGx 1835-10E, TGx 1895-50F, and TGx 1903-3F consistently had the lowest level of disease severity across years and locations. In another set of experiments, 101 accessions from the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service and National Agriculture Research Organization (Uganda) were evaluated in the first round in 2005 under inoculated conditions in the screenhouse; 12 accessions with disease severity ≤20% leaf area infected were selected for evaluation in the second round in 2005 and 2006 under inoculated field conditions at Ibadan. Highly significant differences (P < 0.0001) in disease severity were observed among the 101 accessions during this first round of rust evaluation. Significant (P < 0.0001) differences in rust severity and sporulation also were observed among the 12 selected accessions. Accessions PI 594538A, PI 417089A, and UG-5 had significantly (P < 0.05) lower disease severity than all other selected accessions in both years of evaluation, with rust severities ranging from 0.1 to 2.4%. These results indicate that some of the breeding lines (TGx 1835-10E, TGx 1895-50F, and TGx 1903-3F) and accessions (PI 594538A, PI 417089A, and UG-5) would be useful sources of soybean rust resistance genes for incorporation into high-yielding and adapted cultivars.Disease resistance; Stability analysis(I ,J) conditions; Agricultural Research Service (ARS); Breeding lines; disease severity; field conditions; First round; germ plasm; host resistance; Ibadan , Nigeria; International (CO); Leaf area (LA); Nigeria; Research organizations; rust resistance; Soybean production; United States Department of Agriculture (USDA); Glycine max; Phakopsora pachyrhiziNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84874704926Ecological impact of Prosopis species invasion in Turkwel riverine forest, KenyaMuturi G.M., Poorter L., Mohren G.M.J., Kigomo B.N.2013Journal of Arid Environments92None10.1016/j.jaridenv.2013.01.010Kenya Forestry Research Institute, P. O. Box 20412, 00200 Nairobi, Kenya; Forest Ecology and Management Group, Wageningen University, P. O. Box 47, AA Wageningen, NetherlandsMuturi, G.M., Kenya Forestry Research Institute, P. O. Box 20412, 00200 Nairobi, Kenya, Forest Ecology and Management Group, Wageningen University, P. O. Box 47, AA Wageningen, Netherlands; Poorter, L., Forest Ecology and Management Group, Wageningen University, P. O. Box 47, AA Wageningen, Netherlands; Mohren, G.M.J., Forest Ecology and Management Group, Wageningen University, P. O. Box 47, AA Wageningen, Netherlands; Kigomo, B.N., Kenya Forestry Research Institute, P. O. Box 20412, 00200 Nairobi, KenyaThe impact of Prosopis species invasion in the Turkwel riverine forest in Kenya was investigated under three contrasting: Acacia, Prosopis and Mixed species (Acacia and Prosopis) canopies. Variation amongst canopies was assessed through soil nutrients and physical properties, tree characteristics and canopy closure. Invasion impact was evaluated by comparing herbaceous species cover and diversity, and occurrence of indigenous tree seedlings. Soil characteristics under Prosopis and Mixed species canopies were similar except in pH and calcium content, and had lower silt and carbon contents than soil under Acacia canopy. Tree density was higher under Prosopis intermediate under Mixed and lower under Acacia canopies. Prosopis trees had lower diameters than Acacia tortilis trees. Diameter classes' distribution in Mixed species canopy revealed invasion of Prosopis into mature A. tortilis stands. Herbaceous species cover and diversity were negatively correlated to Prosopis tree density; thus explaining the lower herbaceous species cover and diversity under Prosopis than under Acacia and Mixed species canopies. The study suggests a gradual conversion of herbaceous rich A. tortilis woodland to herbaceous poor Prosopis species woodland or thickets, through indiscriminate Prosopis invasion. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.Acacia tortilis; Herbaceous species cover; Herbs diversity; Soil nutrientsbiological invasion; ecological impact; forest canopy; herb; legume; soil nutrient; species diversity; woodland; KenyaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84934299363Effects of selected tropical legume and oil seeds on egg quality and performance of laying hens in NigeriaAkanji A.M., Ogungbesan A.M., Ologhobo A.D.2015Tropical Agriculture921NoneOlabisi Onabanjo University, College of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Production, Ayetoro, Ogun State, Nigeria; Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, NigeriaAkanji, A.M., Olabisi Onabanjo University, College of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Production, Ayetoro, Ogun State, Nigeria; Ogungbesan, A.M., Olabisi Onabanjo University, College of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Production, Ayetoro, Ogun State, Nigeria; Ologhobo, A.D., Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, NigeriaRaw jack-beans, bambara groundnuts and benne seeds were fed to exotic hens in a six - week experimental study to assess their toxicological effects on egg quality and laying performance. The legume and oil seeds selected for this study were used to replace soy bean meal at 25% and 50% levels. Egg weight and hen - day production were significantly (P<0.05) reduced in birds fed 25% and 50% raw benne seed - based diets. Feed conversion ratio was significantly (P<0.05) increased in birds fed 50% raw benne seeds. Egg yolk index and haugh unit were significantly (P<0.05) reduced across the groups. The reductions were however more pronounced in birds fed 50% raw jack beans and 50% raw benne seeds respectively. The whole egg protein was similar in all the groups. The yolk protein and albumen protein were however significantly (P<0.05) reduced across the groups. The fat contents of the whole eggs and yolk were more significantly (P<0.05) reduced in birds fed 50% raw jack beans and 50% bambara groundnuts respectively. Regression analysis revealed significant (P<0.05) correlations between egg weight and haemagglutinin (r = -0.47), tannin, (r = -0.55),; Yolk index and haemagglutinin (r = -0.54), trypsin inhibitor (r = -0.51); Haugh unit and tannin (r = -0.68), oxalate (r = -0.51); Yolk protein and haemagglutinin (r = -0.48), trypsin inhibitor (r = -0.48). © 2015 Trop. Agric. (Trinidad).Eggs; Hens; Oil seeds; Raw legumesNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84942279418Impact of pairing correlations on the orientation of the nuclear spinZhao P.W., Zhang S.Q., Meng J.2015Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics92310.1103/PhysRevC.92.034319Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, United States; State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China; School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, China; Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South AfricaZhao, P.W., Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, United States, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China; Zhang, S.Q., State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China; Meng, J., State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, China, Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South AfricaFor the first time, the tilted axis cranking covariant density functional theory with pairing correlations has been formulated and implemented in a fully self-consistent and microscopic way to investigate the evolution of the spin axis and the pairing effects in rotating triaxial nuclei. The measured energy spectrum and transition probabilities for the Nd135 yrast band are reproduced well without any ad hoc renormalization factors when pairing effects are taken into account. A transition from collective to chiral rotation has been demonstrated. It is found that pairing correlations introduce additional admixtures in the single-particle orbitals, and, thus, influence the structure of tilted axis rotating nuclei by reducing the magnitude of the proton and neutron angular momenta while merging their direction. © 2015 American Physical Society.NoneNoneDOE, National Natural Science Foundation of China; 11105005, NSFC, National Natural Science Foundation of China; 11175002, NSFC, National Natural Science Foundation of China; 11335002, NSFC, National Natural Science Foundation of China; 11375015, NSFC, Na
NoneNoneThe impact of buffer zone size and management on illegal extraction, park protection, and enforcementRobinson E.J.Z., Albers H.J., Busby G.M.2013Ecological Economics92None10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.06.019Reader in Environmental Economics, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, United Kingdom; FES/Applied Economics, Oregon State University, Richardson Hall 321, Corvallis, OR 97331, United States; Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, United States; Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Environment for Development Tanzania, University of Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaRobinson, E.J.Z., Reader in Environmental Economics, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, United Kingdom, Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Sweden, Environment for Development Tanzania, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Albers, H.J., FES/Applied Economics, Oregon State University, Richardson Hall 321, Corvallis, OR 97331, United States, Environment for Development Tanzania, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Busby, G.M., Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, United StatesMany protected areas or parks in developing countries have buffer zones at their boundaries to achieve the dual goals of protecting park resources and providing resource benefits to neighbouring people. Despite the prevalence of these zoning policies, few behavioural models of people's buffer zone use inform the sizing and management of those zones. This paper uses a spatially explicit resource extraction model to examine the impact of buffer zone size and management on extraction by local people, both legal and illegal, and the impact of that extraction on forest quality in the park's core and buffer zone. The results demonstrate trade-offs between the level of enforcement, the size of a buffer zone, and the amount of illegal extraction in the park; and describe implications for "enrichment" of buffer zones and evaluating patterns of forest degradation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.Buffer zone management; Costly enforcement; Forest reserves; Protected area management; Spatial economicsbuffer zone; developing world; environmental degradation; nature reserve; neighborhood; numerical model; park management; protected area; trade-offNone
Scopus2-s2.0-58549111084Structural evaluation of column-height controls at a toe-thrust discovery, deep-water Niger DeltaKostenko O.V., Naruk S.J., Hack W., Poupon M., Meyer H.-J., Mora-Glukstad M., Anowai C., Mordi M.2008AAPG Bulletin921210.1306/08040808056Shell International Exploration and Production Inc., 3737 Bellaire Blvd., Houston, TX 77025, United States; Shell International Exploration and Production Inc., 200 North Dairy Ashford, Houston, TX 77079, United States; Shell Petroleum Development CompanyKostenko, O.V., Shell International Exploration and Production Inc., 3737 Bellaire Blvd., Houston, TX 77025, United States; Naruk, S.J., Shell International Exploration and Production Inc., 3737 Bellaire Blvd., Houston, TX 77025, United States; Hack, W., Shell International Exploration and Production Inc., 200 North Dairy Ashford, Houston, TX 77079, United States; Poupon, M., Shell International Exploration and Production Inc., 200 North Dairy Ashford, Houston, TX 77079, United States; Meyer, H.-J., Shell International Exploration and Production Inc., 200 North Dairy Ashford, Houston, TX 77079, United States; Mora-Glukstad, M., Shell International Exploration and Production Inc., 200 North Dairy Ashford, Houston, TX 77079, United States; Anowai, C., Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria, P.M.B. 2418, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; Mordi, M., Dajo Oil Limited, NigeriaIndustry discoveries to date in the deep-water toe-thrust play have limited column heights and lack any unequivocal thrust-fault-dependent hydrocarbon columns. The causes of the limited success are controversial, the main issue being whether the encountered columns are caused by leaking thrust faults or other causes. The controversy is in large part caused by the presence of no-seismic-image zones that, even on three-dimensional (3-D) prestack-migrated data, obscure the possible thrust cutoffs. We use dipmeter, seismic, stratigraphic, and fluid pressure data to construct an integrated geometrically and kinematically balanced cross section through a recent toe-thrust discovery in which a prominent no-seismic-image zone on the southwest flank of the Alpha structure appeared to be a thrust fault zone holding about 100 m (328 ft) of thrust-fault-dependent oil column. To constrain the structure within the unimaged forelimb, dip panels and fold axial surfaces were constructed from dipmeter data recorded in both a vertical hole and a sidetrack well through the no-seismic-image zone. Stratigraphic tops from both wells were projected through the no-seismic-image zone using the dip panels and axial surfaces, maintaining the observed stratigraphic thicknesses. These data and analyses tightly constrain potential fault locations and offsets within the no-data zone. The resulting structural model shows that the no-seismic-image zone in the forelimb is not a thrust but instead an overturned limb without any fault offset of the pay section. The results show that the trapped hydrocarbons are confined completely within the four-way dip closure, and that the trap's potential is not limited by the thrust faults' seal capacities. In addition, top-seal analyses show that top-seal integrity is not a limiting factor for hydrocarbon column heights at the present time and has not been a limiting factor throughout the geological history of the structure. Taken together, these observations indicate that the column heights are most likely controlled by access to charge instead of trap integrity, consistent with an observed lack of thermogenic hydrocarbons in nearby four-way dip closures. These conclusions imply that where sufficient access to thermogenic charge is present, there may be additional thrust-fault-dependent hydrocarbon columns. Copyright © 2008. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.NoneCross sectioning; Deep waters; Fault locations; Fault offset; Fluid pressures; Image zones; Niger Delta; Oil column; Seal integrity; Structural evaluation; Thrust faulting; Earthquakes; Hydrocarbons; Model structures; Organic compounds; Seismology; Stratigraphy; Three dimensional; fault zone; fluid pressure; geometry; hydrocarbon exploration; hydrocarbon reservoir; integrated approach; oil field; prestack migration; seismic data; three-dimensional modeling; thrust fault; Africa; Niger Delta; Nigeria; Sub-Saharan Africa; West AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84919947877Synthesis of functionalized 3-, 5-, 6- and 8-aminoquinolines via intermediate (3-pyrrolin-1-yl)- and (2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)quinolines and evaluation of their antiplasmodial and antifungal activityVandekerckhove S., Van Herreweghe S., Willems J., Danneels B., Desmet T., De Kock C., Smith P.J., Chibale K., D'Hooghe M.2015European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry92None10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.12.020SynBioC Research Group, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Ghent, Belgium; Centre for Industrial Biotechnology and Biocatalysis, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Ghent, Belgium; Division of Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, South Africa; South African Medical Research Council Drug Discovery and Development Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South AfricaVandekerckhove, S., SynBioC Research Group, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Ghent, Belgium; Van Herreweghe, S., SynBioC Research Group, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Ghent, Belgium; Willems, J., SynBioC Research Group, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Ghent, Belgium; Danneels, B., Centre for Industrial Biotechnology and Biocatalysis, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Ghent, Belgium; Desmet, T., Centre for Industrial Biotechnology and Biocatalysis, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Ghent, Belgium; De Kock, C., Division of Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, South Africa; Smith, P.J., Division of Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, South Africa; Chibale, K., South African Medical Research Council Drug Discovery and Development Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa; D'Hooghe, M., SynBioC Research Group, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Ghent, Belgium(3-Pyrrolin-1-yl)- and (2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)quinolines were prepared via cyclization of diallylaminoquinolines and 4-chloro-N-quinolinylbutanamides, respectively, as novel synthetic intermediates en route to N-functionalized 3-, 5-, 6- and 8-aminoquinolines with potential biological activity. (3-Pyrrolin-1-yl)quinolines were subjected to bromination reactions, and the reactivity of (2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)quinolines toward lithium aluminum hydride and methyllithium was assessed, providing an entry into a broad range of novel functionalized (pyrrolidin-1-yl)- and (hydroxyalkylamino)quinolines. Antiplasmodial evaluation of these novel quinolines and their functionalized derivatives revealed moderate micromolar potency against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, and the two most potent compounds also showed micromolar activity against a chloroquine-resistant strain of P. falciparum. Antifungal assessment of (hydroxyalkylamino)quinolines revealed three compounds with promising MIC values against Rhodotorula bogoriensis and one compound with potent activity against Aspergillus flavus. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.Antimalarial agents; Antimicrobial agents; Pyrrolidine derivatives; Quinolines2 methyl 3 (2 methylpyrrolidin 1 yl)quinoline; 3 (2 methylpyrrolidin 1 yl)quinoline; 3 (pyrrolidin 1 yl)quinoline; 4 (quinolin 3 ylamino)butanol; 4 (quinolin 5 ylamino)butanol; 4 (quinolin 6 ylamino)butanol; 4 (quinolin 8 ylamino)butanol; 5 (2 methylpyrrolidin 1 yl)quinoline; 5 (2 methylquinolin 3 ylamino) 2 methylpentan 2 ol; 5 (2 methylquinolin 3 ylamino)pentan 2 ol; 5 (pyrrolidin 1 yl)quinoline; 5 (quinolin 3 ylamino)pentan 2 one; 5 (quinolin 5 ylamino) 2 methylpentan 2 ol; 5 (quinolin 5 ylamino)pentan 2 ol; 5 (quinolin 5 ylamino)pentan 2 one; 5 (quinolin 6 ylamino) 2 methylpentan 2 ol; 5 (quinolin 6 ylamino)pentan 2 ol; 5 (quinolin 6 ylamino)pentan 2 one; 5 (quinolin 8 ylamino) 2 methylpentan 2 ol; 6 (2 methylpyrrolidin 1 yl)quinoline; 6 (pyrrolidin 1 yl)quinoline; 8 (2 oxopyrrolidin 1 yl)quinoline; aminoquinoline derivative; amphotericin B; antifungal agent; antimalarial agent; artesunate; chloroquine; emetine; unclassified drug; unindexed drug; aminoquinoline derivative; antifungal agent; antimalarial agent; antifungal activity; antimalarial activity; Article; Aspergillus flavus; bromination; Candida albicans; controlled study; derivatization; drug design; drug potency; drug screening; drug synthesis; IC50; minimum inhibitory concentration; nonhuman; Plasmodium falciparum; Rhodotorula; Rhodotorula bogoriensis; structure activity relation; substitution reaction; chemistry; dose response; drug effects; drug sensitivity; synthesis; Aminoquinolines; Antifungal Agents; Antimalarials; Aspergillus flavus; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Parasitic Sensitivity Tests; Plasmodium falciparum; Rhodotorula; Structure-Activity RelationshipNone
WoSWOS:000269490000010The Impact of Agricultural Extension and Roads on Poverty and Consumption Growth in Fifteen Ethiopian VillagesDercon, Stefan,Gilligan, Daniel O.,Hoddinott, John,Woldehanna, Tassew2009AMERICAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS91410.1111/j.1467-8276.2009.01325.xAddis Ababa University, International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Oxford"Dercon, Stefan: University of Oxford","Hoddinott, John: International Food Policy Research Institute","Woldehanna, Tassew: Addis Ababa University"This article investigates whether public investments that led to improvements in road quality and increased access to agricultural extension services led to faster consumption growth and lower rates of poverty in rural Ethiopia. Estimating an Instrumental Variables model using Generalized Methods of Moments and controlling for household fixed effects, we find evidence of positive impacts with meaningful magnitudes. Receiving at least one extension visit reduces headcount poverty by 9.8 percentage points and increases consumption growth by 7.1 percentage points. Access to all-weather roads reduces poverty by 6.9 percentage points and increases consumption growth by 16.3 percentage points. These results are robust to changes in model specification and estimation methods.ETHIOPIA,EXTENSION,GROWTH,POVERTY,ROADS,PROGRAMS,"RURAL ETHIOPIA",SHOCKSNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84908155352Evaluation of physico-chemical properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivar 'Wonderful' on three locations of South AfricaMashavhathakha K.L., Soundy P., Ngezimana W., Mudau F.N.2014Tropical Agriculture913NoneARC-INFRUTTEC-NIETVOORBIJ Horticulture Division, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6FL, South AfricaMashavhathakha, K.L., ARC-INFRUTTEC-NIETVOORBIJ Horticulture Division, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Soundy, P., Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria, South Africa; Ngezimana, W., Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6FL, South Africa; Mudau, F.N., Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6FL, South AfricaThe pomegranate fruit is one of the high valued crops, but there is insufficient information regarding the fruit properties in South Africa. The aim of the study was to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of cultivar 'Wonderful' on three locations of the Western Cape. This study was conducted on mature pomegranate fruits harvested in the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Fruit weight (g), length (mm), and width (mm), peel colour and total arils weights (g) were measured. Fruits were also analyzed for total soluble solids (TSS, oBrix %), titratable acidity (TA) and juice pH. Results of the study showed that there were significant differences in all measured factors with the exception of % aril yield between the three locations. Though varied per season, fruits produced at Bonnievalle had better physical and chemical properties than at the other localities. Total soluble solids content varied from 16.0-17.3 (oBrix), pH values from 2.7-3.0, titratable acid content varied from 1.3-1.7 and maturity index from 9.7-13.4. The results clearly reveal the significance of season and location when growing 'Wonderful' in order to obtain higher yield percentage. © 2014 Trop. Agric. (Trinidad).Chemical properties; Cultivar; Physical properties; PomegranateLythraceae; Punica granatumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-67651119884The impact of habitat fragmentation on tsetse abundance on the plateau of eastern ZambiaDucheyne E., Mweempwa C., De Pus C., Vernieuwe H., De Deken R., Hendrickx G., Van den Bossche P.2009Preventive Veterinary Medicine91110.1016/j.prevetmed.2009.05.009Avia-GIS, Risschotlei 33, 2980 Zoersel, Belgium; Department of Veterinary and Livestock Development, Zambia; Animal Health Department, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium; Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, South AfricaDucheyne, E., Avia-GIS, Risschotlei 33, 2980 Zoersel, Belgium; Mweempwa, C., Department of Veterinary and Livestock Development, Zambia; De Pus, C., Animal Health Department, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium; Vernieuwe, H., Avia-GIS, Risschotlei 33, 2980 Zoersel, Belgium; De Deken, R., Animal Health Department, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium; Hendrickx, G., Avia-GIS, Risschotlei 33, 2980 Zoersel, Belgium; Van den Bossche, P., Animal Health Department, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium, Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, South AfricaTsetse-transmitted human or livestock trypanosomiasis is one of the major constraints to rural development in sub-Saharan Africa. The epidemiology of the disease is determined largely by tsetse fly density. A major factor, contributing to tsetse population density is the availability of suitable habitat. In large parts of Africa, encroachment of people and their livestock resulted in a destruction and fragmentation of such suitable habitat. To determine the effect of habitat change on tsetse density a study was initiated in a tsetse-infested zone of eastern Zambia. The study area represents a gradient of habitat change, starting from a zone with high levels of habitat destruction and ending in an area where livestock and people are almost absent. To determine the distribution and density of the fly, tsetse surveys were conducted throughout the study area in the dry and in the rainy season. Landsat ETM+ imagery covering the study area were classified into four land cover classes (munga, miombo, agriculture and settlements) and two auxiliary spectral classes (clouds and shadow) using a Gaussian Maximum Likelihood Classifier. The classes were regrouped into natural vegetation and agricultural zone. The binary images were overlaid with hexagons to obtain the spatial spectrum of spatial pattern. Hexagonal coverage was selected because of its compact and regular form. To identify scale-specific spatial patterns and associated entomological phenomena, the size of the hexagonal coverage was varied (250 and 500 m). Per coverage, total class area, mean patch size, number of patches and patch size standard deviation were used as fragmentation indices. Based on the fragmentation index values, the study zone was classified using a Partitioning Around Mediods (PAM) method. The number of classes was determined using the Wilks' lambda coefficient. To determine the impact of habitat fragmentation on tsetse abundance, the correlation between the fragmentation indices and the index of apparent density of the flies was determined and habitat changes most affecting tsetse abundance was identified. From this it followed that there is a clear relationship between habitat fragmentation and the abundance of tsetse flies. Heavily fragmented areas have lower numbers of tsetse flies, but when the fragmentation of natural vegetation decreases, the number of tsetse flies increases following a sigmoidal-like curve. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Fragmentation analysis; GIS; Tsetseanimal; article; disease carrier; ecosystem; female; geographic information system; growth, development and aging; human; male; parasitology; season; Trypanosoma; tsetse fly; Zambia; Animals; Ecosystem; Female; Geographic Information Systems; Humans; Insect Vectors; Male; Seasons; Trypanosoma; Tsetse Flies; Zambia; Glossina (genus)None
