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Scopus2-s2.0-84879869114β-lactam-synthon-interceded synthesis of isatin-imidazolidine-2-thione conjugates with structural validation using molecular dynamic simulations and cytotoxic evaluationNisha, Singh P., Hendricks D., Bisetty K., Kumar V.2013Synlett241410.1055/s-0033-1339315Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, India; Department of Chemistry, Durban University of Technology, Durban 4000, South Africa; Division of Medical Biochemistry, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, South AfricaNisha, Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, India; Singh, P., Department of Chemistry, Durban University of Technology, Durban 4000, South Africa; Hendricks, D., Division of Medical Biochemistry, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, South Africa; Bisetty, K., Department of Chemistry, Durban University of Technology, Durban 4000, South Africa; Kumar, V., Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, Indiaβ-Lactam-synthon-interceded synthesis of isatin-imidazolidine-2-thione conjugates was carried out via base-assisted intermolecular amidolysis of 3-isothiocyanato-2-azetidinones with C-5 substituted isatins. The observed enolization in the assigned structure of the conjugates was validated using molecular dynamic (MD) simulations performed under explicit solvent conditions. The synthesized scaffolds were also evaluated for their cytotoxic profiles against the oesophageal cancer cell line WHCO1. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.β-lactam synthon; cytotoxicity; imidazolidine-2-thione; intermolecular amidolysis; molecular dynamic simulations2 azetidinone derivative; 3 isothiocyanato 2 azetidinone derivative; beta lactam derivative; beta lapachone; cytotoxic agent; imidazolidine derivative; isatin derivative; isatin imidazolidine 2 thione conjugate; lapachol; solvent; unclassified drug; amidolysis; article; cancer cell; chemical reaction; conjugation; controlled study; drug cytotoxicity; drug structure; drug synthesis; enolization; IC 50; molecular dynamicsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84869142384β-Lactam synthon-interceded diastereoselective synthesis of functionalized octahydroindole-based molecular scaffolds and their in vitro cytotoxic evaluationSingh P., Raj R., Bhargava G., Hendricks D.T., Handa S., Slaughter L.M., Kumar V.2012European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry58None10.1016/j.ejmech.2012.10.049Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, India; Department of Chemistry, Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala 144601, India; Division of Medical Biochemistry, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, South Africa; Department of Chemistry, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, United StatesSingh, P., Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, India; Raj, R., Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, India; Bhargava, G., Department of Chemistry, Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala 144601, India; Hendricks, D.T., Division of Medical Biochemistry, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, South Africa; Handa, S., Department of Chemistry, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, United States; Slaughter, L.M., Department of Chemistry, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, United States; Kumar, V., Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, IndiaA convenient and unprecedented synthesis of functionally enriched octahydroindole-based scaffolds has been developed via inter- and intra-molecular amidolysis of C-3 functionalized β-lactams. The cytotoxic evaluation on oesophageal cancer cell line WHCO1 has revealed 7d as the most potent of the test compounds exhibiting an IC50 value of 12.97 μM. The developed strategy further assumes significance as it entails the preparation of highly functionalized indoles without the aid of transition metal catalysis or pre-functionalization of substrates. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.β-Lactam synthon protocol; Cytotoxicity; Diastereoselectivity; Iodocyclization; Octahydroindoles1 ( 4 chlorophenyl) 7 iodo 2 ( 4 methoxyphenyl)octahydroindole 3,4 dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester; 1 ( 4 chlorophenyl) 7 iodo 2 phenyloctahydroindole 3,4 dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester; 1,2 bis( 4 chlorophenyl) 7 iodooctahydroindole 3,4 dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester; 2 ( 4 chlorophenyl) 7 iodo 1 phenyloctahydroindole 3,4 dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester; 7 iodo 1,2 diphenyloctahydroindole 3,4 dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester; 7 iodo 2 ( 4 methoxyphenyl) 1 phenyloctahydroindole 3,4 dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester; 7 iodo 2 ( 4 methoxyphenyl) 1,4 tolyloctahydroindole 3,4 dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester; 7 iodo 2 phenyl 1,4 tolyloctahydroindole 3,4 dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester; antineoplastic agent; beta lactam derivative; indole derivative; metal; molecular scaffold; octahydroindole; octahydropyrrolo[4,3,2 de]isoquinoline 3,5 dione; synthon; unclassified drug; antineoplastic activity; article; cancer cell culture; catalysis; controlled study; cytotoxicity; diastereoisomer; drug potency; esophagus cancer; human; human cell; IC 50; in vitro study; one pot synthesis; phase transition; stereochemistry; Antineoplastic Agents; beta-Lactams; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Proliferation; Crystallography, X-Ray; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Humans; Indoles; Models, Molecular; Molecular Conformation; Stereoisomerism; Structure-Activity RelationshipNone
Scopus2-s2.0-57749118625Zircon U-Pb strain chronometry reveals deep impact-triggered flowMoser D.E., Davis W.J., Reddy S.M., Flemming R.L., Hart R.J.2009Earth and Planetary Science Letters2774237110.1016/j.epsl.2008.09.036Department of Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont. N6A 5B7, Canada; Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth St, Ottawa, K1A 0E8, Canada; Department of Applied Geology, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia; iThemba labs, P. Bag 11, Wits 2050 Johannesburg, South AfricaMoser, D.E., Department of Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont. N6A 5B7, Canada; Davis, W.J., Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth St, Ottawa, K1A 0E8, Canada; Reddy, S.M., Department of Applied Geology, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia; Flemming, R.L., Department of Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont. N6A 5B7, Canada; Hart, R.J., iThemba labs, P. Bag 11, Wits 2050 Johannesburg, South AfricaLarge (> 100 km) meteorite impact cratering events play important roles in surface and biosphere evolution, however, their potential for widespread ductile modification of the lithosphere has been difficult to assess, due partly to our inability to isotopically age-correlate deep mineral fabrics with surface records. We have integrated benchmark U-Pb zircon dating methods (ID-TIMS, SHRIMP) with new microstructural techniques (EBSD, μXRD) to demonstrate that crystal-plastic deformation can cause rapid out-diffusion of radiogenic Pb and accompanying trace element alteration in crystalline zircon. We have used this phenomenon to directly date fabric in Archean zircons and xenoliths of the lower crust of South Africa at 2023 ± 15 million years, coeval with the 2020 ± 3 million year old Vredefort cratering event at surface, with extent ≥ 20,000 km 2. Our findings indicate that regional exogenic fabrics, similar to high-temperature tectonic fabrics, exist in ancient crust. Moreover, our results establish that crystal-plastic deformation in the lithosphere can now be directly dated and linked to planetary evolution by zircon U-Pb strain chronometry. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.deformation; EBSD; geochronology; impact; planetary; tectonics; U-Pb dating; zirconArchean; Deep impacts; EBSD; High temperatures; impact; Lower crusts; Meteorite impacts; Microstructural; Mineral fabrics; planetary; Planetary evolutions; South Africa; Tectonic fabrics; U-Pb dating; Zircon dating; Chemical elements; Deformation; Electron diffraction; Fabrics; Geomorphology; Lead; Lead alloys; Meteor impacts; Minerals; Plastic deformation; Silica; Silicate minerals; Tectonics; Trace elements; Zircon; Geochronology; crater; deformation; geochronology; high temperature; planetary evolution; SHRIMP dating; tectonics; trigger mechanism; uranium-lead dating; zirconNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77649134931Zimbabwean urban grooves and their subversive performance practicesManase I.2009Social Dynamics35110.1080/02533950802666923Department of English, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South AfricaManase, I., Department of English, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South AfricaThis paper examines the role played by popular culture in response to the effects of the unfolding social and political repression on the ordinary Zimbabwean after 2000. The arts is one sector where the Zimbabwean government fostered its repressive hegemony. An urban youth music genre called 'urban grooves' rose to prominence during the period under focus here and some of the artists colluded with the government in propagating an anti-Western imperialism campaign. This paper evaluates the nature of the genre's performance practices and its role in the government's anti-Western imperialism campaign. It also discusses the complexities associated with notions of complicity and resistance as urban grooves artists resisted both Western hegemony, as per the government's campaign, and subverted the same government's censorship of the urban youth's and the general society's imaginary and other freedoms.Anti-western cultural imperialism; Complicity; Popular culture; Subversion; Zimbabwean urban groovesNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33748902768Zimbabwean mine dumps and their impacts on river water quality - a reconnaissance studyMeck M., Love D., Mapani B.2006Physics and Chemistry of the Earth31None10.1016/j.pce.2006.08.029Department of Geology, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mt . Pleasant Harare,, Zimbabwe; WaterNet, P.O. Box MP600, Mt . Pleasant Harare,, Zimbabwe; Geology Department, University of Namibia, P. Bag 13301, Windhoek, NamibiaMeck, M., Department of Geology, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mt . Pleasant Harare,, Zimbabwe; Love, D., Department of Geology, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mt . Pleasant Harare,, Zimbabwe, WaterNet, P.O. Box MP600, Mt . Pleasant Harare,, Zimbabwe; Mapani, B., Geology Department, University of Namibia, P. Bag 13301, Windhoek, NamibiaZimbabwe has a substantial number of mines and 67 minerals have been mined in the country since 1900 but at present only 30 different minerals are being mined. Exploitation of a variety of ores, in rocks of diverse composition, provides the potential for a range of pollution problems. The severity and extent of contamination differs with the type of minerals mined. This paper presents part of the results of a broad study, carried out across Zimbabwe, which assessed the potential of different mine tailings dumps to cause environmental problems. The dumps considered in the study were divided into six dump types, namely: gold-mine dumps, base-metal mine dumps (dumps associated with the mining of nickel, zinc, copper and lead), minor-metals mine dumps (dumps associated with mining of antimony, arsenic, and selenium), platinum-group metal mine dumps, chromite and asbestos mine dumps, and sulphur (pyrite) mine dumps. The elemental chemistry of the dumps and physical characteristics (pH, total dissolved solids) of the dumps, tailings' leachates, and stream waters around the dumps were used to assess the potential of the dumps to pollute water bodies. Samples were collected in both the dry and wet seasons. The dispersion and pollution patterns were derived from Eh-pH conditions around the dumps after considering the mobility of the elements present in these dumps under different Eh-pH conditions. In this paper potential to pollute is considered as the likelihood of the elements to disperse under the prevailing conditions at the dump. The concentrations of elements, type of elements and the potential dispersion and pollution patterns from each dump were used to characterise potential risk of water pollution associated with the different dump types. The results showed a slight increase in concentrations of most elements studied in downstream waters compared to upstream waters. The dump conditions varied from acidic to alkaline, and so the elements studied have different mobilities in different dumps. The elements that pose environmental risks differed from one dump type to another thus different dumps have different potentials to pollute the water bodies. From the study it emerged that the minor metals dumps show the worst pollution risk, followed by base metal dumps, gold-mine dumps, platinum group metals mine dumps, chromite asbestos mine dumps and sulphur mine dumps. The pH values of 79% of the waters sampled in streams both before and after the dumps were neutral, though the pH values of the leachates themselves was frequently very acidic (pH < 4). The low pH levels in leachate are associated with elevated metal and metalloid concentrations in the leachate and in adjacent streams. From this study, a decrease in stream water pH is only expected when there is severe contamination. However, most streams were sampled near the dumps, and results from such samples would not represent entire stream profiles. The general trend from the results is that pH increases downstream as the leachate and run-off from a dump are diluted. Although concentrations of elements are affected the pH for streams did not show significant changes as near the dumps the overall pH of the stream water was not affected. The dumps rarely dry up, and leachate continues to seep from dumps throughout the year, suggesting that AMD is a continuous process. © 2006.Environmental geochemistry; Mine drainage; Mine dumps; Waste management; Water pollution; Water qualityContamination; Environmental impact; Mining; Precious metals; Rivers; Waste management; Water pollution; Water quality; Environmental geochemistry; Gold-mine dumps; Platinum group metals mine dumps; River water quality; Water analysis; environmental impact; environmental impact assessment; mine drainage; mine waste; pollution effect; river water; tailings dam; waste management; water pollution; water quality; Africa; Southern Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; ZimbabweNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33645658721Yield performance and release of four late blight tolerant potato varieties in KenyaLung'aho C., Nderitu S.K.N., Kabira J.N., El-Bedewy R., Olanya O.M., Walingo A.2006Journal of Agronomy5110.3923/ja.2006.57.61National Potato Research Center, P.O. Box 338, Limuru, Kenya; Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 25, Kafr El-Zayat, Egypt; USDA-ARS, New England Plant Soil and Water Laboratory, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, United StatesLung'aho, C., National Potato Research Center, P.O. Box 338, Limuru, Kenya; Nderitu, S.K.N., National Potato Research Center, P.O. Box 338, Limuru, Kenya; Kabira, J.N., National Potato Research Center, P.O. Box 338, Limuru, Kenya; El-Bedewy, R., Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 25, Kafr El-Zayat, Egypt; Olanya, O.M., USDA-ARS, New England Plant Soil and Water Laboratory, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, United States; Walingo, A., National Potato Research Center, P.O. Box 338, Limuru, KenyaTo improve yield potential, potato varieties Kenya Faulu, Kenya Karibu, Kenya Mavuno and Kenya Sifa have been approved for variety release by the Kenya Variety Release Committee. The varieties are medium late to late maturing, high yielding with good tuber and culinary characteristics. The released varieties were selections from advanced potato clones KP90142.7, KP90172.34 and KP91301.10 derived from Population A (high levels of late blight resistance) in which materials for original crosses were obtained from the International Potato Center (CIP). The clone 720097.1 is a derivative of ex-Mexican origin, obtained from germplasm collections at CIP. In multi-location experiments conducted in various agro-ecological regions of Kenya, tuber yield of the newly released varieties were significantly greater than the resistant check variety Tigoni, as well as the other clones evaluated. The released varieties had good agronomic characteristics, high late blight tolerance and acceptable culinary properties. Deployment and utilization of the newly released varieties can greatly improve yield performance in the low input farming systems of Kenyan highlands. © 2006 Asian Network for Scientific Information.Kenya; Late blight tolerance; Potato; Solanum tuberosum; Utilization; Variety releaseSolanum tuberosumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33748694684Yield performance and land-use efficiency of barley and faba bean mixed cropping in Ethiopian highlandsAgegnehu G., Ghizaw A., Sinebo W.2006European Journal of Agronomy25310.1016/j.eja.2006.05.002Holetta Research Centre, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Agronomy and Crop Physiology, P.O. Box 2003, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaAgegnehu, G., Holetta Research Centre, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Agronomy and Crop Physiology, P.O. Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Ghizaw, A., Holetta Research Centre, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Agronomy and Crop Physiology, P.O. Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Sinebo, W., Holetta Research Centre, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Agronomy and Crop Physiology, P.O. Box 2003, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaMixed intercropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with faba bean (Vicia faba L.) was compared with sole cropping for three growing seasons (2001-2003) at Holetta Agricultural Research Centre, in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The treatments were sole barley (125 kg ha-1), sole faba bean (200 kg ha-1) and an additive series of 12.5, 25, 37.5, 50 and 62.5% of the sole seed rate of faba bean mixed with full barley seed rate. A randomised complete block design replicated four times was used. Mixed cropping and year effects were significant for seed and biomass yields of each crop species. Barley yield was reduced by mixed cropping only when the seed rate of faba bean exceeded 50 kg ha-1 or 25% of the sole seed rate. There was no mixed cropping by year interaction effect for barley grain yield but for faba bean seed yield. Total yield, barley yield equivalent, land equivalent ratio (LER) and system productivity index (SPI) of mixtures exceeded those of sole crops especially when faba bean seed rate in the mixture was increased to 75 kg ha-1 (37.5%) or more. The highest barley yield equivalent, SPI, crowding coefficient and LER were obtained when faba bean was mixed at a rate of 37.5% with full seed rate of barley. From this study, it is inferred that mixed intercropping of faba bean in normal barley culture at a density not less than 37.5% of the sole faba bean density may give better overall yield and income than sole culture of each crop species. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Aggressivity; Barley; Crowding coefficient; Faba bean; Intercropping; Land equivalent ratio; Mixed croppingbarley; comparative study; intercropping; land use; legume; mixed farming; Africa; East Africa; Ethiopia; Sub-Saharan Africa; Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare; Vicia fabaNone
NoneNoneYield performance and adaptation of four sorghum cultivars in Igunga and Nzega districts of TanzaniaBucheyeki T.L., Shenkalwa E.M., Mapunda T.X., Matata L.W.2010Communications in Biometry and Crop Science51NoneUniversity of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; Tumbi Agricultural Research and Development Institute, P.O. Box 306, Tabora, TanzaniaBucheyeki, T.L., University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; Shenkalwa, E.M., Tumbi Agricultural Research and Development Institute, P.O. Box 306, Tabora, Tanzania; Mapunda, T.X., Tumbi Agricultural Research and Development Institute, P.O. Box 306, Tabora, Tanzania; Matata, L.W., Tumbi Agricultural Research and Development Institute, P.O. Box 306, Tabora, TanzaniaSorghum plays a significant role for the smallholder farmers of Tanzania. It is the chief source of food and income for majority of Tanzanians but yields are low and crop management lacking leading to smallholder food and income insecurity. An experiment was conducted in the Nzega and Igunga districts of Tabora to compare improved cultivars Tegemeo, Pato and Macia to the commonly used landrace Wilu for adaptation and yield, assess farmers' preferences, and assess the economic potential of improved sorghum cultivars. Cultivar performance was measured for three seasons in a randomized complete block design with three replications per location. Tegemeo out-yielded other cultivars and had high average yields (2580 kg ha -1). Wilu had the lowest yield (1460 kg ha -1) but had consistent yields across environments. Ninety farmers developed seven criteria for cultivars assessments. Results of the farmers' rankings indicated Tegemeo was the best cultivar and recommended it be grown in the area. An economic analysis indicated the potential of doubling sorghum grain yield from 1000 to 2000 kg ha -1 and income from 525,600 to 928,800 TSh ha -1. The combined statistical, farmers assessment and economic analysis showed changing order of importance of some cultivars which draws attention to breeders and policy makers on the importance of farmer's indigenous technical knowledge acknowledgement and participatory plant breeding in cultivars selection. © CBCS 2010.Adaptation; Economic analysis; Farmer's assessment; Sorghum bicolour; YieldNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79251638823Yield evaluation of three early maturing bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) Landraces at the CSIR-Crops Research Institute, Fumesua-Kumasi, GhanaBerchie J.N., Sarkodie-Addo J., Adu-Dapaah H., Agyemang A., Addy S., Asare E., Donkor J.2010Journal of Agronomy9410.3923/ja.2010.175.179CSIR-Crops Research Institute, P.O. Box 3785, Kumasi, Ghana; Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, GhanaBerchie, J.N., CSIR-Crops Research Institute, P.O. Box 3785, Kumasi, Ghana; Sarkodie-Addo, J., Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; Adu-Dapaah, H., CSIR-Crops Research Institute, P.O. Box 3785, Kumasi, Ghana; Agyemang, A., CSIR-Crops Research Institute, P.O. Box 3785, Kumasi, Ghana; Addy, S., CSIR-Crops Research Institute, P.O. Box 3785, Kumasi, Ghana; Asare, E., Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; Donkor, J., CSIR-Crops Research Institute, P.O. Box 3785, Kumasi, GhanaThe aim of this study was to determine the field performance of three early maturing bambara groundnut landraces which were identified in a controlled environment study by the lead author at the University of Guelph, Guelph-Ontario, Canada between October 2008 and March, 2009. Bambara groundnut is an indigenous African grain legume which is cultivated for food especially in the dry areas with short and erratic rainfall. Three bambara groundnut landraces; Burkina, Zebra coloured and Mottled Cream were evaluated for yield at the CSIR-Crops Research Institute, Kumasi-Ghana. The trial was sown on the 1st of April, 2009. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Plants were sown at a spacing of 50 by 20 cm at two seeds per hill and thinned to one seedling per hill at 20 DAS. Zebra coloured took the least number of days to mature (89.5 days) followed by Mottled Cream (98.2 days) and Burkina (112.5 days). Zebra coloured produced the greatest pod yield per plant (23.6 g) followed by Burkina (17.7 g) and Mottled Cream (12.5 g). The base colour of the three landraces which is cream has been identified to be the preference of bambara groundnut growers and consumers. In areas with erratic rainfall and the lower latitudes where long daylength can negatively affect bambara groundnut yields, these early maturing landraces have the potential to reduce variation in bambara groundnut yields.Bambara groundnut; Early maturing; Evaluation; Pod yield; YieldArachis hypogaea; Bambara; Equus subg. Hippotigris; Vigna subterraneaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84860466986Yield and quality performance of sesame varieties as affected by potassium fertilizerOlaniyi J.O.2011Tropical Agriculture881NoneDepartment Of Agronomy, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P. M. B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaOlaniyi, J.O., Department Of Agronomy, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P. M. B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaIn view of the relative importance of Sesamum indicum, as a good source of oil and medicinal plants in Africa, the production of good quality and high yielding varieties is highly desirable. The pot experiment was conducted at Ogbomoso in the southwestern Nigeria to determine the level of K fertilizer needed for the maximum seed yield and quality of three sesame varieties. The treatments used included four levels of potassium fertilizer (0, 15, 30 and 45kg K20 ha-1) and three varieties of sesame namely; Pachequero, Panshin and C-K2. These twelve treatments were assigned into a completely randomized design fitted into a factorial experiment with three replications. The plant growth and yield attributes such as plant height, number of leaves, number of flowers, and number of seeds per pod significantly (P≤0.05) improved with increased rate of potassium fertilizer with optimum value obtained at 30kg K20 ha-1. K application significantly (P≤0.05) affected the seed yield and yield components of the three sesame varieties with optimum values obtained at 30kg K20 ha-1. The quality and nutrient elements compositions significantly increased with optimum values obtained when 30 kg K2 0 ha -1 was applied. Therefore, 30kg K20 ha-1 could be applied to sesame on the less productive soils in Ogbomoso. Although all sesame varieties used recorded better performance in this agro-ecological zone, C-K2 showed an outstanding seed yield performance with or without K fertilizer applications. However, the best variety in terms of seed quality was pachequero. © 2011 Trop. Agric. (Trinidad).Potassium fertilizer; Seed quality; Seed yield; Sesamum indicum; VarietiesSesamum indicumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84928243911Yield and performance analysis of the first grid-connected solar farm at Moshoeshoe I International Airport, LesothoMpholo M., Nchaba T., Monese M.2015Renewable Energy81None10.1016/j.renene.2015.04.001National University of Lesotho, Dept. of Physics and Electronics, Roma, Lesotho; Materials Research and Engineering Center, Univ. of Pennsylvania, 3231 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Climate System Analysis Group, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa; Moshoeshoe I International Airport, PO Box 629, Maseru, LesothoMpholo, M., National University of Lesotho, Dept. of Physics and Electronics, Roma, Lesotho, Materials Research and Engineering Center, Univ. of Pennsylvania, 3231 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Nchaba, T., Materials Research and Engineering Center, Univ. of Pennsylvania, 3231 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA, United States, Climate System Analysis Group, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa; Monese, M., Moshoeshoe I International Airport, PO Box 629, Maseru, LesothoThe performance of a newly installed 281 kW<inf>p</inf> first grid-connected photovoltaic solar farm in Lesotho is evaluated against the basic parameters stated in the International Electro-Technical Commission (IEC) Standard 61724 and a number of other studies. The performance parameters selected are those that mainly indicate the suitability of a site for solar power development. Using normalised values, a brief comparison with other farms across the globe is made to assess the relative performance of the farm. The results show that its performance is satisfactory, with a weighted performance ratio of 0.70 compared to the global average of 0.70-0.80 for sufficiently well performing farms. However, the performance could be improved with improved operational monitoring of the farm. Additional performance parameters are assessed relative to the standard and the farms in other countries, such as capture and system losses, system efficiencies, and capacity factors, are above the thresholds for satisfactory performance. Measurements at the site show a high solar energy resource in the range of 4.0-7.2kWh/m2/day. The results show that the area is suitable for grid connected photovoltaic systems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.Lesotho; Photovoltaic; Solar efficiency; Solar performance; Solar plant; Solar yieldEnergy resources; Photovoltaic cells; Solar energy; Lesotho; Photovoltaic; Solar performance; Solar plant; Solar yield; Solar power generation; energy efficiency; global climate; performance assessment; photovoltaic system; solar power; LesothoNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84873245871Yield and agronomic performance of maize hybrids resistant to the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)Tefera T., Demissie G., Mugo S., Beyene Y.2013Crop Protection46None10.1016/j.cropro.2012.12.010International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), ICRAF House, UN Avenue, Gigiri, PO Box 1041, 00621 Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Bako National Maize Research Project, Po Box 2003, Addis Abeba, EthiopiaTefera, T., International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), ICRAF House, UN Avenue, Gigiri, PO Box 1041, 00621 Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; Demissie, G., Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Bako National Maize Research Project, Po Box 2003, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia; Mugo, S., International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), ICRAF House, UN Avenue, Gigiri, PO Box 1041, 00621 Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; Beyene, Y., International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), ICRAF House, UN Avenue, Gigiri, PO Box 1041, 00621 Village Market, Nairobi, KenyaThis study evaluated improved maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) with varying level of resistance to the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, for yield and agronomic traits for two seasons. A total of 22 improved maize hybrids and three commercial standards were tested. Out of the 22 tested, two hybrids CKPH08035 (7.4-9.9 t ha-1) and CKPH08039 (7.3-9.8 t ha-1) significantly out yielded the commercial standards WH505 (8.8 t ha-1) and BH140 (5.5 t ha-1). In addition to yield, the improved hybrids also possess desirable traits including good plant height, good plant and ear aspects and good husk cover. The hybrid CKPH08004 had the lowest Dobie index of susceptibility and was regarded as resistant to S. zeamais. Weevils fed with the resistant hybrids produced low numbers of F1 generation weevils, had a high median developmental time and a low percentage of grain damage and grain weight loss. An increasing number of F1 generation resulted in an increasing grain damage and grain weight loss. We found an inverse relationship between the susceptibility index and percent mortality. However, the numbers of F1 generation, percent grain damage and grain weight loss were positively correlated with the susceptibility index. The use of resistant maize hybrids should be promoted in managing S. zeamais in stored maize under subsistence farming conditions in Africa. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.Grain yield; Host resistance; Maize; Postharvest loss; Sitophilus zeamaisagronomy; beetle; crop damage; crop yield; hybrid; index method; mortality; performance assessment; pest resistance; pest species; plant-herbivore interaction; Coleoptera; Curculionidae; Sitophilus zeamais; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84953329293Yellow Oleander Seed Oil Extraction Modeling and Process Parameters Optimization: Performance Evaluation of Artificial Neural Network and Response Surface MethodologyAjala S.O., Betiku E.2015Journal of Food Processing and Preservation39610.1111/jfpp.12366Chemical Engineering Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, OAU Campus, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaAjala, S.O., Chemical Engineering Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, OAU Campus, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria; Betiku, E., Chemical Engineering Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, OAU Campus, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaThe effects of sample weight, time and solvent type on YOSO yield were evaluated using ANN and RSM. The predicted optimal condition for the extraction process was found to be the same for the ANN and RSM models developed: sample weight of 20g, time of 3h and petroleum ether. The models predictions of YOSO yield (ANN [77.42%] and RSM [78.64%]) at optimum levels were verified experimentally (ANN [77.63%] and RSM [76.64%]). Evaluation of the models by R2 and AAD showed that the ANN model was better (R2=1.00, AAD=0.61%) than the RSM model (R2=0.98, AAD=3.19%) in predicting YOSO yield. Physicochemical properties of the YOSO indicated that it was nonedible and the fatty acids profile showed that the oil was highly unsaturated (76.13%). Practical Applications: This study demonstrated modeling of YOSO extraction and optimization of process parameters that are involved. The performance evaluation results showed that both the ANN and RSM could be used for modeling and optimization of YOSO extraction process. Also, the characterization of the oil showed that it could serve as raw material for many chemical industries such as biodiesel production, soap, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industrials. The results from this study can be successfully scaled up to pilot scale. Also, the results could be extended to the extraction of other oilseeds. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.NoneChemical industry; Fatty acids; Neural networks; Oils and fats; Unsaturated fatty acids; Biodiesel production; Extraction process; Fatty acids profiles; Modeling and optimization; Optimization of process parameters; Physicochemical property; Process parameters optimizations; Response surface methodology; ExtractionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-36148993897Yeast vitality - A holistic approach toward an integrated solution to predict yeast performanceLodolo E.J., Cantrell I.C.2007Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists65410.1094/ASBCJ-2007-0809-01SABMiller Group Brewing Research, Sandton, South Africa; SABLtd. Brewing Centre of Excellence, P.O. Box 123902, Alrode 1451, South AfricaLodolo, E.J., SABMiller Group Brewing Research, Sandton, South Africa, SABLtd. Brewing Centre of Excellence, P.O. Box 123902, Alrode 1451, South Africa; Cantrell, I.C., SABMiller Group Brewing Research, Sandton, South AfricaThe underlying philosophy behind yeast vitality tests has been reconsidered and a new holistic approach proposed to predict brewing yeast fermentation performance. In this holistic approach, special emphasis is placed on the impact of yeast physiology when combined with varying growth media. Two methods of applying this approach are described, and a "low-tech" (quartets) approach that can be applied readily in commercial breweries is recommended. © 2007 American Society of Brewing Chemists, Inc.DNA; Fermentation performance; Flow cytometry; Quartets; Vitality; YeastNoneNone
NoneNoneXpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children: A prospective, multi-centre evaluationReither K., Manyama C., Clowes P., Rachow A., Mapamba D., Steiner A., Ross A., Mfinanga E., Sasamalo M., Nsubuga M., Aloi F., Cirillo D., Jugheli L., Lwilla F.2015Journal of Infection70410.1016/j.jinf.2014.10.003Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Ifakara Health Institute, Bagamoyo, Tanzania; National Institute of Medical Research, Mbeya Medical Research Centre, Mbeya, Tanzania; Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center of The University of Munich (LMU), Germany; German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Munich, Germany; St. Francis Hospital Nsambya, AISPO, Kampala, Uganda; Emerging Bacterial Pathogens, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, ItalyReither, K., Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland, Ifakara Health Institute, Bagamoyo, Tanzania; Manyama, C., National Institute of Medical Research, Mbeya Medical Research Centre, Mbeya, Tanzania; Clowes, P., National Institute of Medical Research, Mbeya Medical Research Centre, Mbeya, Tanzania, Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center of The University of Munich (LMU), Germany; Rachow, A., Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center of The University of Munich (LMU), Germany, German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Munich, Germany; Mapamba, D., National Institute of Medical Research, Mbeya Medical Research Centre, Mbeya, Tanzania; Steiner, A., Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Ross, A., Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Mfinanga, E., Ifakara Health Institute, Bagamoyo, Tanzania; Sasamalo, M., Ifakara Health Institute, Bagamoyo, Tanzania; Nsubuga, M., St. Francis Hospital Nsambya, AISPO, Kampala, Uganda; Aloi, F., St. Francis Hospital Nsambya, AISPO, Kampala, Uganda; Cirillo, D., Emerging Bacterial Pathogens, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy; Jugheli, L., Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland, Ifakara Health Institute, Bagamoyo, Tanzania; Lwilla, F., Ifakara Health Institute, Bagamoyo, TanzaniaBackground: Following endorsement by the World Health Organisation, the Xpert MTB/RIF assay has been widely incorporated into algorithms for the diagnosis of adult tuberculosis (TB). However, data on its performance in children remain scarce. This prospective, multi-centre study evaluated the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis in children. Methods: Children older than eight weeks and younger than 16 years with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled at three TB endemic settings in Tanzania and Uganda, and assigned to five well-defined case definition categories: culture-confirmed TB, highly probable TB, probable TB, not TB, or indeterminate. The diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF was assessed using culture-confirmed TB cases as reference standard. Results: In total, 451 children were enrolled. 37 (8%) had culture-confirmed TB, 48 (11%) highly probably TB and 62 probable TB (13%). The Xpert MTB/RIF assay had a sensitivity of 68% (95% CI, 50%-82%) and specificity of 100% (95% CI, 97%-100%); detecting 1.7 times more culture-confirmed cases than smear microscopy with a similar time to detection. Xpert MTB/RIF was positive in 2% (1/48) of highly probable and in 3% (2/62) of probable TB cases. Conclusions: Xpert MTB/RIF provided timely results with moderate sensitivity and excellent specificity compared to culture. Low yields in children with highly probable and probable TB remain problematic. © 2014 The British Infection Association.Childhood tuberculosis; Diagnostics; Evaluation; Pulmonary tuberculosis; Xpert MTB/RIFadolescent; Article; child; clinical trial; diagnostic accuracy; diagnostic test accuracy study; diagnostic value; female; follow up; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; immunoassay; infant; lung tuberculosis; major clinical study; male; multicenter study; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; newborn; predictive value; prospective study; sensitivity and specificity; standard; Tanzania; Uganda; Xpert MTB RIF assay; adult; algorithm; evaluation study; microbiology; microscopy; polymerase chain reaction; preschool child; procedures; sputum; Tuberculosis, Pulmonary; world health organization; Adolescent; Adult; Algorithms; Child; Child, Preschool; Humans; Infant; Microscopy; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Prospective Studies; Sensitivity and Specificity; Sputum; Tanzania; Tuberculosis, Pulmonary; Uganda; World Health OrganizationNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84908452073Wound-healing activity of the aqueous leaf extract and fractions of ficus exasperata(Moraceae) and its safety evaluation on albino ratsUmeh V., Ilodigwe E., Ajaghaku D., Erhirhie E., Moke G., Akah P.2014Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine4410.4103/2225-4110.139105Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, United States; Department of PhUmeh, V., Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; Ilodigwe, E., Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; Ajaghaku, D., Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; Erhirhie, E., Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, United States; Moke, G., Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, United States; Akah, P., Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, NigeriaFicus exasperata have been reported to have wide applications in the treatment of many human diseases. However, its traditional use in the treatment of wounds has not been validated by any scientific study. Also, its safety in the management of chronic disease conditions requires attention. We evaluated the wound-healing activity of the aqueous extract and fractions of F. exasperata, as well as its safety after subchronic oral administration. Similar percentage of wound contraction was observed with 5% w/w extract ointment application and administration of cicatrin powder (standard) on the 4 th day, while better contraction than the standard was recorded with higher concentrations of the extract ointment. Of all the fractions tested, significant (P &lt; 0.05) contraction was only noticed in chloroform fraction, though lower than that of the aqueous extract. The extract also showed concentration-dependent inhibition of all the tested microbial isolates. Extract administered up to 5000 mg/kg (single dose administration) did not cause any mortality after 24 h. Mortality was, however, recorded at 4000 mg/kg within the first 20 days of subchronic administration of the extract. Significant (P &lt; 0.05) increases in alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), and in particular, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were observed at different doses and time periods. Pathological and histological changes were noticed in the liver and kidney on the 91 st day of the study with 4000 mg/kg of the extract. Except for the significant (P &lt; 0.05) reduction in WBC on the 91 st day, no other significant (P &lt; 0.05) changes were observed in other hematological parameters. The aqueous extract demonstrated better wound-healing activity than its fractions; however, the extract may not be safe at higher doses for subchronic oral administration, as may be the case in the management of chronic disease conditions.Chronic diseases; Ficus exasperata; Hematological parameters; Liver enzymes; Toxicity; Wound healingNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84878621917World Health Organization Guideline Development: An EvaluationSinclair D., Isba R., Kredo T., Zani B., Smith H., Garner P.2013PLoS ONE8510.1371/journal.pone.0063715Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; South African Cochrane Centre, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of International Public Health, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United KingdomSinclair, D., Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Isba, R., Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Kredo, T., South African Cochrane Centre, Cape Town, South Africa; Zani, B., South African Cochrane Centre, Cape Town, South Africa; Smith, H., Department of International Public Health, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Garner, P., Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United KingdomBackground:Research in 2007 showed that World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations were largely based on expert opinion, rarely used systematic evidence-based methods, and did not follow the organization's own "Guidelines for Guidelines". In response, the WHO established a "Guidelines Review Committee" (GRC) to implement and oversee internationally recognized standards. We examined the impact of these changes on WHO guideline documents and explored senior staff's perceptions of the new procedures.Methods and Findings:We used the AGREE II guideline appraisal tool to appraise ten GRC-approved guidelines from nine WHO departments, and ten pre-GRC guidelines matched by department and topic. We interviewed 20 senior staff across 16 departments and analyzed the transcripts using the framework approach. Average AGREE II scores for GRC-approved guidelines were higher across all six AGREE domains compared with pre-GRC guidelines. The biggest changes were noted for "Rigour of Development" (up 37.6%, from 30.7% to 68.3%) and "Editorial Independence" (up 52.7%, from 20.9% to 73.6%). Four main themes emerged from the interviews: (1) high standards were widely recognized as essential for WHO credibility, particularly with regard to conflicts of interest; (2) views were mixed on whether WHO needed a single quality assurance mechanism, with some departments purposefully bypassing the procedures; (3) staff expressed some uncertainties in applying the GRADE approach, with departmental staff concentrating on technicalities while the GRC remained concerned the underlying principles were not fully institutionalized; (4) the capacity to implement the new standards varied widely, with many departments looking to an overstretched GRC for technical support.Conclusions:Since 2007, WHO guideline development methods have become more systematic and transparent. However, some departments are bypassing the procedures, and as yet neither the GRC, nor the quality assurance standards they have set, are fully embedded within the organization. © 2013 Sinclair et al.Nonearticle; conflict of interest; interview; practice guideline; publishing; quality control; standard; world health organization; Guideline Adherence; Guidelines as Topic; Humans; Quality Control; Questionnaires; Research Design; World Health OrganizationNone
Scopus2-s2.0-76249128804Work-related allergy and asthma in spice mill workers - The impact of processing dried spices on IgE reactivity patternsVan Der Walt A., Lopata A.L., Nieuwenhuizen N.E., Jeebhay M.F.2010International Archives of Allergy and Immunology152310.1159/000283038Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925 Cape Town, South Africa; Division of Immunology, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; School of Applied Science, Allergy Research Group, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaVan Der Walt, A., Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925 Cape Town, South Africa; Lopata, A.L., Division of Immunology, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, School of Applied Science, Allergy Research Group, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Nieuwenhuizen, N.E., Division of Immunology, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Jeebhay, M.F., Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925 Cape Town, South AfricaBackground: Three spice mill workers developed work-related allergy and asthma after prolonged exposure to high levels (&gt;10 mg/m3) of inhalable spice dust. Patterns of sensitization to a variety of spices and putative allergens were identified. Methods: Work-related allergy and asthma were assessed on history, clinical evaluation, pulmonary function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Specific IgE reactivity to a range of common inhalant, food and spice allergens was evaluated using ImmunoCAP and allergen microarray. The presence of non-IgE-mediated reactions was determined by basophil stimulation (CAST-ELISA). Specific allergens were identified by immunoblotting to extracts of raw and dried processed garlic, onion and chili pepper. Results: Asthma was confirmed in all 3 subjects, with work-related patterns prominent in worker 1 and 3. Sensitization to multiple spices and pollen was observed in both atopic workers 1 and 2, whereas garlic and chili pepper sensitization featured in all 3 workers. Microarray analysis demonstrated prominent profilin reactivity in atopic worker 2. Immunoblotting demonstrated a 50-kDa cross-reactive allergen in garlic and onion, and allergens of approximately 40 and 52 kDa in chili pepper. Dry powdered garlic and onion demonstrated greater IgE binding. Conclusions: This study demonstrated IgE reactivity to multiple spice allergens in workers exposed to high levels of inhalable spice dust. Processed garlic and onion powder demonstrated stronger IgE reactivity than the raw plant. Atopy and polysensitization to various plant profilins, suggesting pollen-food syndrome, represent additional risk factors for sensitizer-induced work-related asthma in spice mill workers. © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.Allergy; Asthma; Garlic; Processed allergens; Spices; Work-related allergyfood allergen; immunoglobulin E; anamnesis; article; atopy; basophil; cell stimulation; clinical assessment; cross reaction; dry powder; enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; garlic; immunoblotting; immunoreactivity; inhalation; lung function; molecular weight; nonhuman; occupational allergy; occupational asthma; occupational exposure; occupational hazard; onion; pepper; priority journal; processing; risk assessment; risk factor; spice; spirometry; Adult; Airway Obstruction; Antigens, Plant; Asthma; Blotting, Western; Bronchial Provocation Tests; Capsicum; Female; Food Handling; Food Preservatives; Forced Expiratory Volume; Garlic; Humans; Hypersensitivity; Hypersensitivity, Immediate; Immunoglobulin E; Inhalation Exposure; Lung; Male; Nitric Oxide; Occupational Diseases; Onions; Peak Expiratory Flow Rate; Plant Extracts; Plant Proteins; Pollen; Protein Array Analysis; Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial; Skin Tests; Spices; SpirometryNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33846786760Working practices and incomes of health workers: Evidence from an evaluation of a delivery fee exemption scheme in GhanaWitter S., Kusi A., Aikins M.2007Human Resources for Health5None10.1186/1478-4491-5-2Immpact, University of Aberdeen, Health Sciences Building, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom; Immpact, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, GhanaWitter, S., Immpact, University of Aberdeen, Health Sciences Building, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom; Kusi, A., Immpact, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana; Aikins, M., Immpact, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, GhanaBackground: This article describes a survey of health workers and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) which was carried out in 2005 in two regions of Ghana. The objective of the survey was to ascertain the impact of the introduction of a delivery fee exemption scheme on both health workers and those providers who were excluded from the scheme (TBAs). This formed part of an overall evaluation of the delivery fee exemption scheme. The results shed light not only on the scheme itself but also on the general productivity of a range of health workers in Ghana. Methods: A structured questionnaire was developed, covering individual and household characteristics, working hours and practices, sources of income, and views of the exemptions scheme and general motivation. After field testing, this was administered to 374 respondents in 12 districts of Central and Volta regions. The respondents included doctors, medical assistants (MAs), public and private midwives, nurses, community health nurses (CHNs), and traditional birth attendants, both trained and untrained. Results: Health workers were well informed about the delivery fee exemptions scheme and their responses on its impact suggest a realistic view that it was a good scheme, but one that faces serious challenges regarding financial sustainability. Concerning its impact on their morale and working conditions, the responses were broadly neutral. Most public sector workers have seen an increased workload, but counterbalanced by increased pay. TBAs have suffered, in terms of client numbers and income, while the picture for private midwives is mixed. The survey also sheds light on pay and productivity. The respondents report long working hours, with a mean of 54 hours per week for community nurses and up to 129 hours per week for MAs. Weekly reported client loads in the public sector range from a mean of 86 for nurses to 269 for doctors. Over the past two years, reported working hours have been increasing, but so have pay and allowances (for doctors, allowances now make up 66% of their total pay). The lowest paid public health worker now earns almost ten times the average gross national income (GNI) per capita, while the doctors earn 38.5 times GNI per capita. This compares well with average government pay of four times GNI per capita. Comparing pay with outputs, the relatively high number of clients reported by doctors reduces their pay differential, so that the cost per client - $ 1.09 - is similar to a nurse's (and lower than a private midwife's). Conclusion: These findings show that a scheme which increases demand for public health services while also sustaining health worker income and morale, is workable, if well managed, even within the relatively constrained human resources environment of countries like Ghana. This may be linked to the fact that internal comparisons reveal Ghana's health workers to be well paid from public sector sources. © 2007 Witter et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84881237925Workforce innovation through mentoring: An action research approach to programme evaluationAkhurst J., Lawson S.2013International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation208NoneYork St John University, The University of KwaZulu Natal, South AfricaAkhurst, J., York St John University, The University of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa; Lawson, S.Background: The North East Neurosciences Network Workforce Innovations Programme used mentoring to develop neuro-practitioners' specialist skills and efficacy in health and social care settings. The programme aimed to improve services and outcomes for and with people living with long-term neurological conditions by enhancing practice and partnership building. This study used action research to evaluate the programme's impact over an 18 month period, in collaboration with a group of 10 mentors, their mentees, and the programme's steering group. Content: This study describes the action research undertaken for evaluating this 18-month mentoring programme, showing how the research questions, data collection and analysis evolved. It demonstrates how the approach facilitated participants' reflections, enabling them to evaluate and improve their practice. The evaluation shows how the programme equipped participants with skills for partnership and community-based approaches. The participants' experiences of using action research in this way are explored; and the challenges that arose in the context of a rapidly-changing health service are described. Conclusions: Noteworthy features of the programme include its evolving collaborative nature, the integration of action research from the start, and the coherence of action research with other elements of the delivery. Changes in participants' approaches illustrate the potential contributions of this type of programme within a community of practice, to develop personal efficacy in a context broader than a 'specialism' and as an alternative to traditional in-service training. Improved ways of working impacted on inter-collegial practice, service delivery and outcomes, translating policy into action. © 2013 MA Healthcare Ltd.Collaborative action research; Long-term neurological conditions; Mentoring; Partnership; Specialist workforce developmentNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33244492442Work ethic, locus of control and salesforce task performanceNtayi J.M.2005Journal of African Business602-Jan10.1300/J156v06n01_09Makerere University Business School, P.O. Box 1337, Kampala, UgandaNtayi, J.M., Makerere University Business School, P.O. Box 1337, Kampala, UgandaThis study explores the relationship between work ethic, locus of control and salesforce task performance. Using data from Uganda retail firms, this study finds that work ethic was a significant positive predictor of salesforce task performance. Further, there was a significant relationship between the different behavioural families of work-related activity work withdrawal behaviours, organizational retaliation behaviours and salesforce task performance. Results from regression analysis indicate that organizational retaliation behaviours and work withdrawal behaviours are important factors for explaining declining performance of salespeople in Uganda retail firms. Managers aiming to improve salesforce task performance should recruit individuals with a strong work ethic. Additionally, retail managers need to reduce work withdrawal and organizational retaliation behaviours so as to increase salesforce task performance. © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.Job withdrawal behaviours; Locus of control; Organizational retaliation behaviours; Work ethic; Work withdrawal behavioursethics; performance assessmentNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84947078987Workers' remittances, one of the reliable souces of capital inflows to Ethiopia - Its performance analysis towards shaping the economic growthGhosal S.2015Journal of Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary Research26NoneFaculty of Business and Economics, Assosa University, EthiopiaGhosal, S., Faculty of Business and Economics, Assosa University, EthiopiaThe internationally migrant workers' income share sent back to home country from the country of employment constitutes a vital portion of capital flows to the home country with multidimensional macroeconomic impacts on the economy. Moreover, Workers' remittances have gained an extraordinary importance in developing countries like Ethiopia. This paper attempts to analyze the role of the workers' remittance as a key component among other capital flows to a country in general and Ethiopia in particular. Further, positive impact of workers' remittances on economic growth in Ethiopia has been examined with the empirical evidences and certain drawbacks in transmission system found which needs rectification by interference of Government's new policy adoption.Capital flows; Economic growth; Gross domestic product; Migration; RemittancesNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79951786726Women war survivors of the 1989-2003 conflict in Liberia: The impact of sexual and gender-based violenceLiebling-Kalifani H., Mwaka V., Ojiambo-Ochieng R., Were-Oguttu J., Kinyanda E., Kwekwe D., Howard L., Danuweli C.2011Journal of International Women's Studies121NoneClinical Psychology, Coventry University, Makerere University, Uganda; Makerere University, Uganda; Isis-Women's International Cross Cultural Exchange, Kampala, Uganda; Information and Documentation at Isis-WICCE, Uganda; MRC/UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, Uganda; Ministry of Gender and Development, Cottingham University, Liberia; University of York, United Kingdom; University of Liberia, LiberiaLiebling-Kalifani, H., Clinical Psychology, Coventry University, Makerere University, Uganda; Mwaka, V., Makerere University, Uganda; Ojiambo-Ochieng, R., Isis-Women's International Cross Cultural Exchange, Kampala, Uganda; Were-Oguttu, J., Information and Documentation at Isis-WICCE, Uganda; Kinyanda, E., MRC/UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, Uganda; Kwekwe, D., Ministry of Gender and Development, Cottingham University, Liberia; Howard, L., University of York, United Kingdom; Danuweli, C., University of Liberia, LiberiaThis article presents a summary of the qualitative data from research carried out in post-conflict Liberia by Isis-WICCE, a women's international non-government organisation, in conjunction with the Ministry of Gender and Development of Liberia and Women in Peace-building Network, WIPNET. Analysis of research findings detail women's experiences of conflict and the serious effects of sexual violence and torture on their physical and psychological health. The paper also describes the omission of women from justice and rehabilitation processes. In support of women participants' views, the authors' recommend that funding is urgently required for the provision of holistic and sustainable, gender- sensitive services. Additional recommendations are made with respect to health, justice and policy changes in line with enhancing women survivor's roles and utilising their skills and resilience.Gender-based violence; Liberia; Sexual; War; WomenNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77951657673Women, power and subversion in orature: A palace performance in Yorubaland, NigeriaJegede O.B.2006Journal of Gender Studies15310.1080/09589230600862000Department of English, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaJegede, O.B., Department of English, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaIt is our contention in this paper that though royal wives in Oyo-Yorùbá community are invisible in some social, political and religious lives of their people, they are visible in the sphere of poetic creation. We opine that Yorùbá kings are powerful in most spheres, but in orature, the power of women in general, and royal wives in particular, cannot be underestimated. Through the examples of 'yùngbà' and 'igbátítí', two poetic spheres created by tradition for royal wives from Oyo-Yorùbá community, this paper argues that royal wives reposition themselves as channels of poetic utterance. They use poetry to redefine their position as wives and women, reassert themselves and subvert unwanted values. In particular, they use their creative power as a weapon for subverting male-constructed structures and views in society. In exercising their creative power, the women use their power to speak, to perform and to decide the course of action. In conclusion, we state that contemporary women writers also enhance the efforts of women in orature. In this regard, the paper refers to Emecheta's novels that condemn the economic, sexual and social exploitation of women. Like the royal wives, Emecheta creates protagonists who use their intellectual power to decide on issues that concern them. © 2006 Taylor & Francis.Gender relations; Kingship; Power; Subversion; Visibility; WomenNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84906890944Witwatersrand gold reef evaluation: The 'variancegram' toolLemmer C., Mogilnicki M.2014Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy1148NoneGeological and Geostatistical Services, Johannesburg, South Africa; Asfaltowa, Warsaw, PolandLemmer, C., Geological and Geostatistical Services, Johannesburg, South Africa; Mogilnicki, M., Asfaltowa, Warsaw, PolandThe resolution with which the different categories of resources are forecast for Witwatersrand gold reefs should ideally tie in with block sizes that are optimal in terms of the variability structures of the reefs. A tool, called the 'variancegram', is proposed as a basis for block size choice. A variancegram is intrinsic to the particular reef and mine concerned. A further requirement is the ability to attach global confidence limits to weighted average estimates built up from combinations of local kriged estimates. Approximations to derive global kriging variances based on variables derived from local kriging deliver hugely inflated results if ordinary kriging is used, and markedly better, but not accurate, values if simple kriging is used. These approximations improve as the number of samples used in kriging each block is increased. It is shown that the behaviour of the different components of the global kriging variance with increasing number of samples, all differs, but they all link to the variancegram for the particular reef. The variancegram can thus be used to correct the different components to the values they would have had if all samples were used in kriging each block, and so deliver the 'correct' global kriging variance, even though only a limited number of samples were used in kriging each block. The desirability of having very stable solutions implemented in production systems is taken into account in the proposals. It is anticipated that the same variancegram findings will also hold for other densely sampled deposits, but this remains to be investigated. © The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2014.Classification; Global kriging variance; ResourcesClassification (of information); Gold; Reefs; Confidence limit; Kriging; Number of samples; Ordinary kriging; Production system; Resources; Stable solutions; Weighted averages; InterpolationNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77951713262Within-neighborhood patterns and sources of particle pollution: Mobile monitoring and geographic information system analysis in four communities in Accra, GhanaDionisio K.L., Rooney M.S., Arku R.E., Friedman A.B., Hughes A.F., Vallarino J., Agyei-Mensah S., Spengler J.D., Ezzati M.2010Environmental Health Perspectives118510.1289/ehp.0901365Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States; Harvard Initiative for Global Health, Cambridge, MA, United States; Cyprus International Institute for the Environment and Public Health, Nicosia, Cyprus; Department of Geography and Resource Development, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana; Department of Physics, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana; Environmental Science Program, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, GhanaDionisio, K.L., Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States, Harvard Initiative for Global Health, Cambridge, MA, United States; Rooney, M.S., Harvard Initiative for Global Health, Cambridge, MA, United States; Arku, R.E., Cyprus International Institute for the Environment and Public Health, Nicosia, Cyprus, Department of Geography and Resource Development, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana; Friedman, A.B., Harvard Initiative for Global Health, Cambridge, MA, United States; Hughes, A.F., Department of Physics, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana; Vallarino, J., Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States; Agyei-Mensah, S., Department of Geography and Resource Development, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana, Environmental Science Program, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana; Spengler, J.D., Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States; Ezzati, M., Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States, Harvard Initiative for Global Health, Cambridge, MA, United StatesBackground: Sources of air pollution in developing country cities include transportation and industrial pollution, biomass and coal fuel use, and resuspended dust from unpaved roads. Objectives: Our goal was to understand within-neighborhood spatial variability of particulate matter (PM) in communities of varying socioeconomic status (SES) in Accra, Ghana, and to quantify the effects of nearby sources on local PM concentration. Methods: We conducted 1 week of morning and afternoon mobile and stationary air pollution measurements in four study neighborhoods. PM with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ≤ 10 μm (PM10) was measured continuously, with matched global positioning system coordinates; detailed data on local sources were collected at periodic stops. The effects of nearby sources on local PM were estimated using linear mixed-effects models. Results: In our measurement campaign, the geometric means of PM2.5 and PM10 along the mobile monitoring path were 21 and 49 μg/m3, respectively, in the neighborhood with highest SES and 39 and 96 μg/m3, respectively, in the neighborhood with lowest SES and highest population density. PM2.5 and PM10 were as high as 200 and 400 μg/m3, respectively, in some segments of the path. After adjusting for other factors, the factors that had the largest effects on local PM pollution were nearby wood and charcoal stoves, congested and heavy traffic, loose dirt road surface, and trash burning. Conclusions: Biomass fuels, transportation, and unpaved roads may be important determinants of local PM variation in Accra neighborhoods. If confirmed by additional or supporting data, the results demonstrate the need for effective and equitable interventions and policies that reduce the impacts of traffic and biomass pollution.Africa; Biomass; Geographic information system; Particulate matter; Poverty; Spatial; Urbanizationcharcoal; air pollution; article; biomass; controlled study; geographic information system; Ghana; global positioning system; particle size; particulate matter; pollution monitoring; population density; priority journal; quantitative analysis; social status; traffic; waste disposal; wood; Air Pollutants; Air Pollution; Developing Countries; Environmental Monitoring; Geographic Information Systems; Ghana; Humans; Linear Models; Particulate Matter; Social Class; Time Factors; Transportation; Urban Health; WeatherNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77952930626Wine science in the omics era: The impact of systems biology on the future of wine researchRossouw D., Bauer F.F.2009South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture302NoneInstitute for Wine Biotechnology, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South AfricaRossouw, D., Institute for Wine Biotechnology, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Bauer, F.F., Institute for Wine Biotechnology, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South AfricaIndustrial wine making confronts viticulturalists, wine makers, process engineers and scientists alike with a bewildering array of independent and semi-independent parameters that can in many cases only be optimized by trial and error. Furthermore, as most parameters are outside of individual control, predictability and consistency of the end product remain difficult to achieve. The traditional wine sciences of viticulture and oenology have been accumulating data sets and generating knowledge and know-how that has resulted in a significant optimization of the vine growing and wine making processes. However, much of these processes remain based on empirical and even anecdotal evidence, and only a small part of all the interactions and cause-effect relationships between individual input and output parameters is scientifically well understood. Indeed, the complexity of the process has prevented a deeper understanding of such interactions and causal relationships. New technologies and methods in the biological and chemical sciences, combined with improved tools of multivariate data analysis, open new opportunities to assess the entire vine growing and wine making process from a more holistic perspective. This review outlines the current efforts to use the tools of systems biology in particular to better understand complex industrial processes such as wine making.Metabolomics; Proteomics; Systems biology; Transcriptomics; Wine; YeastNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79960152560Wind resource evaluation in six selected high altitude locations in NigeriaOhunakin O.S.2011Renewable Energy361210.1016/j.renene.2011.04.026Mechanical Engineering Department, Covenant University, P.M.B 1023, Ota, Ogun State, NigeriaOhunakin, O.S., Mechanical Engineering Department, Covenant University, P.M.B 1023, Ota, Ogun State, NigeriaThis paper presents an assessment of wind energy potentials of six selected high altitude locations within the North-West and North-East geopolitical regions, Nigeria, by using 36-year (1971-2007) wind speed data subjected to 2-parameter Weibull distribution functions. The results showed that the maximum mean wind speed is obtained in Katsina as 9.839 m/s while the minimum value of 3.397 m/s is got in Kaduna for all the locations considered. The annual wind power density and energy variation based on the Weibull analysis ranged from 368.92 W/m2 and 3224.45 kWh/m2/year to 103.14 W/m2 and 901.75 kWh/m2/year in Kano and Potiskum for the maximum and minimum values respectively. Furthermore, Katsina and Kano will be suitable for wind turbine installations while Gusau will only be appropriate for wind energy utilization using taller wind turbine towers whereas Kaduna, Bauchi and Potiskum will be considered marginal for wind power development based of their respective annual mean wind speeds and power densities. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.Mean wind speeds; Nigeria; Power density; Weibull distributionsAnnual mean; Energy variations; High altitude; Mean wind speed; Minimum value; Nigeria; Power densities; Turbine installation; Weibull; Weibull analysis; Wind power density; Wind power development; Wind resources; Wind speed data; Wind turbine towers; Distribution functions; Energy utilization; Wind effects; Wind power; Wind turbines; Weibull distribution; altitude; assessment method; energy efficiency; geopolitics; renewable resource; wind power; wind turbine; wind velocity; NigeriaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84881218581Wind profile characteristics and turbine performance analysis in Kano, north-western NigeriaAjayi O.O., Fagbenle R.O., Katende J., Aasa S.A., Okeniyi J.O.2013International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering4110.1186/2251-6832-4-27Mechanical Engineering Department, Covenant University, P. M. B. 1023, Ota, Nigeria; Mechanical Engineering Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria; College of Engineering and Technology, Botswana International University of Science and TAjayi, O.O., Mechanical Engineering Department, Covenant University, P. M. B. 1023, Ota, Nigeria; Fagbenle, R.O., Mechanical Engineering Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria; Katende, J., College of Engineering and Technology, Botswana International University of Science and Technology, Gaborone, Botswana; Aasa, S.A., Mechanical Engineering Department, Covenant University, P. M. B. 1023, Ota, Nigeria; Okeniyi, J.O., Mechanical Engineering Department, Covenant University, P. M. B. 1023, Ota, NigeriaThis study analyzed the electricity generation potential from wind at Kano, Nigeria (12.05°N; 08.2°E; altitude 472.5 m; air density 1.1705 kg/m3). Twenty one years (1987 to 2007) monthly mean wind speed data at a height of 10 m were assessed from the Nigeria Meteorological Department, Oshodi. The data were subjected to different statistical tests and also compared with the two-parameter Weibull probability density function. The outcome shows that the average monthly wind speed ranged from 6.6 to 9.5 m/s. Seasonally, average wind speeds ranged between 6.6 to 8.5 m/s and 7.4 to 9.5 m/s for dry (October to March) and wet (April to September) seasons, respectively. Also, estimated monthly wind power ranged between 3.6 and 12.5 MWh/m2. The most probable and maximum energy carrying wind speeds were also determined and the two parameters of the Weibull statistics were found to lie between 2.1 ≤ k ≤ 4.9 and 7.3 ≤ c ≤ 10.7, respectively. These results indicate that wind speeds at Kano may be economically viable for wind-to-electricity at and above the height of 10 m. In addition, five practical turbine models were assessed for the site's wind profile, with results suggesting strong economic viability. © 2013 Ajayi et al.Kano; Nigeria; Renewable energy; Weibull; Wind powerNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84881290608Will woody plant encroachment impact the visitor experience and economy of conservation areas?Gray E.F., Bond W.J.2013Koedoe55110.4102/koedoe.v55i1.1106South African Environmental Observation Network Fynbos Node, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Botany, University of Cape Town, South AfricaGray, E.F., South African Environmental Observation Network Fynbos Node, Cape Town, South Africa, Department of Botany, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Bond, W.J., Department of Botany, University of Cape Town, South AfricaWoody plant encroachment into savannas is a globally prevalent phenomenon and impacts ecosystem goods and services such as biodiversity, carbon storage, nutrient cycling, grazing and hydrology. The direct ecological and economic consequences for rangelands have been fairly well studied, but, to our knowledge, the economic impact on conservation efforts has not been investigated. African savannas are important as conservation areas because they support large numbers of the world's remaining megafauna. This study used visitor surveys and long-term mammal distribution data to investigate how an increase in tree density might affect the visibility of animals in a conservation area, which could reduce the satisfaction of visitors to the area. We found that apparent herd sizes and density of animals were much reduced in woody areas, suggesting that visibility is negatively impacted. Visitor surveys determined that a large fraction (almost half) of potential future visitors to the park may be lost if animals became more difficult to see and that the majority of these would be the higherspending visitors. Responses differed depending on the origin of visitors, with international visitors being more interested in seeing animals, whilst local visitors were more content with just being away from the city. The results suggest that woody plant encroachment may have significant impacts on visitor numbers to savanna conservation areas, whilst animal numbers and densities may also be significantly impacted. Conservation implications: The results pointed to potentially significant economic consequences for conservation efforts as visitors become less satisfied with their experience. Perceptions of visitors are important for management decisions as park fees contribute significantly to conservation efforts. This could ultimately result in a reduced capacity for African conservation areas to conserve their biodiversity effectively. The results suggest that management may need to re-evaluate their approach to controlling woody plant encroachment. © 2013. The Authors.Nonebiodiversity; economic impact; ecosystem service; fauna; nature conservation; rangeland; savanna; woody plant; AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77953757154Wildlife damage and its impact on public attitudes towards conservation: A comparative study of Kenya and Botswana, with particular reference to Kenya's Laikipia Region and Botswana's Okavango Delta RegionSifuna N.2010Journal of Asian and African Studies45310.1177/0021909610364776Moi University School of Law, PO Box 3900-30100, Eldoret, KenyaSifuna, N., Moi University School of Law, PO Box 3900-30100, Eldoret, KenyaWhile wildlife is a valuable natural resource with several beneficial values to the people of Kenya and Botswana, wild animals in both countries usually cause damage to society in terms of attacks on people and livestock, damage to crops and other property such as infrastructure, and disruption of peaceful existence in local communities living in close proximity to wildlife areas. Wildlife damage would ordinarily result in people having negative attitudes towards conservation. Interestingly, however, people's perceptions of wildlife in these countries seem to be diametrically different in that whereas public attitudes in Kenya are generally negative, in Botswana they are remarkably positive. This study set out to establish the reasons for this variance in conservation attitudes. It established that the major cause for this variance in perception is that while in Kenya wildlife conservation is more often thought of in terms of wildlife welfare and hardly in terms of human welfare, in Botswana human welfare concerns have been mainstreamed in conservation efforts. People have, for instance, been allowed to derive direct benefits from wildlife through consumptive utilization, unlike in Kenya where only indirect benefits through non-consumptive uses are permitted. These direct benefits seem to mitigate the effects of wildlife damage, especially the resultant negative attitudes of people towards wildlife. The present and future survival of wildlife in many parts of the world, and especially in African countries such as Kenya and Botswana, depends to a large measure on the goodwill of the people, particularly local communities, in their everyday contact with it. © The Author(s) 2010.Human-wildlife conflicts; Laikipia; Livelihoods; Local communities; Okavango; Public attitudes; Wildlife damagecomparative study; natural resource; nature conservation; nature-society relations; perception; public attitude; survival; Kenya; Laikipia; Namibia; Okavango; Rift Valley; AnimaliaNone
NoneNoneWildlife Conservation in Zambia: Impacts on Rural Household WelfareRichardson R.B., Fernandez A., Tschirley D., Tembo G.2012World Development40510.1016/j.worlddev.2011.09.019Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States; United Nations World Food Programme, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States; University of Zambia, Lusaka, ZambiaRichardson, R.B., Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States; Fernandez, A., United Nations World Food Programme, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Tschirley, D., Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States; Tembo, G., University of Zambia, Lusaka, ZambiaWe investigate the impact of wildlife conservation policies in Zambia on household welfare in game management areas (GMAs), which are buffer zones around national parks. Analysis of data from a nationwide survey of rural households shows that GMAs are positively associated with household income and crop damage from wildlife conflicts. Gains and damages were greatest among households in GMAs with greater wildlife diversity, with net gains relatively greater for wealthier households. Households in prime (well stocked) GMAs were more likely to participate in off-farm wage and self-employment compared to other rural households, but they were also more likely to suffer crop losses related to wildlife conflicts. The findings suggest that wildlife conservation and tourism development can contribute to pro-poor development, but may be sustainable only if human-wildlife conflicts are minimized or compensated. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.Africa; National parks; Rural development; Wildlife conservation; Zambiabuffer zone; conservation management; household survey; national park; nature conservation; rural development; self employment; sustainability; tourism development; wage; welfare impact; wildlife management; ZambiaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84929076032Wildlife based land reform and its impact on household food security - A case from ZimbabweMushuku A., Ngwenya T.A.2014Journal of Rural Development334NoneGreat Zimbabwe University, Department of Rural and Urban Development, Box 1235, Masvingo, ZimbabweMushuku, A., Great Zimbabwe University, Department of Rural and Urban Development, Box 1235, Masvingo, Zimbabwe; Ngwenya, T.A., Great Zimbabwe University, Department of Rural and Urban Development, Box 1235, Masvingo, ZimbabweThe study was conducted to evaluate the Wildlife Based Land Reform Programme and its impact on household food security in Matetsi Intensive Conservation Area A1 resettlement villages. Twenty questionnaires were distributed to households in Woodlands village to gather quantitative data to assess the level of household food security in the study area. In addition, a focus group discussion was done with three village heads, the ward councillor and three members of the Village Development Committee to examine the challenges faced by the resettled farmers in the wildlife venture and assess the level of stakeholder support. Key informant interviews were done with representatives of some selected government departments to examine their roles and responsibilities in the programme. The results of the study revealed that the programme had a significant contribution towards household food security. Access to more productive land resulted in significant improvements in cereal production. The additional income from hunting dividends helped beneficiaries to purchase agricultural inputs and more non-staple foods resulting in families living on a diversified diet. The study concludes that the Wildlife Based Land Reform Programme achieved its main goal of improving household food security. The study recommends that the few challenges faced by the farmers such as lack of wildlife management knowledge and resource constraints should be priority interventions to ensure the sustainability of the livelihoods in the study area.Nonecereal; food security; land reform; quantitative analysis; stakeholder; sustainability; village; wildlife management; ZimbabweNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84907364089Wild flower harvesting on the Agulhas Plain, South Africa: Impact of harvesting intensity under a simulated commercial harvesting regime for two re-seeding and two re-sprouting fynbos speciesPrivett S.D.J., Krug R.M., Forbes G., Gaertner M.2014South African Journal of Botany94None10.1016/j.sajb.2014.06.015Fynbos Ecoscapes, Witkrans, Gansbaai 7220, South Africa; CapeNature, Walker Bay Nature Reserve, 16 17th Avenue, Hermanus, 7200, South Africa; Laboratoire de l'Ecology, Systématique et Evolution, Université Paris Sud XI, Orsay, France; Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag x1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; Environmental Resource Management Department (ERMD), Westlake Conservation Office, City of Cape Town, Ou Kaapse Weg, Tokai 7966, Cape Town, South AfricaPrivett, S.D.J., Fynbos Ecoscapes, Witkrans, Gansbaai 7220, South Africa; Krug, R.M., Laboratoire de l'Ecology, Systématique et Evolution, Université Paris Sud XI, Orsay, France, Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag x1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; Forbes, G., CapeNature, Walker Bay Nature Reserve, 16 17th Avenue, Hermanus, 7200, South Africa; Gaertner, M., Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag x1, Matieland 7602, South Africa, Environmental Resource Management Department (ERMD), Westlake Conservation Office, City of Cape Town, Ou Kaapse Weg, Tokai 7966, Cape Town, South AfricaWe present a simple method for assessing the medium-term sustainability of different flower harvesting intensities (i.e. percentage of number of stems harvested per individual) for two re-seeders and re-sprouters of fynbos plants on the Agulhas Plain in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. We interpret our results from an ecological point of view, looking at impacts of harvesting on vegetative re-growth and survival of frequently harvested fynbos species, and an economic point of view, determining the cumulative number of stems harvested per year.We analysed the impact of different harvesting intensities on two obligate re-seeding (Erica corifolia (L.) and Erica imbricata (L.)) and two strongly re-sprouting species (Brunia laevis (Thunb.) and Staavia radiata (L. Dahl)) on different flower farms. Seventy-five randomly selected plants of each species were experimentally harvested in the same way as is done by flower harvesters. Fifteen plants of each species were left as controls (un-harvested) and 15 each were harvested (cut 15-20. cm below the inflorescence) such that 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the inflorescences were removed. Harvested stems were labelled and the number of new shoots counted. Additionally we recorded plant height and mortality.100% harvesting resulted in high mortality rates for both re-seeders (for both species 100% of the individuals were dead at the end of the experiment) and resprouters (for one species all 15 individuals were dead at the end of the experiment and for the other species 4 of 15). Re-seeders in particular were highly susceptible to harvesting below the first branching node, which generally also resulted in plant death. Both guilds can survive up to 75% harvesting (resprouters experienced no mortality for one species, while in the other 4 out of 15 died; of the re-seeders, 9 out of 15 died in the one species, while only 1 out of 15 in the other) and are still able to grow in height. For both seeders and resprouters we recommend that flower harvesters do not harvest in young veld. To ensure sufficient seed set and to avoid seed bank depletion we recommend to preferably only harvest between 25 and 50% of stems per individual. © 2014 South African Association of Botanists.Cape Floristic Region; Conservation; Flower farming; Fynbos; Thresholdflower; growth response; mortality; seed bank; species diversity; wild population; Agulhas Plain; South Africa; Western CapeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84861325273Widespread impact of HLA restriction on immune control and escape pathways of HIV-1Carlson J.M., Listgarten J., Pfeifer N., Tan V., Kadie C., Walker B.D., Ndung'u T., Shapiro R., Frater J., Brumme Z.L., Goulder P.J.R., Heckerman D.2012Journal of Virology86910.1128/JVI.06728-11Microsoft Research, eScience Group, Los Angeles, CA, United States; Microsoft Research, eScience Group, Redmond, WA, United States; Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Boston, MA, United States; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD, United States; HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Division of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States; Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom; Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada; British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomCarlson, J.M., Microsoft Research, eScience Group, Los Angeles, CA, United States; Listgarten, J., Microsoft Research, eScience Group, Los Angeles, CA, United States; Pfeifer, N., Microsoft Research, eScience Group, Los Angeles, CA, United States; Tan, V., Microsoft Research, eScience Group, Los Angeles, CA, United States; Kadie, C., Microsoft Research, eScience Group, Redmond, WA, United States; Walker, B.D., Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Boston, MA, United States, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD, United States, HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Ndung'u, T., Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Boston, MA, United States, HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Shapiro, R., Division of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States; Frater, J., Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom; Brumme, Z.L., Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada, British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Goulder, P.J.R., HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Heckerman, D., Microsoft Research, eScience Group, Los Angeles, CA, United StatesThe promiscuous presentation of epitopes by similar HLA class I alleles holds promise for a universal T-cell-based HIV-1 vaccine. However, in some instances, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) restricted by HLA alleles with similar or identical binding motifs are known to target epitopes at different frequencies, with different functional avidities and with different apparent clinical outcomes. Such differences may be illuminated by the association of similar HLA alleles with distinctive escape pathways. Using a novel computational method featuring phylogenetically corrected odds ratios, we systematically analyzed differential patterns of immune escape across all optimally defined epitopes in Gag, Pol, and Nef in 2,126 HIV-1 clade C-infected adults. Overall, we identified 301 polymorphisms in 90 epitopes associated with HLA alleles belonging to shared supertypes. We detected differential escape in 37 of 38 epitopes restricted by more than one allele, which included 278 instances of differential escape at the polymorphism level. The majority (66 to 97%) of these resulted from the selection of unique HLA-specific polymorphisms rather than differential epitope targeting rates, as confirmed by gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) data. Discordant associations between HLA alleles and viral load were frequently observed between allele pairs that selected for differential escape. Furthermore, the total number of associated polymorphisms strongly correlated with average viral load. These studies confirm that differential escape is a widespread phenomenon and may be the norm when two alleles present the same epitope. Given the clinical correlates of immune escape, such heterogeneity suggests that certain epitopes will lead to discordant outcomes if applied universally in a vaccine. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.Noneepitope; Gag protein; gamma interferon; HLA antigen; Nef protein; Pol protein; allele; antigen specificity; article; cladistics; cohort analysis; DNA polymorphism; enzyme linked immunospot assay; HLA system; human; human cell; Human immunodeficiency virus 1; Human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection; immune escape; immunological parameters; immunoregulation; major clinical study; nonhuman; priority journal; virus load; virus typing; Alleles; Epitopes; Gene Expression; HIV Infections; HIV-1; HLA Antigens; Humans; Immune Evasion; Mutation; Polymorphism, Genetic; Viral Load; Human immunodeficiency virus 1None
Scopus2-s2.0-84861338583Why performance-based contracting failed in Uganda - An " open-box" evaluation of a complex health system interventionSsengooba F., McPake B., Palmer N.2012Social Science and Medicine75210.1016/j.socscimed.2012.02.050Department of Health Policy, Planning and Management, School of Public Health, Makerere University, Uganda; Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom; Institute for International Health and Development, Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, Musselburgh EH21 6UU, United KingdomSsengooba, F., Department of Health Policy, Planning and Management, School of Public Health, Makerere University, Uganda, Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom; McPake, B., Institute for International Health and Development, Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, Musselburgh EH21 6UU, United Kingdom; Palmer, N., Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United KingdomPerformance-based contracting (PBC) is a tool that links rewards to attainment of measurable performance targets. Significant problems remain in the methods used to evaluate this tool. The primary focus of evaluations on the effects of PBC (black-box) and less attention to how these effects arise (open-box) generates suboptimal policy learning. A black-box impact evaluation of PBC pilot by the Development Research Group of the World Bank (DRG) and the Ministry of Health (MOH) concluded that PBC was ineffective.This paper reports a theory-based case study intended to clarify how and why PBC failed to achieve its objectives. To explain the observed PBC implementation and responses of participants, this case study employed two related theories i.e. complex adaptive system and expectancy theory respectively.A prospective study trailed the implementation of PBC (2003-2006) while collecting experiences of participants at district and hospital levels.Significant problems were encountered in the implementation of PBC that reflected its inadequate design. As problems were encountered, hasty adaptations resulted in a . de facto intervention distinct from the one implied at the design stage. For example, inadequate time was allowed for the selection of service targets by the health centres yet they got 'locked-in' to these poor choices. The learning curve and workload among performance auditors weakened the v+alidity of audit results. Above all, financial shortfalls led to delays, short-cuts and uncertainty about the size and payment of bonuses.The lesson for those intending to implement similar interventions is that PBC should not be attempted 'on the cheap'. It requires a plan to boost local institutional and technical capacities of implementers. It also requires careful consideration of the responses of multiple actors - both insiders and outsiders to the intended change process. Given the costs and complexity of PBC implementation, strengthening conventional approaches that are better attuned to low income contexts (financing resource inputs and systems management) remains a viable policy option towards improving health service delivery. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.Case study; Health program evaluation; Health system; Performance-based contracting; Ugandahealth care; health policy; health services; institutional framework; performance assessment; policy reform; article; case study; financial bonus payment; financial management; health care delivery; health care financing; health care system; health center; health service; learning curve; medical audit; performance based contracting; prospective study; reward; theory; Uganda; workload; Contract Services; Health Services Research; Humans; Management Audit; Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care); Prospective Studies; Quality of Health Care; Uganda; UgandaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84887138674Why Namibian Farmers Are Satisfied With the Performance of Their Livestock Guarding DogsPotgieter G.C., Marker L.L., Avenant N.L., Kerley G.I.H.2013Human Dimensions of Wildlife18610.1080/10871209.2013.803211Cheetah Conservation Fund, Otjiwarongo, Namibia; Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; National Museum of South Africa, Bloemfontein, South Africa; University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South AfricaPotgieter, G.C., Cheetah Conservation Fund, Otjiwarongo, Namibia, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; Marker, L.L., Cheetah Conservation Fund, Otjiwarongo, Namibia; Avenant, N.L., National Museum of South Africa, Bloemfontein, South Africa, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa; Kerley, G.I.H., Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South AfricaThe success of livestock guarding dogs (LGDs) in mitigating farmer-predator conflict relies on the perceptions of farmers that use them. Purebred LGDs are provided to Namibian farmers by the Cheetah Conservation Fund as a farmer-predator conflict mitigation measure. We examined the perceptions of farmers using 164 of these LGDs by analyzing data collected during face-to-face interviews from 2000-2010. Although most respondents reported reduced livestock losses since LGD introduction, satisfaction with LGD performance was more strongly linked to their observations of LGD behavior. The most commonly reported negative behaviors were staying home (29 LGDs, 18%) and chasing wildlife (25 LGDs, 15%). On subsistence farms, care provided was negatively correlated with LGD age (r = -.34, n = 35, p =.04) and LGDs reportedly staying home were provided with less care than other LGDs. Overall, LGDs performed satisfactorily on commercial and subsistence farms, and thus contributed to farmer-predator conflict mitigation. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.farmer perceptions; human-wildlife conflict; livestock losses; NamibiaNoneNational Research Foundation
Scopus2-s2.0-49749092737Why is surgery cancelled? A retrospective evaluationChamisa I.2008South African Journal of Surgery463NoneDepartment of General Surgery, Prince Mishyeni Memorial Hospital, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South AfricaChamisa, I., Department of General Surgery, Prince Mishyeni Memorial Hospital, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South AfricaIntroduction. The cancellation of surgery wastes theatre time and creates hardship for patients, who often plan their working and family lives around the proposed operation date. Methods. A retrospective evaluation of cancellations of scheduled elective and urgent operations was done using theatre records from May 2006 to April 2007. The reasons for cancellation were examined. Results. Of a total of 5 786 operations, 5.6% were cancelled or postponed. Lack of medical clearance and patient preparation (65.1%) was the most common reason for cancellation. Lack or failure of instruments and patient cancellation constituted 2.8% and 1.8% of the cancellations respectively. Conclusion. Last-minute cancellation of surgery was a significant problem, and appreciation of the usual reasons for cancellations can improve theatre utilisation and avoid inconveniencing patients and their families.Nonearticle; elective surgery; emergency; hospital; hospital management; human; operating room; patient; retrospective study; South Africa; statistics; surgery; time; utilization review; Appointments and Schedules; Emergencies; Hospitals; Humans; Operating Rooms; Patient Dropouts; Retrospective Studies; South Africa; Surgical Procedures, Elective; Surgical Procedures, Operative; Time FactorsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70449361964Who will guard the guardians? Amartya Sen's contribution to development evaluationPorter S., de Wet J.2009Development in Practice19310.1080/09614520902807987Development Research Unit (SALDRU), Department of Economics, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Sociology, University of Cape Town, South AfricaPorter, S., Development Research Unit (SALDRU), Department of Economics, University of Cape Town, South Africa; de Wet, J., Department of Sociology, University of Cape Town, South AfricaAn Action Learning process integrated with Sen's Capability Approach can support development agencies to formulate interventions that enhance freedom. The authors show that putting this approach into practice has important implications for the manner in which 'development' is undertaken as an ideological project. It may help to examine and challenge those who hold power in development: the guardians. This finding is the result of an emergent Action Learning process that was initiated by applying Sen's principles to focus-group interviews with women who care for people affected by HIV and AIDS. One of the findings of these focus groups was that the participants valued the process because it opened a space for them to influence the work of the implementing NGO. Essentially, they could hold the implementing agency to account. Reflection on this outcome by the agency led to important shifts in processes that are more supportive of freedom. © 2009 Oxfam GB.Civil society; Methods; Sub-Saharan AfricaEconomic Development; Economics; Freedom; Nongovernmental Organizations; Sen, Amartya; autonomy; civil society; development project; learning; project assessment; Africa; Sub-Saharan AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84858393170Who was allocated Fast Track land, and what did they do with it? Selection of A2 farmers in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe and its impacts on agricultural productionMarongwe N.2011Journal of Peasant Studies38510.1080/03066150.2011.636483University of theWestern Cape, School of Government, Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies, South AfricaMarongwe, N., University of theWestern Cape, School of Government, Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies, South AfricaQuestions of who was allocated land under Zimbabwe's Fast Track land reform programme and how productive the beneficiaries have been are highly controversial. This article presents detailed empirical data on beneficiaries who were small and medium-sized commercial farms (the A2 model) in Goromonzi district, land allocation processes, and land use. Goromonzi District is one of the four districts that share a boundary with Harare, the capital city of Zimbabwe. A questionnaire survey targeting 65 A2 beneficiaries was implemented in 2003, while key informant interviews were done in 2006. Drawing on both primary and official data, the article shows that official criteria for selecting beneficiaries for A2 farms that emphasized the potential to use the land productively were ignored in practice. The institutions responsible for land allocation were captured by members of the ruling party and by representatives of the state security apparatus, and most beneficiaries were drawn from the governing or the local elite. Many lacked sufficient capital to invest meaningfully in commercial agriculture, did not have relevant farming experience, and were unable to put the bulk of their land into production for several years. As a result, in Goromonzi District the impact of Fast Track land reform on commercial agriculture has been negative. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.A2 farms; agriculture; beneficiary selection; Fast Track land reform; Goromonzi; governing elite; selection criteria; Zimbabweagricultural production; farming system; land reform; land use; small and medium-sized enterprise; smallholder; ZimbabweNone
WoSWOS:000323242100002Who views what? Impact assessment through the eyes of farmers, development organization staff and researchersCosyns, Hannes,De Wulf, Robert,Van Damme, Patrick2013INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND WORLD ECOLOGY20410.1080/13504509.2013.806372Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Ghent University, World Agroforestry Ctr ICRAF GRP 1"Cosyns, Hannes: Ghent University","De Wulf, Robert: Ghent University",The present study assesses the impact of a rural development project on farmers' livelihoods, as perceived by farmers, development organization staff and researchers. The project concerned, aimed to increase small-scale farmers' financial benefits by promoting the commercialization of Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) Pierre ex Pax kernels (njansang) in Cameroon. The three parties evaluated the impacts of the project, over the 2005-2010 period, through indicators embedded in the Sustainable Livelihood Framework (natural, financial, human, social and physical assets). Project households were compared with control households. Results show that farmers' and development organization staff's views were aligned regarding the relative importance of the indicators to measure success (with overlaps &gt; 85%). The three stakeholders evaluated changes of farmers' livelihood indicators over the 2005-2010 period on 5-point Likert items. All three stated that most indicators improved significantly more in project than in control households (p &lt; 0.001). Development organization staff probably overestimated changes induced by project interventions as they perceived significantly larger changes as compared with farmers and researchers (p &lt; 0.05). Our study highlights the differences between impact perceived by farmers, development organization staff and researchers and helps to build the knowledge base of the potential and reliability of participatory evaluation approaches. Furthermore, an approach to assess impacts on people's livelihood is proposed, combining the strengths of participatory evaluation with those of classic evaluation methods.COMMERCIALIZATION,"LIKERT SCALE",participatory,Ricinodendron,"RURAL DEVELOPMENT","Sustainable livelihood framework",ACCURACY,CAMEROON,COMMERCIALIZATION,LIVELIHOOD,MANAGEMENT,"STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION","SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT",SYSTEMS,"TIMBER FOREST PRODNoneNone