Scopus2-s2.0-84890876053Performance of invasive alien fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum) along a climatic gradient through three South African biomesRahlao S.J., Milton S.J., Esler K.J., Barnard P.2014South African Journal of Botany91None10.1016/j.sajb.2013.11.013Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; Climate Change and Bio-Adaptation Division, Kirstenbosch Research Centre, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Private Bag X7, Claremont 7735, South Africa; DST Centre of Excellence, Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South AfricaRahlao, S.J., Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; Milton, S.J., Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa, DST Centre of Excellence, Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa; Esler, K.J., Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; Barnard, P., Climate Change and Bio-Adaptation Division, Kirstenbosch Research Centre, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Private Bag X7, Claremont 7735, South Africa, DST Centre of Excellence, Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South AfricaThe knowledge of relative performance of plants across environmental gradients is critical for their effective management and for understanding future range expansion. Pennisetum setaceum is an invasive perennial grass found along roadsides and other disturbed sites in South Africa. The performance of this grass in response to competition, habitat characteristics and resources was experimentally tested in three biomes (Karoo, Fynbos and Savanna) of South Africa. A total of 846 young P. setaceum seedlings were translocated to study sites in May 2007. The seedlings were grown in 94 plots along random transects, of which alternate halves were cleared of vegetation. Despite a variety of environmental hazards at these sites, over 30% of the transplanted seedlings survived over 15. months. Competition from resident vegetation was a major factor limiting the establishment of seedlings. However, under adequate rainfall and historical disturbance (mine dump), competition effects were overridden. Survival of seedlings was greatest in the Karoo National Park, possibly because of summer rainfall that occurred shortly after translocation. Despite differences in the survival and growth rates, seedlings remained alive at all sites, especially if they survived the first six months after translocation. P. setaceum is capable of persisting across a broad range of environmental conditions. Management efforts should aim to reduce seed production and establishment along roadsides that act as conduits into protected sites. This could be best achieved by maintaining as much indigenous cover along road verges as possible, as seeds survive best where competition is low. © 2013 South African Association of Botanists.Alien grass; Biological invasions; Competition; Disturbance; Seedling translocation; Transplant experimentbiological invasion; biome; climate variation; fynbos; grass; habitat management; introduced species; Karoo Supergroup; performance assessment; roadside environment; savanna; spatiotemporal analysis; translocation; Karoo National Park; South Africa; Western CapeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-60849106681Impact of industrial effluents on water, soils and plants in the Alakia industrial area of Ibadan, South West NigeriaAwomeso J.A., Ufoegbune G.C., Oluwasanya G.O., Ademola-Aremu O.O.2009Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry91110.1080/02772240802074975College of Environmental Resources Management, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, NigeriaAwomeso, J.A., College of Environmental Resources Management, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria; Ufoegbune, G.C., College of Environmental Resources Management, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria; Oluwasanya, G.O., College of Environmental Resources Management, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria; Ademola-Aremu, O.O., College of Environmental Resources Management, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, NigeriaChemical analysis of the effluents of the industrial area in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria, and their effect on three communities were evaluated. The degree of pollution was ascertained by determination of the concentration of 12 metals including Pb, Cu, Ni, K, Cd, Fe, Zn, Ca, Cr, Mn, Na, Mg, a specific nonmetal phosphorus, as well as chloride (Cl) and nitrates (NO3 -. The study established the presence of metals in concentrations higher than the recommended limits in effluent discharges in all the samples in the study area. © 2009 Taylor &amp; Francis.Effluent; Industrial growth; Metals; Pollution; RadicalsCalcium; Chlorine compounds; Chromium; Industrial plants; Lead; Manganese; Manganese compounds; Metals; Nitrogen compounds; Phosphorus; Pollution; Sewage; Sodium; Wastewater treatment; Zinc; Concentration of; Effluent discharges; Industrial areas; Industrial effluents; Industrial growth; Nigeria; Radicals; Study areas; Effluents; chemical pollutant; concentration (composition); discharge; effluent; heavy metal; nitrate; Africa; Ibadan; Nigeria; Oyo; Sub-Saharan Africa; West AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84908200710Impact of soybean (Glycine maxL.) and maize (Zea mays L.) inter-crop on the vegetative and yield performance of yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana (Pers) Schum.)Aboyeji C.M., Abayomi Y.A., Aduloju M.O., Olofintoye T.A.J.2014Tropical Agriculture913NoneDepartment of Agronomy, University of Ilorin, florin, Nigeria; College of Agricultural Sciences, Landmark University, Omuaran, Nigeria; National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), Ibadan, NigeriaAboyeji, C.M., Department of Agronomy, University of Ilorin, florin, Nigeria; Abayomi, Y.A., Department of Agronomy, University of Ilorin, florin, Nigeria; Aduloju, M.O., College of Agricultural Sciences, Landmark University, Omuaran, Nigeria; Olofintoye, T.A.J., National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), Ibadan, NigeriaVegetative and yield performance of Thevetia peruviana (Pers) Schum. were evaluated under soybean (Glycine max L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) cropping systems during the 2008 and 2009 rainy seasons at the Research Farm of the Biofuel Alternative and Renewable Energy Ltd, Edidi, Kwara State in the Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. The treatment included sole T. peruviana, sole soybean, sole maize, T. peruvtana/soybean and T. peruvianalmaize cropping systems with T. peruviana plant population of 2,500 plants ha-1. The treatments were laid out in Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Two rows of maize at one plant/stand were planted in each plot assigned for T. peruviana/maize while four rows of maize were planted in each plot assigned for sole maize. Soybean at two plants/stand was planted in each plot assigned for T. peruvtana/soybean and sole soybean. Results obtained indicated that T. peruvtana/soybean cropping system improved the vegetative growth parameters of the two component crops while T. peruviana/maize cropping system reduced both the vegetative and the yield parameters of the test crop. However the widest stem width was observed under the control T. peruviana. The kernel size of T. peruviana was not significantly affected irrespective of the cropping systems. The kernel yield of T. peruviana under T. peruvtana/soybean cropping system increased although statistically similar with sole T. peruviana while the seed yield of soybean under T. peruvtana/soybean cropping system significantly increased when compared with the sole soybean. The complimentary use of growth resources such as nutrients, water and light in T. peruviana/soybean cropping system resulted into increase plant height, number of branches and the overall yield of the two component crops. Thus, it can be recommended that for higher yield and sustainability T. peruvtana/soybean cropping system is better adopted among the cropping systems. © 2014 Trop. Agric. (Trinidad).Inter-cropping; Thevetia peruviana; Vegetative growth and Kernel yieldGlycine max; Nerium; Thevetia peruviana; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84914165138Prospects of improving reproductive performance of the domestic rabbit in the tropics by reducing postpartum re-mating intervalAwojobi H.A., Adejumo D.O.2014Tropical Agriculture914NoneDepartment of Animal Production, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Yewa Campus, P.M.B. 0012, Ayetoro, Ogun State, Nigeria; Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaAwojobi, H.A., Department of Animal Production, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Yewa Campus, P.M.B. 0012, Ayetoro, Ogun State, Nigeria; Adejumo, D.O., Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaThe reproductive performance of ninety (90) primiparous doe rabbits that were re-bred 1-9 days (intensive),10-20 days (semi-intensive), 21-28 days (extensive) and >28 days (realized extensive) postpartum was investigated in the dry and rainy seasons in a tropical environment, in South-West Nigeria. The objective was to observe response to early rebreeding with the aim of increasing rabbits per doe per year. Mean postpartum re-mating intervals (P<0.05) were 1.9,15.1, 25.5 and 46.2 days for does re-bred 1-9 days, 10-20 days, 21-28 days and >28 days postpartum respectively. Similarly, the mean parturition intervals (P<0.05) were 33.5,49.5, 57.7 and 77.9 days for does re-bred under the intensive, semi-intensive, extensive and the realized extensive mating systems respectively. Gestation length was shorter (P<0.05) in does that re-bred semi-intensively. Litter size and weight at birth were not affected (P>0.05) by postpartum re-mating interval The 21 day litter size/weight and weaning (28 days) litter size/weight were unaffected (P>0.05) by postpartum re-mating interval. Kits mortality was lower (P<0.05) in the 21-28 days group (37.1%) compared to does in the 1-9 days group (55.8%) and 10-20 days group (58.1%). Litter size and weight at weaning was better (P<0.05) in the dry season (4.7 and 1518.7g) than rainy season (3.6 and 1187.6g). Kits mortality was higher (P<0.05) in the rainy season (49.6%) than dry season (35.8%). © 2014 Trop. Agric. (Trinidad).Doe-rabbit; Litter traits; Re-mating time-period; Reproduction; TropicsOryctolagus cuniculusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84914151604Performance of broiler starter chicks fed graded levels of enzyme supplemented dried rumen digestaEsonu B.O., Agbabiaka L.A., Osegbue A.I.2014Tropical Agriculture914NoneDepartment of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria; School of Industrial and Applied Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Owerri, NigeriaEsonu, B.O., Department of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria; Agbabiaka, L.A., School of Industrial and Applied Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Owerri, Nigeria; Osegbue, A.I., Department of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, NigeriaAn investigation was conducted on the growth response of broiler starter chicks fed diets of varying concentration of enzyme supplemented dried rumen digesta for 21 days. One hundred and fifty, 2-week old chicks were randomly allotted to 5 diets (CP=22%) containing enzyme fortified dried rumen digesta (EDRD) at 0,2.5,5.0,7.5,10.0% respectively. The reference (control=0%EDRD) diet contained no EDRD. Results revealed that feed intake of the chicks increased linearly with the' concentration of EDRD in diets (p<0.05). The body weight gain of chicks fed EDRD diets were superior to the control group (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in feed conversion ratio among the treatment groups (p>0.05) though control diet gave the best value of 2.32 while the least (2.46) was obtained from treatment group fed 10% EDRD. Cost benefit analysis showed that 10% EDRD diet gave the least cost per kilogram weight gain of the experimental chicks. This study suggests that dried rumen digesta when fortified with 0.2% cellulolytic enzyme "Hamacozyme®" could be tolerated up to 10% dietary level without compromising growth and will reduce cost per kilogram weight gain in broiler starter production. © 2014 Trop. Agric. (Trinidad).Broiler starter; Diets; Dried rumen digesta; Enzyme; PerformanceNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-10044280158Chemical evaluation of the seeds of Milletia obanensisUmoren U.E., Essien A.I., Ukorebi B.A., Essien E.B.2005Food Chemistry91210.1016/j.foodchem.2003.08.029Department of Animal Science, University of Calabar, Cross River, Nigeria; Snowbird Foods Ltd., Wharf Road, Ponders End, Middlesan, en 4TD, Enfield, NigeriaUmoren, U.E., Department of Animal Science, University of Calabar, Cross River, Nigeria; Essien, A.I., Department of Animal Science, University of Calabar, Cross River, Nigeria; Ukorebi, B.A., Department of Animal Science, University of Calabar, Cross River, Nigeria; Essien, E.B., Snowbird Foods Ltd., Wharf Road, Ponders End, Middlesan, en 4TD, Enfield, NigeriaA study was conduced to evaluate the nutritional potential of Milletia obanensis "Odudu" as a possible food or feedstuff and to assess the effect of various processing methods on its nutritional quality. Results of proximate analysis showed that the raw seeds contained 26.7% crude protein, 23.5% ether extract, 3.47% crude fibre, 4.37% ash and 42.0% nitrogen free extract. The protein was well supplied with essential and non-essential amino acids, though the values were low when compared with popular seed legumes. Minerals were in fair supply: P 3.10, Mg 92.30, K 45.25 and Fe 2.20 mg/100 g. Processing methods significantly (p<0.05) affected the nutritional composition. While autoclaving, boiling and toasting (heat treatment) increased the protein content, it reduced the levels of anti-nutritional factors-phytate, tannins, oxalates, cyanogenic glycosides and (slightly) saponin. Thus, it was concluded that M. obanensis seeds, if properly processed, could serve as livestock feed or food for man. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Amino acids; Antinutritional factors; Chemical evaluation; Milletia obanensis; Nutritional potential; Processing methodsessential amino acid; ether; glycoside; iron; magnesium; mineral; nitrogen; oxalic acid; phosphorus; phytate; potassium; saponin; tannin derivative; vegetable protein; analytic method; animal food; article; ash; autoclave; biochemical composition; controlled study; cooking; food; food processing; heat treatment; heating; intermethod comparison; legume; livestock; milletia obanensis; nonhuman; nutritional value; plant; plant fiber; plant seed; protein content; statistical significance; Fraxinus; MillettiaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-60849086515Chemical evaluation of Gnetum africana and Telferia occidentalisAbara A.E., Obochi G.O., Malu S.P., Obi-Abang M.2009Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry91110.1080/02772240802015523Department of Biochemistry, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, NigeriaAbara, A.E., Department of Biochemistry, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria; Obochi, G.O., Department of Biochemistry, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria; Malu, S.P., Department of Biochemistry, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria; Obi-Abang, M., Department of Biochemistry, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, NigeriaA chemical evaluation of Gnetum africana and Telferia occidentalis was carried out in five randomly selected restaurants in Calabar. The results showed that both Gnetum africana and Telferia occidentalis soups have high caloric values and contain adequate levels of essential minerals, vitamins, amino acids, proteins, and fat, which are needed for a variety of cellular functions in humans, and which would reduce the problem of protein energy malnutrition (PEM). © 2009 Taylor & Francis.Caloric value; Gnetum africana; Minerals; Telferia occidentalis; VitaminsAmines; Amino acids; Electric insulators; Minerals; Organic acids; Silica; Vitamins; Calabar; Caloric value; Cellular functions; Chemical evaluations; Gnetum africana; Telferia occidentalis; Nutrition; amino acid; gymnosperm; mineral; protein; vitamin; GnetumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70449434887Effects of ascorbate on monosodium glutamate-associated toxicities that may impact upon immunocompetenceObochi G.O., Malu S.P., Abara A.E., Ekam V.S., Uboh F.U., Obi-Abang M.2009Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry91310.1080/02772240802233563Department of Biochemistry, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria; Department of Biochemistry, University of Calabar, Calabar, NigeriaObochi, G.O., Department of Biochemistry, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria; Malu, S.P., Department of Biochemistry, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria; Abara, A.E., Department of Biochemistry, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria; Ekam, V.S., Department of Biochemistry, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; Uboh, F.U., Department of Biochemistry, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; Obi-Abang, M., Department of Biochemistry, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, NigeriaExcitotoxic food additives react with specialized receptors in the brain and other tissues. Unfortunately, in many instances, these reactions lead to free radical generation (resulting in oxidative stress/lipid peroxidation) and altered membrane fluidity. Ultimately, damage induced by these agents was shown to give rise to endocrine disorders and altered cell-mediated immune responses in general, and dysfunction of lymphocytes and macrophages in particular. The effects of ascorbate against some basic toxicities (that ultimately evolve into endocrine and immune system dysfunctions) induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) was studied in rats. For 21 days, control rats received a daily placebo (4 mL distilled water) via gastric intubation; other rats were treated daily with 100 mg MSG kgl-1 body weight or 100 mg MSG + 100 mg ascorbate kgl-1 in 4 mL vehicle. A day after the final exposure, rats were euthanized. Serum was isolated to examine several lipid and electrolyte parameters, i.e. cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL LDL, HDL, Na+, K+, Cl-, and HCO3 -. Rat spleen and thymus were also harvested for analysis. Results showed that, compared to effects from MSG alone, co-ingestion of ascorbate led to reductions in serum cholesterol, LDL, Na+, and K+. Only with serum HDL, ascorbate leads to increases compared to MSG alone. The co-treatment was also seen to block/mitigate the near three-fold rise in thymic and splenic absolute weights (and respective organ indices) produced by exposure to MSG alone. Similarly, MSG treatment also induced significant increases in blood levels of both monocytes/macrophages and eosinophils; these outcomes were again reversed by co-treatment. Data suggest that co-ingestion of ascorbate may help reduce the risk from some toxicities attributable to selective dietary constituents/additives. © 2009 Taylor &amp; Francis.Ascorbate; Excitotoxicity; Lipid peroxidation; Monosodium glutamate (MSG); Oxidative stressAscorbate; Blood levels; Body weight; Cell-mediated immune; Distilled water; Electrolyte parameters; Endocrine disorders; Excitotoxicity; Free radical generation; Immune systems; Immunocompetence; Lipid peroxidation; Membrane fluidity; Monocytes/macrophages; Monosodium glutamate; Monosodium glutamate (MSG); Peroxidation; Serum cholesterol; TO effect; Body fluids; Cholesterol; Food additives; Free radicals; Immunology; Oxidation; Oxidative stress; Rats; Sodium; Toxicity; biological uptake; blood; brain; immune response; immunocompetence; lipid; rodent; serum; sodium; toxic material; RattusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70349605017Mortality and anti-feedants evaluation of hexane and ethanol extracts of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae), African nutmeg (Monodoro myristica (Gaerth) Dunal) and Enuopiri (Euphorbia Laterifloria, Schum and Thonner) against subterranean termite workers (MacrotOgunsina O.O., Oladimeji M.O., Faboro E.O.2009Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry91510.1080/02772240802614796Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria; Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry, Bowen University, Akure, Osun State, NigeriaOgunsina, O.O., Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria; Oladimeji, M.O., Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry, Bowen University, Akure, Osun State, Nigeria; Faboro, E.O., Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry, Bowen University, Akure, Osun State, NigeriaLaboratory bioassays were conducted using hexone and ethanol extracts of Lantana camara, A. nutmeg and Euphorbia laterifloria against subterranean termite workers. The test arenas consisted of 9cm Whatman No. 1 filter paper, treated with five different prepared concentrations of each of the different extracts and the untreated control. All the different concentrations of the extracts tested have increasing mortality, and anti-feedants effect causes them to increase with each day of the experiment. All the extracts recorded 100% mortality rate after six days of treatment with concentration of 10g/100 mL. After two weeks of the experiment, L. camara hexane extract had the best anti-feedant effect, recording 39.7mg filter paper mass loss. Lethal dose analysis (LD50 and LD90) was carried out to determine the economic impact of this study. From this study it was discovered that with as low as 0.50g/100 mL of hexane extract of both L. camara and Enuopiri, 50% mortality can be recorded and 90% mortality can be achieved with 0.90g/100mL for all the plants hexane extracts. These results demonstrated that all the plant materials are good termicidal agents with good economic value. © 2009 Taylor &amp; Francis.Anti-feedants; Enuopiri; Extracts; Mortality; Nutmeg; TermiteAnti-feedants; Enuopiri; Extracts; Mortality; Nutmeg; Termite; Ethanol; Hexane; Ladder networks; Experiments; antifeedant; bioassay; dicotyledon; economic impact; ethanol; mortality; plant extract; termite; worker caste; Euphorbia; Isoptera; Lantana; Lantana camara; Myristica; Myristica fragrans; Rhinotermitidae; VerbenaceaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84925457770Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of fluorocarbon-containing rhodium(I) complexes for biphasic hydroformylation reactionsMaqeda L., Makhubela B.C.E., Smith G.S.2015Polyhedron91None10.1016/j.poly.2015.02.037Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South AfricaMaqeda, L., Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa; Makhubela, B.C.E., Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa; Smith, G.S., Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South AfricaAbstract A series of fluorocarbon-containing salicylaldimine and iminophosphine Schiff base ligands and their Rh(I) complexes were synthesized. The synthesized ligands and complexes were characterized using different analytical and spectroscopic techniques including (1H, 13C{1H}, 31P{1H} and 19F{1H} NMR spectroscopy), FT-IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (ESI and EI), and elemental analysis. In addition, single crystal X-ray diffraction was also used for characterization for complexes 1 and 2. Consequently, the Rh(I) synthesized complexes were evaluated as catalyst precursors in the hydroformylation of 1-octene. The hydroformylation results showed that the iminophosphine and salicylaldimine-based catalyst precursors are active and selective under mild conditions, converting 1-octene to mostly aldehydes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Biphasic catalysis; Fluorocarbon; Hydroformylation; Rhodium(I) complexes; Schiff basesNoneDST, University of Capetown; UCT, University of Capetown
Scopus2-s2.0-84914149658Comparative evaluation of animal manures on soil properties, growth and yield of sweet maize (Zea mays L. saccharata Strut.)Uwah D.F., Undie U.L., John N.M.2014Tropical Agriculture914NoneDepartment of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; Department of Agronomy, Cross River University of Technology, Obubra Campus, Nigeria; Department of Soil Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, NigeriaUwah, D.F., Department of Crop Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; Undie, U.L., Department of Agronomy, Cross River University of Technology, Obubra Campus, Nigeria; John, N.M., Department of Soil Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, NigeriaAlternative sources of plant nutrients have now become imperative especially for vegetable crop production in Nigeria because of the escalating costs of inorganic fertilizers with the attendant environmental and health problems associated with excessive use of these inputs on continuously cropped fields. A two-year field experiment was conducted during the early planting seasons from March to June of 2011 and 2012 on the acidic coastal plain soils at Calabar, to evaluate the combined effects of four rates each (0,5,10 and 15 t/ha) of poultry manure (PM) and goat manure (GM) on soil chemical properties and agronomic performance of sweet maize (Zea mays L. saccharata Strut.). Factorial combinations of the treatments were fitted into a randomized complete block design with three replications. The application of the manures significantly (P ≤ 0.05) raised the soil pH, organic matter content, total N, available P and exchangeable K, Ca and Mg status of the soil. Except for pH, total N, and available P contents, GM had superior responses for all other chemical properties than PM. The 15 t/ha rate of both manures maximized sweet maize growth attributes, total dry matter (TDM) and grain yields and also hastened days to 50% tasselling. On average, the application of 5, 10 and 15 t/ha PM rates, increased TDM by 8.5, 35.1 and 53.9%, whereas the corresponding values for GM were 15.6, 27.8 and 33.2% respectively compared with the unamended control plots. The grain yield increases at 15 t/ha PM and GM were 11.2, 59.8 and 126.9%; and 4.2, 20.0 and 45.8% respectively, above the 10, 5 and 0 t/ha rates of both manures. The growth and yield attributes showed greater responses to PM than GM in terms of the values obtained. The co-application of PM at 15 t/ha and GM at 10 t/ha had the best effects on TDM and grain yield and is thus recommended for sweet maize production in this agro-ecology. © 2014 Trop. Agric. (Trinidad).Goat manure; Poultry manure; Soil properties; Sweet maize; YieldAnimalia; Capra hircus; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84877022912Untapped potential of health impact assessment [Un potentiel inexploité de l'évaluation de l'impact sanitaire]Winkler M.S., Krieger G.R., Divall M.J., Cissé G., Wielga M., Singer B.H., Tannera M., Utzingera J.2013Bulletin of the World Health Organization91410.2471/BLT.12.112318Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland; New Fields, Denver, United States; SHAPE Consulting Ltd, Pretoria, South Africa; Temkin Wielga and Hardt LLP, Denver, United States; Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, United StatesWinkler, M.S., Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland; Krieger, G.R., New Fields, Denver, United States; Divall, M.J., SHAPE Consulting Ltd, Pretoria, South Africa; Cissé, G., Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland; Wielga, M., Temkin Wielga and Hardt LLP, Denver, United States; Singer, B.H., Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, United States; Tannera, M., Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland; Utzingera, J., Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, CH-4051 Basel, SwitzerlandThe World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to "green economy" and "institutional framework" strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century's sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure.Nonehealth impact; human development index; population growth; public health; sustainable development; urbanization; World Health Organization; article; climate change; economic aspect; environmental impact assessment; environmental protection; health care policy; health impact assessment; health program; human; human development; population growth; social aspect; sustainable development; United Nations; urbanization; world health organization; Conservation of Natural Resources; Decision Making; Developing Countries; Environment; Health Impact Assessment; Humans; Policy; Population Dynamics; World Health; World Health OrganizationNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77949264823Performance of newly implemented Environmental Management Systems in primary schools in South AfricaHens L., Wiedemann T., Raath S., Stone R., Renders P., Craenhals E.2010Journal of Environmental Management91410.1016/j.jenvman.2009.11.007Department of Human Ecology, University of Brussels, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels, Belgium; Museum Park Enviro Centre, Posbus 413, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa; Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa; Department LNE, Flemish Government, Koning Albert II-laan 20, bus 8, 1000 Brussels, BelgiumHens, L., Department of Human Ecology, University of Brussels, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels, Belgium; Wiedemann, T., Department of Human Ecology, University of Brussels, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels, Belgium; Raath, S., Museum Park Enviro Centre, Posbus 413, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa; Stone, R., Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa; Renders, P., Department LNE, Flemish Government, Koning Albert II-laan 20, bus 8, 1000 Brussels, Belgium; Craenhals, E., Department LNE, Flemish Government, Koning Albert II-laan 20, bus 8, 1000 Brussels, BelgiumQuantitative results from Environmental Management Systems (EMS) at primary schools have rarely been examined in literature. This paper presents the monitoring results of environmental care in 39 primary schools in Northern South Africa. During 2 years, after the EMS was implemented in the curriculum and in the school's management, the progress of environmental performances of the participating schools has been measured, by means of detailed questionnaires, related to four environmental aspects: water, waste, energy and greening. At the beginning of the project, 50% of the schools performed well on water-related environmental actions. Two years later it was 76%. For waste-related activities the improvement was even stronger: from 50% to 100%. The environmental performances of the schools improved also for greening-related actions, from 50% at the start of the project to 64% two years later. Only energy-related activities did not improve significantly with only 24% of all schools performing well at the end of the survey period. In general, the introduction of an EMS succeeded in an improvement of the overall environmental performances of the schools, but cost-intensive activities were less successful than others. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Community participation; Environmental care; Environmental learning; Environmental Management Systems (EMS); Monitoring; Primary schoolscurriculum; environmental education; environmental management; environmental monitoring; learning; local participation; primary education; academic achievement; article; awareness; controlled study; cost effectiveness analysis; education program; energy conservation; environmental management; environmental monitoring; primary school; questionnaire; South Africa; urban rural difference; waste management; water management; Conservation of Energy Resources; Conservation of Natural Resources; Environment, Controlled; Environmental Monitoring; Maintenance; Questionnaires; Schools; South Africa; Waste Management; Water; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84857652892Effect of alternative preservatives on the microbial quality, lipid stability and sensory evaluation of boereworsMathenjwa S.A., Hugo C.J., Bothma C., Hugo A.2012Meat Science91210.1016/j.meatsci.2012.01.014Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South AfricaMathenjwa, S.A., Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa; Hugo, C.J., Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa; Bothma, C., Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa; Hugo, A., Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South AfricaBoerewors is a South African fresh sausage preserved with 450mg/kg sulphur dioxide (SO 2). The preservative effects of rosemary (Ros; 260mg/kg) and chitosan (Chi; 10g/kg) were compared to SO 2. Eight boerewors models were formulated. Microbial, colour, lipid and sensory characteristics were evaluated. Chi and Chi in combination with other preservatives had a significant effect on reducing total bacterial, coliform and Enterobacteriaceae counts, comparable to SO 2. Chi, however, had a better effect on decreasing yeasts and mould counts than SO 2. Chi showed good colour properties comparable to SO 2. Ros showed comparable lipid stability to SO 2 but better when compared to Chi. Ros had a better effect on the sensory taste when compared to Chi, but SO 2 was still preferred. Reduced levels of 100mg/kg SO 2 showed good antimicrobial and colour effects in combination with Chi and in combination with Ros as antioxidant and improving the sensory properties. Alternative preservatives can be used to reduce the SO 2 content of boerewors. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.Alternative preservatives; Boerewors; Chitosan; Rosemary extract; Sulphur dioxide (SO 2)Boerewors; Colour properties; Enterobacteriaceae; Fresh sausages; Microbial quality; Rosemary extracts; Sensory characteristics; Sensory evaluation; Sensory properties; Chitosan; Color; Sulfur determination; Sulfur dioxide; Bacteria (microorganisms); Enterobacteriaceae; Rosmarinus officinalis; antiinfective agent; chitosan; food preservative; sulfur dioxide; adult; animal; article; bacterial count; bacterium; cattle; color; drug effect; female; food control; food preservation; fungus; human; lipid peroxidation; male; meat; methodology; microbiology; middle aged; Rosmarinus; South Africa; spice; swine; taste; yeast; Adult; Animals; Anti-Infective Agents; Bacteria; Cattle; Chitosan; Colony Count, Microbial; Color; Female; Food Microbiology; Food Preservation; Food Preservatives; Fungi; Humans; Lipid Peroxidation; Male; Meat Products; Middle Aged; Rosmarinus; South Africa; Spices; Sulfur Dioxide; Sus scrofa; Taste; Yeasts; Young AdultNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77952276682Evaluation of initiation activity of dimethylarsinic acid: Initiation potential of rat hepatocarcinogenesisAnetor J.I., Wanibuchi H., Wei M., Kakehsshi A., Kang J.S., Fukushima S.2009Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry91710.1080/02772240802560957Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka, JPN, Japan; Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Japan Bioassay Research Centre, Kanasawa, JapanAnetor, J.I., Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka, JPN, Japan, Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Wanibuchi, H., Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka, JPN, Japan; Wei, M., Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka, JPN, Japan; Kakehsshi, A., Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka, JPN, Japan; Kang, J.S., Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka, JPN, Japan; Fukushima, S., Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka, JPN, Japan, Japan Bioassay Research Centre, Kanasawa, JapanThere is a dearth of data on the initiation activity of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA (V)), a major metabolite of the ubiquitous environmental and occupational carcinogen and toxicant, arsenic (As). The initiation activity of DMA (V) was investigated on rat hepatocarcinogenesis with liver being a major target organ for As-induced carcinogenicity. A total of 50 rats at 10 weeks old were randomly divided in a nine-week medium-term bioassay into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 received 200 ppm of DMA (V) in drinking water for four weeks while groups 3 and 4 drank only tap water until the sixth week when groups 1 and 3 were given 0.01% 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) in their diet for two weeks in the promotion stage. All animals were subjected to two-third partial hepatectomy (PH) at the seventh week. Quantitative analysis of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci in liver, a pre-neoplastic marker of rat hepatocarcinogenesis, demonstrated higher numbers in group 1 (DMA (V)+ 2- AAF) than 3 (2-AAF alone) at foci consisting of two-four cells and 15 or a greater number of cells. The numbers of GST-P positive foci consisting of five-nine cells were significantly higher in group 1 than 3. Foci consisting of 10-14 cells were also higher but not significantly different. The GST-P positive foci were apparently similar in groups 2 and 4. Expression of total GST-P positive foci was significantly higher in group 1 compared to 2, 3 or 4. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) test performed to clarify the apparent trend of GST- P data revealed significantly higher PCNA index in group 1. Data indicate weak initiation potential of DMA (V) and for the first time appear to provide evidence for initiation activity in DMA (V)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. © 2009 Taylor & Francis.Arsenic; Biomethylation; Dimethylarsinic acid (V); Hepatocarcino-genesis; Initiation activity; ToxicityBiomethylation; Dimethylarsinic acid (V); Dimethylarsinic acids; Drinking water; Four-group; Glutathione-S-transferase; Hepatocarcino-genesis; PCNA index; Proliferating cell nuclear antigens; Quantitative analysis; Tap water; Target organs; Animals; Arsenic; Bioassay; Carcinogens; Liver; Potable water; Rats; Toxicity; Acids; arsenic; bioassay; carcinogen; drinking water; herbicide; metabolite; quantitative analysis; rodent; toxic material; toxicity; Animalia; RattusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84873365599Compositional dependence of the performance of bulk hetrojunction solar cells based on PTOPT and PCBMAbera N., Tessema G.2013Canadian Journal of Physics91110.1139/cjp-2012-0340Department of Physics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; School of Chemisty and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg Campus, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South AfricaAbera, N., Department of Physics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Tessema, G., School of Chemisty and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg Campus, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South AfricaThe compositional dependence of the performance of the blends of [3-(4-octylphenol)-2,2′-bithiophene] (PTOPT) and 6,6-phenyl-C61-butric acid methyl ester (PCBM) sandwiched between ITO/PEDOT:PSS and Al was studied. The observed dark current-voltage curves showed that the current (J) is space charge limited except at low voltages (V). The best power conversion efficiency (η) and short circuit current (JSC) were found at 72% PCBM loading. Moreover, we have observed significant reduction on the fill factor with increasing PCBM concentration due to high recombination of charge carriers. The impedances across the electrodes were discussed based on low frequency impedance analyzer measurements. © 2013 Published by NRC Research Press.NoneBithiophenes; Compositional dependence; Dark current-voltage; Fill factor; Low voltages; Low-frequency impedance; Methyl esters; Power conversion efficiencies; Space-charge limited; Physics; Conversion efficiencyNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33750696681Pre-deployment evaluation of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modulesRadue C., van Dyk E.E.2007Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells914240310.1016/j.solmat.2006.07.007Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth, 6031, South AfricaRadue, C., Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth, 6031, South Africa; van Dyk, E.E., Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth, 6031, South AfricaIn this study, the indoor evaluation of amorphous silicon modules was conducted using extended visual inspection and various electrical characterisation tools. The visual inspection, which included low-magnification optical microscopy, revealed several defects resulting from physical damage and bad scribing. These defects, as well as poor material quality, are likely contributors to the degradation in performance observed during the measurement of current-voltage characteristics under standard conditions, as well as at different temperature and irradiance levels. The observed degradation is carefully analysed in this paper. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Amorphous silicon; Current-voltage characteristics; Photovoltaic modulesAmorphous silicon; Current voltage characteristics; Defects; Optical microscopy; Material quality; Photovoltaic modules; Photovoltaic cellsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77949819390The impact of an interim protection order (domestic violence act 116 of 1998) on the victims of domestic violenceVogt T., Greeff A.P.2010Families in Society91110.1606/1044-3894.3958Department of Psychology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South AfricaVogt, T., Department of Psychology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; Greeff, A.P., Department of Psychology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South AfricaThe primary objectives of this study were to determine the impact of the interim protection order (IPO) on the nature and extent of domestic violence, the general well-being of the victims of domestic violence, and the efficiency of the application procedure for the IPO. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design was used on an experimental (n = 884) and a control (n = 125) group. The results indicated that the IPO had a significant impact on certain aspects of physical, psychological, and social well-being and in some areas of domestic violence. The IPO did not have a significant impact on the participants' experiences of their personal, communal, environmental, and transcendental well-being. Application procedures were found to be satisfactory in most areas. © 2010 Alliance for Children and Families.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70449365116Biochemical evaluation of hepatotoxicity in mice due to administration of artemetherAdekunle A.S., Agbedana E.O., Egbewale B.E.2009Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry91410.1080/02772240802445522Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria; Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Faculty of Basic MedicaAdekunle, A.S., Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria; Agbedana, E.O., Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Egbewale, B.E., Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Community Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, NigeriaEffects of artemether administration on liver and selected biochemical parameters were evaluated. Eighty albino mice were divided into four equal groups. Group 1 was given water which served as control, while groups 2, 3, and 4 were given 1.2, 2.4, or 4.8 mg kg-1 body weight artemether intramuscularly for five consecutive days. On day 6 all mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and blood was collected for analysis of alanine and aspartate transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, copper, and total proteins. Liver tissues were prepared for histological studies. It was found that the serum alanine and aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were higher in groups treated with artemether compared to control. The serum concentrations of copper and total proteins were lower than control. The histological features of liver tissues after administration of artemether showed histopathological alterations. These findings showed that artemether administration may have reversible adverse effects on mouse hepatocytes. © 2009 Taylor &amp; Francis.Antimalaria; Artemether; Biochemical parameters; Hepatotoxicity; Malaria; MiceAntimalaria; Artemether; Biochemical parameters; Hepatotoxicity; Malaria; Mice; Body fluids; Histology; Proteins; Liver; biochemical composition; blood; cytology; drug; enzyme; histology; histopathology; malaria; rodent; toxicity test; MusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77954552890Investigating the global impacts of the agulhas currentZahn R., Lutjeharms J., Biastoch A., Hall I., Knorr G., Park W., Reason C.2010Eos9112NoneInstitució Catalana de Recerca, Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals, Departament de Geología, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain; Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa; Leibniz-Institut für Meereswissenschaften (IFM-GEOMAR), Kiel, Germany; School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom; Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar-und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany; IFM-GEOMAR, Germany; Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, South AfricaZahn, R., Institució Catalana de Recerca, Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain, Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals, Departament de Geología, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain; Lutjeharms, J., Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa; Biastoch, A., Leibniz-Institut für Meereswissenschaften (IFM-GEOMAR), Kiel, Germany; Hall, I., School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom; Knorr, G., Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar-und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany; Park, W., IFM-GEOMAR, Germany; Reason, C., Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, South Africa[No abstract available]Noneclimate variation; paleoceanography; western boundary currentNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33847182124Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to fusarium ear rot and fumonisin accumulation in grain in Tropical AfricaAfolabi C.G., Ojiambo P.S., Ekpo E.J.A., Menkir A., Bandyopadhyay R.2007Plant Disease91310.1094/PDIS-91-3-0279International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), P.M.B. 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; IITA, P.M.B. 5320, Ibadan, NigeriaAfolabi, C.G., International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), P.M.B. 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria, Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Ojiambo, P.S., IITA, P.M.B. 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria; Ekpo, E.J.A., Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Menkir, A., Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Bandyopadhyay, R., IITA, P.M.B. 5320, Ibadan, NigeriaFusarium ear rot and fumonisin contamination is a major problem facing maize growers worldwide, and host resistance is the most effective strategy to control the disease, but resistant genotypes have not been identified. In 2003, a total of 103 maize inbred lines were evaluated for Fusarium ear rot caused by Fusarium verticillioides in field trials in Ikenne and Ibadan, Nigeria. Disease was initiated from natural infection in the Ikenne trial and from artificial inoculation in the Ibadan trial. Ear rot severity ranged from 1.0 to 6.0 in both locations in 2003. Fifty-two inbred lines with disease severity •3 (i.e., •10% visible symptoms on ears) were selected and reevaluated in 2004 for ear rot resistance, incidence of discolored kernels, and fumonisin contamination in grain. At both locations, ear rot severity on the selected lines was significantly (P < 0.0020) higher in 2004 than in 2003. The effects of selected inbred lines on disease severity were highly significant at Ikenne (P = 0.0072) and Ibadan (P < 0.0001) in 2004. Inbred lines did not affect incidence of discolored kernels at both locations and across years except at Ikenne (P = 0.0002) in 2004. Similarly, significant effects of inbred lines on fumonisin concentration were observed only at Ikenne (P = 0.0201) in 2004. However, inbred lines 02C14585, 02C14593, 02C14603, 02C14606, 02C14624, and 02C14683 had consistently low disease severity across years and locations. Fumonisin concentration was significantly correlated with ear rot only at Ikenne (R = 0.42, P < 0.0001). Correlation between fumonisin concentration and incidence of discolored kernels was also significant at Ikenne (R = 0.39, P < 0.0001) and Ibadan (R = 0.35, P = 0.0007). At both locations, no significant inbred × year interaction was observed for fumonisin concentration. Five inbred lines, namely 02C14585, 02C14603, 02C14606, 02C14624, and 02C14683, consistently had the lowest fumonisin concentration in both trials. Two of these inbred lines, 02C14624 and 02C14585, had fumonisin levels <5.0 μg/g across years in trials where disease was initiated from both natural infection and artificial inoculation. These lines that had consistently low disease severity are useful for breeding programs to develop fumonisin resistant lines. © 2007 The American Phytopathological Society.Corn; MycotoxinCrops; Grain (agricultural product); Fumonisin contamination; Fusarium ear rot; Mycotoxin; Disease control; Corn; Diseases; Genotypes; Grain; Fusarium; Gibberella moniliformis; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34548220000Comparison of field, greenhouse, and detached-leaf evaluations of soybean germplasm for resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhiziTwizeyimana M., Ojiambo P.S., Ikotun T., Paul C., Hartman G.L., Bandyopadhyay R.2007Plant Disease91910.1094/PDIS-91-9-1161International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Crop Protection and Environmental BioloTwizeyimana, M., International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria, Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Ojiambo, P.S., IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria; Ikotun, T., Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan; Paul, C., Crop Sciences Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, United States; Hartman, G.L., National Soybean Research Center, Urbana, IL 61801, United States; Bandyopadhyay, R., IITA, Ibadan, NigeriaFourteen soybean accessions and breeding lines were evaluated for resistance to soybean rust caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Evaluations were conducted in replicated experiments in growth chambers using detached leaves and under greenhouse and field conditions. In growth-chamber experiments, inoculation of detached leaves with 1 × 106 spores/ml resulted in a significantly (P &lt; 0.0001) higher total number of pustules and spores per unit leaf area than inoculations with lower spore concentrations. Amending agar medium with plant hormones significantly (P &lt; 0.0001) aided retention of green leaf color in detached leaves. Leaf pieces on a medium containing kinetin at 10 mg/liter had 5% chlorosis at 18 days after plating compared with leaf pieces on media amended with all other plant hormones, which had higher levels of chlorosis. Leaf age significantly affected number of pustules (P = 0.0146) and number of spores per pustule (P = 0.0088), and 3- to 4-week-old leaves had a higher number of pustules and number of spores per pustule compared with leaves that were either 1 to 2 or 5 to 6 weeks old. In detached-leaf and greenhouse screening, plants were evaluated for days to lesion appearance, days to pustule formation, days to pustule eruption, lesion number, lesion diameter, lesion type, number of pustules, and spores per pustule in 1-cm2 leaf area. Plants also were evaluated for diseased leaf area (in greenhouse and field screening) and sporulation (in field screening) at growth stage R6. There were significant (P &lt; 0.0001) differences among genotypes in their response to P. pachyrhizi infection in the detached-leaf, greenhouse, and field evaluations. Accessions PI 594538A, PI 417089A, and UG-5 had very low levels of disease compared with the susceptible checks and all other genotypes. Detached-leaf, greenhouse, and field results were comparable, and there were significant correlations between detached-leaf and greenhouse (absolute r = 0.79; P &lt; 0.0001) and between detached-leaf and field resistance (absolute r = 0.83; P &lt; 0.0001) across genotypes. The overall results show the utility of detached-leaf assay for screening soybean for rust resistance.Disease resistanceFungus attack; Greenhouse effect; Plants (botany); Seed; Disease resistance; Growth chambers; Phakopsora pachyrhizi; Soybean rust; Diseases; Bacteria (microorganisms); Fungi; Glycine max; Phakopsora pachyrhiziNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84904979198Evaluation of banana bunch protection materials for optimum fruit production on cultivars grown in MozambiqueKutinyu R., Fraiser C., Ngezimana W., Mudan F.N.2014Tropical Agriculture912NoneUniversity of South Africa, Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710, South AfricaKutinyu, R., University of South Africa, Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710, South Africa; Fraiser, C., University of South Africa, Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710, South Africa; Ngezimana, W., University of South Africa, Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710, South Africa; Mudan, F.N., University of South Africa, Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710, South AfricaMozambique has the potential to boost its banana exports. To fully realise this, agronomic practices in production should be fully developed to combat physiological disorders associated with banana within the region. Currently, lower temperatures are being experienced in some production sites, consequently affecting yield and quality. The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of bunch protection covers on Grand Nain and Williams banana cultivars. Treatments consisted of: white perforated polythene; white non- perforated polythene; blue perforated polythene; blue non-perforated polythene; green perforated polythene; green non-perforated polythene and cheese cloth bags. Bunches left un-bagged were used as a control. Bunch covers were applied after the bracts covering the hands have fallen off and when the fingers were curling upwards, and the floral remnants have hardened. Banana bunch covers significantly increased yields (ton/ha) in the cultivars with significant reduction of fruit defects. Inconsistent results were shown on use of bags of various designs, viz. colour and perforation; however the use of perforated bags is recommended to reduce high relative humidity inside the bags. © 2014 Trop. Agric. (Trinidad).Banana; Bunch protection materialsNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77951194854Diet breadth influences how the impact of invasive plants is propagated through food websCarvalheiro L.G., Buckley Y.M., Jane M.2010Ecology91410.1890/08-2092.1University of Bristol, School of Biological Sciences, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, United Kingdom; University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, QLD 4072, Australia; CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, 306 Carmody Road, St Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia; South African National Biodiversity Institute, Kirstenbosch Research Centre, Claremont 7735, Cape Town, South AfricaCarvalheiro, L.G., University of Bristol, School of Biological Sciences, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, United Kingdom, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Kirstenbosch Research Centre, Claremont 7735, Cape Town, South Africa; Buckley, Y.M., University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, QLD 4072, Australia, CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, 306 Carmody Road, St Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia; Jane, M., University of Bristol, School of Biological Sciences, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, United KingdomInvasive plants are considered a major cause of ecosystem degradation worldwide. While their impacts on native plants have been widely reported, there is little information on how these impacts propagate through food webs and affect species at higher trophic levels. Using a quantitative food web approach we evaluated the impacts of an invasive plant on plant-herbivore-parasitoid communities, asking specifically how diet breadth influences the propagation of such impacts. Measuring the impact of the alien plant at the plant level seriously underestimated the community-level effect of this weed as it also caused changes in the abundance of native herbivores and parasitoids, along with a decrease in parasitoid species richness. The invading plant affected specialist and generalist subsets of communities differently, having significant and strong negative impacts on the abundance of all specialists with no negative effect on generalist consumers. Specialist consumer decline led to further disruptions of top-down regulatory mechanisms, releasing generalist species from competition via shared natural enemies. Plant invasion also significantly increased the evenness of species abundance of all trophic levels in the food webs, as well as the evenness of species interaction frequency. Extending impact evaluation to higher trophic levels and considering changes in trophic diversity within levels is hence essential for a full evaluation of the consequences of invasion by alien plants. Moreover, information on diet breadth of species in the invaded community should be taken into account when evaluating/predicting the impacts on any introduced species. © 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.Alien plants; Apparent competition; Avon heath country park; Diet breadth; Dorset; Food web; Gaultheria shallon; Herbivore; Parasitoid; Trophic cascade; UKdegradation; dicotyledon; diet; food web; herbivore; invasive species; native species; parasitoid; species richness; trophic cascade; animal; article; classification; diet; environmental protection; feeding behavior; food chain; host parasite interaction; insect; parasitology; physiology; plant; United Kingdom; Animals; Conservation of Natural Resources; Diet; Feeding Behavior; Food Chain; Great Britain; Host-Parasite Interactions; Insects; Plants; Avon; Dorset [England]; England; United Kingdom; Gaultheria shallonNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84875673020Modelling the thermal performance of a naturally ventilated greenhouse in Zimbabwe using a dynamic greenhouse climate modelMashonjowa E., Ronsse F., Milford J.R., Pieters J.G.2013Solar Energy91None10.1016/j.solener.2012.09.010University of Zimbabwe, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Ghent University, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent, BelgiumMashonjowa, E., University of Zimbabwe, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Ronsse, F., Ghent University, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent, Belgium; Milford, J.R., University of Zimbabwe, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Pieters, J.G., Ghent University, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent, BelgiumThe Gembloux Dynamic Greenhouse Climate Model (GDGCM), previously validated for a tomato crop in European greenhouses, was adapted to simulate the microclimate in a naturally ventilated Zimbabwean greenhouse containing a rose crop. The GDGCM consists of a system of differential equations based on the heat and mass balances of the layers of a greenhouse, and were worked out within the Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS) program. Modified sub-models to calculate the greenhouse air renewal rates and crop canopy resistance to water vapour transfer were introduced. Numerical results obtained using the model were compared to experimental measurements carried out in a full-scale commercial naturally ventilated Azrom type greenhouse with a rose crop. The simulated results showed good agreement with the observed values of all parameters for most parts of the day. For the period of observation (the whole year from May 2007 to April 2008) the mean standard errors between the predicted and experimental greenhouse air temperature and relative humidity, canopy temperature and crop transpiration were 1.8°C, 14.8%, 1.9°C and 14.2Wm-2, respectively, in winter and 1.3°C, 8.6%, 1.6°C and 21.8Wm-2, respectively, in summer. The model adequately simulated the internal greenhouse microclimate using outside climate data including incident solar radiation, cover transmittances and greenhouse configuration as inputs and can thus be used to predict the inside greenhouse climate and as a design tool to evaluate and optimise the effects on the inside greenhouse climate of ventilation, cover properties, the settings of the control system and other climate management practices. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.Gembloux Dynamic Greenhouse Climate Model; Greenhouse microclimate; Natural ventilation; Plant evapotranspiration; Solar collectorClimate management; Crop transpirations; Experimental measurements; Greenhouse climates; Greenhouse microclimate; Natural ventilation; System of differential equations; Thermal Performance; Computer simulation; Crops; Differential equations; Greenhouse effect; Greenhouses; Solar collectors; Ventilation; Water supply; Climate models; air temperature; canopy; climate modeling; evapotranspiration; experimental study; fruit; greenhouse ecosystem; heat balance; management practice; microclimate; model validation; relative humidity; ventilation; water vapor; Zimbabwe; Lycopersicon esculentumNone