NoneNoneWHO multicenter evaluation of FACSCount CD4 and Pima CD4 T-cell count systems: Instrument performance and misclassification of HIV-infected patientsWade D., Daneau G., Aboud S., Vercauteren G.H., Urassa W.S.K., Kestens L.2014Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes66510.1097/QAI.0000000000000214Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; Unit of Immunology, Laboratory of Bacteriology Virology, University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, 92000, Senegal; Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salam, Tanzania; World Health Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandWade, D., Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, Unit of Immunology, Laboratory of Bacteriology Virology, University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, 92000, Senegal, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; Daneau, G., Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; Aboud, S., Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salam, Tanzania; Vercauteren, G.H., World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Urassa, W.S.K., World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Kestens, L., Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, BelgiumBACKGROUND: CD4 T-cell counts are used to screen and follow-up HIV-infected patients during treatment. As part of the World Health Organization prequalification program of diagnostics, we conducted an independent multicenter evaluation of the FACSCount CD4 and the Pima CD4, using the FACSCalibur as reference method. METHODS: A total of 440 paired capillary and venous blood samples were collected from HIV-infected patients attending the HIV outpatient clinic in Antwerp, Belgium, and the HIV care and treatment center in Dar es Salam, Tanzania. Capillary blood was run on Pima analyzer, whereas venous blood was analyzed on FACSCount, Pima, and FACSCalibur instruments. Precision and agreement between methods were assessed. RESULTS: The FACSCount CD4 results were in agreement with the FACSCalibur results with relative bias of 0.4% and 3.1% on absolute CD4 counts and an absolute bias of -0.6% and -1.1% on CD4% in Antwerp and Dar es Salam, respectively. The Pima CD4 results were in agreement with the FACSCalibur results with relative bias of -4.1% and -9.4% using venous blood and of -9.5% and -0.9% using capillary blood in Antwerp and Dar es Salam, respectively. At the threshold of 350 cells per microliter, the FACSCount CD4 and Pima CD4 using venous and capillary blood misclassified 7%, 9%, and 13% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The FACSCount CD4 provides reliable CD4 counts and CD4% and is suitable for monitoring adult and pediatric HIV patients in moderate-volume settings. The Pima CD4 is more suitable for screening eligible adult HIV patients for antiretroviral treatment initiation in low-volume laboratories. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.CD4 count; CD4%; FACSCount CD4; Pima CD4; Resource-limited settingsadolescent; adult; aged; article; Belgium; blood sampling; capillary blood; CD4 lymphocyte count; CD4 T cell count test; clinical assessment; female; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient; intermethod comparison; major clinical study; male; measurement accuracy; multicenter study; outpatient department; priority journal; Tanzania; venous blood; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Belgium; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; Female; HIV Infections; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Sensitivity and Specificity; Tanzania; Young AdultNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34248551114WHO HIV clinical staging or CD4 cell counts for antiretroviral therapy eligibility assessment? An evaluation in rural Rakai district, UgandaKagaayi J., Makumbi F., Nakigozi G., Wawer M.J., Gray R.H., Serwadda D., Reynolds S.J.2007AIDS21910.1097/QAD.0b013e32810c8dceRakai Health Sciences Programme, Rakai, Uganda; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States; Institute of Public Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD, United States; Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United StatesKagaayi, J., Rakai Health Sciences Programme, Rakai, Uganda; Makumbi, F., Rakai Health Sciences Programme, Rakai, Uganda; Nakigozi, G., Rakai Health Sciences Programme, Rakai, Uganda; Wawer, M.J., Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States; Gray, R.H., Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States; Serwadda, D., Institute of Public Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Reynolds, S.J., National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD, United States, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United StatesThe ability of WHO clinical staging to predict CD4 cell counts of 200 cells/μl or less was evaluated among 1221 patients screened for antiretroviral therapy (ART). Sensitivity was 51% and specificity was 88%. The positive predictive value was 64% and the negative predictive value was 81%. Clinical criteria missed half the patients with CD4 cell counts of 200 cells/μl or less, highlighting the importance of CD4 cell measurements for the scale-up of ART provision in resource-limited settings. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.Noneadult; antiviral therapy; article; CD4 lymphocyte count; clinical assessment; clinical evaluation; controlled study; diagnostic accuracy; diagnostic value; female; human; major clinical study; male; prediction; priority journal; scale up; screening test; sensitivity and specificity; Uganda; world health organization; Anti-Retroviral Agents; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; HIV Infections; Humans; Rural Health; Sensitivity and Specificity; UgandaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70349921261Which lap is the slowest? An analysis of 32 world mile record performancesNoakes T.D., Lambert M.I., Hauman R.2009British Journal of Sports Medicine431010.1136/bjsm.2008.046763UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Association of Track and Field Statisticians, Parow, South Africa; Association of Road Running Statisticians, Parow, South Africa; UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Boundary Road, Newlands, 7700, South AfricaNoakes, T.D., UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Boundary Road, Newlands, 7700, South Africa; Lambert, M.I., UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Hauman, R., Association of Track and Field Statisticians, Parow, South Africa, Association of Road Running Statisticians, Parow, South AfricaObjectives: The pacing strategies adopted by world-record breakers during the 1-mile footrace in order to evaluate different models for the biological basis of pacing was determined in this study. Methods: Lap times in 32 world record performances were analysed. Average times for each of the four laps and as percentages of total race time were calculated. Results: The slowest laps in 90% of races were either the second (34%) or the third (56%) laps. In only two (6%) records was the final lap the slowest, whereas in 24 (76%), it was either the fastest (38%) or the second fastest (38%) lap. Mean times for the second and third laps were both significantly slower than were times for the first or final laps, but there was no significant difference in times for the first and final lap. Conclusion: The finding that world record beaters run the final lap in their quickest mile races faster than the second and third laps matches findings for races at longer distances. The presence of this "end spurt" suggests that the pacing strategy is regulated "in anticipation" and is not purely the result of a developing "peripheral fatigue".Noneachievement; article; athlete; competition; exercise; fatigue; human; physical performance; running; sport; time; athletic performance; male; physiology; running; time; track and field; trends; Athletic Performance; Humans; Male; Running; Time; Track and FieldNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84899845225Which farmers benefit most from sustainable intensification? An ex-ante impact assessment of expanding grain legume production in MalawiFranke A.C., van den Brand G.J., Giller K.E.2014European Journal of Agronomy58None10.1016/j.eja.2014.04.002Plant Production Systems, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 430, 6700 AK Wageningen, Netherlands; Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South AfricaFranke, A.C., Plant Production Systems, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 430, 6700 AK Wageningen, Netherlands, Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; van den Brand, G.J., Plant Production Systems, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 430, 6700 AK Wageningen, Netherlands; Giller, K.E., Plant Production Systems, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 430, 6700 AK Wageningen, NetherlandsLegume technologies are widely promoted among smallholders in southern Africa, providing an opportunity for sustainable intensification. Farms and farming strategies of smallholders differ greatly within any given locality and determine the opportunities for uptake of technologies. We provide an ex-ante assessment of the impact of grain legumes on different types of farms and identify niches for grain legumes in Malawi. After creation of a farm typology, detailed farm characterisations were used to describe the farming system. The characterisations provided the basis for the construction of simplified, virtual farms on which possible scenarios for expanding and intensifying grain legume production were explored using the farm-scale simulation model NUANCES-FARMSIM. Observed yields and labour inputs suggested that maize provides more edible yield per unit area with a higher calorific value and greater labour use efficiency than groundnut and soybean. Crop yields simulated by the model partly confirmed these yield trends, but at farm level maize-dominated systems often produced less food than systems with more grain legumes. Improved management practices such as addition of P-based fertiliser to grain legumes and inoculation of soybean were crucial to increase biological nitrogen fixation and grain yields of legumes and maize, and created systems with increased area of legumes that were more productive than the current farms. Improved legume management was especially a necessity for low resource endowed farmers who, due to little past use of P-based fertiliser and organic inputs, have soils with a poorer P status than wealthier farmers. Economic analyses suggested that legume cultivation was considerably more profitable than continuous maize cropping. Highest potential net benefits were achieved with tobacco, but the required financial investment made tobacco cultivation riskier. Grain legumes have excellent potential as food and cash crops particularly for medium and high resource endowed farmers, a role that could grow in importance as legume markets further develop. For low resource endowed farmers, legumes can improve food self-sufficiency of households, but only if legumes can be managed with P fertiliser and inoculation in the case of soybean. Given that low resource endowed farmers tend to be risk averse and have few resources to invest, the ability of poorer farmers to adopt legume technologies could be limited. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.Crop model; Farm typologies; Groundnut; Maize; SoybeanNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84937517571Whey or Casein Hydrolysate with Carbohydrate for Metabolism and Performance in CyclingOosthuyse T., Carstens M., Millen A.M.E.2015International Journal of Sports Medicine36810.1055/s-0034-1398647Exercise Laboratory, School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Medical School, 7 York Road, Johannesburg, South AfricaOosthuyse, T., Exercise Laboratory, School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Medical School, 7 York Road, Johannesburg, South Africa; Carstens, M., Exercise Laboratory, School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Medical School, 7 York Road, Johannesburg, South Africa; Millen, A.M.E., Exercise Laboratory, School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Medical School, 7 York Road, Johannesburg, South AfricaThe protein type most suitable for ingestion during endurance exercise is undefined. This study compared co-ingestion of either 15 g/h whey or casein hydrolysate with 63 g/h fructose: maltodextrin (0.8:1) on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, exercise metabolism and performance. 2h postprandial, 8 male cyclists ingested either: carbohydrate-only, carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate or placebo-water in a crossover, double-blind design during 2h of exercise at 60%W <inf>max</inf> followed by a 16-km time trial. Data were evaluated by magnitude-based inferential statistics. Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, measured from 13CO<inf>2</inf> breath enrichment, was not substantially influenced by co-ingestion of either protein hydrolysate. However, only co-ingestion of carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate substantially decreased (98% very likely decrease) total carbohydrate oxidation (mean±SD, 242±44; 258±47; 277±33g for carbohydrate-casein, carbohydrate-whey and carbohydrate-only, respectively) and substantially increased (93% likely increase) total fat oxidation (92±14; 83±27; 73±19g) compared with carbohydrate-only. Furthermore, only carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate ingestion resulted in a faster time trial (-3.6%; 90% CI: ±3.2%) compared with placebo-water (95% likely benefit). However, neither protein hydrolysate enhanced time trial performance when compared with carbohydrate-only. Under the conditions of this study, ingesting carbohydrate-casein, but not carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, favourably alters metabolism during prolonged moderate-strenuous cycling without substantially altering cycling performance compared with carbohydrate-only. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.cycling time trial; endurance exercise; exogenous carbohydrate oxidation; gastrointestinal comfort; multiple transportable carbohydrates; protein hydrolysatecarbohydrate diet; casein; casein hydrolysate; fructose; maltodextrin; polysaccharide; administration and dosage; adult; athletic performance; beverage; carbohydrate diet; comparative study; controlled study; crossover procedure; cycling; diet supplementation; double blind procedure; endurance; human; male; metabolism; oxidation reduction reaction; physiology; randomized controlled trial; whey; Adult; Athletic Performance; Beverages; Bicycling; Caseins; Cross-Over Studies; Dietary Carbohydrates; Dietary Supplements; Double-Blind Method; Fructose; Humans; Male; Oxidation-Reduction; Physical Endurance; Polysaccharides; WheyNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84872326699Where is my daddy? an exploration of the impact of absentee fathers on the lives of young people in BotswanaThupayagale-Tshweneagae G., Mgutshini T., Nkosi Z.Z.2012Africa Development373NoneFaculty of Human Sciences, University of South Africa, South AfricaThupayagale-Tshweneagae, G., Faculty of Human Sciences, University of South Africa, South Africa; Mgutshini, T., Faculty of Human Sciences, University of South Africa, South Africa; Nkosi, Z.Z., Faculty of Human Sciences, University of South Africa, South AfricaA substantial body of research has consistently concluded that children growing up with absentee fathers are at an increased risk of maladjustment. This paper argues that co-parenting can have both direct and indirect or mediated effects on children. Co-parenting has an added benefit of modelling dyadic skills that include proving mutual emotional support, influence, and amicable resolution of disputes. Through qualitative data obtained in 2009 from 45 final year students at the University of Botswana, the authors conclude that African personhood is a larger-than-self conception, which also includes more than the physical being and shows that young people raised in father-absent families view their personhood as inferior, less guarded, and incomplete, relative to that of their counterparts who were born and raised in married-couple families. Living a full quality life eludes youth who were raised by mothers only, affirming the importance of fathers in the personhood of any individual. © Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2012.Absentee fathers; Co-parenting; Youth personhoodNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84893334213When to Randomize: Lessons From Independent Impact Evaluation of Reading to Learn (RtL) Programme to Improve Literacy and Numeracy in Kenya and UgandaOketch M., Ngware M., Mutisya M., Kassahun A., Abuya B., Musyoka P.2014Peabody Journal of Education89110.1080/0161956X.2014.862470Institute of Education, University of London, United Kingdom; African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), KenyaOketch, M., Institute of Education, University of London, United Kingdom; Ngware, M., African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), Kenya; Mutisya, M., African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), Kenya; Kassahun, A., African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), Kenya; Abuya, B., African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), Kenya; Musyoka, P., African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), KenyaIn East Africa, there is great effort directed toward ensuring that there is learning and value for money invested in universal education policies initiated over the past decade. Kenya and Uganda are two countries that typify this effort. The effort includes the work of research organisations such as Uwezo, which assess learning levels; RTI, which assesses language and early grade reading; and the work of African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), which looks at schooling patterns of different households. All these studies paint a disappointing picture both for the universal access Education for All policy and the large sums of money that have been devoted to achieve it. The verdict is that too many pupils in schools are not learning and too many poor ones are excluded from universal public access. Uwezo reports that 70% of pupils in Grade 3 cannot do Grade 2 work, and 9% of those completing Primary 8 in Kenya cannot do Grade 2 work. Answers are not easy to find, so borrowing what has worked elsewhere has been attempted. This article presents one effort toward finding what can work to improve learning for pupils in early grades. It is based on the idea of "Reading to Learn" implemented elsewhere and attempted in East Africa by Aga Khan Foundation and independently evaluated by APHRC using randomization methods. Lessons presented highlight the role and complexities of randomization in addressing the educational challenges in East Africa. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.NoneNoneNone
WoSWOS:000256016000009When the trivial becomes meaningful: Reflections on a process evaluation of a home visitation programme in South AfricaMarais, Sandra,Munro, Salla,Odendaal, Willem A.,Van Niekerk, Ashley2008EVALUATION AND PROGRAM PLANNING31210.1016/j.evalprogplan.2008.02.006South African Medical Research Council, University of South Africa"Marais, Sandra: South African Medical Research Council","Munro, Salla: South African Medical Research Council","Van Niekerk, Ashley: South African Medical Research Council",This paper reflects on a process evaluation of a home visitation programme in South Africa. The programme, implemented in two low-income communities, focused on the reduction of risks to unintentional childhood injuries. The evaluation comprised a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, including observations in conjunction with an evaluator's journal, diaries kept by the home visitors, interviews and focus group discussions. Short questionnaires were administered to programme staff and home visitors. Caregivers were visited to attain their assessment of visitors and the programme. These methods resulted in a detailed description of implementation processes, but more importantly gave insight into the experiences and perceptions of the social actors, i.e. programme staff, visitors and caregivers. It also offered possible explanations for the difference in the intervention effect between the two sites. Two major challenges to the evaluation were: (i) the power-imbalance between the evaluator and community participants (visitors and caregivers) and (ii) the language- and cultural barriers between evaluator and community participants. The evaluation demonstrated that process information can contribute towards explaining outcome results, but also that active participation from all social actors is a necessary condition if process evaluations are to result in programme improvement. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved."home visitation","process evaluation","QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE METHODS","unintentional childhood injuries","PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH",PREVENTION,RISKNoneNone
WoSWOS:000297213800001When does rigorous impact evaluation make a difference? The case of the Millennium VillagesClemens, Michael A.,Demombynes, Gabriel2011JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT EFFECTIVENESS3310.1080/19439342.2011.587017The World Bank, Ctr Global Dev"Demombynes, Gabriel: The World Bank",When is the rigorous impact evaluation of development projects a luxury, and when a necessity? The authors study one high-profile case: the Millennium Villages Project (MVP), an experimental and intensive package intervention to spark sustained local economic development in rural Africa. They illustrate the benefits of rigorous impact evaluation in this setting by showing that estimates of the project's effects depend heavily on the evaluation method. Comparing trends at the MVP intervention sites in Kenya, Ghana, and Nigeria with trends in the surrounding areas yields much more modest estimates of the project's effects than the before-versus-after comparisons published thus far by the MVP. Neither approach constitutes a rigorous impact evaluation of the MVP, which is impossible to perform due to weaknesses in the evaluation design of the project's initial phase. These weaknesses include the subjective choice of intervention sites, the subjective choice of comparison sites, the lack of baseline data on comparison sites, the small sample size, and the short time horizon. The authors describe one of many ways that the next wave of the intervention could be designed to allow proper evaluation of the MVP's impact at little additional cost.evaluation,"millennium development goals",PACKAGE,VILLAGE,ECONOMICS,KENYA,RANDOMIZATIONNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84902540275What works best and when: Accounting for multiple sources of pureselection bias in program evaluationsJung H., Pirog M.A.2014Journal of Policy Analysis and Management33310.1002/pam.21764School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, 1315 E. 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, United States; Indiana University, 1315 E. 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, United States; Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, United States; Sanlam Centre for Public Management and Governance, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South AfricaJung, H., School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, 1315 E. 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, United States; Pirog, M.A., Indiana University, 1315 E. 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, United States, Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, United States, Sanlam Centre for Public Management and Governance, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South AfricaMost evaluations are still quasi-experimental and most recent quasi-experimental methodological research has focused on various types of propensity score matching to minimize conventional selection bias on observables. Although these methods create better-matched treatment and comparison groups on observables, the issue of selection on unobservables still looms large. Thus, in the absence of being able to run randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or natural experiments, it is important to understand how well different regression-based estimators perform in terms of minimizing pure selection bias, that is, selection on unobservables. We examine the relative magnitudes of three sources of pure selection bias: heterogeneous response bias, time-invariant individual heterogeneity (fixed effects [FEs]), and intertemporal dependence (autoregressive process of order one [AR(1)]). Because the relative magnitude of each source of pure selection bias may vary in different policy contexts, it is important to understand how well different regression-based estimators handle each source of selection bias. Expanding simulations that have their origins in the work of Heckman, LaLonde, and Smith (), we find that difference-in-differences (DID) using equidistant pre- and postperiods and FEs estimators are less biased and have smaller standard errors in estimating the Treatment on the Treated (TT) than other regression-based estimators. Our data analysis using the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) program replicates our simulation findings in estimating the TT. © 2014 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.NoneNoneNone
WoSWOS:000306994100004"What Took You So Long?" The Impact of PEPFAR on the Expansion of HIV Testing and Counseling Services in AfricaCheng, Alison S.,Lembariti, Salama,Marum, Elizabeth,Moore, Jan,Mugo, Nelly,Parekh, Bharat,Phiri, Mannasseh,Taegtmeyer, Miriam2012JAIDS-JOURNAL OF ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES60None10.1097/QAI.0b013e31825f313bUnited States Agency for International Development (USAID), University of Liverpool, Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Muhimbili Univ Hlth & Allied Sci, Soc Family Hlth"Cheng, Alison S.: United States Agency for International Development (USAID)","Taegtmeyer, Miriam: University of Liverpool",HIV testing and counseling services in Africa began in the early 1990s, with limited availability and coverage. Fears of stigma and discrimination, complex laboratory systems, and lack of available care and treatment services hampered expansion. Use of rapid point-of-care tests, introduction of services to prevent mother-to-child transmission, and increasing provision of antiretroviral drugs were key events in the late 1990s and early 2000s that facilitated the expansion of HIV testing and counseling services. Innovations in service delivery included providing HIV testing in both clinical and community sites, including mobile and home testing. Promotional campaigns were conducted in many countries, and evolutions in policies and guidance facilitated expansion and uptake. Support from President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and national governments, other donors, and the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria contributed to significant increases in the numbers of persons tested in many countries. Quality of both testing and counseling, limited number of health care workers, uptake by couples, and effectiveness of linkages and referral systems remain challenges. Expansion of antiretroviral treatment, especially in light of the evidence that treatment contributes to prevention of transmission, will require greater yet strategic coverage of testing services, especially in clinical settings and in combination with other high-impact HIV prevention strategies. Continued support from President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, governments, and other donors is required for the expansion of testing needed to achieve international targets for the scale-up of treatment and universal access to knowledge of HIV status.COUNSELING,HIV,PEPFAR,TESTING,"ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY",COST-EFFECTIVENESS,DEVELOPING-COUNTRIES,"DISCORDANT COUPLES",KENYA,PREVENTION,SCALING-UP,STRATEGIES,TRANSMISSION,UGANDANoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84867363043What's in a name? The effect of a brand name on consumers' evaluation of fresh milkJoubert J.P., Poalses J.2012International Journal of Consumer Studies36410.1111/j.1470-6431.2011.01065.xBureau of Market Research, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South AfricaJoubert, J.P., Bureau of Market Research, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa; Poalses, J., Bureau of Market Research, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South AfricaIt is commonly accepted that packaged fresh milk available from reputable retail outlets taste the same and that when consumers choose between relatively similar products, such as milk, the purchasing decision tends to become simplified by considering product images and relying on brand names with clear and positive associations. One may thus ask whether the brand name of milk can influence consumers' evaluation of the actual sensory taste delivery. A quasi-experimental milk tasting was conducted to investigate this question. The procedure involved 312 participants who assessed milk from various milk brands that were decanted from either branded or unbranded packaging. The findings confirmed that the subjective associations bestowed on a brand name do indeed influence the way in which consumers experience the taste delivery of a milk product. This poses a challenge to milk brand manufacturers to identify alternative ways in which they could differentiate milk product offerings from competitor brands in order to retain or establish positive brand associations and ultimately ensure consumer loyalty. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Brand association; Brand name; Consumer liking; Fresh milk; Quasi-experimental designNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-69249172393What should make up a final mark for a course? An investigation into the academic performance of first year bioscience studentsDowns C.T.2006Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education31310.1080/02602930500352998School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, 3209, South AfricaDowns, C.T., School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, 3209, South AfricaPerformance of individual students in a tertiary level course is usually reflected in a final mark that determines their progress and transfer to higher courses. The contributions of different types of assessment to this final mark vary greatly within and between subjects in and between institutions. Performance of students in a first year course, Bioscience at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg (UKZN) was assessed to determine if there were any patterns emerging in the broad components that contributed to the final mark, namely the coursework, theory and practical examinations. Performance of students was compared in Bioscience 110 for the years 1995-2000 using Repeated Measures ANOVA. Students performed best in coursework. All students performed poorly in the theory examinations. In addition differential performance between students, particularly the performance of sub-groups within the class was investigated. Of particular interest were English second language (ESL) students, and previous Science Foundation Programme (SFP) students. The latter are mainly previously disadvantaged Black students. All sub-groups of students showed similar trends in performance in Bioscience assessment tasks and final marks. However, the SFP students' final marks were lower than the other sub-groups, and showed a decreased performance for the same period. Most students, excluding SFP students, fell in the 50-59% category for the final Bioscience 110 marks obtained for the period 1995-2000. Theory examinations were investigated further, and were analysed in their component parts, namely multiple choice (MCQ), short questions and essay. Students performed best and consistently in MCQ. In contrast, students performed poorly in the short question and essay sections. Although the different ethnic subgroupings showed similar trends in performance, the SFP students showed the poorest performance. In particular, they scored lowest in the theory examinations where they performed more poorly than the other sub-groupings in short questions and essays that require higher order cognitive skills. These patterns suggest that changes are required at the teaching, student and assessment interfaces. © 2006 Taylor & Francis.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84928565834What is the role of impact assessment in the long term?Bond A.2015Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management17110.1142/S1464333215500064School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, United Kingdom; Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (Potchefstroom), South AfricaBond, A., School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, United Kingdom, Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (Potchefstroom), South AfricaThis short paper makes the case that most impact assessment (IA) has sustainable development as the stated goal, but that it doesn't deliver sustainable outcomes. A key pillar of sustainable development is equity, both intra-generational (defined after Lamorgese and Geneletti (2013, p.119) as ensuring "equity of opportunity for everyone, particularly the poorest and most vulnerable members of the community and seek to create a good quality of life for everyone") and inter-generational equity (defined after Gibson et al. (2005, p. 235) as favouring "present options and actions that are most likely to preserve or enhance the opportunities and capabilities of future generations to live sustainably"). Notwithstanding the importance of intra-generational equity, this paper focuses on the problem that inter-generational equity presents to IA both because of the prevalence of short-term planning, and because approaches developed to deal with inherent uncertainty associated with impacts considered in the long term are overly resource intensive and therefore impractical. A research focus on IA processes that can deal with inter-generational impacts cost effectively might provide the basis on which to develop an IA tool that actually delivers on its stated goal and fits in with current decision-making norms. © 2015 Imperial College Press.cost effectiveness; impact assessment; Inter-generational equity; long-term prediction; sustainable developmentcost-benefit analysis; decision making; environmental impact assessment; sustainable development; uncertainty analysisNone
WoSWOS:000298383700020What Is the Impact of Home-Based HIV Counseling and Testing on the Clinical Status of Newly Enrolled Adults in a Large HIV Care Program in Western Kenya?Braitstein, Paula,Kimaiyo, Sylvester,Mamlin, Joseph,Ndege, Samson,Wachira, Juddy2012CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES54210.1093/cid/cir789Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indiana University System, Moi University, Regenstrief Institute Inc, United States Agency for International Development (USAID), University of Toronto, USAID AMPATHNoneBackground. This article describes the effect point of entry into the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care program had on the clinical status of adults presenting for the first time to USAID-AMPATH (US Agency for International Development-Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare) Partnership clinics for HIV care. Methods. All patients aged &gt;= 14 years enrolled between August 2008 and April 2010 were included. Points of entry to USAID-AMPATH clinics were home-based counseling and testing (HBCT), provider-initiated testing and counseling (PITC), HIV testing in the tuberculosis clinic, and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Tests for trend were calculated, and multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the effect of HBCT versus other points of entry on primary outcomes controlling for age and sex. Results. There were 19 552 eligible individuals. Of these, 946 tested in HBCT, 10 261 in VCT, 8073 in PITC, and 272 in the tuberculosis clinic. The median (interquartile range) enrollment CD4 cell counts among those who tested HIV positive was 323 (194-491), 217 (87-404), 190 (70-371), and 136 cells/mm(3) (59-266) for HBCT, VCT, PITC, and the tuberculosis clinic, respectively (P &lt; .001). Compared with those patients whose HIV infection was diagnosed in the tuberculosis clinic, those who tested positive in HBCT were, controlling for age and sex, less likely to have to have World Health Organization stage III or IV HIV infection at enrollment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], .03-.06), less likely to enroll with a CD4 cell count of &lt; 200 cells/mm(3) (AOR, 0.20; 95% CI, .14-.28), and less likely to enroll into care with a chief complaint (AOR, 0.08; 95% CI, .05-.12). Conclusions. HBCT is effective at getting HIV-infected persons enrolled in HIV care before they become ill.,"ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY",DISCORDANCE,GENDER,INFECTION,PREVALENCE,PREVENTION,SCALE-UP,SELF-DISCLOSURE,SEROSTATUS,"SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA"NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77954135417What impact are EU supermarket standards having on developing countries' export of high-value horticultural products? Evidence from KenyaAsfaw S., Mithöfer D., Waibel H.2010Journal of International Food and Agribusiness Marketing22310.1080/08974431003641398International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), PO Box 39063-00623, Nairobi, Kenya; World Agro-Forestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya; Leibniz University of Hannover, Hannover, GermanyAsfaw, S., International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), PO Box 39063-00623, Nairobi, Kenya; Mithöfer, D., World Agro-Forestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya; Waibel, H., Leibniz University of Hannover, Hannover, GermanyEuropean Union retailers are setting global benchmarks for the production of fresh food and are asking their suppliers for produce to be certified according to food safety and quality standards. Compliance with these standards for developing countries' small-scale producers entails costly investment in variable inputs and longterm structures. Limited empirical evidence exists either to refute or confirm the concern that the proliferation and enhanced stringency of these standards marginalize smallholders from the global market. This paper therefore explores the costs of compliance, factors explaining the smallholder decision to adopt EU private quality standards, and the impacts of the standards on farm financial performance. We develop a 2-stage standard treatment effect model to account for self-selection as a source of endogeneity. Analysis is based on a random cross section sample of 439 small-scale export vegetable producers in Kenya whose production was monitored in 2005-2006. We demonstrate that adopters and nonadopters are distinguishable by their asset holding and household wealth, access to services, labor endowment, and level of education. Once we control for the endogeneity problem, we find that small-scale producers can benefit substantially from adopting the standards at the farm level. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.Adoption; EurepGAP standards; Export vegetables; Impact assessment; KenyaNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84930412536What else is in your supplement? A review of the effectiveness of the supportive ingredients in multi-ingredient performance supplements to improve strength, power, and recoveryAllman B.R., Kreipke V.C., Ormsbee M.J.2015Strength and Conditioning Journal37310.1519/SSC.0000000000000142Department of Nutrition, Institute of Sports Sciences and Medicine, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, United States; Discipline of Biokinetics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South AfricaAllman, B.R., Department of Nutrition, Institute of Sports Sciences and Medicine, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, United States; Kreipke, V.C., Department of Nutrition, Institute of Sports Sciences and Medicine, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, United States; Ormsbee, M.J., Department of Nutrition, Institute of Sports Sciences and Medicine, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, United States, Discipline of Biokinetics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South AfricaThis review summarizes the empirical research of the effectiveness, safety, and dosages of the lesser-known, but commonly added, supportive ingredients in multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS). primary ingredients that are well known and previously reviewed (I.E., caffeine, creatine, beta-alanine) are excluded from this review. the improvements reported are commonly mediated by secondary mechanisms such as improved blood flow, protein balance, metabolism, and antioxidant status. overwhelming evidence exists suggesting that the supportive ingredients in MIPS are safe to use; however, the amount present in most MIPS is likely too small to elicit strength, power, or recovery responses. © 2015 National Strength and Conditioning Association.betaine; Carnitine; glucuronolactone; nitrates; performanceNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-17444426719What do we know about the perception educators have of HIV/AIDS and its impact on the holistic development of adolescent learners?De Lange N., Greyling L., Leslie G.B.2005International Journal of Adolescence and Youth1242371NoneFaculty of Education, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Faculty of Education, Vista University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; Parkside Primary School, Port Elizabeth, South AfricaDe Lange, N., Faculty of Education, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Greyling, L., Faculty of Education, Vista University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; Leslie, G.B., Parkside Primary School, Port Elizabeth, South AfricaHIV/AIDS is part of the South African reality to such an extent that more than half the children admitted to South Africa's second largest hospital are HIV-positive or have full-blown AIDS. This has implications for the education sector, as HIV/AIDS has also infiltrated and affected schools and education institutions and calls for the role of the educator to exceed that of teaching. It is now more than ever necessary that educators pay close attention to the holistic development of the learner, infected and/or affected by HIV/AIDS. This research attempted to determine what perceptions senior phase educators have regarding HIV/AIDS and its impact on the holistic development of adolescent learners within their ecosystem and then to formulate recommendations based on the findings. To achieve these aims a qualitative, descriptive and contextual research design was chosen. The first theme regarding the educators' perceptions of HIV/AIDS revealed various categories, i.e an awareness of the prevalence of HIV/AIDS; medical knowledge of HIV/AIDS; causes of HIV/AIDS; feelings about it as well as views on what is needed for stopping the spread. The second theme regarding the impact of HIV/AIDS on the holistic development of the learners showed the following categories: understanding of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the holistic development of the adolescent (physically, cognitively, emotionally, socially and morally), on the family, on the peer group, on the school and on the community. © 2005 A B Academic Publishers.