WoSWOS:000303784900011Impacts of e-health on the outcomes of care in low- and middle-income countries: where do we go from here?Fraser, Hamish S. F.,Khoja, Shariq R.,Lun, K. C.,Mechael, Patricia N.,Moura, Lincoln A., Jr.,Piette, John D.,Powell, John2012BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION90510.2471/BLT.11.099069Aga Khan University, Columbia University, Harvard University, National University of Singapore, University of Warwick, Assis Mouse eHlth, Vet Affairs Ann Arbor Ctr Clin Management Res & D"Fraser, Hamish S. F.: Harvard University","Khoja, Shariq R.: Aga Khan University","Lun, K. C.: National University of Singapore","Mechael, Patricia N.: Columbia University","Powell, John: University of Warwick",E-health encompasses a diverse set of informatics tools that have been designed to improve public health and health care. Little information is available on the impacts of e-health programmes, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We therefore conducted a scoping review of the published and non-published literature to identify data on the effects of e-health on health outcomes and costs. The emphasis was on the identification of unanswered questions for future research, particularly on topics relevant to low- and middle-income countries. Although e-health tools supporting clinical practice have growing penetration globally, there is more evidence of benefits for tools that support clinical decisions and laboratory information systems than for those that support picture archiving and communication systems. Community information systems for disease surveillance have been implemented successfully in several low- and middle-income countries. Although information on outcomes is generally lacking, a large project in Brazil has documented notable impacts on health-system efficiency. Meta-analyses and rigorous trials have documented the benefits of text messaging for improving outcomes such as patients' self-care. Automated telephone monitoring and self-care support calls have been shown to improve some outcomes of chronic disease management, such as glycaemia and blood pressure control, in low- and middle-income countries. Although large programmes for e-health implementation and research are being conducted in many low- and middle-income countries, more information on the impacts of e-health on outcomes and costs in these settings is still needed.,BEHAVIOR-CHANGE,"DISEASE PREVENTION",FOLLOW-UP,IMPLEMENTATION,"LABORATORY INFORMATION-SYSTEM",RANDOMIZED-TRIAL,SELF-CARE,"SHORT-MESSAGE SERVICE",SOUTH-AFRICA,SUPPORTNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84909983185Synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of dihydroartemisinyl-chalcone estersSmit F.J., Van Biljon R.A., Birkholtz L.-M., N'da D.D.2014European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry90None10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.11.016Center of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa; Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Sustainable Malaria Control, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaSmit, F.J., Center of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa; Van Biljon, R.A., Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Sustainable Malaria Control, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Birkholtz, L.-M., Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Sustainable Malaria Control, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; N'da, D.D., Center of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South AfricaA series of dihydroartemisinyl-chalcone esters were synthesized through esterification of chalcones with dihydroartemisinin (DHA). The hybrids were screened against chloroquine (CQ) sensitive (3D7) and CQ resistant (W2) strains of intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum parasites, and were all found to be active, with IC<inf>50</inf> values ranging between 1.5 and 11 nM against both strains, with SI values over 5800. The esters featuring oxygenated aryl rings (7, 10 and 11), were found to be equipotent to DHA, but were 2-3 times more active than artesunate against the 3D7 and W2 strains of the malaria parasites. They were also screened in vitro against a panel of three cancer cell lines consisting of TK-10, UACC-62 and MCF-7. Compound 7, bearing a furan ring, displayed the most potent overall antitumor activity against all three cancer cell lines. TGA revealed that the targeted hybrids were all thermally more stable than DHA, which may be beneficial to the high temperature storage conditions that prevail in malaria endemic countries. During this study, ester 7 was identified as the best candidate for further investigation as a potential drug in search for new, safe and effective antimalarial drugs. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS.Antitumor; Chalcone; Dihydroartemisinin; Malaria; Plasmodium falciparum10 aplha dihydroartemisinyl 4 [(1e) 3 (5 methylfuran 2 yl) 3 oxoprop 1 en 1 yl]benzoate; 10 beta dihydroartemisinyl 4 [[(1e) 3 oxo 3 (2,3,4 trichlorophenyl)]prop 1 en yl]benzoate; 10 dihydroartemisinyl 4 [(1e) 3 oxo 3 phenylprop 1 en 1 yl]benzoate; 10 dihydroartemisinyl 4 [[(1e) 3 (2,4 dimethoxyphenyl)] 3 oxoprop 1 en 1 yl]benzoate; 10 dihydroartemisinyl 4 [[(1e) 3 (3 methoxy 4 nitrophenyl)] 3 oxoprop 1 en 1 yl]benzoate; 10 dihydroartemisinyl 4 [[(1e) 3 (3,4 dimethoxyphenyl)] 3 oxoprop 1 en 1 yl]benzoate; 4 [(1e) 3 oxo 3 phenylprop 1 en 1 yl]benzoic acid; 4 [[(1e) 3 (2,4 dimethoxyphenyl)] 3 oxoprop 1 en 1 yl]benzoic acid; 4 [[(1e) 3 (3 methoxy 4 nitrophenyl)] 3 oxoprop 1 en 1 yl]benzoic acid; 4 [[(1e) 3 (3,4 dimethoxyphenyl)] 3 oxoprop 1 en 1 yl]benzoic acid; 4 [[(1e) 3 (5 methylfuran 2 yl)] 3 oxoprop 1 en 1 yl]benzoic acid; 4 [[(1e) 3 oxo 3 (2,3,4 trichlorophenyl)]prop 1 en 1 yl]benzoic acid; antimalarial agent; antineoplastic agent; artesunate; chalcone derivative; chloroquine; dihydroartemisinin; dihydroartemisinin derivative; dihydroartemisinyl chalcone ester; ester derivative; furan; unclassified drug; antimalarial agent; antineoplastic agent; artemisinin derivative; chalcone; ester; antimalarial activity; antineoplastic activity; Article; cancer cell line; controlled study; drug screening; drug stability; drug storage; drug synthesis; high temperature; human; human cell; IC50; in vitro study; nonhuman; Plasmodium falciparum; storage temperature; structure activity relation; cell proliferation; chemical structure; chemistry; dose response; drug effects; drug sensitivity; MCF 7 cell line; synthesis; tumor cell line; Antimalarials; Antineoplastic Agents; Artemisinins; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Proliferation; Chalcone; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor; Esters; Humans; MCF-7 Cells; Molecular Structure; Parasitic Sensitivity Tests; Plasmodium falciparum; Structure-Activity RelationshipNRF, UID 76443, National Research Foundation
WoSWOS:000331009000027Assessment of Quality of Life as a Tool for Measuring Morbidity Due to Schistosoma mansoni Infection and the Impact of TreatmentAbudho, Bernard,Blackstock, Anna J.,Foo, Karen T.,Hightower, Allen W.,Karanja, Diana M. S.,Kennedy, Erin D.,Montgomery, Susan P.,Mwinzi, Pauline N. M.,Ochola, Elizabeth A.,Person, Bobbie,Secor, W. Evan,Won, Kimberly Y.2014AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE90210.4269/ajtmh.13-0361Centers for Disease Control & Prevention - USA, Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Kenya Govt Med Res CtrNoneRecently, health measurements have broadened to include the assessment of quality of life (QOL). This study was conducted to assess whether the short form of the World Health Organization (WHO) QOL questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) was an effective tool for measuring morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni infection and whether it could detect an impact of treatment with praziquantel. A total of 724 adults 18-85 years of age were enrolled. At baseline, S. mansoni prevalence was 73.2% by stool examination and 75.4% by circulating cathodic antigen, and there was no association between infection status and WHOQOL-BREF scores. Six months after treatment, S. mansoni prevalence was lower and the proportion of persons with higher WHOQOL-BREF scores significantly increased among persons who were infected at baseline. However, a similar increase was observed in persons not infected at baseline. In areas of high prevalence, the WHOQOL-BREF may not be able to detect the benefits of schistosomiasis control programs.,"AGED CHILDREN",ANEMIA,CHEMOTHERAPY,DIAGNOSIS,"MASS TREATMENT",PRAZIQUANTEL,PREVALENCE,SCHOOLCHILDREN,"SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS","WESTERN KENYA"NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84878843393Evaluation of fatty acids and physicochemical characteristics of six varieties of bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea L. Verde) seed oilsAremu M.O., Mamman S., Olonisakin A.2013Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse902NoneDepartment of Chemistry, Nasarawa State University, PMB1022, Keffi, Nigeria; Department of Chemistry, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, NigeriaAremu, M.O., Department of Chemistry, Nasarawa State University, PMB1022, Keffi, Nigeria; Mamman, S., Department of Chemistry, Nasarawa State University, PMB1022, Keffi, Nigeria; Olonisakin, A., Department of Chemistry, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, NigeriaA study was conducted to determine the suitability of six varieties of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verde) seed oils, an under-utilized crop grown in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. For this purpose, fatty acid composition of six different seed colours of bambara groundnut was determined using standard analytical techniques. The most concentrated fatty acids were oleic acid (17.54-18.49%) < palmitic acid (21.79-23.27%) < linoleic acid (34.04-35.62%). Arachidic and behenic acids were present in small quantities with none of them recording up to 1.0% in any of the samples. Caprylic, palmitoleic, margarle, capric, lauric, myristic, arachidonic, erucic and lignoceric acids were all determined but not detected. Unsaturated fatty acids predominated in all the samples with an adequate amount of essential fatty acid (linoleic and linolenic acids). Significant differences were observed (p < 0.05) in the fatty acid compositions among the bambara groundnut dehulled seed cultivars. The results of physicochemical properties of bambara groundnut varieties seed oils showed mean range values of the following parameters: saponifications value (174.80-181.02 mg KOH/g); peroxide value (9.10-11.05 meq02/kg); iodine value (111.98-122.22 mg of 1/100g); acid value (1.28-1.40 mg KOH/g); specific gravity at 25°C (0.874-0.881); unsaponifiable matter (2.39-2.47%); flash point (210-220°C); kinetic viscosity at 40°C (2.95-4.94). Generally, the values of the physicochemical parameters showed that the oils may be useful as edible oils due to their stability as frying oils and may also be useful industrially for the manufacture of products such as paints, liquid soaps and shampoos.Fatty acids; Physicochemical parameters; Seed oils; Vigna subterraneaNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-55249101047Impact of land use on the biodiversity integrity of the moist sub-biome of the grassland biome, South AfricaO'Connor T.G., Kuyler P.2009Journal of Environmental Management90110.1016/j.jenvman.2007.10.012Centre for African Ecology, School of A.P.E.S., University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. WITS 2050 Johannesburg, South Africa; Centre for Environmental Management, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South AfricaO'Connor, T.G., Centre for African Ecology, School of A.P.E.S., University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. WITS 2050 Johannesburg, South Africa; Kuyler, P., Centre for Environmental Management, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South AfricaSouth Africa's moist grassland harbours globally significant biodiversity, supplies essential ecosystem services, supports crop and livestock agriculture, forestry and settlement, yet is poorly conserved. Ongoing transformation and limited opportunity for expanding the protected area network require instead that biodiversity conservation is 'mainstreamed' within other land uses. This exercise sought to identify the relative compatibility of 10 land uses (conservation, livestock or game ranching, tourism/recreation, rural settlement, dryland cropping, irrigated cropping, dairy farming, plantation forestry, and urban settlement) with maintaining biodiversity integrity. This was assessed using 46 indicators for biodiversity integrity that covered landscape composition, structure, and functioning. Data was integrated into a single measure per land use through application of the analytic hierarchy process, with supporting information gained from interviews with experts. The rank order of importance amongst indicators was landscape structure, functioning and composition. Consistent differences among land uses for all three categories revealed two clear groupings. Conservation, livestock or game ranching had the lowest impact and retained substantial natural asset, while that for tourism/recreation was intermediate. All other land uses had a severe impact. Impact on biodiversity integrity depended mainly on the extent of transformation and fragmentation, which accounted for the greatest impact on habitats and species, and impairment of landscape functioning. It is suggested that a strategic intervention for maintaining biodiversity integrity of moist grassland is to support livestock or game ranching and limit ongoing urban sprawl. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Agriculture; Analytic hierarchy process; Biodiversity indicator; Ecosystem functioning; Forestry; Landscape; Livestockanalytical hierarchy process; biodiversity; bioindicator; biome; ecological impact; ecosystem function; ecosystem service; grassland; land use; article; conservation biology; controlled study; cropping system; dairying; environmental impact; environmental protection; grassland; habitat fragmentation; irrigation (agriculture); land use; landscape ecology; livestock; nonhuman; plantation; recreation; residential area; rural area; South Africa; species diversity; tourism; urban area; Agriculture; Animals; Biodiversity; Birds; Climate; Conservation of Natural Resources; Crops, Agricultural; Ecosystem; Environment; Forestry; Insects; Mammals; Poaceae; Soil; South Africa; Africa; South Africa; Southern Africa; Sub-Saharan AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-73449148719Volatile compounds profile and sensory evaluation of Beninese condiments produced by inocula of Bacillus subtilisAzokpota P., Hounhouigan J.D., Annan N.T., Odjo T., Nago M.C., Jakobsen M.2010Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture90310.1002/jsfa.3835Département de Nutrition et Sciences Alimentaires, Faculté des Sciences, Agronomiques Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526, Cotonou, Benin; Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Food Research Institute, P.O. Box M-20, Accra, Ghana; Centre de Biométrie, de Statistique et d'Informatique Générale de la Faculte des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 01BP526, Cotonou, Benin; Department of Food Science, Food Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, DR-1958, Frederiksberg C, DenmarkAzokpota, P., Département de Nutrition et Sciences Alimentaires, Faculté des Sciences, Agronomiques Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526, Cotonou, Benin; Hounhouigan, J.D., Département de Nutrition et Sciences Alimentaires, Faculté des Sciences, Agronomiques Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526, Cotonou, Benin; Annan, N.T., Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Food Research Institute, P.O. Box M-20, Accra, Ghana; Odjo, T., Centre de Biométrie, de Statistique et d'Informatique Générale de la Faculte des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 01BP526, Cotonou, Benin; Nago, M.C., Département de Nutrition et Sciences Alimentaires, Faculté des Sciences, Agronomiques Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526, Cotonou, Benin; Jakobsen, M., Department of Food Science, Food Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, DR-1958, Frederiksberg C, DenmarkBACKGROUND: Three Beninese food condiments (ABS124h, IBS248h and SBS348h) were produced by controlled fermentation of African locust beans using inocula of pure cultures of Bacillus subtilis,BS1,BS2andBS3,respectively.Quantitativeandqualitative assessments of the volatile compounds in the condiments produced have been performed using the Likens-Nickerson simultaneous distillation-extraction method and GC-MS analysis, followed by a sensory evaluation in comparison with the spontaneously fermented condiments. RESULTS:A total of 94 volatile compounds have been found including 53 compounds identified in relatively high concentrations and were subdivided into seven main groups with the predominance of four major groups: pyrazines, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. Compared to the spontaneously fermented condiments, volatile compounds identified in controlled fermented condiments have been found in high number and in concentrations which varied according to the inoculum of B. subtilis used. The condiments produced with starter cultures scored significantly (P &lt; 0.05) higher for odour than the spontaneously fermented condiments. But the overall acceptability (7/10) of the two types of condiments was similar. CONCLUSION: The investigated B.subtilis, BS1, BS2 and BS3 can be considered as potential starter cultures for the fermentation of African locust beans to produce good quality of Beninese food condiments. © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.Bacillus subtilis; Beninese condiments; Parkia biglobosa; Sensory evaluation; Starter cultures; Volatile compoundsplant extract; volatile organic compound; article; Bacillus subtilis; Benin; chemistry; condiment; distillation; fermentation; food control; legume; metabolism; microbiology; odor; plant seed; Bacillus subtilis; Benin; Condiments; Distillation; Fabaceae; Fermentation; Food Microbiology; Odors; Plant Extracts; Seeds; Volatile Organic Compounds; Bacillus subtilis; Parkia biglobosa; Parkia filicoideaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79951738368Effect of dietary garlic powder on layer performance, fecal bacterial load, and egg qualityOlobatoke R.Y., Mulugeta S.D.2011Poultry Science90310.3382/ps.2010-00736Department of Animal Science, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mafikeng, 2735, South AfricaOlobatoke, R.Y., Department of Animal Science, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mafikeng, 2735, South Africa; Mulugeta, S.D., Department of Animal Science, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mafikeng, 2735, South AfricaThis study was conducted to investigate the potential of garlic powder (GP) in improving production efficiency, egg quality, and gut health of laying hens. A total of seventy-two 30-wk-old Dekalb white strain hens were used. The live weight of the hens ranged between 1.71 and 2.12 kg. Hens were randomly allotted into 3 dietary treatment groups in a complete randomized design experiment. The 3 dietary treatments were control (no garlic addition) and 3 and 5% GP additions to a basal diet on weight:weight ratio basis. Egg production and feed consumption were recorded daily, and hen BW and internal quality of fresh eggs were assessed weekly. Fecal samples were assessed for total bacterial load. The results from this study revealed significant (P < 0.05) increases of 0.81 mm in albumen height and 2.71 Haugh units of fresh eggs at 3% GP addition. Egg and albumen weights increased significantly (P < 0.05) by 2.06 and 1.84 g, respectively, at 5% GP over the control treatment. Egg production decreased significantly at 5% GP following a decrease in feed consumption. Similarly, log bacterial count in feces showed a dose-dependent reduction as dietary GP increased. Organoleptic evaluation of eggs from treatment birds revealed a strong garlic flavor in eggs from 5% GP group compared with the control and 3% GP groups. Results of this study suggest that dietary GP improved egg weight and albumen quality with a strong garlic flavor at high dietary levels. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.Bacterial load; Egg quality; Garlic powder; Layer; Performanceanimal; animal disease; animal food; article; chicken; diet; diet supplementation; egg; egg laying; feces; female; garlic; microbiology; standard; Animal Feed; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Animals; Chickens; Diet; Dietary Supplements; Eggs; Feces; Female; Garlic; Oviposition; Allium sativum; Aves; Bacteria (microorganisms)None
Scopus2-s2.0-84901976418Evaluation of biochemical and yield attributes of quality protein maize (Zea mays L.) in NigeriaBello O.B., Mahamood J., Afolabi M.S., Azeez M.A., Ige S.A., Abdulmaliq S.Y.2013Tropical Agriculture904NoneDepartment of Biological Sciences, Fountain University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria; Department of Crop Science, Landmark University, Omuaran, Kwara State, Nigeria; Department ofBello, O.B., Department of Biological Sciences, Fountain University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; Mahamood, J., Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria; Afolabi, M.S., Department of Crop Science, Landmark University, Omuaran, Kwara State, Nigeria; Azeez, M.A., Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria; Ige, S.A., Department of Agronomy, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria; Abdulmaliq, S.Y., Department of Agronomy, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State, NigeriaTwenty two genotypes of quality protein maize (QPM) and two local checks were assessed for their lysine and tryptophan levels, as well as grain yield characteristics at the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority station, Oke-Oyi, Ilorin, Nigeria for three years (2009-2011). The results showed that the QPM genotypes and the standard checks varied from one another, with respect to crude protein, zein dry matter, zein crude, lysine and tryptophan. The best QPM hybrids for grain yield (Dada-ba, ART98-SW5-OB, ART98-SW4-OB and TZPB-OB had percentage lysine and tryptophan advantage of 34% compared with the local checks. These hybrids also out-yielded other genotypes with yield advantage of 10, 24 and 26% over the best inbred, open pollinated variety and the standard check respectively. However, grain yield showed positive association with all the characteristics except crude protein content. Kernel number per cob had maximum correlation with grain yield followed by kernel rows per cob, cob diameter and cob weight The direct effect for crude protein was positive but the correlation was negative. Conclusively, the QPM hybrids that combined high yield with the essential amino acids could be tested in different savanna agro-ecologies to identify those that could be released to farmers, while the superior inbreds could be introgressed for further breeding programs. © 2013 Trop. Agric. (Trinidad).Hybrids; Inbred lines; Lysine; Open pollinated varieties; TryptophanNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84864496283Predicting the dynamics and performance of a polymer-clay based composite in a fixed bed system for the removal of lead (II) ionUnuabonah E.I., El-Khaiary M.I., Olu-Owolabi B.I., Adebowale K.O.2012Chemical Engineering Research and Design90810.1016/j.cherd.2011.11.009Department of Chemical Sciences, Redeemer's University, Km 46, Lagos Ibadan Expressway, PMB 3005, Redemption City, Mowe, Nigeria; Institute of Chemistry, Universität Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam OT Golm, Germany; Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of EnUnuabonah, E.I., Department of Chemical Sciences, Redeemer's University, Km 46, Lagos Ibadan Expressway, PMB 3005, Redemption City, Mowe, Nigeria, Institute of Chemistry, Universität Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam OT Golm, Germany; El-Khaiary, M.I., Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, El-Hadara, Alexandria 21544, Egypt; Olu-Owolabi, B.I., Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Adebowale, K.O., Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaA polymer-clay based composite adsorbent was prepared from locally obtained kaolinite clay and polyvinyl alcohol. The composite adsorbent was used to remove lead (II) ions from aqueous solution in a fixed bed mode. The increase in bed height and initial metal ion concentration increased the adsorption capacity of lead (II) and the volume of aqueous solution treated at 50% breakthrough. However, the adsorption capacity was reduced by almost 16.5% with the simultaneous presence of Ca 2+/Pb 2+ and Na +/Pb 2+ in the aqueous solution. Regeneration of the adsorbent with 0.1M of HCl also reduced its adsorption capacity to 75.1%. Adsorption of lead (II) ions onto the polymer-clay composite adsorbent in the presence of Na + and Ca 2+ electrolyte increased the rate of mass transfer, probably due to competition between cationic species in solution for adsorption sites. Regeneration further increased the rate of mass transfer as a result of reduced adsorption sites after the regeneration process. The length of the mass transfer zone was found to increase with increasing bed height but did not change with increasing the initial metal ion concentration. The models of Yoon-Nelson, Thomas, and Clark were found to give good fit to adsorption data. On the other hand, Bohart-Adams model was found to be a poor predictor for the column operation. The polymer-clay composite adsorbent has a good potential for the removal of lead (II) ions from highly polluted aqueous solutions. © 2011 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.Adsorption models; Breakthrough; Fixed bed; Mass transfer zone; Polymer-clay composite; RegenerationAdsorption capacities; Adsorption data; Adsorption model; Adsorption site; Bed height; Bohart-Adams model; Breakthrough; Cationic species; Column operations; Composite adsorbents; Fixed bed; Fixed-bed modes; Kaolinite clay; Lead ions; Metal ion concentration; Regeneration; Regeneration process; Geologic models; Kaolinite; Lead; Mass transfer; Metal ions; Polymers; Solutions; AdsorptionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-58149100167The impacts of anthropogenic factors on the environment in NigeriaMadu I.A.2009Journal of Environmental Management90310.1016/j.jenvman.2008.08.009Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, NigeriaMadu, I.A., Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, NigeriaGenerally speaking, there has been a consensus on the primary drivers of anthropogenic induced environmental degradation. However, little progress has been made in determining the magnitude of the impacts, particularly in developing countries. This creates a lacuna that needs to be filled up. The purpose of this study therefore is to ascertain the degree of anthropogenic induced environmental impacts in Nigeria. To achieve the aim, fossil fuel consumption was used as a surrogate for carbon dioxide emissions while the magnitude of the impacts was determined by regression statistics and the STIRPAT model. The results show that only three variables, namely population, affluence and urbanization, were statistically significant and that the regression model accounts for 60% of the variation in the environmental impacts. However, population and affluence, which have ecological elasticities of 1.699 and 2.709, respectively, are the most important anthropogenic drivers of environmental impacts in Nigeria while urbanization, with an elasticity of -0.570, reduces the effect of the impacts. This implies that modernization brings about a reduction in environmental impacts. The paper therefore makes a significant contribution to knowledge by successfully testing the STIRPAT model in this part of the world and by being the first application of the model at political units below the regional or nation states. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Anthropogenic drivers; Ecological elasticity; Environment and development; Environmental impacts; Urbanizationanthropogenic effect; carbon dioxide; carbon emission; developing world; elasticity; environmental degradation; environmental impact; fossil fuel; modernization; nature-society relations; urbanization; Conservation of Natural Resources; Environment; Environmental Monitoring; Human Activities; Humans; Nigeria; Africa; Nigeria; Sub-Saharan Africa; West Africa; LacunaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84884548028Gender, geographic locations, achievement goals and academic performance of secondary school students from Borno State, NigeriaMusa A.2013Research in Education90110.7227/RIE.90.1.2Department of Education, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B.1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, NigeriaMusa, A., Department of Education, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B.1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, NigeriaThe paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per cent) are from South of Borno State, 413 (49.9 per cent) from North of Borno State, respectively. An Achievement Goals Scale with a Cronbach alpha of 0.64 was used to measure achievement goals. Tests in English and Mathematics were used to measure academic performance in English and Mathematics and overall academic performance. The data was analysed using MANAVA statistics. The results reveal that male students are more learning goal oriented and also performed significantly better than females in English and overall academic performance but not in Mathematics. Students from Southern Borno State are more learning goal oriented and performed significantly better than those from Northern Borno State in English, Mathematics and overall academic performance. Geographic locations moderate the effects of gender on students' learning goal, Mathematics and overall academic performance. © Manchester University Press.Academic performance; Achievement goals; Gender; Geographical locationNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77954292949Assessment of mobility of heavy metals in two soil types by use of column leaching experiments and chemometric evaluation of elution curvesKowalkowski T., Tutu H., Cozmuta L.M., Sprynskyy M., Cukrowska E.M., Buszewski B.2010International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry901010.1080/03067310903195003Department of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 11, 87-100 Toruń, Poland; Department ofEnvironmental Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3 WITS, 2050 Johannesburg, South Africa; Chemistry-Biology Department, North University of Baia Mare, Victoriei Str., No. 62A, Baia Mare, RomaniaKowalkowski, T., Department of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 11, 87-100 Toruń, Poland; Tutu, H., Department ofEnvironmental Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3 WITS, 2050 Johannesburg, South Africa; Cozmuta, L.M., Chemistry-Biology Department, North University of Baia Mare, Victoriei Str., No. 62A, Baia Mare, Romania; Sprynskyy, M., Department of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 11, 87-100 Toruń, Poland; Cukrowska, E.M., Department ofEnvironmental Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3 WITS, 2050 Johannesburg, South Africa; Buszewski, B., Department of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 11, 87-100 Toruń, PolandThe objectives of this study were to evaluate the mobility of heavy metals (HMs) in two types of soils (acidic forest soil and neutral agricultural soil) by leaching with calcium chloride solution in column experiments. The screening properties of neutral agricultural soil towards pollution by heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd) are approximately 10 times higher than those of acid forest soil. The neutral agricultural soil, polluted artificially by one pore volume (PV) of an HMs solution of concentration 200 mg L-1, can screen the leaching of these metals over several hundreds of years. The higher apparent desorption rate and per cent desorption of HMs (especially Cd) in acid forest soil indicated a higher potential of intensive migration of the metals across the profile and indicated potential risk of Cd pollution for this type of soil. The latest approach of artificial neural networks to describe transport of HMs in soil has been also evaluated. Using a simple three-layer perceptron topology with three hidden neurons, the experimental data could be simulated. The results suggested that the pH of soil is a major factor controlling the retention of the heavy metals in the soils. © 2010 Taylor &amp; Francis.Artificial neural network; Column leaching experiments; Heavy metals transport; Soil pollutionAcidic forest soil; Agricultural soils; Artificial Neural Network; Chemometric evaluation; Column experiments; Column leaching experiments; Desorption rate; Elution curves; Experimental data; Forest soils; Hidden neurons; Perceptron; Pore volume; Potential risks; Soil types; Three-layer; Acids; Cadmium; Calcium; Calcium chloride; Copper; Desorption; Experiments; Leaching; Metals; Neural networks; Soils; Zinc; Soil pollutionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84904631082The dual impact of antiretroviral therapy and sexual behaviour changes on HIV epidemiologic trends in Uganda: A modelling studyShafer L.A., Nsubuga R.N., Chapman R., O'Brien K., Mayanja B.N., White R.G.2014Sexually Transmitted Infections90510.1136/sextrans-2013-051219Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, GF335, 810 Sherbrook Avenue, Winnipeg, MB R3E 3P5, Canada; Medical Research Council Unit on AIDS, Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United KingdomShafer, L.A., Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, GF335, 810 Sherbrook Avenue, Winnipeg, MB R3E 3P5, Canada, Medical Research Council Unit on AIDS, Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda; Nsubuga, R.N., Medical Research Council Unit on AIDS, Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda; Chapman, R., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; O'Brien, K., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Mayanja, B.N., Medical Research Council Unit on AIDS, Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda; White, R.G., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United KingdomObjectives: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) availability in a population may influence risky sexual behaviour. We examine the potential impact of ART on the HIV epidemic, incorporating evidence for the impact that ART may have on risky sexual behaviour. Methods: A mathematical model, parameterised using site-specific data from Uganda and worldwide literature review, was used to examine the likely impact of ART on HIV epidemiologic trends. We varied assumptions about rates of initiating ART, and changes in sexual partner turnover rates. Results: Modelling suggests that ART will reduce HIV incidence over 20 years, and increase prevalence. Even in the optimistic scenario of ART enrollment beginning after just five months of infection (in HIV stage 2), prevalence is estimated to rise from a baseline of 10.5% and 8.3% among women and men, respectively, to at least 12.1% and 10.2%, respectively. It will rise further if sexual disinhibition occurs or infectiousness while on ART is slightly higher (2% female to male, rather than 0.5%). The conditions required for ART to reduce prevalence over this period are likely too extreme to be achievable. For example, if ART enrolment begins in HIV stage 1 (within the first 5 months of infection), and if risky sexual behaviour does not increase, then 3 of our 11 top fitting results estimate a potential drop in HIV prevalence by 2025. If sexual risk taking rises, it will have a large additional impact on expected HIV prevalence. Prevalence will rise despite incidence falling, because ART extends life expectancy. Conclusions: HIV prevalence will rise. Even small increases in partner turnover rates will lead to an additional substantial increase in HIV prevalence. Policy makers are urged to continue HIV prevention activities, including promoting sex education, and to be prepared for a higher than previously suggested number of HIV infected people in need of treatment.Noneadolescent; adult; article; controlled study; epidemic; female; health care policy; high risk behavior; highly active antiretroviral therapy; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence; incidence; infection control; life expectancy; major clinical study; male; mathematical model; medical literature; priority journal; sexual behavior; sexual education; sexuality; Uganda; Africa; Antiretroviral therapy; epidemiologic trends; HIV/AIDS; mathematical modeling; sexual behavior; Uganda; Adolescent; Adult; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active; Condoms; Female; Health Services Accessibility; HIV Seropositivity; Humans; Incidence; Male; Middle Aged; Models, Theoretical; Policy Making; Prevalence; Risk-Taking; Sex Education; Sexual Behavior; Sexual Partners; Uganda; Viral LoadB&MGF, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; G0501499, MRC, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; G0802414, MRC, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; MR/J005088/1, MRC, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Scopus2-s2.0-84899842756Mathematical analysis of hepatitis C model for intravenous drug misusers: Impact of antiviral therapy, abstinence and relapseMushayabasa S., Bhunu C.P.2014Simulation90510.1177/0037549714528388Department of Mathematics, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Harare, ZimbabweMushayabasa, S., Department of Mathematics, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Harare, Zimbabwe; Bhunu, C.P., Department of Mathematics, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Harare, ZimbabweDespite advances in hepatitis C therapy and better knowledge of viral/host factors related to disease progression, hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains the leading cause of chronic liver disease, causing progression to end-stage liver disease (ESLD) as well as the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this paper a mathematical model for assessing the impact of antiviral therapy, abstinence and relapse on the transmission dynamics of HCV is formulated and analyzed. A threshold quantity known as the reproductive number has been computed, and the stability of the steady states has been investigated. The dynamical analysis reveals that the model has globally asymptotically stable steady states. The impacts of antiviral therapy, abstinence and relapse on the transmission dynamics of HCV are discussed through the basic reproductive number and numerical simulations. © 2014 The Society for Modeling and Simulation International.abstinence; Hepatitis C virus (HCV); intravenous drug misusers; relapse; reproductive number; sensitivity analysis; treatmentDisease control; Mathematical models; Sensitivity analysis; Viruses; abstinence; Hepatitis C virus; intravenous drug misusers; relapse; Reproductive number; treatment; Drug therapyNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78649748700Experimental investigation of fuel properties, engine performance, combustion and emissions of blends containing croton oil, butanol, and diesel on a CI engineLujaji F., Kristóf L., Bereczky A., Mbarawa M.2011Fuel90210.1016/j.fuel.2010.10.004Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Department of Energy Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, D208, Bertalan Lajos u. 4-6, H-1111 Budapest, HungaryLujaji, F., Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Kristóf, L., Department of Energy Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, D208, Bertalan Lajos u. 4-6, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary; Bereczky, A., Department of Energy Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, D208, Bertalan Lajos u. 4-6, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary; Mbarawa, M., Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South AfricaEmission problems associated with the use of fossil fuels have led to numerous research projects on the use of renewable fuels. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of blends containing croton mogalocarpus oil (CRO)-Butanol (BU) alcohol-diesel (D2) on engine performance, combustion, and emission characteristics. Samples investigated were 15%CRO-5%BU-80%D2, 10%CRO-10%BU-80%D2, and diesel fuel (D2) as a baseline. The density, viscosity, cetane number CN, and contents of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen were measured according to ASTM standards. A four cylinder turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engine was used for the tests. It was observed that brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) of blends was found to be high when compared with that of D2 fuel. Butanol containing blends show peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate comparable to that of D2 on higher engine loads. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and smoke emissions of the BU blends were lower in comparison to D2 fuel. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Blends; Butanol; Croton oil; Diesel; PerformanceBlends; Butanol; Croton oil; Diesel; Performance; Alcohols; Carbon dioxide; Combustion; Diesel engines; Diesel fuels; Energy utilization; Engines; Fossil fuels; Machine design; Organic polymers; Oxygen; Vegetable oils; Engine cylindersNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79957488704Engine performance, exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics of a CI engine fuelled with croton megalocarpus methyl ester with antioxidantKivevele T.T., Kristóf L., Bereczky A., Mbarawa M.M.2011Fuel90810.1016/j.fuel.2011.03.048Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Department of Energy Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Megyetem rkp. 3-9, H-1111 Budapest, HungaryKivevele, T.T., Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Kristóf, L., Department of Energy Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Megyetem rkp. 3-9, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary; Bereczky, A., Department of Energy Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Megyetem rkp. 3-9, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary; Mbarawa, M.M., Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South AfricaThe use of biodiesel as a substitute for petroleum-based diesel has become of great interest for the reasons of combating the destruction of the environment, the price of petroleum-based diesel and dependency on foreign energy sources. But for practical feasibility of biodiesel, antioxidants are added to increase the oxidation stability during long term storage. It is quite possible that these additives may affect the clean burning characteristics of biodiesel. This study investigated the experimental effects of antioxidants on the oxidation stability, engine performance, exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics of a four cylinder turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel from croton megalocarpus oil. The three synthetic antioxidants evaluated its effectiveness on oxidation stability of croton oil methyl ester (COME) were 1, 2, 3 tri-hydroxy benzene (Pyrogallol, PY), 3, 4, 5-tri hydroxy benzoic acid (Propyl Gallate, PG) and 2-tert butyl-4-methoxy phenol (Butylated Hydroxyanisole, BHA). The fuel sample tested in TDI diesel engine include pure croton biodiesel (B100), croton biodiesel dosed with 1000 ppm of an effective antioxidant (B100 + PY1000), B20 (20% croton biodiesel and 80% mineral diesel) and diesel fuel which was used as base fuel. The result showed that the effectiveness of the antioxidants was in the order of PY > PG > BHA. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of biodiesel fuel with antioxidants decreased more than that of biodiesel fuel without antioxidants, but both were higher than that of diesel. Antioxidants had few effects on the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine running on biodiesel. Combustion characteristics in diesel engine were not influenced by the addition of antioxidants in biodiesel fuel. This study recommends PY and PG to be used for safeguarding biodiesel fuel from the effects of autoxidation during storage. Overall, the biodiesel derived from croton megalocarpus oil can be utilized as partial substitute for mineral diesel. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Antioxidants; Combustion; Croton methyl ester; Emissions; Engine performanceAntioxidants; Benzoic acid; Bio-diesel fuel; Brake specific fuel consumption; CI engine; Clean burning; Combustion characteristics; Croton methyl ester; Emissions; Energy source; Engine performance; Exhaust emission; Fuel samples; Long-term storage; Methyl esters; Oxidation stability; Propyl gallate; Synthetic antioxidants; TDI diesel engine; Benzene; Biodiesel; Carboxylic acids; Combustion; Diesel engines; Diesel fuels; Direct injection; Engines; Esterification; Esters; Fuel consumption; Fuel storage; Machine design; Oxidation; Phenols; Silicate minerals; Synthetic fuels; Vegetable oils; Engine cylindersNone
Scopus2-s2.0-55149118711Enhancing laparoscopic performance with the LTS3E: a computerized hybrid physical reality simulatorSoyinka A.S., Schollmeyer T., Meinhold-Heerlein I., Gopalghare D.V., Hasson H., Mettler L.2008Fertility and Sterility90510.1016/j.fertnstert.2007.08.077Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Osun State, Nigeria; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein-Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany; Pawana Hospital, Somatane Phata, Tal-MaSoyinka, A.S., Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Osun State, Nigeria; Schollmeyer, T., Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein-Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany; Meinhold-Heerlein, I., Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein-Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany; Gopalghare, D.V., Pawana Hospital, Somatane Phata, Tal-Maval, Dist-Poona, India; Hasson, H., Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, United States; Mettler, L., Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein-Campus Kiel, Kiel, GermanyObjective: To determine the value of this simulator in acquiring basic laparoscopic skills and to evaluate the correlation between the frequency of trials and performance. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany. Patient(s): Twenty-five in-training gynecological endoscopists and 15 medical students. Intervention(s): A demonstration of 10 laparoscopic skill tasks was shown to participants before administration of a pretest. Voluntary rounds of further trials were encouraged thereafter. The post-tests were administered 5 days later. Assessments were conducted by the same independent supervisor. Main Outcome Measure(s): Improvements in overall scores and relative performance mean scores were compared using the independent t test. The comparison of various trial groups' mean was evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Result(s): There were significantly better post-test scores in all tasks for both groups compared to the pretest scores. There was no statistical difference between the overall relative training outcomes of both groups. There was a significant difference in group mean scores between the group of trainees who performed five or more rounds of trials and those who performed two to three trials. Conclusion(s): The LTS3e simulator contributes to the acquisition of laparoscopic skills in less experienced surgeons. Performance improves progressively with practice. © 2008 American Society for Reproductive Medicine.endoscopy skills; Laparoscopy; LTS3e; simulator modelsadult; article; endoscopy; female; human; human experiment; laparoscopy; male; medical student; normal human; priority journal; skill; stimulation; task performance; training; Adult; Clinical Competence; Computer Simulation; Computer-Assisted Instruction; Cross-Sectional Studies; Education, Medical, Graduate; Education, Medical, Undergraduate; Female; Gynecologic Surgical Procedures; Humans; Laparoscopy; Male; Motor Skills; Task Performance and Analysis; User-Computer Interface; Young AdultNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84920169703Impact of spurious shear on cosmological parameter estimates from weak lensing observablesPetri A., May M., Haiman Z., Kratochvil J.M.2014Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology901210.1103/PhysRevD.90.123015Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States; Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, United States; Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States; Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville, Durban, South AfricaPetri, A., Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States, Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, United States; May, M., Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, United States; Haiman, Z., Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States; Kratochvil, J.M., Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville, Durban, South AfricaResidual errors in shear measurements, after corrections for instrument systematics and atmospheric effects, can impact cosmological parameters derived from weak lensing observations. Here we combine convergence maps from our suite of ray-tracing simulations with random realizations of spurious shear. This allows us to quantify the errors and biases of the triplet (Ωm,w,σ8) derived from the power spectrum (PS), as well as from three different sets of non-Gaussian statistics of the lensing convergence field: Minkowski functionals (MFs), low-order moments (LMs), and peak counts (PKs). Our main results are as follows: (i) We find an order of magnitude smaller biases from the PS than in previous work. (ii) The PS and LM yield biases much smaller than the morphological statistics (MF, PK). (iii) For strictly Gaussian spurious shear with integrated amplitude as low as its current estimate of σsys2≈10-7, biases from the PS and LM would be unimportant even for a survey with the statistical power of Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. However, we find that for surveys larger than ≈100deg2, non-Gaussianity in the noise (not included in our analysis) will likely be important and must be quantified to assess the biases. (iv) The morphological statistics (MF, PK) introduce important biases even for Gaussian noise, which must be corrected in large surveys. The biases are in different directions in (Ωm,w,σ8) parameter space, allowing self-calibration by combining multiple statistics. Our results warrant follow-up studies with more extensive lensing simulations and more accurate spurious shear estimates. © 2014 American Physical Society.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79951946363Evaluation of triticale bran as raw material for bioethanol productionGarcía-Aparicio M., Trollope K., Tyhoda L., Diedericks D., Görgens J.2011Fuel90410.1016/j.fuel.2010.10.049Department of Process Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa; Department of Forest and Wood Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Stellenbosch 7602, South AfricaGarcía-Aparicio, M., Department of Process Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa; Trollope, K., Department of Process Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa; Tyhoda, L., Department of Forest and Wood Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa; Diedericks, D., Department of Process Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa; Görgens, J., Department of Process Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Stellenbosch 7602, South AfricaThe present work addresses the introduction of second generation biofuels from agricultural by-products generated from low input cereal crops such as triticale. The main purpose was to investigate whether the overall ethanol yield in a triticale dry-mill ethanol plant could be increased by combination of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the bran obtained by fractionation of the grain to separate from starch. Different dilute acid pretreatment conditions were studied using starch-free triticale bran (SFTB) as substrate at a fixed loading of 10% (dry weight/volume). A statistically experimental design approach, based on previous studies, was used to evaluate the sugar recovery so as to maximize the enzyme digestibility of the pretreated material. The highest overall sugar yield was attained by using 0.1% (w/v) of sulphuric acid at 160 °C for 22.5 min. At these conditions, it could be possible to obtain up to 245 L of ethanol per dry ton of SFTB considering hexose and pentose sugars fermentation, which would increase by 14% the theoretical ethanol yield in a dry-mill ethanol plant. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.Bioethanol; Cereal bran; Enzymatic hydrolysis; Pretreatment; StarchAgricultural by-products; Bio-ethanol production; Cereal bran; Cereal crop; Dilute acid pretreatment; Enzyme digestibility; Ethanol plants; Ethanol yield; Experimental design; Pre-Treatment; Second generation; Sugar recovery; Sugar yield; Sulphuric acids; Agricultural wastes; Bioethanol; Cereal products; Ethanol; Starch; Sugars; Sulfuric acid; Enzymatic hydrolysisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84855527292Bibliometrics as a tool for measuring gender-specific research performance: An example from South African invasion ecologyProzesky H., Boshoff N.2012Scientometrics90210.1007/s11192-011-0478-7Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag x1, Matieland, South Africa; Centre for Research on Evaluation, Science and Technology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag x1, Matieland, South AfricaProzesky, H., Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag x1, Matieland, South Africa; Boshoff, N., Centre for Research on Evaluation, Science and Technology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag x1, Matieland, South AfricaCitations to published work are gaining increasing prominence in evaluations of the research performance of scientists. Considering the importance accorded to gender issues in South African science, it is surprising that (to our knowledge) no research has as yet ascertained the extent of sex differences in citations to the published work of scientists in this country. Our literature study shows that studies that have been conducted elsewhere tend to neglect in their analyses important gender-related and other factors, such as the sex composition of multi-authored papers and the extent of foreign co-authorship. Against this background, we illustrate the difficulties inherent in measuring the quality aspect of sex-specific research performance by means of an analysis of a dataset of articles (n = 229) that were published between 1990 and 2002 in the field of invasion ecology and in journals included in the Thomson Reuters Web of Science. Each article has at least one South African author address. The results indicate that foreign co-authorship is a better correlate of high citations than the sex of South African authors, and this is true irrespective of whether the annual citation rate or window period is used, whether or not self-citations are excluded, and whether or not the number of authors is controlled for by calculating fractional counts. The paper highlights these and other considerations that are relevant for future gender-focused bibliometric research, both in South Africa and beyond. © 2011 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.Bibliometrics; Citations; Gender; Invasion ecology; Research performanceNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-67349103089Soil erosion and risk-assessment for on- and off-farm impacts: A test case using the Midhurst area, West Sussex, UKBoardman J., Shepheard M.L., Walker E., Foster I.D.L.2009Journal of Environmental Management90810.1016/j.jenvman.2009.01.018Environmental Change Institute, Oxford University Centre for the Environment, Dyson Perrins Building, South Parks Rd., Oxford, OX1 3QY, United Kingdom; Department of Environmental and Geographical Science, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa; Department of Molecular and Applied Biosciences, School of Biosciences, University of Westminster, Cavendish Campus, 115 New Cavendish St., London, W1W 6UW, United Kingdom; Department of Geography, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140 Eastern Cape, South AfricaBoardman, J., Environmental Change Institute, Oxford University Centre for the Environment, Dyson Perrins Building, South Parks Rd., Oxford, OX1 3QY, United Kingdom, Department of Environmental and Geographical Science, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa; Shepheard, M.L., Environmental Change Institute, Oxford University Centre for the Environment, Dyson Perrins Building, South Parks Rd., Oxford, OX1 3QY, United Kingdom; Walker, E., Environmental Change Institute, Oxford University Centre for the Environment, Dyson Perrins Building, South Parks Rd., Oxford, OX1 3QY, United Kingdom; Foster, I.D.L., Department of Molecular and Applied Biosciences, School of Biosciences, University of Westminster, Cavendish Campus, 115 New Cavendish St., London, W1W 6UW, United Kingdom, Department of Geography, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140 Eastern Cape, South AfricaSoil erosion on agricultural land is a growing problem in Western Europe and constitutes a threat to soil quality and to the ability of soils to provide environmental services. The off-site impacts of runoff and eroded soil, principally eutrophication of water bodies, sedimentation of gravel-bedded rivers, loss of reservoir capacity, muddy flooding of roads and communities, are increasingly recognised and costed. The shift of funding in the European Union (EU) from production-related to avoidance of pollution and landscape protection, raises issues of cross-compliance: public support for agriculture has to be seen to give value-for-money. In this context risk-assessment procedures have been introduced to help farmers recognise sites where either certain crops should not be grown or anti-erosion measures are required. In England, Defra [Defra, 2005a. Controlling Soil Erosion: a Manual for the Assessment and Management of Agricultural Land at Risk of Water Erosion in Lowland England. Revised September 2005. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London] sets out a system of risk-assessment, including ranking of crops susceptible to erosion and anti-erosion measures, that may be selected. We assess this system using field data for an area of erodible soils in the Rother valley, Sussex. The Defra approach correctly identifies most at-risk fields and, taken together with land-use maps, allows non-compliance with advice to be highlighted. We suggest a simple extension to the system which would further identify at-risk fields in terms of possible damage to roads and rivers from muddy runoff. The increased risk of erosion in the study area is associated with certain crops: potatoes, winter cereals, maize and grazed turnips and seems unlikely to be the result of changes in rainfall which over the last 130 years are minimal. We have not evaluated proposed anti-erosion measures in the area because few have been put into practice. The European Water Framework Directive will increasingly focus attention on agricultural fields as a source of river pollution. Assessing the risk of erosion and the need for field testing of suggested approaches, are not simply issues for the EU, but for the management of global agricultural systems. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Agricultural change; Climate change; Erosion; Land-use change; Muddy floods; Off-site impacts; Risk-assessmentagricultural change; agricultural land; climate change; environmental impact; European Union; eutrophication; land use change; risk assessment; runoff; soil erosion; agriculture; article; cereal; climate change; environmental impact; environmental protection; land use; landscape; maize; potato; risk assessment; river; soil erosion; soil quality; United Kingdom; water pollution; Agriculture; Conservation of Natural Resources; Environmental Monitoring; Great Britain; Risk Assessment; Soil; England; Eurasia; Europe; United Kingdom; West Sussex; Western Europe; Solanum tuberosum; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84867136847Population-level impact of hormonal contraception on incidence of HIV infection and pregnancy in women in Durban, South Africa [Impact au niveau de la population de la contraception hormonale sur l'incidence de l'infection par le VIH et sur la grossesse cRamjee G., Wand H.2012Bulletin of the World Health Organization901010.2471/BLT.12.105700HIV Prevention Research Unit, Medical Research Council, 123 Jan Hofmeyr Road, Westville, Durban, 3630, South Africa; The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, AustraliaRamjee, G., HIV Prevention Research Unit, Medical Research Council, 123 Jan Hofmeyr Road, Westville, Durban, 3630, South Africa; Wand, H., The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, AustraliaObjective To estimate the potential impact of using hormonal contraceptives on rates of infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and pregnancy by theoretically removing the use of hormonal contraceptives from a study population. Methods A prospective cohort study included 3704 HIV-negative women who were enrolled in two biomedical trials that tested two vaginal microbicides (PRO 2000 and Carraguard®) for the prevention of HIV-1 in Durban, South Africa, in 2004-2009. Cox proportional hazards regression models along with partial population attributable risks (PARs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the relative population-level impact of the use of hormonal contraceptives on HIV-1 seroconversion rates and on pregnancy rates. Findings Women who reported using hormonal contraceptives at enrolment in the trial had a higher risk of HIV-1 seroconversion (adjusted hazards ratio: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.97-1.58) than women who reported using other types of contraceptives at enrolment. At the population level, the use of hormonal contraceptives (pills or injectables) at baseline and during study follow-up accounted for approximately 20% (95% CI: 16-22) of HIV-1 seroconversions. However, the partial PAR indicated a relative impact of 12% (95% CI: 9.0-15.7). On the other hand, 72% (95% CI: 66-77) of the pregnancies could have been avoided if all women had used hormonal contraceptives. Conclusion Women using hormonal contraceptives need comprehensive counselling on simultaneous prevention of HIV-1 infection.Nonecarrageenan; contraceptive agent; pro 2000; contraceptive use; disease control; disease incidence; disease transmission; health impact; health risk; human immunodeficiency virus; pregnancy; womens health; adult; article; cohort analysis; condom; female; health education; hormonal contraception; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; incidence; pregnancy; pregnancy rate; proportional hazards model; prospective study; risk assessment; seroconversion; sexual behavior; South Africa; Adult; Age Distribution; Anti-Infective Agents; Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal; Educational Status; Female; HIV Infections; HIV Seronegativity; HIV Seropositivity; HIV-1; Humans; Incidence; Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical; Pregnancy; Proportional Hazards Models; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Sexual Behavior; South Africa; Young Adult; Durban; KwaZulu-Natal; South Africa; Human immunodeficiency virus 1None
Scopus2-s2.0-78650429812Performance of tropical early-maturing maize cultivars in multiple stress environmentsBadu-Apraku B., Menkir A., Ajala S.O., Akinwale R.O., Oyekunle M., Obeng-Antwi K.2010Canadian Journal of Plant Science90610.4141/CJPS10059International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (UK) Limited, Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Road, Croydon CR9 3EE, United Kingdom; Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, GhanaBadu-Apraku, B., International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (UK) Limited, Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Road, Croydon CR9 3EE, United Kingdom; Menkir, A., International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (UK) Limited, Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Road, Croydon CR9 3EE, United Kingdom; Ajala, S.O., International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (UK) Limited, Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Road, Croydon CR9 3EE, United Kingdom; Akinwale, R.O., International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (UK) Limited, Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Road, Croydon CR9 3EE, United Kingdom; Oyekunle, M., International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (UK) Limited, Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Road, Croydon CR9 3EE, United Kingdom; Obeng-Antwi, K., Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, GhanaMaize (Zea mays L.) production in west Africa (WA) is constrained by drought, Striga hermonthica infestation and low soil nitrogen (N). Maize varieties resistant to Striga, drought, and low N are ideal for WA, but genotype×, environment interaction on these traits are usually significant due to differential responses of cultivars to growing conditions. Three studies were conducted from 2007 to 2009 at five locations in Nigeria to evaluate the performance of selected early-maturing cultivars under drought stress versus well-watered, Striga-infested versus Striga-free, and in low- versus high-N environments. Drought stress reduced grain yield by 44%, Striga infestation by 65%, and low N by 40%. GGE biplot analysis showed that the genotypes TZE-W DT STR C4, Tillering Early DT, TZE-W DT STR QPM C0 and TZE-Y DT STR C4 performed relatively well in all study environments. TZE-W DT STR C4 and TZE Comp3 C1F2 were outstanding under drought, TZE-W DT STR C4, EVDT-W 99 STR QPM C0 and TZE-W DT STR QPMC0 under Striga infestation and Tillering Early DT, EVDT 97 STRC1, TZE-W DT STR C4, and TZE Comp3 C3 under N deficiency. Maize productivity in WA can be significantly improved by promoting cultivation of genotypes that combine high resistance/tolerance to Striga and drought with improved N-use efficiency.Genotype × Environment interaction; GGE biplot; Low-N tolerance; Managed drought stress; Striga hermonthica; Zea mays L.cultivar; cultivation; drought stress; genotype-environment interaction; growing season; maize; maturation; parasitic plant; soil nitrogen; tillering; tropical region; Nigeria; Striga; Striga hermonthica; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-67349151120Using participatory epidemiological techniques to estimate the relative incidence and impact on livelihoods of livestock diseases amongst nomadic pastoralists in Turkana South District, KenyaBett B., Jost C., Allport R., Mariner J.2009Preventive Veterinary Medicine9004-Mar10.1016/j.prevetmed.2009.05.001International Livestock Research Institute, Old Naivasha Rd, Kabete, Nairobi, Kenya; Vétérinaires Sans Frontières Belgium, P.O. Box 13986-00800, Nairobi, KenyaBett, B., International Livestock Research Institute, Old Naivasha Rd, Kabete, Nairobi, Kenya; Jost, C., International Livestock Research Institute, Old Naivasha Rd, Kabete, Nairobi, Kenya; Allport, R., Vétérinaires Sans Frontières Belgium, P.O. Box 13986-00800, Nairobi, Kenya; Mariner, J., International Livestock Research Institute, Old Naivasha Rd, Kabete, Nairobi, KenyaA participatory epidemiological (PE) study was carried out with Turkana pastoralists in Turkana South District, Kenya, to determine the relative incidence of livestock diseasess and their impact on livelihoods. A sub-location was used as the sampling unit. A sub-location is the smallest administrative unit and is occupied by clusters of families (called adakars) that share common grazing patterns. A total of 32 sub-locations were randomly selected for the study. At least one focus group discussion involving more than 10 people was held with each adakar. In addition, key informant interviews involving local leaders and animal health service providers were conducted before or after the group sessions. PE techniques that were used with the stock owners include participatory mapping, relative incidence scoring, proportional piling, disease impact matrix scoring, seasonal calendars and probing. The methods used were pre-tested in four sub-locations that were excluded from further study. The study revealed that goats, with median score of 33 (10th and 90th percentiles of 25, 44, respectively) and sheep, median score of 20.5 (15, 26) were perceived to be the most abundant livestock species while goats (median score of 32 [21, 56]) and camels (median score of 22.5 [11, 33]) contributed the most to the livelihoods of the pastoralists. For goats, the overall relative incidence scores of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) and mange were 23.5% (15, 34), 25% (21, 45) and 20% (19, 28), respectively. The respective median scores for case fatality rates were 66% (45, 76.5), 62.5% (25, 100) and 73.2% (21.4, 85.7). Disease impact matrix scores indicated that mange was the most important disease of goats. Mange (range: 28-32%) and pox (range: 16-38%) were perceived to be the most prevalent diseases in camels. Livestock movements, limited access to veterinary services and stock theft were identified as key factors that contributed to the high prevalence and persistence of these diseases. This paper discusses strategies that could be used to control these diseases given the challenges associated with nomadic pastoralism and insecurity. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Diseases; Goats; Kenya; Participatory epidemiology (PE); Turkana pastoralistsanimal; animal husbandry; article; camel; economics; goat; goat disease; human; incidence; Kenya; sheep; sheep disease; socioeconomics; Animal Husbandry; Animals; Camels; Goat Diseases; Goats; Humans; Incidence; Kenya; Sheep; Sheep Diseases; Socioeconomic Factors; Animalia; Camelidae; Capra; Capra hircus; Mycoplasma; Ovis aries; Peste-des-petits-ruminants virusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33746862189Stone bunds for soil conservation in the northern Ethiopian highlands: Impacts on soil fertility and crop yieldVancampenhout K., Nyssen J., Gebremichael D., Deckers J., Poesen J., Haile M., Moeyersons J.2006Soil and Tillage Research904237110.1016/j.still.2005.08.004Laboratory for Soil and Water Management, K.U. Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium; Physical and Regional Geography Research Group, K.U. Leuven, Redingenstraat 16, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium; Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Relief Society of Tigray, P.O. Box 20, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Royal Museum for Central Africa, B-3080 Tervuren, BelgiumVancampenhout, K., Laboratory for Soil and Water Management, K.U. Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium; Nyssen, J., Laboratory for Soil and Water Management, K.U. Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium, Physical and Regional Geography Research Group, K.U. Leuven, Redingenstraat 16, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium, Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Gebremichael, D., Physical and Regional Geography Research Group, K.U. Leuven, Redingenstraat 16, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium, Relief Society of Tigray, P.O. Box 20, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Deckers, J., Laboratory for Soil and Water Management, K.U. Leuven, Vital Decosterstraat 102, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium; Poesen, J., Physical and Regional Geography Research Group, K.U. Leuven, Redingenstraat 16, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium; Haile, M., Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Moeyersons, J., Royal Museum for Central Africa, B-3080 Tervuren, BelgiumIn the Ethiopian highlands, large-scale stone bund building programs are implemented to curb severe soil erosion. Development of soil fertility gradients is often mentioned as the major drawback of stone bund implementation, as it would result in a dramatic lowering of crop yield. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to assess soil fertility gradients on progressive terraces and their influence on crop yield, in order to evaluate the long-term sustainability of stone bunds in the Ethiopian Highlands. The study was performed near Hagere Selam, Tigray and comprises (i) measurement of Pav, Ntot and Corg along the slope on 20 representative plots and (ii) crop response measurement on 143 plots. Results indicate that levels of Pav, Ntot and Corg in the plough layer are highly variable between plots and mainly determined by small-scale soil and environmental features, plot history and management. After correcting for this "plot effect" a significant relationship (p &lt; 0.01) was found between the position in the plot relative to the stone bund and levels of Pav and Ntot, which are higher near the lower stone bund, especially on limestone parent material. For Corg and on basalt-derived soils in general no significant relationship was found. Although soil fertility gradients are present, they are not problematic and can be compensated by adapted soil management. Only in areas where a Calcaric or Calcic horizon is present at shallow depth, care should be taken. Crop Yields increased by 7% compared to the situation without stone bunds, if a land occupation of 8% by the structures is accounted for. Yield increased from 632 to 683 kg ha-1 for cereals, from 501 to 556 kg ha-1 (11%) for Eragrostis tef and from 335 to 351 kg ha-1 for Cicer arietinum. No negative effects reducing stone-bund sustainability were found in this study. Soil erosion on the other hand, poses a major threat to agricultural productivity. Stone bund implementation therefore is of vital importance in fighting desertification and establishing sustainable agriculture in the Ethiopian highlands. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Crop response; Ethiopia; Slow-forming terraces; Soil fertility gradients; Stone bundsErosion; Regional planning; Soils; Sustainable development; Crop response; Slow-forming terraces; Soil fertility gradients; Stone bunds; Soil conservation; crop yield; soil conservation; soil erosion; soil fertility; terracing; upland region; Africa; East Africa; Ethiopia; Sub-Saharan Africa; Cicer arietinum; Eragrostis; Eragrostis tefNone
WoSWOS:000277417200015Development of a Language-Independent Functional EvaluationBeier, Klaus P.,Boggess, Tony,Chan, Lilliene,Haig, Andrew J.,Jayarajan, Senthil,Juang, Derek,Kalpakjian, Claire,Loar, Jesse,Maslowski, Eric,Owusu-Ansah, Bertha,Tinney, Melissa,Yamakawa, Karen S.2009ARCHIVES OF PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION901210.1016/j.apmr.2009.05.025Pennsylvania Commonwealth System of Higher Education (PCSHE), Temple University, University of Ghana, University of Michigan, University of Michigan System, Vet Hosp Huntington"Beier, Klaus P.: University of Michigan","Beier, Klaus P.: University of Michigan System","Chan, Lilliene: University of Michigan","Chan, Lilliene: University of Michigan System","Haig, Andrew J.: University of Michigan","Haig, Andrew J.: University of Michigan System","Jayarajan, Senthil: Pennsylvania Commonwealth System of Higher Education (PCSHE)","Jayarajan, Senthil: Temple University","Juang, Derek: University of Michigan","Juang, Derek: University of Michigan System","Loar, Jesse: University of Michigan","Loar, Jesse: University of Michigan System","Maslowski, Eric: University of Michigan","Maslowski, Eric: University of Michigan System","Owusu-Ansah, Bertha: University of Ghana",Haig AJ, Jayarajan S, Maslowski E, Yamakawa KS, Tinney M, Beier KP, Juang D, Chan L, Boggess T, Loar J, Owusu-Ansah B, Kalpakjian C. Development of a language-independent functional evaluation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2009;90:2074-80. Objective: To design, validate, and critique a tool for self-report of physical functioning that is independent of language and literacy. Design: Software design and 2 prospective trials followed by redesign. Setting: United States and African university hospitals. Participants: Outpatient and inpatient competent adults with diverse physical impairments. Interventions: (1) Software design process leading to a Preliminary Language-Independent Functional Evaluation (Pre-L.I.F.E.); (2) patient surveys using a printed Pre-L.I.F.E. and a computer-animated Pre-L.I.F.E. tested in random order, followed by a questionnaire version of the standard Barthel Index; and (3) software redesign based on objective and qualitative experiences with Pre-L.I.F.E. Main Outcome Measures: Validation of the general concept that written and spoken language can be eliminated in assessment of function. Development of a refined Language-Independent Functional Evaluation (LIFE.). Results: A viable Pre-L.I.F.E. software was built based on design parameters of the clinical team. Fifty Americans and 51 Africans demonstrated excellent (Cronbach alpha&gt;0.8 Americans) and good (alpha&gt;.425 Africans) reliability. In general, the relations between Pre-L.I.F.E. and Barthel scores were excellent in the United States (interclass correlation coefficient for stair climbing, .959) but somewhat less good in Africa, with elimination functions very poorly related. The computer-animated Pre-L.I.F.E. was faster and trended to be more reliable than the printed Pre-L.I.F.E. in both the United States and Africa. Redesign meetings corrected statistical and qualitative challenges, resulting in a new tool, the L.I.F.E. Conclusions: Literacy and language translation can be eliminated from some aspects of functional assessment. The new LIFE., based on solid empirical evidence and design principles, may be a practical solution to assessment of function in the global culture.Africa,"DISABILITY EVALUATION","EDUCATIONAL STATUS",EPIDEMIOLOGY,LANGUAGE,"Outcome assessment (health care) Rehabilitation","STROKE REHABILITATION"NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84888371155Phytotoxicity evaluation of six fast-growing tree species in South AfricaSunmonu T.O., Van Staden J.2014South African Journal of Botany90None10.1016/j.sajb.2013.10.010Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South AfricaSunmonu, T.O., Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; Van Staden, J., Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South AfricaVachellia sieberiana, Albizia adianthifolia, Buddleja saligna, Combretum kraussii, Halleria lucida and Rapanea melanophloeos are fast-growing, indigenous tree species in South Africa. They are usually found growing alongside other plants in agricultural systems. In this study, the comparative phytotoxic activity of aqueous leaf extracts of these tree species at different concentrations was investigated using lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.) in a laboratory bioassay. To simulate natural situations, seeds were germinated under 16. h light/8. h darkness in a growth chamber using distilled water as control. The results showed that germination, chlorophyll accumulation and growth indices (plumule and radicle lengths) were significantly inhibited with increasing concentration of plant extracts. The treated lettuce seedlings experienced lipid peroxidation at high extract concentrations (1.0% and 2.0%) as evidenced by increased concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). In response to this, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) increased at low extract concentration but significantly dropped as concentration increased. These results suggest that aqueous extracts of the studied tree species may produce growth inhibitory substances. Thus, our study revealed that these trees possess phytotoxic activity which could be exploited in the management of weeds in agroforestry systems. © 2013 South African Association of Botanists.Allelochemicals; Antioxidants; Lipid peroxidation; Oxidative stress; Phytotoxicityagroforestry; aldehyde; allelochemical; antioxidant; bioassay; chlorophyll; comparative study; enzyme activity; evergreen tree; germination; growth regulator; inhibitor; leafy vegetable; legume; lipid; native species; phytotoxicity; plant extract; potential biocontrol agent; seed; weed control; South Africa; Acacia; Albizia; Albizia adianthifolia; Buddleja; Buddleja saligna; Combretum; Halleria lucida; Lactuca; Lactuca sativa; Rapanea melanophloeosNone
WoSWOS:000270208400003Monitoring in adaptive co-management: Toward a learning based approachCundill, Georgina,Fabricius, Christo2009JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT901110.1016/j.jenvman.2009.05.012Rhodes University, Council for Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) - South Africa, CSIR"Fabricius, Christo: Rhodes University",The recognition of complexity and uncertainty in natural resource management has lead to the development of a wealth of conceptual frameworks aimed at integrated assessment and complex systems monitoring. Relatively less attention has however been given to methodological approaches that might facilitate learning as part of the monitoring process. This paper reviews the monitoring literature relevant to adaptive co-management, with a focus on the synergies between existing monitoring frameworks, collaborative monitoring approaches and social learning. The paper discusses the role of monitoring in environmental management in general, and the challenges posed by scale and complexity when monitoring in adaptive co-management. Existing conceptual frameworks for monitoring relevant to adaptive co-management are reviewed, as are lessons from experiences with collaborative monitoring. The paper concludes by offering a methodological approach to monitoring that actively seeks to engender reflexive learning as a means to deal with uncertainty in natural resource management. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved"adaptive co-management","collaborative monitoring",COMPLEXITY,"SOCIAL LEARNING","BUILDING RESILIENCE",CLIMATE-CHANGE,CONSERVATION,FRAMEWORK,"NATURAL-RESOURCE MANAGEMENT",PERSPECTIVE,"PROTECTED AREAS",SCALE,"SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS",WORLDNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34547962470Evaluating the performance of sampling plans to detect fumonisin Bi in maize lots marketed in NigeriaWhitaker T.B., Doko M., Maestroni B.M., Slate A.B., Ogunbanwo B.F.2007Journal of AOAC International904NoneU.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7625; International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agrochemicals Unit, IAEA/FAO Biotechnology Laboratories, Seibersdorf, Austria; North CarolinWhitaker, T.B., U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7625; Doko, M., International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agrochemicals Unit, IAEA/FAO Biotechnology Laboratories, Seibersdorf, Austria; Maestroni, B.M., International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agrochemicals Unit, IAEA/FAO Biotechnology Laboratories, Seibersdorf, Austria; Slate, A.B., North Carolina State University, Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Box 7625, Raleigh, NC 27695-7625; Ogunbanwo, B.F., National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Mycotoxin Unit, Oshodi Central Laboratories, Lagos, NigeriaFumonisins are toxic and carcinogenic compounds produced by fungi that can be readily found in maize. The establishment of maximum limits for fumonisins requires the development of scientifically based sampling plans to detect fumonisin in maize. As part of an International Atomic Energy Agency effort to assist developing countries to control mycotoxin contamination, a study was conducted to design sampling plans to detect fumonisin in maize produced and marketed in Nigeria. Eighty-six maize lots were sampled according to an experimental protocol in which an average of 17 test samples, 100 g each, were taken from each lot and analyzed for fumonisin B1 by using liquid chromatography. The total variability associated with the fumonisin test procedure was measured for each lot. Regression equations were developed to predict the total variance as a function of fumonisin concentration. The observed fumonisin distribution among the replicated-sample test results was compared with several theoretical distributions, and the negative binomial distribution was selected to model the fumonisin distribution among test results. A computer model was developed by using the variance and distribution information to predict the performance of sampling plan designs to detect fumonisin in maize shipments. The performance of several sampling plan designs was evaluated to demonstrate how to manipulate sample size and accept/reject limits to reduce misclassification of maize lots.NoneContamination; Fungi; Liquid chromatography; Marketing; Mathematical models; Toxic materials; Binomial distribution; Computer models; Fumonisins; Maize; Theoretical distributions; Drug products; fumonisin; fumonisin B1; article; chemistry; dose response; food analysis; food contamination; high performance liquid chromatography; liquid chromatography; maize; metabolism; methodology; Nigeria; plant; regression analysis; reproducibility; sample size; statistical model; theoretical model; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid; Chromatography, Liquid; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Food Analysis; Food Contamination; Fumonisins; Models, Statistical; Models, Theoretical; Nigeria; Plants; Regression Analysis; Reproducibility of Results; Research Design; Sample Size; Zea mays; Fungi; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80054720467Global assessment of the fishing impacts on the Southern Benguela ecosystem using an EcoTroph modelling approachGasche L., Gascuel D., Shannon L., Shin Y.-J.2012Journal of Marine Systems90110.1016/j.jmarsys.2011.07.012Université Européenne de Bretagne, UMR Agrocampus Ouest/INRA Ecologie et Santé des Ecosystèmes, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc, CS 84215, 35042 Rennes cedex, France; Marine Research Institute, University of Cape Town, Zoology Department, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town, South Africa; IRD, UMR 212 Ecosystèmes Marins Exploités, University of Cape Town, Zoology Department, Private Bag X3, Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South AfricaGasche, L., Université Européenne de Bretagne, UMR Agrocampus Ouest/INRA Ecologie et Santé des Ecosystèmes, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc, CS 84215, 35042 Rennes cedex, France; Gascuel, D., Université Européenne de Bretagne, UMR Agrocampus Ouest/INRA Ecologie et Santé des Ecosystèmes, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc, CS 84215, 35042 Rennes cedex, France; Shannon, L., Marine Research Institute, University of Cape Town, Zoology Department, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town, South Africa; Shin, Y.-J., IRD, UMR 212 Ecosystèmes Marins Exploités, University of Cape Town, Zoology Department, Private Bag X3, Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa'We show that the EcoTroph model based on trophic spectra is an efficient tool to build ecosystem diagnoses of the impact of fishing. Using the Southern Benguela case study as a pretext, we present the first thorough application of the model to a real ecosystem. We thus review the structure and functioning of EcoTroph and we introduce the user to the steps that should be followed, showing the various possibilities of the model while underlining the most critical points of the modelling process. We show that EcoTroph provides an overview of the current exploitation level and target factors at the ecosystem scale, using two distinct trophic spectra to quantify the fishing targets and the fishing impact per trophic level. Then, we simulate changes in the fishing mortality, facilitating differential responses of two groups of species within the Southern Benguela ecosystem to be distinguished. More generally, we highlight various trends in a number of indicators of the ecosystem's state when increasing fishing mortality and we show that this ecosystem is moderately exploited, although predatory species are at their MSY. Finally, trophic spectra of the fishing effort multipliers EMSY and E0.1 are proposed as tools for monitoring the ecosystem effects of fishing. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.Ecosystem indicators; EcoTroph; Fishing impact; Overfishing; Southern Benguela; Trophic modellingEcosystem indicators; EcoTroph; Fishing impact; Overfishing; Southern Benguela; Trophic modelling; Fisheries; Ecosystems; assessment method; environmental monitoring; exploitation; fishing effort; fishing mortality; numerical model; predator; spectral analysis; trophic level; Atlantic Ocean; Benguela CurrentNone
Scopus2-s2.0-35748933532Effect of high-pressure homogenization, nonfat milk solids, and milkfat on the technological performance of a functional strain for the production of probiotic fermented milksPatrignani F., Iucci L., Lanciotti R., Vallicelli M., Mathara J.M., Holzapfel W.H., Guerzoni M.E.2007Journal of Dairy Science901010.3168/jds.2007-0373University of Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, Piazza Goidanich, 60, 47023 Cesena, Italy; Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Food Science and Technology, PO Box 62000, Nairobi, Kenya; Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food, Institute of Hygiene and Toxicology, Hald-und-Neu-Str. 9, D-76131 Karlsruhe, GermanyPatrignani, F., University of Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, Piazza Goidanich, 60, 47023 Cesena, Italy; Iucci, L., University of Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, Piazza Goidanich, 60, 47023 Cesena, Italy; Lanciotti, R., University of Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, Piazza Goidanich, 60, 47023 Cesena, Italy; Vallicelli, M., University of Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, Piazza Goidanich, 60, 47023 Cesena, Italy; Mathara, J.M., Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Food Science and Technology, PO Box 62000, Nairobi, Kenya; Holzapfel, W.H., Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food, Institute of Hygiene and Toxicology, Hald-und-Neu-Str. 9, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany; Guerzoni, M.E., University of Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, Piazza Goidanich, 60, 47023 Cesena, ItalyThe aim of this research was the evaluation of the effects of milkfat content, nonfat milk solids content, and high-pressure homogenization on 1) fermentation rates of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei BFE 5264 inoculated in milk; 2) viability loss of this strain during refrigerated storage; and 3) texture parameters, volatile compounds, and sensorial properties of the coagula obtained. The data achieved suggested a very strong effect of the independent variables on the measured attributes of fermented milks. In fact, the coagulation times were significantly affected by pressure and added milkfat, and the rheological parameters of the fermented milk increased with the pressure applied to the milk for added nonfat milk solids concentrations lower than 3%. Moreover, the polynomial models and the relative response surfaces obtained permitted us to identify the levels of the 3 independent variables that minimized the viability loss of the probiotic strain used during refrigerated storage. © American Dairy Science Association, 2007.High-pressure homogenization; Lactobacillus paracasei; Probiotic fermented milk; Response surface methodology2,3 butanedione; acetaldehyde; fat; organic compound; probiotic agent; article; chemistry; dairy product; freezing; human; Lactobacillus; microbiology; physiology; pressure; sensation; time; viscosity; Acetaldehyde; Cultured Milk Products; Diacetyl; Fats; Humans; Lactobacillus; Organic Chemicals; Pressure; Probiotics; Refrigeration; Sensation; Time Factors; Viscosity; Lactobacillus paracaseiNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84860448069Impacts of e-health on the outcomes of care in low- and middle-income countries: Where do we go from here? [Impacts de la télésanté sur les résultats sanitaires dans les pays à revenu faible et moyen: Quelle direction prendre?]Piette J.D., Lun K.C., Moura Jr. L.A., Fraser H.S.F., Mechael P.N., Powellf J., Khoja S.R.2012Bulletin of the World Health Organization90510.2471/BLT.11.099069Veteran Affairs Ann Arbor Center for Clinical Management Research, Health Services Research and Development Center of Excellence, PO Box 130170, Ann Arbor, MI, 48113-0170, United States; School of Computing, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Assis Moura eHealth, São Paulo, Brazil; Harvard Medical School, Boston MA, United States; Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York NY, United States; Division of Health Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom; E-Health Resource Centre, The Aga Khan University, Nairobi, KenyaPiette, J.D., Veteran Affairs Ann Arbor Center for Clinical Management Research, Health Services Research and Development Center of Excellence, PO Box 130170, Ann Arbor, MI, 48113-0170, United States; Lun, K.C., School of Computing, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Moura Jr., L.A., Assis Moura eHealth, São Paulo, Brazil; Fraser, H.S.F., Harvard Medical School, Boston MA, United States; Mechael, P.N., Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York NY, United States; Powellf, J., Division of Health Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom; Khoja, S.R., E-Health Resource Centre, The Aga Khan University, Nairobi, KenyaE-health encompasses a diverse set of informatics tools that have been designed to improve public health and health care. Little information is available on the impacts of e-health programmes, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We therefore conducted a scoping review of the published and non-published literature to identify data on the effects of e-health on health outcomes and costs. The emphasis was on the identification of unanswered questions for future research, particularly on topics relevant to low- and middle-income countries. Although e-health tools supporting clinical practice have growing penetration globally, there is more evidence of benefits for tools that support clinical decisions and laboratory information systems than for those that support picture archiving and communication systems. Community information systems for disease surveillance have been implemented successfully in several low- and middle-income countries. Although information on outcomes is generally lacking, a large project in Brazil has documented notable impacts on health-system efficiency. Meta-analyses and rigorous trials have documented the benefits of text messaging for improving outcomes such as patients' self-care. Automated telephone monitoring and self-care support calls have been shown to improve some outcomes of chronic disease management, such as glycaemia and blood pressure control, in low- and middle-income countries. Although large programmes for e-health implementation and research are being conducted in many low- and middle-income countries, more information on the impacts of e-health on outcomes and costs in these settings is still needed.Nonedeveloping world; health care; information and communication technology; information system; public health; article; automation; blood pressure regulation; chronic disease; clinical decision making; clinical practice; cost effectiveness analysis; decision support system; developing country; disease surveillance; e health system; electronic medical record; glycemic control; health care cost; health care quality; health care system; health services research; hospital information system; human; information service; low income country; mass communication; medical informatics; meta analysis (topic); middle income country; outcome assessment; picture archiving and communication system; quality adjusted life year; randomized controlled trial (topic); self care; text messaging; Developing Countries; Efficiency; Efficiency, Organizational; Electronic Health Records; Health Care Costs; Hospital Information Systems; Humans; Income; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Socioeconomic Factors; Telemedicine; World HealthNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70349634151The challenge of integrating sustainability into talent and organization strategies: Investing in the knowledge, skills and attitudes to achieve high performanceArnott J., Lacy P., Lowitt E.2009Corporate Governance9410.1108/14720700910985025Accenture, Kelvin, South Africa; Accenture, London, United Kingdom; Accenture, Boston, MA, United StatesArnott, J., Accenture, Kelvin, South Africa; Lacy, P., Accenture, London, United Kingdom; Lowitt, E., Accenture, Boston, MA, United StatesPurpose - This paper aims to address the importance of a framework for developing employees' sustainability knowledge, skills, and behaviors. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws on in-depth interviews with executives from five Fortune 1000 companies that are viewed as market leaders in addressing sustainability. Findings - This paper provides a series of initiatives to equip their employees' talent - from top executives to employees throughout the organization - with the much needed, but often sorely lacking knowledge, skills and attitudes to spearhead efforts to attend to sustainability both today and tomorrow. Practical implications - The usefulness of demonstrating a company's suite of ongoing initiatives to address sustainability to potential employees during the recruiting process is highlighted by each company. Originality/value - The framework covered by this paper can help companies enhance their talent management skills. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Employees; Leadership development; Management developmentNoneNone
NoneNoneEvaluation of permanet 3.0 a deltamethrin-PBO combination net against Anopheles gambiae and pyrethroid resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes: An experimental hut trial in TanzaniaTungu P., Magesa S., Maxwell C., Malima R., Masue D., Sudi W., Myamba J., Pigeon O., Rowland M.2010Malaria Journal9110.1186/1475-2875-9-21Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, PO Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania; Pan-African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, Tanzania; Pesticides Research Department, Walloon Agricultural Research Centre, 11 Rue du Bordia, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium; Department of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, United KingdomTungu, P., Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, PO Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania, Pan-African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, Tanzania; Magesa, S., Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, PO Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania, Pan-African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, Tanzania; Maxwell, C., Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, PO Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania, Pan-African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, Tanzania, Department of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom; Malima, R., Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, PO Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania, Pan-African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, Tanzania; Masue, D., Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, PO Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania, Pan-African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, Tanzania; Sudi, W., Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, PO Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania, Pan-African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, Tanzania; Myamba, J., Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, PO Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania, Pan-African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, Tanzania; Pigeon, O., Pesticides Research Department, Walloon Agricultural Research Centre, 11 Rue du Bordia, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium; Rowland, M., Pan-African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, Tanzania, Department of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, United KingdomBackground. Combination mosquito nets incorporating two unrelated insecticides or insecticide plus synergist are designed to control insecticide resistant mosquitoes. PermaNet 3.0 is a long-lasting combination net incorporating deltamethrin on the side panels and a mixture of deltamethrin and synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the top panel. PBO is an inhibitor of mixed function oxidases implicated in pyrethroid resistance. Method. An experimental hut trial comparing PermaNet 3.0, PermaNet 2.0 and a conventional deltamethrin-treated net was conducted in NE Tanzania using standard WHOPES procedures. The PermaNet arms included unwashed nets and nets washed 20 times. PermaNet 2.0 is a long-lasting insecticidal net incorporating deltamethrin as a single active. Results. Against pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles gambiae the unwashed PermaNet 3.0 showed no difference to unwashed PermaNet 2.0 in terms of mortality (95% killed), but showed differences in blood-feeding rate (3% blood-fed with PermaNet 3.0 versus 10% with PermaNet 2.0). After 20 washes the two products showed no difference in feeding rate (10% with 3.0 and 9% with 2.0) but showed small differences in mortality (95% with 3.0 and 87% with 2.0). Against pyrethroid resistant Culex quinquefasciatus, mediated by elevated oxidase and kdr mechanisms, the unwashed PermaNet 3.0 killed 48% and PermaNet 2.0 killed 32% but after 20 washes there was no significant difference in mortality between the two products (32% killed by 3.0 and 30% by 2.0). For protecting against Culex PermaNet 3.0 showed no difference to PermaNet 2.0 when either unwashed or after 20 washes; both products were highly protective against biting. Laboratory tunnel bioassays confirmed the loss of biological activity of the PBO/deltamethrin-treated panel after washing. Conclusion. Both PermaNet products were highly effective against susceptible Anopheles gambiae. As a long-lasting net to control or protect against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes PermaNet 3.0 showed limited improvement over PermaNet 2.0 against Culex quinquefasciatus. © 2010 Tungu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Nonedeltamethrin; oxidoreductase; piperonyl butoxide; vasculotropin receptor 2; deltamethrin; insecticide; nitrile; piperonyl butoxide; pyrethroid; Anopheles gambiae; article; bed net; Culex quinquefasciatus; feeding behavior; insect bite; mortality; nonhuman; Tanzania; world health organization; animal; Culex; drug effect; drug resistance; human; methodology; mosquito; survival; Animals; Anopheles gambiae; Culex; Drug Resistance; Feeding Behavior; Humans; Insecticide-Treated Bednets; Insecticides; Mosquito Control; Nitriles; Piperonyl Butoxide; Pyrethrins; Survival Analysis; TanzaniaNone
WoSWOS:000268766900003Do the socioeconomic impacts of antiretroviral therapy vary by gender? A longitudinal study of Kenyan agricultural worker employment outcomesBii, Margret,Fox, Mathew P.,Larson, Bruce A.,McCoy, Kelly,Rosen, Sydney,Sawe, Fredrick,Shaffer, Douglas,Sigei, Carolyne,Simon, Jonathan L.,Wasunna, Monique2009BMC PUBLIC HEALTH9None10.1186/1471-2458-9-240Boston University, Kenya Govt Med Res Ctr, Walter Reed ProjectNoneBackground: As access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has grown in Africa, attention has turned to evaluating the socio-economic impacts of ART. One key issue is the extent to which improvements in health resulting from ART allows individuals to return to work and earn income. Improvements in health from ART may also be associated with reduced impaired presenteeism, which is the loss of productivity when an ill or disabled individual attends work but accomplishes less at his or her usual tasks or shifts to other, possibly less valuable, tasks. Methods: Longitudinal data for this analysis come from company payroll records for 97 HIV-infected tea estate workers (the index group, 56 women, 41 men) and a comparison group of all workers assigned to the same work teams (n = 2485, 1691 men, 794 women) for a 37-month period covering two years before and one year after initiating ART. We used nearest neighbour matching methods to estimate the impacts of HIV/AIDS and ART on three monthly employment outcomes for tea estate workers in Kenya - days plucking tea, days assigned to non-plucking assignments, and kilograms harvested when plucking. Results: The female index group worked 30% fewer days plucking tea monthly than the matched female comparison group during the final 9 months pre-ART. They also worked 87% more days on non-plucking assignments. While the monthly gap between the two groups narrowed after beginning ART, the female index group worked 30% fewer days plucking tea and about 100% more days on non-plucking tasks than the comparison group after one year on ART. The male index group was able to maintain a similar pattern of work as their comparison group except during the initial five months on therapy. Conclusion: Significant impaired presenteeism continued to exist among the female index group after one year on ART. Future research needs to explore further the socio-economic implications of HIV-infected female workers on ART being less productive than the general female workforce over sustained periods of time.,ADULTS,HIV/AIDS,HIV-INFECTION,ILLNESS,PERFORMANCE,PRESENTEEISM,PREVALENCE,SECTOR,SICK,SOUTH-AFRICANoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77952601356Chemical evaluation of the nutritive quality of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]Akande K.E., Abubakar M.M., Adegbola T.A., Bogoro S.E., Doma U.D.2010International Journal of Poultry Science91NoneAnimal Production Programme, School of Agriculture, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, P.M.B0248, Bauchi State, NigeriaAkande, K.E., Animal Production Programme, School of Agriculture, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, P.M.B0248, Bauchi State, Nigeria; Abubakar, M.M., Animal Production Programme, School of Agriculture, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, P.M.B0248, Bauchi State, Nigeria; Adegbola, T.A., Animal Production Programme, School of Agriculture, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, P.M.B0248, Bauchi State, Nigeria; Bogoro, S.E., Animal Production Programme, School of Agriculture, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, P.M.B0248, Bauchi State, Nigeria; Doma, U.D., Animal Production Programme, School of Agriculture, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, P.M.B0248, Bauchi State, NigeriaThis study was carried out to evaluate the proximate and amino acid compositions of samples of raw and roasted pigeon pea seeds. The following range of values were obtained for dry matter (95.89-96.34%), crude protein (21.03-21.07%), crude fat (4.43-5.96%), crude fibre (7.16-7.52%) and ash (3.76-4.02%) respectively for the raw and roasted seeds of pigeon pea. While values for nitrogen free extract ranged from 57.77-59.51% for the roasted and raw pigeon pea seeds respectively. Results from the amino acid analysis revealed that some amino acids like arginine, aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, leucine and tyrosine had their concentration in the seeds increased with heat processing, while other amino acids were not. On the whole, the concentration of glutamic acid was found to be the highest in the pigeon pea, with a value of 14.21 g/16 gN for the roasted seeds. Lysine showed the highest concentration among the indispensable amino acids (7.79 g/16 gN for the raw seeds and 7.55 g/16 gN for the roasted seeds). Pigeon pea seed was found to be deficient in the sulphur-containing amino acids (cystine and methionine). © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.Amino acid; Composition; Evaluation; Pigeon pea; ProximateCajanus cajanNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84868672935Impact of sustained RNAi-mediated suppression of cellular cofactor Tat-SF1 on HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cellsGreen V.A., Arbuthnot P., Weinberg M.S.2012Virology Journal9None10.1186/1743-422X-9-272Antiviral Gene Therapy Research Unit, Health Sciences Faculty, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Scripps Research Institute, San Diego, CA, United StatesGreen, V.A., Antiviral Gene Therapy Research Unit, Health Sciences Faculty, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Arbuthnot, P., Antiviral Gene Therapy Research Unit, Health Sciences Faculty, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Weinberg, M.S., Antiviral Gene Therapy Research Unit, Health Sciences Faculty, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Scripps Research Institute, San Diego, CA, United StatesBackground: Conventional anti-HIV drug regimens targeting viral enzymes are plagued by the emergence of drug resistance. There is interest in targeting HIV-dependency factors (HDFs), host proteins that the virus requires for replication, as drugs targeting their function may prove protective. Reporter cell lines provide a rapid and convenient method of identifying putative HDFs, but this approach may lead to misleading results and a failure to detect subtle detrimental effects on cells that result from HDF suppression. Thus, alternative methods for HDF validation are required. Cellular Tat-SF1 has long been ascribed a cofactor role in Tat-dependent transactivation of viral transcription elongation. Here we employ sustained RNAi-mediated suppression of Tat-SF1 to validate its requirement for HIV-1 replication in a CD4+ T cell-derived line and its potential as a therapeutic target. Results: shRNA-mediated suppression of Tat-SF1 reduced HIV-1 replication and infectious particle production from TZM-bl reporter cells. This effect was not a result of increased apoptosis, loss of cell viability or an immune response. To validate its requirement for HIV-1 replication in a more relevant cell line, CD4+ SupT1 cell populations were generated that stably expressed shRNAs. HIV-1 replication was significantly reduced for two weeks (∼65%) in cells with depleted Tat-SF1, although the inhibition of viral replication was moderate when compared to SupT1 cells expressing a shRNA targeting the integration cofactor LEDGF/p75. Tat-SF1 suppression was attenuated over time, resulting from decreased shRNA guide strand expression, suggesting that there is a selective pressure to restore Tat-SF1 levels. Conclusions: This study validates Tat-SF1 as an HDF in CD4+ T cell-derived SupT1 cells. However, our findings also suggest that Tat-SF1 is not a critical cofactor required for virus replication and its suppression may affect cell growth. Therefore, this study demonstrates the importance of examining HIV-1 replication kinetics and cytotoxicity in cells with sustained HDF suppression to validate their therapeutic potential as targets. © 2012 Green et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Nonelens epithelium derived growth factor; protein; protein p75; SF1 protein; short hairpin RNA; transactivator protein; unclassified drug; article; CD4+ T lymphocyte; cell growth; cell line; human; human cell; Human immunodeficiency virus 1; nucleotide sequence; protein depletion; protein expression; protein function; RNA interference; T lymphocyte subpopulation; virus inhibition; virus replication; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes; Cell Line; Gene Expression; Gene Expression Regulation; HIV-1; Humans; RNA Interference; RNA, Small Interfering; Trans-Activators; Virus Replication; Human immunodeficiency virus 1None