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-61449107995What contributes to the enhanced use of customer, competition and technology knowledge for product innovation performance?. A survey of multinational industrial companies' subsidiaries operating in ChinaZhang J., Hoenig S., Di Benedetto A., Lancioni R.A., Phatak A.2009Industrial Marketing Management38210.1016/j.indmarman.2008.12.007Department of Marketing, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong; School of Economic and Business Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Department of Marketing, Fox School of Business and Management, Temple University, 523 Alter Hall, Philadelphia, PA 19122, United StatesZhang, J., Department of Marketing, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong; Hoenig, S., School of Economic and Business Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Di Benedetto, A., Department of Marketing, Fox School of Business and Management, Temple University, 523 Alter Hall, Philadelphia, PA 19122, United States; Lancioni, R.A., Department of Marketing, Fox School of Business and Management, Temple University, 523 Alter Hall, Philadelphia, PA 19122, United States; Phatak, A., Department of Marketing, Fox School of Business and Management, Temple University, 523 Alter Hall, Philadelphia, PA 19122, United StatesThis study extends an emerging research area in knowledge management to new product development by empirically examining the factors associated with the use of different types of knowledge flows from various sources and product innovation performance (i.e., market success of new products) in the multinational companies' subsidiaries in China. The findings seem to indicate the vitality of considering a broad spectrum of knowledge management related variables such as a subsidiary's product development strategy, market conditions it faces, its knowledge capacity and knowledge support structure. Furthermore, we found that subsidiaries with better performance are generally excel in the use of competition knowledge flow, the development of moderate innovative products, communication among different functional departments or product development groups, the codification of knowledge, and a supportive culture. © 2008.China; Knowledge flow; Knowledge management; Product innovation performanceNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79957454274Wet season predictive technique for monitoring the hydrocarbon degradation in a continuous discharge of wastewater in pond systemUkpaka C.P., Ogoni H.A., Amadi S.A., Akor J.A.2010Modelling, Measurement and Control C7102-JanNoneDept of Chemical/Petrochemical Engineering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, PMB 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; Dept of Chemical/Petrochemical Engineering, Niger Delta of University of Bayelsa State, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria; Dept of AUkpaka, C.P., Dept of Chemical/Petrochemical Engineering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, PMB 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; Ogoni, H.A., Dept of Chemical/Petrochemical Engineering, Niger Delta of University of Bayelsa State, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria; Amadi, S.A., Dept of Chemical/Petrochemical Engineering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, PMB 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; Akor, J.A., Dept of Agriculture and Environmental Engineering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, PMB 5080, Port Harcourt, NigeriaMathematical model was developed in this paper for the prediction of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in a continuous discharge of wastewater in a pond system for wet season. The general partial differential equation obtained from the process was resolved using separation of variables tools. The functional parameters were evaluated and computed as shown in this paper, which led to the determination of maximum specific growth rate, maximum degradation rate and equilibrium constant for both theoretical and experimental obtained results. The comparison of theoretical and experimental results in terms of maximum specific growth rate and equilibrium constant shows a good match. This illustrates that the theoretical model developed is reliable and can be used to predict and monitor the degradation of individual hydrocarbon in a pond system upon the influence of momentum transfer.Correlation; Hydrocarbon degradation; Microbial growth; Model; Pond; WastewaterCorrelation; Degradation rate; Functional parameters; Hydrocarbon degradation; Maximum specific growth rates; Microbial growth; Petroleum hydrocarbons; Pond; Pond systems; Predictive techniques; Separation of variables; Theoretical models; Wet season; Equilibrium constants; Hydrocarbons; Lakes; Mathematical models; Partial differential equations; Petroleum chemistry; Wastewater; DegradationNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77954471412Wetland craft plants in KwaZulu-Natal: An ecological review of harvesting impacts and implications for sustainable utilizationTraynor C.H., Kotze D.C., Mckean S.G.2010Bothalia401NoneWildlife and Environment Society of South Africa, P.O. Box 394, 3290 Howick, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; Centre for Environment, Agriculture and Development, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, 3209 Scotteville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife, P.O. Box 13053, 3202 Cascades, South AfricaTraynor, C.H., Wildlife and Environment Society of South Africa, P.O. Box 394, 3290 Howick, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; Kotze, D.C., Centre for Environment, Agriculture and Development, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, 3209 Scotteville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Mckean, S.G., Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife, P.O. Box 13053, 3202 Cascades, South AfricaIn South Africa, wetland plants have been used for centuries and they continue to be harvested for subsistence and commercial purposes. Fibres for crafts are collected by cutting the aboveground parts. KwaZulu-Natal is one of the major basket-producing regions in southern Africa and at least twenty-two species of wetland plants are harvested for crafts. A literature review of the harvested species revealed that the impacts of cutting have only been extensively investigated for Phragmites australis (Cav.) Steud. and Juncus kraussii Hochst. The review suggested that, where plants display strong seasonal aboveground productivity patterns, cutting should take place after shoot senescence and before new shoot emergence to minimize damage to plants. Cutting in the short term could increase the density of green stems. However, in the long term in Phragmites australis, it may deplete the rhizome reserves and reduce the density of useable (longer and thicker) culms. The opportunity for sustainable harvests was investigated by considering the geographic distribution, whether species are habitat specific or not, and local population sizes of the craft plants. Juncus kraussii is of the greatest conservation concern. Ecologically sustainable wetland plant harvesting could contribute to the wise use of wetlands, an approach promoted nationally and internationally.Basketry; Cutting disturbance; Management; Sustainable utilization; Wise use of wetlandJuncus kraussii; Phragmites australisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84861551153West African Immigrants' Perceptions of Advertising in General and Impact on Buying DecisionsBlankson C., Spears N., Hinson R.E.2012Journal of International Consumer Marketing24310.1080/08961530.2012.682038Department of Marketing and Logistics, College of Business, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #311396, Denton, TX 76203-5017, United States; The University of Ghana Business School, Legon, Accra, GhanaBlankson, C., Department of Marketing and Logistics, College of Business, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #311396, Denton, TX 76203-5017, United States; Spears, N., Department of Marketing and Logistics, College of Business, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #311396, Denton, TX 76203-5017, United States; Hinson, R.E., Department of Marketing and Logistics, College of Business, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #311396, Denton, TX 76203-5017, United States, The University of Ghana Business School, Legon, Accra, GhanaDespite the increasing attention to African immigrants in the United States, and the pivotal role that advertising messages play in the immigrant community, examination of African immigrants' purchasing behavior and perceptions of advertising have been overlooked by marketing scholars. The purpose of this research is to investigate West African immigrants' perceptions of advertising in general and its impact on buying decisions. Data analyses extract five perceptual factors toward advertising in general, namely, "advertising is a pleasure and affects perceptions," "advertising heightens vanity," "advertising intensifies materialism," "advertising enhances social role and image," and "advertising is good for the economy." With the exception of "advertising heightens vanity," all the identified factors impact buying decisions. The overall results show that consumers rely on a broad scope of information about the impact of advertisements on standards of living and the economy. This study can be of value to marketing scholars, practitioners, and policy makers interested in the United States African immigrant community. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.Advertising in general; consumer perceptions; factor analyses; multicultural marketplaces; United States; West African immigrantsNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84929942930Well-aligned graphene oxide nanosheets decorated with zinc oxide nanocrystals for high performance photocatalytic applicationKaviyarasu K., Magdalane C.M., Manikandan E., Jayachandran M., Ladchumananandasivam R., Neelamani S., Maaza M.2015International Journal of Nanoscience14310.1142/S0219581X15500076Department of Physics, Sri Sankara Arts and Science College, Enathur, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India; Nanosciences/Nanotechnology Laboratories, Materials Research Department and Nanoscience Laboratories, IThemba LABS-National Research Foundation of South Africa, South Africa; Department of Chemistry, St. Xavier's College (Autonomous), Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India; Electrochemical Materials Science Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, India; Department of Textile Engineering and Post Graduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Centre of Technology, Federal University of the State of Rio Grande Do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil; Coastal Management Program, Environment and Life Sciences Research Centre, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P. O. Box 24885, Safat, KuwaitKaviyarasu, K., Department of Physics, Sri Sankara Arts and Science College, Enathur, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India, Nanosciences/Nanotechnology Laboratories, Materials Research Department and Nanoscience Laboratories, IThemba LABS-National Research Foundation of South Africa, South Africa; Magdalane, C.M., Department of Chemistry, St. Xavier's College (Autonomous), Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India; Manikandan, E., Nanosciences/Nanotechnology Laboratories, Materials Research Department and Nanoscience Laboratories, IThemba LABS-National Research Foundation of South Africa, South Africa; Jayachandran, M., Electrochemical Materials Science Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, India; Ladchumananandasivam, R., Department of Textile Engineering and Post Graduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Centre of Technology, Federal University of the State of Rio Grande Do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil; Neelamani, S., Coastal Management Program, Environment and Life Sciences Research Centre, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P. O. Box 24885, Safat, Kuwait; Maaza, M., Nanosciences/Nanotechnology Laboratories, Materials Research Department and Nanoscience Laboratories, IThemba LABS-National Research Foundation of South Africa, South AfricaGraphene oxide (GO) nanosheets modified with zinc oxide nanocrystals were achieved by a green wet-chemical approach. As-obtained products were characterized by XRD, Raman spectra, XPS, HR-TEM, EDS, PL and Photocatalytic studies. XRD studies indicate that the GO nanosheet have the same crystal structure found in hexagonal form of ZnO. The enhanced Raman spectrum of 2D bands confirmed formation of single layer graphene oxides. The gradual photocatalytic reduction of the GO nanosheet in the GO:ZnO suspension of ethanol was studied by using X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy. The nanoscale structures were observed and confirmed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The evolution of the elemental composition, especially the various numbers of layers were determined from energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS). PL properties of GO:ZnO nanosheet were found to be dependent on the growth condition and the resultant morphology revealed that GO nanosheet were highly transparent in the visible region. The photocatalytic performance of GO:ZnO nanocomposites was performed under UV irradiation. Therefore, the ZnO nanocrystals in the GO:ZnO composite could be applied in gradual chemical reduction and consequently tuning the electrical conductivity of the graphene oxide nanosheet. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company.Electrical characterization; Electron microscopy; Nanostructures; Raman spectroscopy; X-ray photo-emission spectroscopyCrystal structure; High resolution transmission electron microscopy; Nanocrystals; Nanosheets; Raman scattering; X ray photoelectron spectroscopy; Zinc; Zinc oxide; Electrical conductivity; Energy dispersive x-ray; Graphene oxide nanosheet; Graphene oxide nanosheets; Photocatalytic application; Photocatalytic performance; Photocatalytic reduction; Zinc oxide nanocrystals; GrapheneNone
NoneNoneWelfare impacts of smallholder farmers’ participation in maize and pigeonpea markets in TanzaniaMmbando F.E., Wale E.Z., Baiyegunhi L.J.S.2015Food Security7610.1007/s12571-015-0519-9Discipline of Agricultural Economics, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Selian Agricultural Research Institute (SARI), P.O. Box 6024, Arusha, TanzaniaMmbando, F.E., Discipline of Agricultural Economics, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, Selian Agricultural Research Institute (SARI), P.O. Box 6024, Arusha, Tanzania; Wale, E.Z., Discipline of Agricultural Economics, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Baiyegunhi, L.J.S., Discipline of Agricultural Economics, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaThis paper evaluates the impact of maize and pigeonpea market participation and the level of participation on household welfare measured by consumption expenditure in rural Tanzania. The study used cross-sectional farm household level data collected in 2010 from 700 randomly selected households in northern and eastern zones of Tanzania. Propensity score matching and endogenous switching regression techniques were employed to address the welfare impacts of market participation for binary treatment, while linear regression was employed to address the welfare impacts of the level of market participation. Maize and pigeonpea market participation and the level of participation had positive and significant impacts on the welfare of rural households. On average, maize and pigeonpea market participation increased consumption expenditure per capita in the range of 19.2–20.4 % and 28.3–29.4 %, respectively. Similarly, a one unit increase in the predicted level of market participation increased per capita consumption expenditure by 0.5 and 0.3 %, for both maize and pigeonpea, respectively. This confirms the potential role of market participation and the level of participation in improving rural household welfare, as higher consumption expenditures from market participation also mean improved food security and reduced poverty. Policies aimed at reducing the transaction costs of accessing markets such as improved market information, rural infrastructure and household capacity to produce surplus production are critical to the improvement of household welfare. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and International Society for Plant Pathology.Endogenous switching; Market participation; Propensity score matching; Rural household welfare; TanzaniaNoneNone
NoneNoneWeed species diversity on arable land of the dryland areas of central Tanzania: Impacts of continuous application of traditional tillage practicesShemdoe R.S., Mbago F.M., Kikula I.S., Van Damme P.L.2008GeoJournal714240310.1007/s10708-008-9147-7Institute of Human Settlements Studies, Ardhi University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Department of Botany, University of Dar-es-Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Institute of Resource Assessment, University of Dar-es-Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Laboratory of Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture and Ethnobotany, Faculty of Bio-Science Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, BelgiumShemdoe, R.S., Institute of Human Settlements Studies, Ardhi University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Mbago, F.M., Department of Botany, University of Dar-es-Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Kikula, I.S., Institute of Resource Assessment, University of Dar-es-Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Van Damme, P.L., Laboratory of Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture and Ethnobotany, Faculty of Bio-Science Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, BelgiumThis paper presents findings from a study that assessed influence of continuous application of a particular traditional tillage practice on weed species richness, diversity and composition and identifies weed species with positive benefits to the communities in semi-arid areas of Mpwapwa district, central Tanzania. In this area farmers apply three different traditional tillage practices which are no-till (NT), shallow tillage (ST) and Ridging System (RT). A total of 36 farm fields were surveyed in 2006/2007 cropping season where 63 weed species from 26 families were identified. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences between practices (p < 0.05), with NT practice having highest weed species richness and diversity. Among the five more prevalent weed species appearing, Bidens lineariloba was observed to exist in all the three practices. Community representatives during focus group discussions indicated 9 weed species out of 63 identified to have beneficial uses. These species are Cleome hirta, Amaranthus graecizans, Bidens lineoriloba, Bidens pilosa, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Launaea cornuta, Heteropogon contortus, Tragus berteronianus and Trichodesma zeylanicum. Their main uses include leaf-vegetable, medicines, fodder and materials for thatching. From this study NT has highest weed species richness and diversity which therefore suggests that much more time is needed for weeding in this practice compared to other practice which was the farmers' concern. It was also noted that although weed species have negative effects in crop production and production costs, they still play a vital role in food security and for the health of different people in marginal areas as well as for the complete ecosystem including micro and macrofauna. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.Land uses; Semiarid areas; Tillage systems; Weed flora diversity; Weed species richnessCrops; Ecosystems; Weed control; Semiarid areas; Tillage systems; Weed flora diversity; Weed species richness; Land use; arable land; community composition; cost-benefit analysis; dryland farming; food security; land use; semiarid region; species diversity; species richness; tillage; weed; zero tillage; Africa; Dodoma [Tanzania]; East Africa; Mpwapwa; Sub-Saharan Africa; Tanzania; Amaranthus graecizans; Bidens; Bidens pilosa; Cleome; Cornuta; Dactyloctenium aegyptium; Heteropogon contortus; Launaea; Tragus berteronianus; TrichodesmaNone
NoneNoneWeed management in upland rice in sub-Saharan Africa: Impact on labor and crop productivityOgwuike P., Rodenburg J., Diagne A., Agboh-Noameshie A.R., Amovin-Assagba E.2014Food Security6310.1007/s12571-014-0351-7Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2031 Cotonou, Benin; Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice)-East and Southern Africa, P.O. Box 33581, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaOgwuike, P., Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2031 Cotonou, Benin; Rodenburg, J., Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice)-East and Southern Africa, P.O. Box 33581, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Diagne, A., Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2031 Cotonou, Benin; Agboh-Noameshie, A.R., Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2031 Cotonou, Benin; Amovin-Assagba, E., Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2031 Cotonou, BeninRice is one of the most important crops for food security in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). There exists, however, a widening gap between its regional demand and supply. Competition from weeds is typically one of the major biophysical constraints in upland rice, frequently leading to significant yield losses and sometimes to complete crop failure, thereby threatening the food security of subsistence farmers. However, weed management practices that are currently employed to avoid such losses are associated with high weeding labor demands. This study examined the relationships between weeding times per farm, average time per hectare per weeding and rice yields of upland rice farmers in SSA, with the objective of estimating the impact of weeds on rural households' economies in SSA reliant on upland rice production systems. To this end, we analyzed survey data collected from 992 farmers in four countries (Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Togo and Uganda). The counterfactual outcomes framework of modern evaluation theory was used to estimate the Average Treatment Effect (ATE) of the number of times a farm is weeded on weeding labor efficiency, as measured by the average number of hours spent per hectare at each weeding, and on crop productivity expressed as rice grain yield per hectare. A single weeding required 173 h per hectare, while weeding twice required 130 h per hectare per weeding (259 h per hectare in total) and weeding three times required 125 h per hectare per weeding (376 h per hectare in total). Correspondingly, a single weeding was associated with an average rice yield of 1.2 t ha-1, weeding twice yielded 1.7 t ha-1 and weeding three times yielded 2.2 t ha-1. Compared to the situation where the farm is weeded only once and controlling for other factors, the model estimated yield gains of a second weeding to be 0.33 t ha-1 and a third weeding to result in a gain of 0.51 t ha-1. The estimated labor gains were respectively 64.2 and 68.1 h per hectare per weeding for a second and a third weeding. We conclude that weeding an upland rice crop more than once in SSA increases weeding labor efficiency by about 37 % and rice productivity by more than 27 %. Rather than motivating farmers to increase their labor inputs for manual weeding, however, we propose that more research and development funds should be devoted to developing, testing and promoting locally adapted strategies of labor-saving weed management in rice in sub-Saharan Africa. This will result in a significant contribution to regional food security and poverty alleviation. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and International Society for Plant Pathology.Average treatment effect; Hand weeding; Impact assessment; Rain fed rice; Structural economic method; Subsistence farmingcrop production; food security; labor; poverty alleviation; research and development; rice; subsistence; weed; weed control; yield; Cameroon; Democratic Republic Congo; Sub-Saharan Africa; Togo; UgandaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84876702326Weathering performance of delignified pine-based polyvinyl chloride compositesFabiyi J.S., McDonald A.G.2013Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites32810.1177/0731684412472382Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Federal University of Technology, Nigeria; Renewable Materials Program, Department of Forest, Rangeland, and Fire Science, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-1132, United StatesFabiyi, J.S., Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Federal University of Technology, Nigeria; McDonald, A.G., Renewable Materials Program, Department of Forest, Rangeland, and Fire Science, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-1132, United StatesThe influence of pine fiber treatments on the color and chemical changes of polyvinyl chloride-based wood plastic composites exposed to outside and xenon-arc accelerated weathering was investigated. The wood plastic composites were produced from pine fiber (untreated control, acetone extracted, and holocellulose (delignified)) and polyvinyl chloride. Different analytical tools (colorimetry, microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography) were employed for weathered wood plastic composites characterization. The study showed that longer exposure time in both outside and accelerated weathering regimes caused an increase in color change and lightness, cracking, higher oxidation but decrease in wood (lignin) content of the weathered wood plastic composites' surface for all the wood fiber types. The polyvinyl chloride molecular weight decreased with increase in exposure time of the composites. From this study, delignified wood fiber-based wood plastic composites had less color (lightness) change and reduced surface cracking with lowest weathered surface oxidation. Furthermore, relationships between accelerated and outside weathered wood plastic composite surfaces were observed. © The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/ journalsPermissions.nav.Composites; degradation; spectroscopy; water absorption; wood plastic compositesAccelerated weathering; Chemical change; Fiber treatment; Surface cracking; Surface oxidations; Untreated control; Weathering performance; Wood plastic composite; Acetone; Color; Colorimetry; Composite materials; Degradation; Fibers; Gel permeation chromatography; Infrared spectroscopy; Spectroscopy; Surface defects; Water absorption; Weathering; Xenon; Wood products; Acetone; Chromatography; Color; Colorimetry; Degradation; Infrared Spectroscopy; Polymer Wood Combinations; Water Absorption; Weathering; Wood ProductsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33845885587Weaning foods and their impact on child-feeding practices among low-income Nigerian mothersIjarotimi O.S., Ogunsemore M.T.2006Food and Nutrition Bulletin274NoneDepartment of Food Science and Technology, Human Nutrition Division, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704, Akure, Ondo State, NigeriaIjarotimi, O.S., Department of Food Science and Technology, Human Nutrition Division, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria; Ogunsemore, M.T., Department of Food Science and Technology, Human Nutrition Division, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704, Akure, Ondo State, NigeriaBackground. Many children in rural communities of developing countries die of nutrition-related causes due to lack of nutrition education and low purchasing power of the families, which result in low-quality weaning foods and poor feeding practices. Objective. To evaluate the nutritional composition of local weaning foods and their impact on child feeding practices among low-income Nigerian mothers. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and June 2005 among 294 randomly selected pairs of nursing mothers and their children who attended the postnatal clinic of State Specialist Hospital and Comprehensive Health Centers in Akure community, Ondo State, Nigeria. A structured, self-or interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on infant demographic characteristics, feeding, and socioeconomic characteristics of the parents. The children's weights were recorded, and samples of the weaning foods were analyzed. Results. The mothers' ages ranged from 22 to 37 years, and the children's from one to 12 months. Among the parents, two-fifths of the respondents worked as drivers, mechanics, carpenters, and the like, while the remaining respondents were civil servants, health professionals, teachers, merchants, and housewives. The educational attainment of the parents ranged from no formal education (1.4%) to higher education (46%); 13% had completed primary school, and 39.6% had completed secondary school. The average monthly family income was between 3,500 and 30,000 naira (US$23.3-$200). Among the children, 58.3% were of normal weight, 41.1% were mildly underweight, 0.3% moderately underweight, and 0.3% severely underweight; 23.1% were exclusively breastfed, 9.5%sturson received breastmilk and traditional medicinal herbs, 15. 6% received breastmilk and commercial weaning food, 7.4% received commercial weaning food only, 14.8% received local weaning foods only, 24.1 % received local weaning foods plus breastmilk, and 5.8% received the family diet. Conclusions. We found that a high proportion of the nursing mothers used local ingredients to formulate weaning foods for their babies. The nutritional compositions of these foods is of high quality and are suitable as weaning foods, particularly for infants of low-income parents who do not have access to commercial weaning foods. © 2006, The United Nations University.Child-feeding practices; Nutrition education; Nutritional composition of local weaning foodschild care; feeding; food intake; food quality; low income population; nutritional requirement; nutritive value; rural area; weaning; adult; article; baby food; breast feeding; catering service; cross-sectional study; female; human; infant nutrition; male; mother; newborn; Nigeria; nutritional value; poverty; psychological aspect; socioeconomics; standard; statistics; weaning; Adult; Breast Feeding; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Food Supply; Humans; Infant Food; Infant Nutrition Physiology; Infant, Newborn; Male; Mothers; Nigeria; Nutritive Value; Poverty; Socioeconomic Factors; Weaning; Africa; Nigeria; Sub-Saharan Africa; West AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84859358368Wavelets for ICU monitoringSalatian A., Adepoju F.2012International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio-Technology41NoneSchool of Information Technology and Communications, American University of Nigeria, Yola Bypass PMB 2250, Yola, NigeriaSalatian, A., School of Information Technology and Communications, American University of Nigeria, Yola Bypass PMB 2250, Yola, Nigeria; Adepoju, F., School of Information Technology and Communications, American University of Nigeria, Yola Bypass PMB 2250, Yola, NigeriaThe Intensive Care Unit (ICU) bedside monitors present the medical staff with large amounts of continuous data which can create a number of challenges. If the data is transmitted as part of a telemedicine system then the large volume of data can put pressure on bandwidth and affect the quality of service of the network. Another challenge is that the large volume of data has to be interpreted by medical staff to make a patient state assessment. In this paper we propose a time series analysis technique called data wavelets to derive trends in the data-this acts as a form of data compression for telemedicine and improves the quality of service of a network and also facilitates clinical decision support in the form of qualitative reasoning for patient state assessment. Our approach has been successfully applied to cardiovascular data from a neonatal ICU.Clinical decision support; Data compression; Data wavelets; Quality of service; TelemedicineNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-27744543444Water supplies in some rural communities around Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria: Impact on water-related diseasesOpara A.A.2005Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health364NoneDepartment of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria; Department of Medical Microbiology/Parasitology, College of Medicine, University of Calabar, NigeriaOpara, A.A., Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, Department of Medical Microbiology/Parasitology, College of Medicine, University of Calabar, NigeriaTwo traditional surface water sources and one piped supply around Calabar, Nigeria were examined to reveal the community water use patterns and the impact on water-related diseases. Using questionnaires, it was shown that some communities trekked long distances (up to 5 km) to reach their supply source. The quantity of water collected per day in each of the five rural sources was inadequate (approximately 6 buckets or 90 liters). The traditional water sources were not available all year round, forcing users to trek longer distances for alternative supplies. Only 4.4% of rural water users subjected them to any further treatment, such as boiling or filtration. Fetching water was the occupation of children; they were the worst hit by water-related diseases, such as diarrhea/ dysentery, stomachache, worms and scabies/craw-craw. About 84% of the respondents were dissatisfied with their water supplies. Deaths due to apparent water-related diseases occurred among 6.3% of respondents during the twelve months preceding the study. The overall impact was a loss of school hours/days, loss of labor and general discouragement. The community served with piped treated water fared better in all respects.Noneanimal; article; diarrhea; drinking; dysentery; helminth; human; microbiology; Nigeria; questionnaire; rural population; scabies; standard; water pollution; water supply; Animals; Diarrhea; Drinking; Dysentery; Helminths; Humans; Nigeria; Questionnaires; Rural Population; Scabies; Water Microbiology; Water Pollution; Water SupplyNone