Scopus2-s2.0-84900306877Sexual dimorphism in bite performance drives morphological variation in chameleonsDa Silva J.M., Herrel A., Measey G.J., Tolley K.A.2014PLoS ONE9110.1371/journal.pone.0086846Applied Biodiversity Research Division, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Cape Town, Western Cape Province, South Africa; Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, Western Cape Province, South Africa; Département d'Ecologie et de Gestion de la Biodiversité, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, Île-de-France, France; Evolutionary Morphology of Vertebrates Research Group, Department of Biology, Ghent University, Ghent, East Flanders, Belgium; Department of Zoology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa; Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, Western Cape Province, South AfricaDa Silva, J.M., Applied Biodiversity Research Division, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Cape Town, Western Cape Province, South Africa, Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, Western Cape Province, South Africa; Herrel, A., Département d'Ecologie et de Gestion de la Biodiversité, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, Île-de-France, France, Evolutionary Morphology of Vertebrates Research Group, Department of Biology, Ghent University, Ghent, East Flanders, Belgium; Measey, G.J., Applied Biodiversity Research Division, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Cape Town, Western Cape Province, South Africa, Department of Zoology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa; Tolley, K.A., Applied Biodiversity Research Division, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Cape Town, Western Cape Province, South Africa, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, Western Cape Province, South AfricaPhenotypic performance in different environments is central to understanding the evolutionary and ecological processes that drive adaptive divergence and, ultimately, speciation. Because habitat structure can affect an animal's foraging behaviour, anti-predator defences, and communication behaviour, it can influence both natural and sexual selection pressures. These selective pressures, in turn, act upon morphological traits to maximize an animal's performance. For performance traits involved in both social and ecological activities, such as bite force, natural and sexual selection often interact in complex ways, providing an opportunity to understand the adaptive significance of morphological variation with respect to habitat. Dwarf chameleons within the Bradypodion melanocephalum-Bradypodion thamnobates species complex have multiple phenotypic forms, each with a specific head morphology that could reflect its use of either open- or closed-canopy habitats. To determine whether these morphological differences represent adaptations to their habitats, we tested for differences in both absolute and relative bite performance. Only absolute differences were found between forms, with the closed-canopy forms biting harder than their open-canopy counterparts. In contrast, sexual dimorphism was found for both absolute and relative bite force, but the relative differences were limited to the closed-canopy forms. These results indicate that both natural and sexual selection are acting within both habitat types, but to varying degrees. Sexual selection seems to be the predominant force within the closed-canopy habitats, which are more protected from aerial predators, enabling chameleons to invest more in ornamentation for communication. In contrast, natural selection is likely to be the predominant force in the open-canopy habitats, inhibiting the development of conspicuous secondary sexual characteristics and, ultimately, enforcing their overall diminutive body size and constraining performance. © 2014 da Silva et al.Noneanimal tissue; article; bite; body size; Bradypodion melanocephalum; Bradypodion thamnobates; canopy; chameleon; controlled study; ecological specialization; evolutionary adaptation; female; intraspecific variation; lizard; male; morphological trait; natural selection; nonhuman; organismal interaction; organisms by outer appearance; phenotypic variation; sex difference; species difference; species habitat; Adaptation, Biological; Analysis of Variance; Animals; Biological Evolution; Bite Force; Body Weights and Measures; Ecosystem; Female; Lizards; Male; Selection, Genetic; Sex Characteristics; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84899784472Evaluation of customised lineage-specific sets of MIRU-VNTR loci for genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in GhanaAsante-Poku A., Nyaho M.S., Borrell S., Comas I., Gagneux S., Yeboah-Manu D.2014PLoS ONE9310.1371/journal.pone.0092675Bacteriology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Biochemistry Department, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; Genomics and Health Unit, Centre for Public Health Research, Valencia, Spain; CIBER (Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Red) in Epidemiology and Public Health, Madrid, SpainAsante-Poku, A., Bacteriology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana, Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Nyaho, M.S., Bacteriology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana, Biochemistry Department, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; Borrell, S., Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Comas, I., Genomics and Health Unit, Centre for Public Health Research, Valencia, Spain, CIBER (Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Red) in Epidemiology and Public Health, Madrid, Spain; Gagneux, S., Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Yeboah-Manu, D., Bacteriology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, GhanaBackground: Different combinations of variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci have been proposed for genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Existing VNTR schemes show different discriminatory capacity among the six human MTBC lineages. Here, we evaluated the discriminatory power of a "customized MIRU12" loci format proposed previously by Comas et al. based on the standard 24 loci defined by Supply et al. for VNTR-typing of MTBC in Ghana. Method: One hundred and fifty-eight MTBC isolates classified into Lineage 4 and Lineage 5 were used to compare a customized lineage-specific panel of 12 MIRU-VNTR loci ("customized MIRU-12") to the standard MIRU-15 genotyping scheme. The resolution power of each typing method was determined based on the Hunter-Gaston- Discriminatory Index (HGDI). A minimal set of customized MIRU-VNTR loci for typing Lineages 4 (Euro-American) and 5 (M. africanum West African 1) strains from Ghana was defined based on the cumulative HGDI. Results and Conclusion: Among the 106 Lineage 4 strains, the customized MIRU-12 identified a total of 104 distinct genotypes consisting of 2 clusters of 2 isolates each (clustering rate 1.8%), and 102 unique strains while standard MIRU-15 yielded a total of 105 different genotypes, including 1 cluster of 2 isolates (clustering rate: 0.9%) and 104 singletons. Among, 52 Lineage 5 isolates, customized MIRU-12 genotyping defined 51 patterns with 1 cluster of 2 isolates (clustering rate: 0.9%) and 50 unique strains whereas MIRU-15 classified all 52 strains as unique. Cumulative HGDI values for customized MIRU-12 for Lineages 4 and 5 were 0.98 respectively whilst that of standard MIRU-15 was 0.99. A union of loci from the customised MIRU-12 and standard MIRU-15 revealed a set of customized eight highly discriminatory loci: 4052, 2163B, 40, 4165, 2165, 10,16 and 26 with a cumulative HGDI of 0.99 for genotyping Lineage 4 and 5 strains from Ghana. © 2014 Asante-Poku et al.Nonearticle; bacterial strain; bacterium isolation; controlled study; gene cluster; gene locus; genotype; Ghana; Hunter Gaston Discriminatory Index; Mycobacterium africanum; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; named inventories, questionnaires and rating scales; nonhuman; single nucleotide polymorphism; variable number of tandem repeat; clinical trial; epidemiology; genetics; genotype; human; isolation and purification; male; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; tuberculosis; Genotype; Ghana; Humans; Male; Minisatellite Repeats; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; TuberculosisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84897143998The impact of financial structure on profitability of firms: A cross-sectional industry analysis of Nigerian quoted firmsEkumankama O.O.2011Corporate Ownership and Control91 ENoneBanking and Finance Department, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, African Institute of Applied Economics, NigeriaEkumankama, O.O., Banking and Finance Department, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, African Institute of Applied Economics, NigeriaThis study empirically examines the impact of financial structure decision on the profitability of Nigerian quoted firms. Cross-sectional time series data of 72 Nigerian quoted firms were collated and analysed. Two hypotheses were proposed for the study, while the ordinary least square (OLS), fixed effects (FE) and the gerneralised least square (GLS) regression were used on pooled and panel data to estimate the relationship between financial leverage and the different measures of profitability in Nigeria quoted firms. In determining the extent of the influence of leverage on the dependent variables, most of the industrial groups showed evidence of sizable positive influence of leverage on profitability and earnings yield. This was significant and robust with all the measures of leverage.Cross-sectional analysis; Finance; Listed firms; NigeriaNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84930244335Sub-acute evaluation of extract of syzygium malaccense in albino ratsAdebayo A.H., Ogundare O.C., Adegbite O.S.2015Research Journal of Medicinal Plant9210.3923/rjmp.2015.60.71Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Technology Covenant University, PMB 1023, Canaan Land, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria; Biochemistry Unit, Department of Science and Laboratory Technology, SchoolAdebayo, A.H., Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Technology Covenant University, PMB 1023, Canaan Land, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria; Ogundare, O.C., Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Technology Covenant University, PMB 1023, Canaan Land, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria, Biochemistry Unit, Department of Science and Laboratory Technology, School of Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic Ikorodu, PMB, 21606, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria; Adegbite, O.S., Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Technology Covenant University, PMB 1023, Canaan Land, Ota, Ogun State, NigeriaThe study was aimed at investigating the sub-acute evaluation of the extract of Syzygium malaccense in albino rats. Five groups of eight rats per group were orally administered with graded 50, 100, 250 and 500 mg kgG1 b.wt. doses of the extract for 28 days. Blood samples of the sacrificed rats were collected for biochemical and haematological studies while liver and kidney tissues were used for histopathological assessment. The results showed an LD50 of 1224.75 mg kgG1 b.wt. with no significant (p>0.05) changes in weight of organs tested. Biochemical parameters such as AST, ALP, protein and albumin levels in all the treated animals did not change significantly, however, there was significant (p<0.05) change in the activity of ALT as well as haematological parameters such as RBC, WBC, HGB, platelet counts, MCV and MCH when compared with the control group. The results from histopathology showed an inflammation of the liver cells at doses beyond 100 mg kgG1 b.wt. but there was no significant damage to the kidney tissue. It may be concluded that the extract of S. malaccense possesses the tendency of affecting the haematopoietic elements and may also alter the structural integrity of the liver tissue if ingested at higher doses. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc.Biochemical parameters; Haematological indices; Histopathology; Myrtaceae; Syzygium malaccensealbumin; alkaline phosphatase; aspartate aminotransferase; hemoglobin; plant extract; protein; Syzygium malaccense extract; unclassified drug; animal experiment; animal tissue; Article; blood sampling; controlled study; drug safety; enzyme activity; erythrocyte count; hepatitis; histopathology; LD50; leukocyte count; liver cell; mean corpuscular hemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume; nonhuman; organ weight; phytochemistry; rat; Syzygium; Syzygium malaccense; thrombocyte count; toxicity testing; Animalia; Myrtaceae; Rattus; Syzygium malaccenseNone
NoneNoneImpact of promoting longer-lasting insecticide treatment of bed nets upon malaria transmission in a rural Tanzanian setting with pre-existing high coverage of untreated netsRussell T.L., Lwetoijera D.W., Maliti D., Chipwaza B., Kihonda J., Charlwood J.D., Smith T.A., Lengeler C., Mwanyangala M.A., Nathan R., Knols B.G., Takken W., Killeen G.F.2010Malaria Journal9110.1186/1475-2875-9-187Biomedical and Environmental Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O. Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania; Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, United Kingdom; Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, United Kingdom; Department of Zoology and Marine Biology, University of Dar Es Salaam, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; DBL Centre for Health Research and Development, 57 Thorvaldensvej, Fredriksberg -C, DK 1870, Denmark; Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, Socinstrasse 57, Basel, CH 4002, Switzerland; Division of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine and AIDS Academic Medical Center, F4-217, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8031, 6700 EH, Wageningen, NetherlandsRussell, T.L., Biomedical and Environmental Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O. Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania, Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, United Kingdom, Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, United Kingdom; Lwetoijera, D.W., Biomedical and Environmental Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O. Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania, Department of Zoology and Marine Biology, University of Dar Es Salaam, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Maliti, D., Biomedical and Environmental Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O. Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania, Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, United Kingdom; Chipwaza, B., Biomedical and Environmental Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O. Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania; Kihonda, J., Biomedical and Environmental Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O. Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania; Charlwood, J.D., DBL Centre for Health Research and Development, 57 Thorvaldensvej, Fredriksberg -C, DK 1870, Denmark; Smith, T.A., Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, Socinstrasse 57, Basel, CH 4002, Switzerland; Lengeler, C., Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, Socinstrasse 57, Basel, CH 4002, Switzerland; Mwanyangala, M.A., Biomedical and Environmental Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O. Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania; Nathan, R., Biomedical and Environmental Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O. Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania; Knols, B.G., Division of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine and AIDS Academic Medical Center, F4-217, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Takken, W., Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8031, 6700 EH, Wageningen, Netherlands; Killeen, G.F., Biomedical and Environmental Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O. Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania, Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, United Kingdom, Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, United Kingdom, Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, Socinstrasse 57, Basel, CH 4002, SwitzerlandBackground. The communities of Namawala and Idete villages in southern Tanzania experienced extremely high malaria transmission in the 1990s. By 2001-03, following high usage rates (75% of all age groups) of untreated bed nets, a 4.2-fold reduction in malaria transmission intensity was achieved. Since 2006, a national-scale programme has promoted the use of longer-lasting insecticide treatment kits (consisting of an insecticide plus binder) co-packaged with all bed nets manufactured in the country. Methods. The entomological inoculation rate (EIR) was estimated through monthly surveys in 72 houses randomly selected in each of the two villages. Mosquitoes were caught using CDC light traps placed beside occupied bed nets between January and December 2008 (n = 1,648 trap nights). Sub-samples of mosquitoes were taken from each trap to determine parity status, sporozoite infection and Anopheles gambiae complex sibling species identity. Results. Compared with a historical mean EIR of ∼1400 infectious bites/person/year (ib/p/y) in 1990-94; the 2008 estimate of 81 ib/p/y represents an 18-fold reduction for an unprotected person without a net. The combined impact of longer-lasting insecticide treatments as well as high bed net coverage was associated with a 4.6-fold reduction in EIR, on top of the impact from the use of untreated nets alone. The scale-up of bed nets and subsequent insecticidal treatment has reduced the density of the anthropophagic, endophagic primary vector species, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, by 79%. In contrast, the reduction in density of the zoophagic, exophagic sibling species Anopheles arabiensis was only 38%. Conclusion. Insecticide treatment of nets reduced the intensity of malaria transmission in addition to that achieved by the untreated nets alone. Impacts were most pronounced against the highly anthropophagic, endophagic primary vector, leading to a shift in the sibling species composition of the A. gambiae complex. © 2010 Russell et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Noneinsecticide; Anopheles arabiensis; Anopheles gambiae; article; bed net; controlled study; Culex; female; household; human; inoculation; insect bite; malaria; mosquito; nonhuman; parity; scale up; sibling; species composition; species identification; sporozoite; Tanzania; animal; Anopheles; classification; demography; disease transmission; feeding behavior; malaria; methodology; mosquito; parasitology; retrospective study; rural population; time; zoology; Animals; Anopheles; Entomology; Feeding Behavior; Humans; Insect Bites and Stings; Insecticide-Treated Bednets; Insecticides; Malaria; Mosquito Control; Residence Characteristics; Retrospective Studies; Rural Population; Tanzania; Time FactorsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-68949084939Performance of diverse rice genotypes based on seed-set in interspecific hybrid production: Implications for plant breedersEfisue A., Ubi B., Tongoona P., Derera J., Laing M.2008Journal of New Seeds9210.1080/15228860802086265Biotechnology Research Development Centre, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B. 053, Abakaliki, Nigeria; African Centre for Crop Improvement, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaEfisue, A., Biotechnology Research Development Centre, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B. 053, Abakaliki, Nigeria; Ubi, B., Biotechnology Research Development Centre, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B. 053, Abakaliki, Nigeria; Tongoona, P., African Centre for Crop Improvement, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Derera, J., African Centre for Crop Improvement, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Laing, M., African Centre for Crop Improvement, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaInterspecific hybridization is an important technique used in improving rice populations by combining desired traits from different species. However, this could be difficult due to barriers to interspecific hybridization. The objective of this study was to determine the performance of different rice species based on seed set in an interspecific hybridization program. Five Oryza glaberrima genotypes and four interspecific inbred lines were used as female (seed) parents and two improved O. sativa and two interspecific inbred lines (NERICA 2 and NERICA 3) as male (pollen) parents to generate 36 cross combinations representing the North Carolina Design II mating scheme. Four groups of crosses were made: group A (O. glaberrima O. sativa), group B (O. glaberrima Interspecific), group C (Interspecific O. sativa) and group D (Interspecific Interspecific). Groups A and B had seed-set levels of about 10%. Group D had the highest seed-set level, with a mean of 19%. The least seed-set was for group C (6% seed-set). Overall, the study indicated a serious challenge in making interspecific hybrids, because only 11% of 8031 pollinations were successful in setting seed, compared with 45% within O. glaberrima and 70% within O. sativa crosses under similar conditions. Higher sterility was observed in backcrosses involving the O. glaberrima cytoplasm as compared with single crosses. The backcrosses involving O. glaberrima cytoplasm were completely sterile with no seed-set except with the CG 14 cytoplasm.Genotypes; Interspecific hybrids; Oryza; Pollination; Seed set; SterilityOryza; Oryza glaberrima; Oryza sativaNone
WoSWOS:000332851300011Impact of Domestic Care Environment on Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Orphans in Western KenyaAtwoli, Lukoye,Ayaya, Samuel,Ayuku, David,Braitstein, Paula,Hogan, Joseph,Koech, Julius,Vreeman, Rachel Christine2014PLOS ONE9310.1371/journal.pone.0089937Brown University, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indiana University System, Moi University, Regenstrief Institute Inc, United States Agency for International Development (USAID), University of Toronto, USAID Acad Model Providing Access Healthcare AMPA"Atwoli, Lukoye: Moi University","Ayaya, Samuel: Moi University","Ayuku, David: Moi University","Koech, Julius: United States Agency for International Development (USAID)",Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the domestic care environment on the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among orphaned and separated children in Uasin Gishu County, western Kenya. Methods: A total of 1565 (55.5% male) orphaned and separated adolescents aged 10-18 years (mean 13.8 years, sd 2.2), were assessed for PTSD and PTEs including bullying, physical abuse and sexual abuse. In this sample, 746 lived in extended family households, 746 in Charitable Children's Institutions (CCIs), and 73 on the street. Posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) scores and PTSD were assessed using the Child PTSD Checklist. Results: Bullying was the commonest PTE in all domestic care environments, followed by physical and sexual abuse. All PTEs were commonest among the street youth followed by CCIs. However, sexual abuse was more prevalent in households than in CCIs. Prevalence of PTSD was highest among street youth (28.8%), then households (15.0%) and CCIs (11.5%). PTSS scores were also highest among street youth, followed by CCIs and households. Bullying was associated with higher PTSS scores and PTSD odds than either sexual or physical abuse. Conclusion: This study demonstrated differences in distribution of trauma and PTSD among orphaned and separated children in different domestic care environments, with street youth suffering more than those in CCIs or households. Interventions are needed to address bullying and sexual abuse, especially in extended family households. Street youth, a heretofore neglected population, are urgently in need of dedicated mental health services and support.,ADOLESCENTS,AGGRESSION,CHILDREN,FOSTER,HEALTH,HOMELESS,SOUTH-AFRICA,"SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA",VICTIMIZATION,VIOLENCENoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-67649118525Competitive strategy, environmental characteristics and performance in African emerging economies: Lessons from firms in GhanaAcquaah M., Adjei M.C., Mensa-Bonsu I.F.2008Journal of African Business9110.1080/15228910802052732Bryan School of Business and Economics, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, P.O. Box 26165, Greensboro, NC 27402, United States; Community Water and Sanitation Agency, Sunyani, Ghana; Department of Planning, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, GhanaAcquaah, M., Bryan School of Business and Economics, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, P.O. Box 26165, Greensboro, NC 27402, United States; Adjei, M.C., Community Water and Sanitation Agency, Sunyani, Ghana; Mensa-Bonsu, I.F., Department of Planning, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, GhanaThis paper examines the impact of the implementation of competitive strategy on organizational performance in response to economic liberalization policies using survey data from organizations in Ghana. We also examine how the perceived intensity of industry competition and industry sector moderate the relationship between competitive strategy and organizational performance. The results show that the implementation of the competitive strategies of low-cost, differentiation, and integrated low-cost and differentiation were all positively related to performance (return on assets and return on sales). We also find that both industry competition and industry sector moderate the relationship between differentiation strategy and return on assets. Moreover, industry competition moderates the relationships between both low-cost and differentiation strategies and return on sales. The results indicate that implementing a clearly defined competitive strategy is beneficial to organizations experiencing significant changes in the environment due to economic liberalization. The findings also suggest that while low-cost strategy is more beneficial to organizations in a highly competitive industry, differentiation strategy is more beneficial to firms in lowly competitive industry. At the same time, organizations in the manufacturing sector benefit more than those in the service sector when they implement the differentiation strategy. Managerial implications are presented. © 2008 by The Haworth Press. All rights reserved.African emerging economies; Competitive strategy; Economic liberalization; Industry competition; Industry sector; Organizational performancecorporate strategy; economic policy; implementation process; industrial competition; industrial performance; industrial structure; manufacturing; Africa; Ghana; Sub-Saharan Africa; West AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-13844272012Practical process for the air oxidation of cresols: Part B. evaluation of the laboratory-scale oxidation processBarton B., Logie C.G., Schoonees B.M., Zeelie B.2005Organic Process Research and Development9110.1021/op049844jCatalysis Research Unit, Faculty of Applied Science, Port Elizabeth Technikon, Private Bag X6011, Port Elizabeth 6000, South AfricaBarton, B., Catalysis Research Unit, Faculty of Applied Science, Port Elizabeth Technikon, Private Bag X6011, Port Elizabeth 6000, South Africa; Logie, C.G., Catalysis Research Unit, Faculty of Applied Science, Port Elizabeth Technikon, Private Bag X6011, Port Elizabeth 6000, South Africa; Schoonees, B.M., Catalysis Research Unit, Faculty of Applied Science, Port Elizabeth Technikon, Private Bag X6011, Port Elizabeth 6000, South Africa; Zeelie, B., Catalysis Research Unit, Faculty of Applied Science, Port Elizabeth Technikon, Private Bag X6011, Port Elizabeth 6000, South AfricaMechanistic proposals and predictions made in a preceding paper (Part A) were evaluated by carrying out the catalytic air oxidation of p-cresol in an alternative solvent system, comprising either a mixture of ethylene glycol and acetic acid (for oxidations under acidic conditions) or ethylene glycol and water (for oxidations under basic conditions). The results obtained in these experiments confirmed that ethylene glycol acts as a nucleophile in these solvent systems, thereby stabilizing the quinomethide intermediate and resulting in highly efficient oxidations in both alkaline and acidic media. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde, the desired product, was thus obtained in isolated yields of up to 98% and purities >99%. The inherent draw-backs associated with alkaline methanol and aqueous acetic acid solutions were thus circumvented, and the result is a highly efficient process for the production of 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde.Noneacetic acid; cresol; ethylene glycol; quinone derivative; water; acidity; alkalinity; article; catalysis; chemical reaction; molecular mechanics; molecular stability; oxidation kinetics; prediction; reaction analysis; scale upNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78650974117Evaluation of the lubricating properties of palm oilMusa J.J.2010Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies917NoneDepartment of Agriculture and Bio-Resource Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P M B 65, Minna, NigeriaMusa, J.J., Department of Agriculture and Bio-Resource Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P M B 65, Minna, NigeriaThere has been an increase in effort to reduce the reliance on petroleum fuels for energy generation and transportation throughout the world. Among the proposed alternative fuels is biodiesel. Over the years, a little attention was paid to the industrial use of palm oil. Laboratory tests such as viscosity, fire point, flash point, pour point and densities were conducted on raw palm oil and bleached palm oil using standard procedures. The flash points of palm oil and the bleached sample are 250 and 301°C while their fire points are 260 and 308°C while the flash and fire points of the SAE 40 and SAE 30 are 260/300(°C) and 243/290(°C) respectively. It was discovered that palm oil has a better prospect as lubricating oil if necessary improvements are made. © 2010 by the authors.Additives; Bleaching; Density; Fire point; Flash point; Pour point; ViscosityNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-15344344089Sex-specific performance of routine TB diagnostic testsKivihya-Ndugga L.E.A., Van Cleeff M.R.A., Ng'ang'a L.W., Meme H., Odhiambo J.A., Klatser P.R.2005International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease93NoneCenter for Respiratory Diseases, Kenya Med. Res. Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Biomedical Research, Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Amsterdam, Netherlands; Centers for Dis. Contr. and Prev., Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Biomedical Research, Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Meibergdreef 39, Amsterdam, NetherlandsKivihya-Ndugga, L.E.A., Center for Respiratory Diseases, Kenya Med. Res. Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi, Kenya; Van Cleeff, M.R.A., Department of Biomedical Research, Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Amsterdam, Netherlands; Ng'ang'a, L.W., Center for Respiratory Diseases, Kenya Med. Res. Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi, Kenya, Centers for Dis. Contr. and Prev., Nairobi, Kenya; Meme, H., Center for Respiratory Diseases, Kenya Med. Res. Insti