Scopus2-s2.0-48349130533Water resources management strategies for adaptation to climate-induced impacts in South AfricaMukheibir P.2008Water Resources Management22910.1007/s11269-007-9224-6Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricaMukheibir, P., Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricaThis paper focuses on the development of a framework for strategy considerations for water resources management in South Africa to meet the development goals in the municipal and agricultural sectors. The north western part of South Africa experiences severe periods of drought and according to the climate change projections, will be most vulnerable to future climate induced water supply stress. A framework for selecting appropriate strategies is presented. A series of potential adaptation strategies most suitable for long term adaptation are discussed. These include both supply and demand side strategies. Barriers and obstacles to implementing these strategies include human and financial resource deficiencies at local municipal and community levels. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.Adaptation; Agriculture; Climate change; South Africa; Water resources managementClimate change; Competition; Drought; Information management; Knowledge management; Strategic planning; Water management; Adaptation strategies; Business media; Community levels; Future climate; Long term; Resource deficiencies; South Africa (SA); Supply and demand; Water resources management; Planning; adaptive management; agriculture; climate change; strategic approach; water management; water resource; Africa; South Africa; Southern Africa; Sub-Saharan AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84900016326Water quality of Flag Boshielo Dam, Olifants River, South Africa: Historical trends and the impact of droughtDabrowski J., Oberholster P.J., Dabrowski J.M.2014Water SA40210.4314/wsa.v40i2.17Department of Paraclinical Sciences, University of Pretoria, P/Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa; CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 320, Stellenbosch, 7599, South AfricaDabrowski, J., Department of Paraclinical Sciences, University of Pretoria, P/Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa, CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa; Oberholster, P.J., Department of Paraclinical Sciences, University of Pretoria, P/Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa, CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 320, Stellenbosch, 7599, South Africa; Dabrowski, J.M., CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South AfricaIncreasing demands for water, discharge of effluents, and variable rainfall have a negative impact on water quality in the Olifants River. Crocodile and fish mortalities attributed to pansteatitis, in Loskop Dam and downstream in the Kruger National Park (KNP), have highlighted the serious effects these impacts are having on aquatic ecosystems. Flag Boshielo Dam is a reservoir on the Olifants River, located between Loskop Dam and the KNP. It has the largest crocodile population outside of the KNP, and pansteatitis has not been reported in fish or crocodiles to date. This study evaluated comparative water quality parameters concurrent to a similar study undertaken at Loskop Dam to establish possible environmental drivers of pansteatitis. Long-term monitoring data collected by the Department of Water Affairs were analysed for trends using a Seasonal-Kendall trend test. Short-term monitoring showed that water quality in Flag Boshielo Dam was of a good standard for ecosystem health. Concentrations of dissolved Cu, Se, V and Zn were always below instrument detection limits, and Al, Fe and Mn were mostly within guideline levels for ecosystem health. A severe drought occurred between November 2002 and December 2005. Long-term monitoring showed that water quality during the drought deteriorated, with high levels of dissolved salts, especially K, Na, Cl, F, and total alkalinity. Following the drought, dissolved salt concentrations dropped, and there was a brief flush of inorganic N and P. However, between 1998 and 2011, inorganic N showed a significant decreasing trend into the oligotrophic range, while inorganic P remained in the oligo- to mesotrophic range. The inorganic N to inorganic P ratio of 5.4 after the drought was indicative of N limitation, and the phytoplankton assemblage was dominated by nitrogen-fixing species, especially Cylindrospermopsis sp. In contrast, further upstream, Loskop Dam has undergone increasing eutrophication, has frequent blooms of Microcystis aeruginosa and Ceratium hirundinella, and concentrations of Al, Fe and Mn periodically exceed guideline levels. The difference in trophic state, phytoplankton assemblage and levels of productivity between these two reservoirs may provide insights into the aetiology of pansteatitis, which is frequently associated with dietary causes.Drought; Flag Boshielo Dam; Limnology; Nitrogen limitation; Olifants River; Trend analysisDams; Dissolution; Drought; Effluents; Eutrophication; Fish; Limnology; Manganese; Nitrogen fixation; Number theory; Phytoplankton; Reservoirs (water); River pollution; Water quality; Instrument detection limits; Long term monitoring; Long-term monitoring datum; Microcystis aeruginosa; Nitrogen limitation; Short-term monitoring; Trend analysis; Water quality parameters; Rivers; alkalinity; data acquisition; discharge; drought; ecosystem health; effluent; eutrophication; fish; guideline; mortality; phytoplankton; water quality; Kruger National Park; Loskop Dam; Mpumalanga; Olifants River; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79953049473Water quality evaluation of Vaal River, Sharpeville and Bedworth Lakes in the Vaal region of South AfricaDikio E.D.2010Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology26NoneDepartment of Chemistry, Vaal University of Technology, P.O. Box X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900, South AfricaDikio, E.D., Department of Chemistry, Vaal University of Technology, P.O. Box X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900, South AfricaThe objective of this study was to determine the levels of chloride, fluoride, hardness and alkalinity of water samples from Vaal River, Sharpeville and Bedworth lakes in the Vaal region of South Africa. Water samples from the lakes and river were analyzed for fluoride by ion chromatography while chloride and alkalinity and hardness measurements were by titrimetric methods. The results showed Vaal River water to contain low fluoride concentration when compared to Sharpeville and Bedworth lakes. Fluoride ion concentration was found to be below levels that could cause fluorosis in the region. Chloride ion concentration was an average of 200 mg/L while water alkalinity was an average of 230 mg/L. The pH values recorded strongly indicate the presence of dissolved ions in solution that contributes to alkalinity and hardness of the water in the region. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2010.Bedworth lake; Sharpeville lake; Vaal region; Vaal river; Water analysisBedworth lake; Chloride ion concentration; Fluoride concentrations; Fluoride ion; Hardness measurement; pH value; River water; Sharpeville lake; South Africa; Vaal region; Vaal river; Water quality evaluation; Water samples; Alkalinity; Chlorine compounds; Hardness; Ion chromatography; Ions; Lakes; pH; Quality control; Rivers; Water pollution; Water hardnessNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33947658918Water quality changes in relation to Diptera community patterns and diversity measured at an organic effluent impacted stream in the Niger Delta, NigeriaArimoro F.O., Ikomi R.B., Iwegbue C.M.A.2007Ecological Indicators7310.1016/j.ecolind.2006.06.002Department of Zoology, Delta State University, P.M.B. 1, Abraka, Nigeria; Department of Chemistry, Delta State University, P.M.B. 1, Abraka, NigeriaArimoro, F.O., Department of Zoology, Delta State University, P.M.B. 1, Abraka, Nigeria; Ikomi, R.B., Department of Zoology, Delta State University, P.M.B. 1, Abraka, Nigeria; Iwegbue, C.M.A., Department of Chemistry, Delta State University, P.M.B. 1, Abraka, NigeriaImpact of abattoir effluents (characterized by intestinal and stomach contents of slaughtered animals, ashes from roasted animals and blood stains) on water quality, distribution and abundance of Diptera were investigated in an urban stream, River Orogodo, Southern Nigeria, from July 2003 to June 2004. Water quality changes indicated significant differences (p &lt; 0.05) in conductivity, dissolved oxygen, BOD5, COD, total hardness, nitrate-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus between the three stations sampled. Higher values of these parameters were observed at the impacted station. The abundance and community structure of Diptera patterns, especially Chironomidae, Culicidae and Syrphidae families (all indicative of poor water quality) showed strong evidence of impact from the abattoir effluents. Comparisons of abundance values demonstrated high significance (p &lt; 0.05) between the impacted station and the upstream (station 1) and downstream station (station 3). Shannon index and Berger-Parker dominance were greater at the impacted station (station 2). Analysis of faunal similarities showed that upstream station 1(unpolluted site) was significantly different from stations 2 and 3. The distinct taxa found in station 2 (the impacted station) suggest that the organic input from the abattoir favoured their abundance as most of them were opportunistic species. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Diptera; Impact; Nigeria; Orogodo stream; Water qualityAnimals; Effluents; Hardness; Nigeria; Rivers; Diptera patterns; Downstream stations; Orogodo stream; Water quality; abundance; bioindicator; community structure; ecological impact; effluent; fly; organic pollutant; river pollution; species diversity; water quality; Africa; Delta; Nigeria; Orogodo River; Sub-Saharan Africa; West Africa; Animalia; Chironomidae; Culicidae; Diptera; SyrphidaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84942984865Water Delivery Performance at Metahara Large-Scale Irrigation Scheme, EthiopiaDejen Z.A., Schultz B., Hayde L.2015Irrigation and Drainage64410.1002/ird.1917UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, Netherlands; Water Resources and Irrigation Engineering Department, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, EthiopiaDejen, Z.A., UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, Netherlands, Water Resources and Irrigation Engineering Department, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia; Schultz, B., UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, Netherlands; Hayde, L., UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, NetherlandsWater distribution, delivery and hydrodynamics in manually operated gravity irrigation schemes are often complex. The nature of the hydrodynamics and its impacts on water delivery are generally not well understood by operators. The Metahara Irrigation Scheme, Ethiopia, with a gross irrigated area of 11 500 ha, is an example of such a scheme. This paper assesses water supply and demand of the scheme and evaluates the water delivery performance to 15 offtakes at head, middle and tail reaches of a 10-km-long canal. Adequacy, efficiency, equity and dependability were used as indicators of water delivery performance. Results indicated that average annual irrigation supply is in excess of demand by 24%. Water delivery at tertiary levels was adequate in terms of quantity, and suggests insignificant field losses. However, a significant amount is lost in the conveyance and distribution canals and to saline swamps at tail ends. Unlike claims of water shortage, the major water management challenge is lack of sound operational rules, which made the delivery inequitable and inefficient. Delivery was inferior in terms of adequacy and dependability at middle reach offtakes. Optimal water diversion and distribution not only save water, but also reduce the danger of waterlogging and salinity in the scheme. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Ethiopia; Gravity irrigation; Metahara; Performance; Water deliveryNoneNone
NoneNoneWatching the watcher: An evaluation of local election observers in TanzaniaMakulilo A.B.2011Journal of Modern African Studies49210.1017/S0022278X11000036Department of Political Science and Public Administration, University of Dar Es Salaam, PO Box 75, 116 Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaMakulilo, A.B., Department of Political Science and Public Administration, University of Dar Es Salaam, PO Box 75, 116 Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaThe unfolding of the Third Wave of democracy cast a mounting weight on election observation in transition countries, partly due to the inability of regimes in power to conduct free and fair elections. However, observation is not always neutral. Sometimes observers distance themselves from the data they collect, leading to controversial certification of elections. In this case stakeholders may view them as partial, hence downsizing their credibility and trust. Yet observers' reports have rarely been reviewed. This article evaluates three reports by the leading election observer in Tanzania, the Tanzania Election Monitoring Committee (TEMCO) for the 1995, 2000 and 2005 general elections. It notes that despite the prevalence of the same factors that TEMCO considered as irregularities in the 1995 and 2000 general elections when it certified those elections as free but not fair, it issued a clean, free and fair verdict on the 2005 general elections. This conclusion, at variance from the data, reveals problems in assuring observer neutrality. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.Nonedemocracy; election; historical perspective; political history; stakeholder; TanzaniaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79957467708Wastewater use in crop production in peri-urban areas of Addis Ababa: Impacts on health in farm householdsWeldesilassie A.B., Boelee E., Drechsel P., Dabbert S.2011Environment and Development Economics16110.1017/S1355770X1000029XEthiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), Near National Stadium Blue Building, P.O. Box 2479, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; International Water Management Institute (IWMI), P.O. Box 2075, Colombo, Sri Lanka; International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, Sri Lanka; Hohenheim University, Institute 410A, 70593 Stuttgart, GermanyWeldesilassie, A.B., Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), Near National Stadium Blue Building, P.O. Box 2479, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Boelee, E., International Water Management Institute (IWMI), P.O. Box 2075, Colombo, Sri Lanka; Drechsel, P., International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, Sri Lanka; Dabbert, S., Hohenheim University, Institute 410A, 70593 Stuttgart, GermanyUsing stream water polluted with untreated wastewater in agriculture is controversial due to its combination of benefits and negative health impacts. Using data from a household survey, wastewater and freshwater farmers were analysed comparatively to examine the perceived impacts of irrigation water quality on farmers' health and to evaluate the extent of health damage. Probability of illness was estimated using the theory of utility-maximising behaviour of households subject to the conventional farm household production model, augmented by adding a health production function. Reduced model and instrumental variable probit specifications both show that perceived illness prevalence is significantly higher for household members working on wastewater irrigation farms than for those working with freshwater. Our data entails econometric complications (e.g., endogeneity of farmers' behaviour, unobserved location-specific characteristics). Ignoring these will result in underestimation of the value of policy interventions designed to reduce potential health damage of wastewater use in irrigation. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.NoneNoneNone
NoneNoneWastewater treatment performance efficiency of constructed wetlands in African countries: A reviewMekonnen A., Leta S., Njau K.N.2015Water Science and Technology71110.2166/wst.2014.483Center for Environmental Science, College of Natural Science, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 33348, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Arusha, TanzaniaMekonnen, A., Center for Environmental Science, College of Natural Science, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 33348, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Leta, S., Center for Environmental Science, College of Natural Science, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 33348, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Njau, K.N., Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Arusha, TanzaniaIn Africa, different studies have been conducted at different scales to evaluate wastewater treatment efficiency of constructed wetland. This paper aims to review the treatment performance efficiency of constructed wetland used in African countries. In the reviewed papers, the operational parameters, size and type of wetland used and the treatment efficiency are assessed. The results are organized and presented in six tables based on the type of wetland and wastewater used in the study. The results of the review papers indicated that most of the studies were conducted in Tanzania, Egypt and Kenya. In Kenya and Tanzania, different full-scale wetlands are widely used in treating wastewater. Among wetland type, horizontal subsurface flow wetlands were widely studied followed by surface flow and hybrid wetlands. Most of the reported hybrid wetlands were in Kenya. The results of the review papers indicated that wetlands are efficient in removing organic matter (biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand) and suspended solids. On the other hand, nutrient removal efficiency appeared to be low. © IWA Publishing 2015.Constructed wetland; Horizontal subsurface flow; Removal efficiency; Surface flowBiochemical oxygen demand; Chemical oxygen demand; Efficiency; Oxygen; Wastewater treatment; Constructed wetlands; Horizontal subsurface flow; Nutrient removal efficiency; Operational parameters; Removal efficiencies; Surface flow; Treatment performance; Wastewater treatment efficiencies; Wetlands; organic matter; phosphorus; surface water; constructed wetland; pollutant removal; sewage treatment; subsurface flow; surface flux; Africa; Article; biochemical oxygen demand; chemical oxygen demand; constructed wetland; nonhuman; nutrient loading; sludge dewatering; suspended particulate matter; waste water management; Egypt; Kenya; sewage; standards; Tanzania; wetland; Egypt; Kenya; Tanzania; Africa; Egypt; Kenya; Tanzania; Waste Disposal, Fluid; WetlandsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70349884322Warneckea austro-occidentalis, a new species from Cameroon and Nigeria, and re-evaluation of W. fascicularis var. mangrovensis (Melastomataceae-Olisbeoideae)Stone R.D., Ghogue J.-P., Cheek M.2009Kew Bulletin64210.1007/s12225-009-9106-6School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Pietermaritzburg 3209, South Africa; Herbier National du Cameroun, B.P. 1601, Yaoundé, Cameroon; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United KingdomStone, R.D., School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Pietermaritzburg 3209, South Africa; Ghogue, J.-P., Herbier National du Cameroun, B.P. 1601, Yaoundé, Cameroon; Cheek, M., Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United KingdomDescribed and illustrated is Warneckea austro-occidentalis R. D. Stone, an endemic of tropical forests in Cameroon's South West Province and adjacent Nigeria. The name W. mangrovensis (Jacq.-Fél.) R. D. Stone is also proposed at species level for the taxon originally described as W. fascicularis var. mangrovensis Jacq.-Fél. An IUCN (2001) status of endangered is assigned for both W. austro-occidentalis and W. mangrovensis. © The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2009.Africa; Cameroon; Gabon; Melastomataceae; Nigeria; WarneckeaMelastomataceae; WarneckeaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84860992210Walking the sustainability assessment talk - Progressing the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA)Morrison-Saunders A., Retief F.2012Environmental Impact Assessment Review36None10.1016/j.eiar.2012.04.001School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North West University, South Africa; School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, AustraliaMorrison-Saunders, A., School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North West University, South Africa, School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Australia; Retief, F., School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North West University, South AfricaInternationally there is a growing demand for environmental impact assessment (EIA) to move away from its traditional focus towards delivering more sustainable outcomes. South Africa is an example of a country where the EIA system seems to have embraced the concept of sustainability. In this paper we test the existing objectives for EIA in South Africa against sustainability principles and then critique the effectiveness of EIA practice in delivering these objectives. The outcome of the research suggests that notwithstanding a strong and explicit sustainability mandate through policy and legislation, the effectiveness of EIA practice falls far short of what is mandated. This shows that further legislative reform is not required to improve effectiveness but rather a focus on changing the behaviour of individual professionals. We conclude by inviting further debate on what exactly practitioners can do to give effect to sustainability in EIA practice. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.Effectiveness; Environmental impact assessment; Legislation; Sustainability assessment; Sustainable developmentEffectiveness; Growing demand; Legislative reforms; South Africa; Sustainability assessment; Sustainability principles; Sustainable outcomes; Environmental impact assessments; Sustainable development; Laws and legislation; environmental impact assessment; environmental legislation; environmental policy; sustainability; sustainable development; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-82955175530Vuvuzela media coverage during the 2010 FIFA soccer world cup tournament: Impact on raising awareness of noise-induced hearing lossRamma L.2011Noise and Health135510.4103/1463-1741.90302Division of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Division of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Faculty of Health Sciences, Groote Schuur Hospital, F-45, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South AfricaRamma, L., Division of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Cape Town, South Africa, Division of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Faculty of Health Sciences, Groote Schuur Hospital, F-45, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South AfricaHearing loss, most specifically noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) due to exposure to vuvuzela noise, received extended media coverage before and during the 2010 Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) soccer world cup tournament. This study aimed to evaluate the impact that this media coverage had on raising awareness about NIHL due to exposure to vuvuzela noise at soccer matches among South African soccer spectators. A descriptive survey study, using a 24-item, self-administered questionnaire was used for this study. One hundred and forty seven (147) soccer spectators were surveyed before (N 1 =73) and after (N 2 =74) the tournament. Systematic sampling strategy was used to select the participants. Participants completed the questionnaire before the start of matches. Sixteen percent of the participants surveyed reported having had some media exposure about NIHL due to exposure to vuvuzela noise during soccer matches before the tournament in comparison to 26% of the participants after the tournament. This increase in the level of awareness was not statistically significant. Further, most participants were still not aware of the risk of NIHL to them from exposure to excessive noise during matches and did not consider hearing loss from noise exposure during soccer matches a serious concern both before and after the tournament. The results of this study therefore seem to suggest that vuvuzela media coverage during the 2010 FIFA soccer world cup tournament did not significantly raise the level of awareness about NIHL due to exposure to excessive noise during matches among the spectators surveyed.Awareness; Hearing loss; Noise-induced hearing loss; Soccer; Spectators; VuvuzelaNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84856005905Vulnerability of coastal communities to key impacts of climate change on coral reef fisheriesCinner J.E., McClanahan T.R., Graham N.A.J., Daw T.M., Maina J., Stead S.M., Wamukota A., Brown K., Bodin O.2012Global Environmental Change22110.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.09.018Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia; Wildlife Conservation Society, Marine Program, Bronx, NY 10460-1099, United States; School of International Development, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom; Coral Reef Conservation Project, Mombasa, Kenya; Computational Ecology Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia; School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, United Kingdom; Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, United Kingdom; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, SwedenCinner, J.E., Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia; McClanahan, T.R., Wildlife Conservation Society, Marine Program, Bronx, NY 10460-1099, United States; Graham, N.A.J., Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia; Daw, T.M., School of International Development, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom; Maina, J., Coral Reef Conservation Project, Mombasa, Kenya, Computational Ecology Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia; Stead, S.M., School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, United Kingdom; Wamukota, A., Coral Reef Conservation Project, Mombasa, Kenya; Brown, K., School of International Development, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, United Kingdom; Bodin, O., Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Sweden, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, SwedenCoral reefs support the livelihood of millions of people especially those engaged in marine fisheries activities. Coral reefs are highly vulnerable to climate change induced stresses that have led to substantial coral mortality over large spatial scales. Such climate change impacts have the potential to lead to declines in marine fish production and compromise the livelihoods of fisheries dependent communities. Yet few studies have examined social vulnerability in the context of changes specific to coral reef ecosystems. In this paper, we examine three dimensions of vulnerability (exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity) of 29 coastal communities across five western Indian Ocean countries to the impacts of coral bleaching on fishery returns. A key contribution is the development of a novel, network-based approach to examining sensitivity to changes in the fishery that incorporates linkages between fishery and non-fishery occupations. We find that key sources of vulnerability differ considerably within and between the five countries. Our approach allows the visualization of how these dimensions of vulnerability differ from site to site, providing important insights into the types of nuanced policy interventions that may help to reduce vulnerability at a specific location. To complement this, we develop framework of policy actions thought to reduce different aspects of vulnerability at varying spatial and temporal scales. Although our results are specific to reef fisheries impacts from coral bleaching, this approach provides a framework for other types of threats and different social-ecological systems more broadly. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.Coral bleaching; Coral reef; Fisheries; Global climate change; Resilience; Social-ecological systems; Vulnerabilityclimate change; coastal zone; coral; coral bleaching; coral reef; economic impact; environmental stress; fishery economics; fishery production; global change; mortality; nature-society relations; policy approach; vulnerability; Indian Ocean; Indian Ocean (West); AnthozoaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84865818749Vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation to sea level rise taking an ecosystem-based approachAlverson K.2012Oceanography25310.5670/oceanog.2012.101Climate Change Adaptation and Terrestrial Ecosystems Branch, Climate Adaptation Unit, United Nations Environment Programme Division of Environmental Policy Implementation, Nairobi, KenyaAlverson, K., Climate Change Adaptation and Terrestrial Ecosystems Branch, Climate Adaptation Unit, United Nations Environment Programme Division of Environmental Policy Implementation, Nairobi, Kenya[No abstract available]NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84871891224Vowel targeted intervention for children with persisting speech difficulties: Impact on intelligibilitySpeake J., Stackhouse J., Pascoe M.2012Child Language Teaching and Therapy28310.1177/0265659012453463Cambridgeshire Community Services NHS Trust, Child Health, Ida Darwin Fulbourn, Cambridge, CB1 9SA, United Kingdom; University of Sheffield, United Kingdom; University of Cape Town, South AfricaSpeake, J., Cambridgeshire Community Services NHS Trust, Child Health, Ida Darwin Fulbourn, Cambridge, CB1 9SA, United Kingdom; Stackhouse, J., University of Sheffield, United Kingdom; Pascoe, M., University of Cape Town, South AfricaCompared to the treatment of consonant segments, the treatment of vowels is infrequently described in the literature on children's speech difficulties. Vowel difficulties occur less frequently than those with consonants but may have significant impact on intelligibility. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of vowel targeted intervention (VTI) with two 10-year-old children with severe and persisting speech difficulties measures of (a) percentage vowels correct and (b) intelligibility outcomes by peer group listeners were used. Assessment of vowel production was used to design and carry out intervention for each child, the success of which was measured in two ways: comparing (a) percentage of vowels correct before and after the intervention, (b) the percentage of pre- vs. post-intervention utterances understood by a group of typical peer listeners (aged 9 to 11 years). Pre- and post-intervention speech samples (comprising single words, imitated sentences and spontaneous speech) were edited onto a CD for these listeners, who were asked to write down what had been said. The two children with speech difficulties made significant improvement in vowel production as measured by the percentage of vowels correct. The listeners perceived more productions accurately post-intervention than pre-intervention. There was also a reduction in the range of the listeners' misperceptions of target words. VTI was effective in terms of both increasing PVC and intelligibility outcomes as judged by peer group listeners. It is not more complicated to carry out VTI than consonant targeted intervention; this should be considered more often when planning therapy for children where vowels are affected. © The Author(s) 2012.intelligibility; intervention; peer-group listeners; persisting speech difficulties; treatment outcomes; vowelsNoneNone
NoneNoneVouchers for scaling up insecticide-treated nets in Tanzania: Methods for monitoring and evaluation of a national health system interventionHanson K., Nathan R., Marchant T., Mponda H., Jones C., Bruce J., Stephen G., Mulligan J., Mshinda H., Schellenberg J.A.2008BMC Public Health8None10.1186/1471-2458-8-205London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom; Ifakara Health Research and Development Centre, PO Box 78373, Mikocheni, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaHanson, K., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom; Nathan, R., Ifakara Health Research and Development Centre, PO Box 78373, Mikocheni, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Marchant, T., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom, Ifakara Health Research and Development Centre, PO Box 78373, Mikocheni, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Mponda, H., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom, Ifakara Health Research and Development Centre, PO Box 78373, Mikocheni, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Jones, C., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom; Bruce, J., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom; Stephen, G., Ifakara Health Research and Development Centre, PO Box 78373, Mikocheni, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Mulligan, J., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom; Mshinda, H., Ifakara Health Research and Development Centre, PO Box 78373, Mikocheni, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Schellenberg, J.A., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom, Ifakara Health Research and Development Centre, PO Box 78373, Mikocheni, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground. The Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS) uses the public health system and the commercial sector to deliver subsidised insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to pregnant women. The system began operation in October 2004 and by May 2006 was operating in all districts in the country. Evaluating complex public health interventions which operate at national level requires a multidisciplinary approach, novel methods, and collaboration with implementers to support the timely translation of findings into programme changes. This paper describes this novel approach to delivering ITNs and the design of the monitoring and evaluation (M&E). Methods. A comprehensive and multidisciplinary M&E design was developed collaboratively between researchers and the National Malaria Control Programme. Five main domains of investigation were identified: (1) ITN coverage among target groups, (2) provision and use of reproductive and child health services, (3) "leakage" of vouchers, (4) the commercial ITN market, and (5) cost and cost-effectiveness of the scheme. Results. The evaluation plan combined quantitative (household and facility surveys, voucher tracking, retail census and cost analysis) and qualitative (focus groups and in-depth interviews) methods. This plan was defined in collaboration with implementing partners but undertaken independently. Findings were reported regularly to the national malaria control programme and partners, and used to modify the implementation strategy over time. Conclusion. The M&E of the TNVS is a potential model for generating information to guide national and international programmers about options for delivering priority interventions. It is independent, comprehensive, provides timely results, includes information on intermediate processes to allow implementation to be modified, measures leakage as well as coverage, and measures progress over time. © 2008 Hanson et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Noneinsecticide; article; bed net; child health care; cost effectiveness analysis; government; interview; malaria control; market; reproductive health; Tanzania; animal; bed; economics; female; health care quality; health center; human; interdisciplinary communication; malaria; methodology; mosquito; pregnancy; public health; social care; Tanzania; utilization review; Animals; Bedding and Linens; Female; Humans; Insecticides; Interdisciplinary Communication; Malaria; Maternal-Child Health Centers; Mosquito Control; National Health Programs; Pregnancy; Process Assessment (Health Care); Program Evaluation; Public Assistance; TanzaniaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84906959586Vortex-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of sulfonylurea herbicides in wine samples by capillary high-performance liquid chromatographyGure A., Lara F.J., García-Campaña A.M., Megersa N., Del Olmo-Iruela M.2014Food Chemistry170None10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.065Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n, Granada, Spain; Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P. O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaGure, A., Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n, Granada, Spain, Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P. O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Lara, F.J., Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n, Granada, Spain; García-Campaña, A.M., Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n, Granada, Spain; Megersa, N., Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P. O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Del Olmo-Iruela, M., Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n, Granada, SpainA new sample treatment, namely vortex-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (VA-IL-DLLME), followed by capillary liquid chromatography has been developed for the determination of four sulfonylurea herbicides (SUHs): flazasulfuron (FS), prosulfuron (PS), primisulfuron-methyl (PSM) and triflusulfuron-methyl (TSM) in wine samples. The ionic liquid (IL) 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C6MIM][PF6]) was used as extraction solvent and was dispersed using methanol into the sample solution, assisted by a vortex mixer. Various parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as type and amount of IL, type and volume of disperser solvent, sample pH, salting-out effect, vortex and centrifugation time were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection and quantification of the proposed method were in the ranges of 3.2-6.6 and 10.8-22.0 μg kg-1, respectively; lower than the maximum residue limits set by the EU for these matrices. The proposed method was successfully applied to different wine samples and satisfactory recoveries were obtained. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Capillary liquid chromatography; Ionic liquid; Sulfonylurea herbicides; Vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction; Wine samplesCapillary high-performance liquid chromatography; Capillary liquid chromatography; Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction; Sulfonylurea herbicides; Vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction; Wine sample; Ionic liquids; flazasulfuron; herbicide; imidazole derivative; ionic liquid; methanol; primisulfuron methyl; prosulfuron; sulfonylurea derivative; triflusulfuron methyl; unclassified drug; herbicide; ionic liquid; solvent; sulfonylurea derivative; Article; capillary high performance liquid chromatography; centrifugation; high performance liquid chromatography; limit of detection; limit of quantitation; liquid phase microextraction; pH; solvent extraction; vortex assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid liquid microextraction; wine; analysis; chemistry; high performance liquid chromatography; procedures; wine; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid; Herbicides; Ionic Liquids; Solvents; Sulfonylurea Compounds; WineNone
WoSWOS:000246162900008Voluntary counselling and testing: uptake, impact on sexual behaviour, and HIV incidence in a rural Zimbabwean cohortChawira, Godwin,Cremin, Ide,Dube, Sabada,Gregson, Simon,Kakowa, Memory,Lopman, Ben,Nyamukapa, Constance,Oberzaucher, Nicole,Sherr, Lorraine2007AIDS217NoneImperial College London, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, UCL Medical School, University College London, University of London, Biomed Res & Training Inst, European Ctr Social Welf Policy & ResNoneObjectives: To examine the determinants of uptake of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services, to assess changes in sexual risk behaviour following VCT, and to compare HIV incidence amongst testers and non-testers. Methods: Prospective population-based cohort study of adult men and women in the Manicaland province of eastern Zimbabwe. Demographic, socioeconomic, sexual behaviour and VCT utilization data were collected at baseline (1998-2000) and follow-up (3 years later). HIV status was determined by HIV-1 antibody detection. In addition to services provided by the government and non-governmental organizations, a mobile VCT clinic was available at study sites. Results: Lifetime uptake of VCT increased from under 6% to 11% at follow-up. Age, increasing education and knowledge of HIV were associated with VCT uptake. Women who took a test were more likely to be HIV positive and to have greater HIV knowledge and fewer total lifetime partners. After controlling for demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour was not independently associated with VCT uptake. Women who tested positive reported increased consistent condom use in their regular partnerships. However, individuals who tested negative were more likely to adopt more risky behaviours in terms of numbers of partnerships in the last month, the last year and in concurrent partnerships. HIV incidence during follow-up did not differ between testers and non-testers. Conclusion: Motivation for VCT uptake was driven by knowledge and education rather than sexual risk. Increased sexual risk following receipt of a negative result may be a serious unintended consequence of VCT. It should be minimized with appropriate pre- and post-test counselling. (c) 2007 Lippincott Williams &amp; Wilkins.counselling,"HIV INCIDENCE","sexual behaviour",VCT,ZIMBABWE,AFRICA,COUPLES,EFFICACY,KENYA,MEN,PREVENTION,RANDOMIZED-TRIAL,"RISK BEHAVIOR",TANZANIA,TRANSMISSIONNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77954402441Volumetric analysis and chemistry students performance: Combined influence of study habit, physiological and psychological factorsAlam G.M., Oke O.K., Orimogunje T.2010Scientific Research and Essays511NoneUniversity of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Mathematics and Science Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Science and Technical Education Department, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, NigeriaAlam, G.M., University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Oke, O.K., Mathematics and Science Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Orimogunje, T., Science and Technical Education Department, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, NigeriaSeveral factors can work in concert to influence the students' attitudes and behavior towards quantitative aspect of practical chemistry particularly volumetric analysis. This study investigated the influence of students' study habit, physiological and psychological factors on their attitudes and behavior towards the volumetric analysis in practical chemistry. Two hundred and forty randomly selected senior secondary two students from six secondary schools in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State constituted the sample. It was hypothesized that students' study habit variables such as time allocation, reading and note-taking, concentration, anxiety and stress, and teachers' consultation would not significantly influence students' attitudes during volumetric analysis practical exercises. The hypotheses were tested by using chi square at 0.05 levels of significance following the administration of study habit inventory on the subjects. The results indicated that these factors actually influenced the attitudes of the subjects towards volumetric analysis exercises. It was recommended that chemistry teachers need to have proper understanding of these physiological and psychological factors to enable them enhance students' attitudes and performances in practical chemistry. © 2010 Academic Journals.Physiological and psychological factors; Students' attitudes and performance; Study habit; Volumetric analysisNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84881502970Voltage-differentiated electricity tariffs and economic evaluation of a supply voltage choice: A case of a customer in South AfricaMbuli N., Pretorius J.2013International Review of Electrical Engineering83NoneDepartment of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Johannesburg, Kingsway Road, Oakaland Park, 2006, Gauteng, South Africa; University of Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa; Eskom Holdings SoC Limited, Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA), African Institute of Electrical Engineers (SAIEE), P. O. Box 2011, Halfway House, 1685, South Africa; University of Johannesburg, P. O. Box 44587, Linden, 2104, South AfricaMbuli, N., Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Johannesburg, Kingsway Road, Oakaland Park, 2006, Gauteng, South Africa, University of Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa, Eskom Holdings SoC Limited, Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA), African Institute of Electrical Engineers (SAIEE), P. O. Box 2011, Halfway House, 1685, South Africa; Pretorius, J., Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Johannesburg, Kingsway Road, Oakaland Park, 2006, Gauteng, South Africa, University of Johannesburg, P. O. Box 44587, Linden, 2104, South AfricaThe cost of providing electricity to customers depends on the voltage at which they take supply. Because of this, many utilities around the world have electricity tariff rates that vary according to the voltage at which supply is taken. Economic evaluation of investments is a critical factor to ensure their worth, and this applies equally to electrical infrastructure, including customer load connection. In this paper, the authors evaluated the worth of taking supply at a higher voltage in comparison with doing so at a lower voltage. The impact of the customer's load size and load factor on this worth was also studied. A case study considering voltage-differentiated electricity tariffs in Eskom was conducted. It was demonstrated that, in the case of Eskom's scenario, taking supply at a higher voltage had a significant worth to eligible customers. Such worth increased significantly with load and factor. It was concluded that, in assessing the worth of investment, customers have to assess the impact of voltage choice on their investments carefully as this could help identify voltage that can make marginal projects worthwhile and those that are justifiable even more robust. © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.Cumulative net present value; Economic evaluation; Electricity tariff; Net Present Value (NPV); Payback periodNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-73449148719Volatile compounds profile and sensory evaluation of Beninese condiments produced by inocula of Bacillus subtilisAzokpota P., Hounhouigan J.D., Annan N.T., Odjo T., Nago M.C., Jakobsen M.2010Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture90310.1002/jsfa.3835Département de Nutrition et Sciences Alimentaires, Faculté des Sciences, Agronomiques Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526, Cotonou, Benin; Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Food Research Institute, P.O. Box M-20, Accra, Ghana; Centre de Biométrie, de Statistique et d'Informatique Générale de la Faculte des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 01BP526, Cotonou, Benin; Department of Food Science, Food Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, DR-1958, Frederiksberg C, DenmarkAzokpota, P., Département de Nutrition et Sciences Alimentaires, Faculté des Sciences, Agronomiques Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526, Cotonou, Benin; Hounhouigan, J.D., Département de Nutrition et Sciences Alimentaires, Faculté des Sciences, Agronomiques Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526, Cotonou, Benin; Annan, N.T., Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Food Research Institute, P.O. Box M-20, Accra, Ghana; Odjo, T., Centre de Biométrie, de Statistique et d'Informatique Générale de la Faculte des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 01BP526, Cotonou, Benin; Nago, M.C., Département de Nutrition et Sciences Alimentaires, Faculté des Sciences, Agronomiques Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526, Cotonou, Benin; Jakobsen, M., Department of Food Science, Food Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, DR-1958, Frederiksberg C, DenmarkBACKGROUND: Three Beninese food condiments (ABS124h, IBS248h and SBS348h) were produced by controlled fermentation of African locust beans using inocula of pure cultures of Bacillus subtilis,BS1,BS2andBS3,respectively.Quantitativeandqualitative assessments of the volatile compounds in the condiments produced have been performed using the Likens-Nickerson simultaneous distillation-extraction method and GC-MS analysis, followed by a sensory evaluation in comparison with the spontaneously fermented condiments. RESULTS:A total of 94 volatile compounds have been found including 53 compounds identified in relatively high concentrations and were subdivided into seven main groups with the predominance of four major groups: pyrazines, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. Compared to the spontaneously fermented condiments, volatile compounds identified in controlled fermented condiments have been found in high number and in concentrations which varied according to the inoculum of B. subtilis used. The condiments produced with starter cultures scored significantly (P &lt; 0.05) higher for odour than the spontaneously fermented condiments. But the overall acceptability (7/10) of the two types of condiments was similar. CONCLUSION: The investigated B.subtilis, BS1, BS2 and BS3 can be considered as potential starter cultures for the fermentation of African locust beans to produce good quality of Beninese food condiments. © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.Bacillus subtilis; Beninese condiments; Parkia biglobosa; Sensory evaluation; Starter cultures; Volatile compoundsplant extract; volatile organic compound; article; Bacillus subtilis; Benin; chemistry; condiment; distillation; fermentation; food control; legume; metabolism; microbiology; odor; plant seed; Bacillus subtilis; Benin; Condiments; Distillation; Fabaceae; Fermentation; Food Microbiology; Odors; Plant Extracts; Seeds; Volatile Organic Compounds; Bacillus subtilis; Parkia biglobosa; Parkia filicoideaNone
NoneNoneVitamin A supplementation in Tanzania: The impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy on coverageMasanja H., Schellenberg J.A., Mshinda H.M., Shekar M., Mugyabuso J.K.L., Ndossi G.D., De Savigny D.2006BMC Health Services Research6None10.1186/1472-6963-6-142Ifakara Health Research and Development Center, Ifakara, Morogoro, Tanzania; Department of Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland; Department of Infectious and Tropical Disease, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United Kingdom; Human Development Network (HDNHE), World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433, United States; Helen Keller International, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Tanzania Food and Nutrition Center, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Tanzania Essential Health Interventions Project, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaMasanja, H., Ifakara Health Research and Development Center, Ifakara, Morogoro, Tanzania, Department of Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland; Schellenberg, J.A., Ifakara Health Research and Development Center, Ifakara, Morogoro, Tanzania, Department of Infectious and Tropical Disease, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United Kingdom; Mshinda, H.M., Ifakara Health Research and Development Center, Ifakara, Morogoro, Tanzania; Shekar, M., Human Development Network (HDNHE), World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433, United States; Mugyabuso, J.K.L., Helen Keller International, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Ndossi, G.D., Tanzania Food and Nutrition Center, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; De Savigny, D., Department of Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland, Tanzania Essential Health Interventions Project, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground: Efficient delivery strategies for health interventions are essential for high and sustainable coverage. We report impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy from routine delivery through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI+) approach to twice-yearly mass distribution campaigns on coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania Methods: We investigated disparities in age, sex, socio-economic status, nutritional status and maternal education within vitamin A coverage in children between 1 and 2 years of age from two independent household level child health surveys conducted (1) during a continuous universal targeting scheme based on routine EPI contacts for children aged 9, 15 and 21 months (1999); and (2) three years later after the introduction of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation campaigns for children aged 6 months to 5 years, a 6-monthly universal targeting scheme (2002). A representative cluster sample of approximately 2,400 rural households was obtained from Rufiji, Morogoro Rural, Kilombero and Ulanga districts. A modular questionnaire about the health of all children under the age of five was administered to consenting heads of households and caretakers of children. Information on the use of child health interventions including vitamin A was asked. Results: Coverage of vitamin A supplementation among 1-2 year old children increased from 13% [95% CI 10-18%] in 1999 to 76% [95%CI 72-81%] in 2002. In 2002 knowledge of two or more child health danger signs was negatively associated with vitamin A supplementation coverage (80% versus 70%) (p = 0.04). Nevertheless, we did not find any disparities in coverage of vitamin A by district, gender, socio-economic status and DPT vaccinations. Conclusion: Change in programmatic delivery of vitamin A supplementation was associated with a major improvement in coverage in Tanzania that was been sustained by repeated campaigns for at least three years. There is a need to monitor the effect of such campaigns on the routine health system and on equity of coverage. Documentation of vitamin A supplementation campaign contacts on routine maternal and child health cards would be a simple step to facilitate this monitoring. © 2006 Masanja et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Noneretinol; retinol; article; child health; controlled study; cost; health program; health survey; human; preschool child; questionnaire; Tanzania; vitamin supplementation; attitude to health; diet supplementation; economics; evaluation study; health care survey; infant; insurance; nutritional status; organization and management; preventive health service; primary health care; procedures; socioeconomics; supply and distribution; utilization; Vitamin A Deficiency; Child, Preschool; Dietary Supplements; Health Care Surveys; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Immunization Programs; Infant; Nutritional Status; Primary Health Care; Questionnaires; Socioeconomic Factors; Tanzania; Universal Coverage; Vitamin A; Vitamin A DeficiencyNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84884258752Visual performance in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration undergoing treatment with intravitreal ranibizumabSabour-Pickett S., Loughman J., Nolan J.M., Stack J., Pesudovs K., Meagher K.A., Beatty S.2013Journal of Ophthalmology2013None10.1155/2013/268438Department of Optometry, School of Physics, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland; Institute of Eye Surgery, Institute of Vision Research, Whitfield Clinic, Waterford, Ireland; Macular Pigment Research Group, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, Ireland; African Vision Research Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Department of Optometry and Vision Science, Flinders Medical Centre, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, AustraliaSabour-Pickett, S., Department of Optometry, School of Physics, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland, Institute of Eye Surgery, Institute of Vision Research, Whitfield Clinic, Waterford, Ireland, Macular Pigment Research Group, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, Ireland; Loughman, J., Department of Optometry, School of Physics, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland, African Vision Research Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Nolan, J.M., Institute of Eye Surgery, Institute of Vision Research, Whitfield Clinic, Waterford, Ireland, Macular Pigment Research Group, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, Ireland; Stack, J., Macular Pigment Research Group, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, Ireland; Pesudovs, K., Department of Optometry and Vision Science, Flinders Medical Centre, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, Australia; Meagher, K.A., Macular Pigment Research Group, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, Ireland; Beatty, S., Institute of Eye Surgery, Institute of Vision Research, Whitfield Clinic, Waterford, Ireland, Macular Pigment Research Group, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, IrelandPurpose. To assess visual function and its response to serial intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis, Genentech) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nv-AMD). Methods. Forty-seven eyes of 47 patients with nv-AMD, and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) logMAR 0.7 or better, undergoing intravitreal injections of ranibizumab, were enrolled into this prospective study. Visual function was assessed using a range of psychophysical tests, while mean foveal thickness (MFT) was determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Results. Group mean (±sd) MFT reduced significantly from baseline (233 (±59)) to exit (205 (±40)) (P = 0.001). CDVA exhibited no change between baseline and exit visits (P = 0.48 and P = 0.31, resp.). Measures of visual function that did exhibit statistically significant improvements (P < 0.05 for all) included reading acuity, reading speed, mesopic and photopic contrast sensitivity (CS), mesopic and photopic glare disability (GD), and retinotopic ocular sensitivity (ROS) at all eccentricities. Conclusion. Eyes with nv-AMD undergoing intravitreal ranibizumab injections exhibit improvements in many parameters of visual function. Outcome measures other than CDVA, such as CS, GD, and ROS, should not only be considered in the design of studies investigating nv-AMD, but also in treatment and retreatment strategies for patients with the condition. © 2013 Sarah Sabour-Pickett et al.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84938930442Visual evaluation of beef tenderness by using surface structural observations and its relationship to meat colourModika K.Y., Frylinck L., Moloto K.W., Strydom P.E., Heinze P.H., Webb E.C.2015South African Journal of Animal Sciences45310.4314/sajas.v45i3.4Department of Meat Science, Agricultural Research Council-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, South Africa; Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X2, Hatfield, Pretoria, South AfricaModika, K.Y., Department of Meat Science, Agricultural Research Council-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, South Africa, Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X2, Hatfield, Pretoria, South Africa; Frylinck, L., Department of Meat Science, Agricultural Research Council-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, South Africa; Moloto, K.W., Department of Meat Science, Agricultural Research Council-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, South Africa; Strydom, P.E., Department of Meat Science, Agricultural Research Council-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, South Africa; Heinze, P.H., Department of Meat Science, Agricultural Research Council-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, South Africa; Webb, E.C., Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X2, Hatfield, Pretoria, South AfricaThe study describes the relationship between visual and instrumental measurements for colour and tenderness between five South African beef breeds: Bos indicus (Brahman), Sanga type (Nguni), British Bos taurus (Angus), European Bos taurus (Charolais) and the composite (Bonsmara). Ten animals per genotype were used (total = 50). The carcasses were split and the right sides were electrically stimulated, while the left sides were not stimulated. Steaks were aged until three days post mortem on polystyrene plates and until 9, 14 and 20 days post mortem in vacuum bags. The steaks were evaluated by visual analysis for colour, marbling, fibre separation, surface texture and structure integrity by a 10-member trained panel. Colour was also measured by the CIE L*, a*, b* system using a Minolta meter, and tenderness was measured by means of Warner-Bratzler shear force. High negative correlations were observed between the visual colour and L* (r =-0.809), b* (r =-0.698) and high positive correlations were observed between the visual colour and hue (r = 0.797). There were also negative correlations between shear force and structure integrity (r =-0.410) and fibre separation (r =-0.401). Very low negative correlations were observed between colour and shear force (r =-0.242). Therefore, although it may be possible to judge meat colour by visual analysis, it does not appear possible to predict tenderness by colour judgment. There is potential for an experienced eye to predict tenderness by observing visual structural properties such as fibre separation and structural integrity.Meat colour and tenderness; Tenderness prediction; Trained visual panel; Visual analysisNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-37649003663Virtual international experiences in veterinary medicine: an evaluation of students' attitudes toward computer-based learningFrench B.C., Hird D.W., Romano P.S., Hayes R.H., Nijhof A.M., Jongejan F., Mellor D.J., Singer R.S., Fine A.E., Gaye J.M., Davis R.G., Conrad P.A.2007Journal of Veterinary Medical Education344NoneUS Air Force; Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United States; Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of General Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis Medical Center, PSSB 2400, 4150 V Street, Sacramento, CA 95814, United States; Computer Assisted Learning Facility, Office of the Dean, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United States; Department of Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, NL 3508 Utrecht, Netherlands; Department of Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University; Department of Tropical Veterinary Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; Institute of Comparative Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, 464 Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH, United Kingdom; Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1971 Commonwealth Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108, United States; Population Medicine Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1314, United States; Field Disease Investigation Unit, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, P.O. Box 647010, Pullman, WA 99164-7010, United States; Center for Food Security and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50013, United States; Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United StatesFrench, B.C., US Air Force; Hird, D.W., Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United States; Romano, P.S., Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of General Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis Medical Center, PSSB 2400, 4150 V Street, Sacramento, CA 95814, United States; Hayes, R.H., Computer Assisted Learning Facility, Office of the Dean, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United States; Nijhof, A.M., Department of Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, NL 3508 Utrecht, Netherlands; Jongejan, F., Department of Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Department of Tropical Veterinary Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; Mellor, D.J., Institute of Comparative Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, 464 Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH, United Kingdom; Singer, R.S., Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1971 Commonwealth Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108, United States; Fine, A.E., Population Medicine Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1314, United States; Gaye, J.M., Field Disease Investigation Unit, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, P.O. Box 647010, Pullman, WA 99164-7010, United States; Davis, R.G., Center for Food Security and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50013, United States; Conrad, P.A., Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United StatesWhile many studies have evaluated whether or not factual information can be effectively communicated using computer-aided tools, none has focused on establishing and changing students' attitudes toward international animal-health issues. The study reported here was designed to assess whether educational modules on an interactive computer CD elicited a change in veterinary students' interest in and attitudes toward international animal-health issues. Volunteer veterinary students at seven universities (first-year students at three universities, second-year at one, third-year at one, and fourth-year at two) were given by random assignment either an International Animal Health (IAH) CD or a control CD, ParasitoLog (PL). Participants completed a pre-CD survey to establish baseline information on interest and attitudes toward both computers and international animal-health issues. Four weeks later, a post-CD questionnaire was distributed. On the initial survey, most students expressed an interest in working in the field of veterinary medicine in another country. Responses to the three pre-CD questions relating to attitudes toward the globalization of veterinary medicine, interest in foreign animal disease, and inclusion of a core course on international health issues in the veterinary curriculum were all positive, with average values above 3 (on a five-point scale where 5 represented strong agreement or interest). Almost all students considered it beneficial to learn about animal-health issues in other countries. After students reviewed the IAH CD, we found a decrease at four universities, an increase at one university, and no change at the remaining two universities in students' interest in working in some area of international veterinary medicine. However, none of the differences was statistically significant. © 2007 AAVMC.Computer-based; Education; International; Veterinary medicineadolescent; adult; article; attitude; attitude to computers; education; female; human; international cooperation; Internet; male; methodology; psychological aspect; questionnaire; student; teaching; Adolescent; Adult; Attitude; Attitude to Computers; Computer-Assisted Instruction; Education, Distance; Education, Veterinary; Female; Humans; International Cooperation; Internet; Male; Questionnaires; Students; AnimaliaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84916244520Viral load versus CD4+ monitoring and 5-year outcomes of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive children in Southern Africa: A cohort-based modelling studySalazar-Vizcaya L., Keiser O., Technau K., Davies M.-A., Haas A.D., Blaser N., Cox V., Eley B., Rabie H., Moultrie H., Giddy J., Wood R., Egger M., Estill J.2014AIDS281610.1097/QAD.0000000000000446Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Finkenhubelweg 11, Bern, Switzerland; Rahima Moosa Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Khayelitsha ART Programme, Médecins Sans Frontières, India; Red Cross Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; McCord Hospital, Durban, South Africa; Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricaSalazar-Vizcaya, L., Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Finkenhubelweg 11, Bern, Switzerland; Keiser, O., Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Finkenhubelweg 11, Bern, Switzerland; Technau, K., Rahima Moosa Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Davies, M.-A., School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Haas, A.D., Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Finkenhubelweg 11, Bern, Switzerland; Blaser, N., Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Finkenhubelweg 11, Bern, Switzerland; Cox, V., Khayelitsha ART Programme, Médecins Sans Frontières, India; Eley, B., Red Cross Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Rabie, H., Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Moultrie, H., Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Giddy, J., McCord Hospital, Durban, South Africa; Wood, R., Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Egger, M., Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Finkenhubelweg 11, Bern, Switzerland, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Estill, J., Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Finkenhubelweg 11, Bern, SwitzerlandObjectives: Many paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in Southern Africa rely on CD4+ to monitor ART. We assessed the benefit of replacing CD4+ by viral load monitoring.Design: A mathematical modelling study.Methods: A simulation model of HIV progression over 5 years in children on ART, parameterized by data from seven South African cohorts. We simulated treatment programmes with 6-monthly CD4+ or 6- or 12-monthly viral load monitoring. We compared mortality, second-line ART use, immunological failure and time spent on failing ART. In further analyses, we varied the rate of virological failure, and assumed that the rate is higher with CD4+ than with viral load monitoring.Results: About 7% of children were predicted to die within 5 years, independent of the monitoring strategy. Compared with CD4+ monitoring, 12-monthly viral load monitoring reduced the 5-year risk of immunological failure from 1.6 to 1.0% and the mean time spent on failing ART from 6.6 to 3.6 months; 1% of children with CD4+ compared with 12% with viral load monitoring switched to second-line ART. Differences became larger when assuming higher rates of virological failure. When assuming higher virological failure rates with CD4+ than with viral load monitoring, up to 4.2% of children with CD4+ compared with 1.5% with viral load monitoring experienced immunological failure; the mean time spent on failing ART was 27.3 months with CD4+ monitoring and 6.0 months with viral load monitoring.Conclusion: Viral load monitoring did not affect 5-year mortality, but reduced time on failing ART, improved immunological response and increased switching to second-line ART. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Antiretroviral therapy; Children; Mathematical model; Sub-Saharan Africa; Viral load monitoringantivirus agent; nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; proteinase inhibitor; antiretrovirus agent; antiviral therapy; Article; CD4 lymphocyte count; child; childhood disease; cohort analysis; disease course; follow up; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; major clinical study; mortality; outcome assessment; patient compliance; simulation; therapy; treatment failure; treatment outcome; virus load; adolescent; Africa; CD4 lymphocyte count; CD4+ T lymphocyte; comparative study; drug monitoring; evaluation study; female; HIV Infections; immunology; infant; male; preschool child; procedures; survival; theoretical model; virology; Adolescent; Africa, Southern; Anti-Retroviral Agents; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes; Child; Child, Preschool; Cohort Studies; Drug Monitoring; Female; HIV Infections; Humans; Infant; Male; Models, Theoretical; Survival Analysis; Treatment Outcome; Viral Load32333B-150934, SNSF, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; 5U01-AI069924-05, NIAID, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Scopus2-s2.0-79959624575Violence and culture on women role performance in economic and sustainable development in NigeriaArisi R.O.2011European Journal of Social Sciences213NoneSocial Science Education, Delta State University Abraka, NigeriaArisi, R.O., Social Science Education, Delta State University Abraka, NigeriaNigeria just like any other African Countries is besieged with harmful cultural practices which tend to regulate womanhood in the Socio-economic as well as political development of the nation. To this extent, this paper will examine the issues of violence against women and the destabilizing effect of cultural practices among women which tends to limit their role in the sustainable development of the nation. This paper will also proffer solutions to the identifiable social and cultural practices which tend to limit the role performance of women in the country.NoneNoneNone
NoneNoneVillage electrification technologies - An evaluation of photovoltaic cells and compact fluorescent lamps and their applicability in rural villages based on a Tanzanian case studyGullberg M., Ilskog E., Katyega M., Kjellström B.2005Energy Policy331010.1016/j.enpol.2003.12.005Royal Institute of Technology, Avdelningen Byggnadsteknik, Brinellvagen 34, Stockholm S-100 44, Sweden; Luleå University of Technology, Luleå S-971 87, Sweden; Tanzania Elec. Supply Company Ltd., P.O. Box 9024, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaGullberg, M., Royal Institute of Technology, Avdelningen Byggnadsteknik, Brinellvagen 34, Stockholm S-100 44, Sweden; Ilskog, E., Luleå University of Technology, Luleå S-971 87, Sweden; Katyega, M., Tanzania Elec. Supply Company Ltd., P.O. Box 9024, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Kjellström, B., Luleå University of Technology, Luleå S-971 87, SwedenElectrification of remote sites in developing countries is often realised trough diesel generator sets and an electric distribution network. This was also the technology used in the village Urambo, where the first rural electrification co-operative in Tanzania was started in 1994. Climate change however calls for decreased fossil fuel combustion worldwide and new technologies have been further developed since the erection of the diesel generator sets in Urambo. It is therefore not obvious that electrification of other rural areas shall follow the Urambo example. In this article, the situation for 250 electricity consumers in Urambo will be demonstrated and the implications for them of introducing new technologies will be evaluated. Technology options regarded in the study are individual photovoltaic (PV) power systems and either incandescent lamps, tube lights or compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) supplied by diesel generation. The different options have been evaluated with respect to consumer costs and environmental impact. The results of the comparison show that PV generation is able to compete with diesel generation if combined with incandescent lamps, but not when tube lights or CFLs are used in the conventional supply system. It should be noted, however, that while the diesel option offer financially more attractive solutions, individual PV systems do not result in any CO2 emissions. Furthermore, PV systems normally have a higher reliability. However, since the diesel option is not only cheaper but also offers a wider range of energy services and facilitates, future connection to the national electric grid, the conclusion is that this is preferable before individual PV systems for communities similar to Urambo, if the consumers shall pay the full cost of the service. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Rural electrification; Tanzania; TechnologiesClimate change; Combustion; Costs; Electric generators; Electric power distribution; Environmental impact; Fluorescent lamps; Fossil fuels; Incandescent lamps; Reliability; Compact fluorescent lights (CFL); Diesel generators; Photovoltaic power systems; Tanzania; Photovoltaic cells; alternative energy; photovoltaic system; resource development; rural electrification; solar power; technological development; Africa; East Africa; Eastern Hemisphere; Sub-Saharan Africa; Tanzania; WorldNone
WoSWOS:000322531600001Views from the global south: exploring how student volunteers from the global north can achieve sustainable impact in global healthDimaras, Helen,Ouma, Brian D. O.2013GLOBALIZATION AND HEALTH9None10.1186/1744-8603-9-32Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids), University College London, University of London, University of Toronto, Daisys Eye Canc Fund Canada, Daisys Eye Canc Fund Kenya, Toronto Western Res InstNoneBackground: The body of research and practice regarding student volunteer abroad experiences largely focuses on ensuring the optimal learning experience for the student from the Global North, without equivalent attention to the benefits, if any, to the host institution in the Global South. In this debate article, we examine an often overlooked component of global student volunteer programs: the views of the local partner on what makes for a mutually beneficial partnership between volunteers from the Global North and institutions in the Global South. Discussion: To guide our discussion, we drew upon the experiences of a Kenyan NGO with a Canadian student volunteer in the summer of 2012, organized via a formalized partnership with a Canadian university. We found that the approach of the NGO to hosting the student mirrored the organizational behaviour theories of Margaret J. Wheatley, who emphasized a disorderly or 'chaotic' approach to acquiring impactful change, coupled with a focus on building solid human relationships. Rather than following a set of rigid goals or tasks, the student was encouraged to critically engage and participate in all aspects of the culture of the organization and country, to naturally discover an area where his priorities aligned with the needs of the NGO. Solid networks and interpersonal connections resulted in a process useful for the organization long after the student's short-term placement ended. Summary: Our discussion reveals key features of successful academic volunteer abroad placements: equal partnership in the design phase between organizations in the Global North and Global South; the absence of rigid structures or preplanned tasks during the student's placement; participatory observation and critical engagement of the student volunteer; and a willingness of the partners to measure impact by the resultant process instead of tangible outcomes."critical engagement","global health","MEDICAL EDUCATION","student volunteers","study abroad","volunteer tourism",ABROAD,EDUCATION,ELECTIVES,EXPERIENCES,PROGRAM,RESIDENTS,WORKNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84898448405Views from below: Students' perceptions of teaching practice evaluations and stakeholder rolesSosibo L.2013Perspectives in Education314NoneDepartment of Education, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South AfricaSosibo, L., Department of Education, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South AfricaInterest in teaching practice as an essential component of teacher education is growing. In spite of this, there is a dearth of research investigating students' perceptions of teaching practice evaluations from them as beneficiaries. This qualitative study examines students' perceptions of teaching practice evaluations administered by means of observations and criteria-based forms from a systems theory approach, with a view to establishing how effectively all aspects of support, structure and teaching practice evaluation interact and contribute to the development of new teachers. The sample was drawn from one of three campuses that offer the teacher education programme. Data was gathered from 12 focus groups of 57 students using in-depth, semi-structured, open-ended interviews. Results revealed that, although students generally found teaching practice evaluations meaningful, several systemic factors mitigated against their growth and development. Recommendations included strengthening partnerships between schools and university and among all stakeholders; development of a teaching practice theoretical framework and alignment of teaching practice in the campuses that offer the teacher education programme, and developing teaching practice frameworks and structures that could offer students meaningful learning experiences while they are in the schools. © 2013 University of the Free State.Collaboration; Evaluations; Stakeholders; Support; Teacher education; Teaching practiceNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84952049445Vibration control and preliminary evaluation of a piezoelectric actuator for use as a force-feedback deviceM'Boungui G., Lemaire-Semail B., Giraud F.2014European Journal of Electrical Engineering17110.3166/EJEE.17.9-26Department of Electrical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag 7680, Pretoria, South Africa; Laboratoire D'Électrotechnique et D'Électronique de Puissance de Lille, IRCICA, Université Lille 1, 50 Av. Halley, Villeneuve d'Ascq, FranceM'Boungui, G., Department of Electrical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag 7680, Pretoria, South Africa; Lemaire-Semail, B., Laboratoire D'Électrotechnique et D'Électronique de Puissance de Lille, IRCICA, Université Lille 1, 50 Av. Halley, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France; Giraud, F., Laboratoire D'Électrotechnique et D'Électronique de Puissance de Lille, IRCICA, Université Lille 1, 50 Av. Halley, Villeneuve d'Ascq, FranceAs a solution to cope with the lack of compactness and simplicity often encountered in haptic interfaces, we propose a device based on friction coefficient control principle. This device includes polarised piezoceramics well adjusted and glued to a 64x38x3 mm copperberyllium plate supported by four legs. Then, properly energised around a resonant frequency, with legs at antinodes, a stationary wave is created in the plate. Variable friction forces between the legs and the plane substrate are created by the control of the wave amplitude, according to electro-active lubrication. So the user obtains force feedback by holding the plate, and moving it on a plane substrate, as he could do with a mouse interface. Preliminary psychophysical evaluation trends to assess the validity of the device as a force feedback interface. © 2014 Lavoisier.Electro-active lubrication; Haptic; Piezoelectric actuatorActuators; Friction; Haptic interfaces; Interfaces (materials); Lubrication; Natural frequencies; Piezoelectric ceramics; Piezoelectricity; Control principle; Electro actives; Force feedback devices; Friction coefficients; Haptic; Lack of compactness; Psychophysical evaluation; Variable frictions; Piezoelectric actuatorsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84864757592Very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity (ER) investigation for groundwater potential evaluation in a complex geological terrain around the Ijebu-Ode transition zone, southwestern NigeriaOsinowo O.O., Olayinka A.I.2012Journal of Geophysics and Engineering9410.1088/1742-2132/9/4/374Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaOsinowo, O.O., Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Olayinka, A.I., Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaGroundwater exploration in either a basement or sedimentary environment is often fairly well defined and focuses on delineating weathered/fractured rocks or saturated formations, respectively. Conversely, unique geological structures, the complex coexistence of different rock types and poorly defined basal/lateral contacts between basement and sedimentary rocks make groundwater development in a geological transition environment very challenging. Ijebu-Ode and its environs lie within such a problematic transition zone, between the Precambrian basement rocks and Cretaceous sediments of the Dahomey Basin, in southwestern Nigeria, where associated acute groundwater development challenges require adequate subsurface information to maximize its groundwater resource potential. This study integrated very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity (ER) geophysical prospecting techniques for a detailed terrain study of Ijebu-Ode in order to establish the reasons for the low groundwater resource potential in the area. Thirty five VLF-EM profiles, 140 vertical electrical soundings (VES) and relevant hydrogeological data were acquired along grids and profiles. Data were filtered, inverted and enhanced using appropriate software packages. The current density and geoelectric parameters of the VLF-EM and VES data were employed to generate terrain maps, the conductivity distribution and a subsurface basement model of the study area. Current density plots and geoelectric parameters identified up to three layers in the basement complex terrain which comprised lateritic topsoil, weathered basement and fresh basement rocks. The five layers encountered in the sedimentary terrain were topsoil, a lateritic unit, a dry sandy unit, a saturated sandy unit and fresh basement rocks. The hydraulic conductivity of the thick (3-18m) lateritic unit was determined to be 1.32×10 5mm s 1, while that of the underlying sandy units ranged from 2.65×10 4to 1.36×10 3mm s 1. The thick but less permeable lateritic unit which overlaid the more permeable rocks constituted a partial impermeable overburden that prevented an adequate groundwater recharge during and immediately after rainfall. Three zones were delineated as low, medium and high groundwater resource potential areas, located in the northern, central and southern part of the study area, respectively. The low groundwater resource potential around Ijebu-Ode is due to the less permeable lateritic overburden, which prevents an adequate recharge during rainfall and the rugged/undulating basement topography that controls the distribution and storage of the limited recharged water. The southern part of the study area can be developed to meet the water needs of the inhabitants. © 2012 Sinopec Geophysical Research Institute.basement; current density; Dahomey Basin; geoelectrical parameter; lateritic unitbasement rock; electrical resistivity; electromagnetic method; geoelectric field; groundwater exploration; groundwater resource; hydraulic conductivity; resource development; sedimentary rock; terrain; transition zone; Atlantic Ocean; Dahomey Basin; Gulf of Guinea; NigeriaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84884409131Vertical electrical sounding investigation for delineation of geoelectric layers and evaluation of groundwater potential in Ajagba, Asa and Ikonifin localities of Ola Oluwa local government area of Osun state, south western NigeriaOnimisi M., Daniel A., Kolawole M.S.2013Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology618NoneDepartment of Earth Sciences, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria; Formerly Hydromarine Engineering Nigeria Ltd., Lagos, NigeriaOnimisi, M., Department of Earth Sciences, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria, Formerly Hydromarine Engineering Nigeria Ltd., Lagos, Nigeria; Daniel, A., Department of Earth Sciences, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria; Kolawole, M.S., Department of Earth Sciences, Kogi State University, Anyigba, NigeriaVertical Electrical Sounding (VES) surveys were carried out at Ajagba, Asa and Ikonifin communities in the north of Ola Oluwa local government area of Osun state, Nigeria in order to delineate the geoelectric layers in the area as well as evaluate the groundwater potential. The area is in the basement complex terrain of Nigeria where the occurrence of groundwater is highly unpredictable and hence requires the use of hydrologic, geophysical and geologic surveys to achieve success in groundwater development programs. The survey delineated a maximum of four geoelectric layers which may be interpreted to correspond to four geologic layers viz the topsoil, weathered basement, partly weathered/fractured basement and the fresh basement. The weathered basement and the partly weathered/fractured basement layers constitute the aquifer units. The partly weathered/fractured layer is significant in enhancing the ground water potential in this area because of its relatively low resistivity resulting from its high fracture frequency. The ground water potential in the area varies from medium to high. Groundwater development is therefore feasible in these communities. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2013.Basement; Geoelectric layers; Groundwater; Layer thickness; Resistivity; SurveyNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84939238050Verbal autopsy: Evaluation of methods to certify causes of death in UgandaMpimbaza A., Filler S., Katureebe A., Quick L., Chandramohan D., Staedke S.G.2015PLoS ONE10610.1371/journal.pone.0128801Child Health and Development Centre, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Infectious Diseases Research Collaboration, Kampala, Uganda; Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Geneva, Switzerland; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United KingdomMpimbaza, A., Child Health and Development Centre, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, Infectious Diseases Research Collaboration, Kampala, Uganda; Filler, S., Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Geneva, Switzerland; Katureebe, A., Infectious Diseases Research Collaboration, Kampala, Uganda; Quick, L., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States; Chandramohan, D., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Staedke, S.G., Infectious Diseases Research Collaboration, Kampala, Uganda, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United KingdomTo assess different methods for determining cause of death from verbal autopsy (VA) questionnaire data, the intra-rater reliability of Physician-Certified Verbal Autopsy (PCVA) and the accuracy of PCVA, expert-derived (non-hierarchical) and data-driven (hierarchal) algorithms were assessed for determining common causes of death in Ugandan children. A verbal autopsy validation study was conducted from 2008-2009 in three different sites in Uganda. The dataset included 104 neonatal deaths (0-27 days) and 615 childhood deaths (1-59 months) with the cause(s) of death classified by PCVA and physician review of hospital medical records (the 'reference standard'). Of the original 719 questionnaires, 141 (20%) were selected for a second review by the same physicians; the repeat cause(s) of death were compared to the original,and agreement assessed using the Kappa statistic.Physician reviewers' refined non-hierarchical algorithms for common causes of death from existing expert algorithms, from which, hierarchal algorithms were developed. The accuracy of PCVA, non-hierarchical, and hierarchical algorithms for determining cause(s) of death from all 719 VA questionnaires was determined using the reference standard. Overall, intra-rater repeatability was high (83% agreement, Kappa 0.79 [95% CI 0.76-0.82]). PCVA performed well, with high specificity for determining cause of neonatal (>67%), and childhood (>83%) deaths, resulting in fairly accurate cause-specific mortality fraction (CSMF) estimates. For most causes of death in children, non-hierarchical algorithms had higher sensitivity, but correspondingly lower specificity, than PCVA and hierarchical algorithms, resulting in inaccurate CSMF estimates. Hierarchical algorithms were specific for most causes of death, and CSMF estimates were comparable to the reference standard and PCVA. Inter-rater reliability of PCVA was high, and overall PCVA performed well. Hierarchical algorithms performed better than non-hierarchical algorithms due to higher specificity and more accurate CSMF estimates. Use of PCVA to determine cause of death from VA questionnaire data is reasonable while automated data-driven algorithms are improved. © 2015, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.Nonealgorithm; Article; autopsy; cause of death; childhood mortality; controlled study; intrarater reliability; measurement accuracy; measurement repeatability; medical record review; newborn death; questionnaire; sensitivity and specificity; Uganda; Ugandan; validation study; verbal autopsyCDC, United States Agency for International Development; USAID, United States Agency for International Development
Scopus2-s2.0-84856038178Vegetation inventory of the Redemption camp, Ogun State, Nigeria; Evaluation of medicinal plant resources and strategies for conservationDurugbo E.U., Oyetoran B.O., Oyejide N.E.2012Journal of Biological Sciences12110.3923/jbs.2012.34.42Department of Biological Sciences, Redeemer's University Mowe, Ogun State, NigeriaDurugbo, E.U., Department of Biological Sciences, Redeemer's University Mowe, Ogun State, Nigeria; Oyetoran, B.O., Department of Biological Sciences, Redeemer's University Mowe, Ogun State, Nigeria; Oyejide, N.E., Department of Biological Sciences, Redeemer's University Mowe, Ogun State, NigeriaPlants are of great importance in the environment. They help in conserving soil fertility, prevention of erosion, recycling of oxygen and water. They also provide shade, seeds, fruits, timber, vegetables and medicines for man and his livestock. The Redemption Camp falls within the moist equatorial/tropical rainforest belt of Nigeria known for its rich reserve of economic and medicinal plants. This forest has been over exploited and the rate at which the vegetation around the Camp is being destroyed is alarming. Going by the UN declaration of 2010 as the year of biodiversity, there arose an urgent need to document the available plant species in the Redemption City, noting their different uses and promoting ample action towards their conservation through awareness programmes, housing in herbarium and cultivation of a medicinal plant farm. An inventory of the vegetation around the Camp was undertaken between March and November 2010. A total of 472 plants species belonging to one hundred and thirteen (113) families majority of which have previously been documented as medicinal plants were recorded. Herbs, trees and shrubs dominated the flora. The records of herbs and grasses could have possibly arisen as pioneer species of formerly forested areas cleared for housing and other development projects. The most diverse families were Poaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Leguminosae, Moraceae and Cyperaceae, while the commonest trees were Ficus capensis, F. polita, F. exasperata, Elaeis guineensis, Morinda lucida, Albizia lebbeck, Anthocleista vogelii, Maragaritaria discoides, Bridelia micrantha, Carica papaya, Spondias mombin, Blighia sapida, Antiaris africana, Alstonia boonei, Sterculia trigacantha, Rauvolfia vomitora, Ceiba pentandra, Albizia zygia, Newbouldia laevis, Anthocleista djalonensis and Bombax bounopozense. The numerous climbers characteristic of the tropical rainforest indicated the presence of forests in the recent past. This listing of the medicinal plants will pave way for other researchers as th search for new drugs continues. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information.Biodiversity; Herbarium; Medicinal plants; Redemption city; Southwestern NigeriaAlbizia; Albizia lebbeck; article; Asteraceae; Cyperaceae; Elaeis guineensis; environmental protection; Euphorbiaceae; Fabaceae; Ficus; Ficus capensis; Ficus exasperata; Ficus polita; forest; grass; herb; legume; medicinal plant; Moraceae; Morinda lucida; Nigeria; nonhuman; Poaceae; shrub; tree; vegetation; Albizia lebbeck; Albizia zygia; Alstonia boonei; Anthocleista djalonensis; Anthocleista vogelii; Antiaris; Asteraceae; Blighia sapida; Bombax; Bridelia micrantha; Carica papaya; Ceiba pentandra; Cyperaceae; Elaeis guineensis; Euphorbiaceae; Fabaceae; Ficus (angiosperm); Ficus exasperata; Moraceae; Morinda lucida; Newbouldia laevis; Poaceae; Rauvolfia; Spondias mombin; SterculiaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77950023263Vegetation history and climate fluctuations on a transect along the Dead Sea west shore and their impact on past societies over the last 3500 yearsNeumann F.H., Kagan E.J., Leroy S.A.G., Baruch U.2010Journal of Arid Environments74710.1016/j.jaridenv.2009.04.015Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa; Steinmann-Institute for Geology, Mineralogy and Palaeontology, University of Bonn, Nussallee 8, 53115 Bonn, Germany; Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, South Africa; Geological Survey of Israel, 30 Malkhei Israel Street, Jerusalem, 95501, Israel; Institute of Earth Sciences, Givat Ram, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904, Israel; Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, West London, United Kingdom; 99 Hashalom street, Mevasseret Ziyyon, 90805, IsraelNeumann, F.H., Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa, Steinmann-Institute for Geology, Mineralogy and Palaeontology, University of Bonn, Nussallee 8, 53115 Bonn, Germany, Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, South Africa; Kagan, E.J., Geological Survey of Israel, 30 Malkhei Israel Street, Jerusalem, 95501, Israel, Institute of Earth Sciences, Givat Ram, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904, Israel; Leroy, S.A.G., Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, West London, United Kingdom; Baruch, U., 99 Hashalom street, Mevasseret Ziyyon, 90805, IsraelThis study represents the vegetation history of the last 3500 years and conducts an analysis of the climatic fluctuations on a 75 km long transect on the western Dead Sea shore. Palynological and sedimentological data are available from six cores near Mount Sedom, Ein Boqueq, and Ein Gedi and from outcrops near Ze'elim and Ein Feshkha. The comparison of the pollen data with the lake levels shows synchronous trends. During the Middle Bronze Age, Iron Age and Hellenistic to Byzantine Period the high lake level of the Dead Sea signals an increase in precipitation. Contemporaneously, values of cultivated plants indicate an increase in agriculture. Lake level is low during the Late Bronze Age, within the Iron Age and at the end of the Byzantine period, indicating dry periods when all pds show a decrease of cultivated plants. Forest regeneration led by drought-resistant pines is observed in all pollen diagrams (pds) following the agricultural decline in the Byzantine period and, in the pds near Ein Boqeq, Ze'elim and Ein Feshkha, during the late Iron Age. The modern vegetation gradient is reflected in the palaeo-records: a stronger expansion of Mediterranean vegetation and cultivated plants in the northern sites is recognisable. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Holocene; Israel; Palynology; Vegetation transectagricultural change; climate change; coastal zone; coniferous tree; drought resistance; historical geography; Holocene; paleoenvironment; palynology; precipitation intensity; regeneration; sedimentology; vegetation history; Dead SeaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84886929268Vegetation change (1988-2010) in Camdeboo National Park (South Africa), using fixed-point photo monitoring: The role of herbivory and climateMasubelele M.L., Hoffman M.T., Bond W., Burdett P.2013Koedoe55110.4102/koedoe.v55i1.1127Department Botany, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Camdeboo National Park, Graaff-Reinet, South AfricaMasubelele, M.L., Department Botany, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Hoffman, M.T., Department Botany, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Bond, W., Department Botany, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Burdett, P., Camdeboo National Park, Graaff-Reinet, South AfricaFixed-point photo monitoring supplemented by animal census data and climate monitoring potential has never been explored as a long-term monitoring tool for studying vegetation change in the arid and semi-arid national parks of South Africa. The long-term (1988-2010), fixed-point monitoring dataset developed for the Camdeboo National Park, therefore, provides an important opportunity to do this. Using a quantitative estimate of the change in vegetation and growth form cover in 1152 fixed-point photographs, as well as series of step-point vegetation surveys at each photo monitoring site, this study documented the extent of vegetation change in the park in response to key climate drivers, such as rainfall, as well as land use drivers such as herbivory by indigenous ungulates. We demonstrated the varied response of vegetation cover within three main growth forms (grasses, dwarf shrubs [< 1 m] and tall shrubs [> 1 m]) in three different vegetation units and landforms (slopes, plains, rivers) within the Camdeboo National Park since 1988. Sites within Albany Thicket and Dwarf Shrublands showed the least change in vegetation cover, whilst Azonal vegetation and Grassy Dwarf Shrublands were more dynamic. Abiotic factors such as drought and flooding, total annual rainfall and rainfall seasonality appeared to have the greatest influence on growth form cover as assessed from the fixed-point photographs. Herbivory appeared not to have had a noticeable impact on the vegetation of the Camdeboo National Park as far as could be determined from the rather coarse approach used in this analysis and herbivore densities remained relatively low over the study duration. Conservation implications: We provided an historical assessment of the pattern of vegetation and climatic trends that can help evaluate many of South African National Parks' biodiversity monitoring programmes, especially relating to habitat change. It will help arid parks in assessing the trajectories of vegetation in response to herbivory, climate and management interventions. © 2013. The Authors.Noneenvironmental modeling; environmental monitoring; growth response; herbivory; quantitative analysis; shrub; vegetation cover; vegetation dynamics; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84865298437Variations in magnetic properties of target basalts with the direction of asteroid impact: Example from Lonar crater, IndiaArif M., Basavaiah N., Misra S., Deenadayalan K.2012Meteoritics and Planetary Science47810.1111/j.1945-5100.2012.01395.xIndian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai-410 218, India; School of Geological Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban-4000, South AfricaArif, M., Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai-410 218, India; Basavaiah, N., Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai-410 218, India; Misra, S., School of Geological Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban-4000, South Africa; Deenadayalan, K., Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai-410 218, IndiaThe Lonar crater in Maharashtra state, India, has been completely excavated on the Deccan Traps basalt (approximately 65Ma) at approximately 570±47ka by an oblique impact of a possible chondritic asteroid that struck the preimpact target from the east at an angle of approximately 30-45 o to the horizon where the total duration of the shock event was approximately 1s. It is shown by our early work that the distribution of ejecta and deformation of target rocks around the crater rim are symmetrical to the east-west plane of impact (Misra et al. 2010). The present study shows that some of the rock magnetic properties of these shocked target basalts, e.g., low-field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), natural remanent magnetization (NRM)/bulk susceptibility (χ), and high-coercivity and high-temperature (HC_HT) magnetization component, are also almost symmetrically oriented with reference to the plane of impact. Studies on the relative displacements of K 3 (minimum) AMS axes of shocked basalts from around the crater rim and from the adjacent target rocks to the approximately 2-3km west of the crater center suggest that the impact stress could have branched out into the major southwestward and northwestward components in the downrange direction immediately after the impact. The biaxial distribution of AMS axes in stereographic plots for the unshocked basalts transforms mostly into triaxial distribution for the shocked basalts, although transitional type distribution also exists. The degree of anisotropy (P′) of AMS ellipsoids of the shocked basalts decreases by approximately 2% when compared with those of the unshocked target (approximately 1.03). The NRM/χ (Am -1) values of the shocked basalts on the rim of the Lonar crater do not show much change in the uprange or downrange direction on and close to the east-west plane of impact, and the values are only approximately 1.5times higher on average over the unshocked basalts around the crater. However, the values become approximately 1.4-16.4times higher for the shocked basalts on the crater rim, which occur obliquely to the plane of impact. The target basalts at approximately 2-3km west of the crater center in the downrange also show a significant increase (up to approximately 26times higher) in NRM/χ. The majority of the shocked basalt samples (approximately 73%) from around the crater rim, in general, show a lowering of REM, except those from approximately 2-3km west of the crater center in the downrange, where nearly half of the sample population shows a higher REM of approximately 3.63% in average. The shocked target basalts around the Lonar crater also acquired an HC_HT magnetization component due to impact. These HC_HT components are mostly oriented in the uprange direction and are symmetrically disposed about the east-west plane of impact, making an obtuse angle with the direction of impact. The low-coercivity and low-temperature (LC_LT) components of both the unshocked and shocked basalts are statistically identical to the present day field (PDF) direction. This could be chemical and/or viscous remanent magnetization acquired by the target basalts during the last 570±47ka, subsequent to the formation of the Lonar crater. The shocked Lonar target basalts appear to have remagnetized under high impact shock pressure and at low temperature of approximately 200-300°C, where Ti-rich titanomagnetite was the main magnetic remanence carrier. © The Meteoritical Society, 2012.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33748685240Variation of the genomic proportion of the recurrent parent in BC 1 and its relation to yield performance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) breeding for low-input conditionsUptmoor R., Wenzel W., Ayisi K., Donaldson G., Gehringer A., Friedt W., Ordon F.2006Plant Breeding125510.1111/j.1439-0523.2006.01270.xInstitute of Vegetable and Fruit Science, University of Hannover, Herrenhäuser Straße 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany; Agricultural Research Council (ARC), Grain Crops Institute (GCI), Private Bag X1251, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa; Department of Plant Production, University of the North, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa; Northern Province Department of Agriculture, Land and Environment (NPDALE), Potgietersrus, South Africa; Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding I (IPZ), Justus-Liebig-University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, 35392 Giessen, Germany; Institute of Epidemiology and Resistance Resources, Federal Center for Breeding Research on Cultivated Plants, Theodor-Roemer-Weg 4, D-06449 Aschersleben, GermanyUptmoor, R., Institute of Vegetable and Fruit Science, University of Hannover, Herrenhäuser Straße 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany; Wenzel, W., Agricultural Research Council (ARC), Grain Crops Institute (GCI), Private Bag X1251, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa; Ayisi, K., Department of Plant Production, University of the North, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa; Donaldson, G., Northern Province Department of Agriculture, Land and Environment (NPDALE), Potgietersrus, South Africa; Gehringer, A., Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding I (IPZ), Justus-Liebig-University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, 35392 Giessen, Germany; Friedt, W., Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding I (IPZ), Justus-Liebig-University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, 35392 Giessen, Germany; Ordon, F., Institute of Epidemiology and Resistance Resources, Federal Center for Breeding Research on Cultivated Plants, Theodor-Roemer-Weg 4, D-06449 Aschersleben, GermanyIn order to define the variation of the genomic proportion of the recurrent parent [G(RP)] and its relation to yield, G(RP) of individual BC1 plants of two sorghum populations composed of a high-yielding cultivar as recurrent parent (RP) and a donor with superior drought resistance or grain quality, respectively, was estimated using AFLPs and SSRs. G(RP) in BC1 ranged from 0.53 to 0.95 and averaged to 0.76 in the population (NP4453 x 'SV-2') x 'SV-2'. G(RP) varied between 0.60 and 0.86 and averaged to 0.74 in the BC1 of (ICV-219 x 'SV-2') x 'SV-2'. Results show that plants with a G(RP) equivalent to BC2 (0.875) or BC3 (0.938), respectively, can be selected from BC1. Yield performance of BC1S1 families was tested in field trials carried out in South Africa. The correlation between yield and G(RP) in BC1 was low. Selection according to G(RP) did not result in an effective preselection for yield. © 2006 The Authors.AFLP; BC1; Genomic proportion of the recurrent parent; Sorghum bicolor; SSR; Yielding abilitySorghum bicolorNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84862867593Variation in thermal performance among insect populationsSinclair B.J., Williams C.M., Terblanche J.S.2012Physiological and Biochemical Zoology85610.1086/665388Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada; Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States; Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South AfricaSinclair, B.J., Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada; Williams, C.M., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States; Terblanche, J.S., Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South AfricaAmong-population variation in insect thermal performance is important for understanding patterns and mechanisms of evolution and predicting insect responses to altered climate regimes in future or novel environments. Here we review and discuss several key examples of among-population variation in insect thermal performance, including latitudinal gradients in chill coma recovery time, variation in energy consumption and metabolic biochemistry, rapid changes in thermal biology with range expansion in invasive and introduced species, and potential constraints on variation in thermal performance traits. This review highlights that while there is substantial evidence for among-population variation that is generally correlated with local climate regimes, neither the underlying mechanisms nor the implications for whole-animal fitness in the field are well understood. We also discuss the potential limitations of interpreting evolved variation among populations and argue for a genes-to-environment approach to population-level variation in thermal biology of insects. © 2012 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.Noneclimate change; evolutionary biology; fitness; genotype-environment interaction; insect; invasive species; latitudinal gradient; life history trait; performance assessment; animal; article; climate change; energy metabolism; evolution; genetic variability; genetics; genotype environment interaction; insect; physiology; temperature; Animals; Biological Evolution; Climate Change; Energy Metabolism; Gene-Environment Interaction; Genetic Variation; Insects; Temperature; Animalia; HexapodaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84915819117Variation in pantothenate kinase type determines the pantothenamide mode of action and impacts on coenzyme A salvage biosynthesisDe Villiers M., Barnard L., Koekemoer L., Snoep J.L., Strauss E.2014FEBS Journal2812010.1111/febs.13013Department of Biochemistry, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South AfricaDe Villiers, M., Department of Biochemistry, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Barnard, L., Department of Biochemistry, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Koekemoer, L., Department of Biochemistry, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Snoep, J.L., Department of Biochemistry, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Strauss, E., Department of Biochemistry, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South AfricaN-substituted pantothenamides are analogues of pantothenic acid, the vitamin precursor of CoA, and constitute a class of well-studied bacterial growth inhibitors that show potential as new antibacterial agents. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of pantothenate kinase (PanK; EC 2.7.1.33) (the first enzyme of CoA biosynthesis) in mediating pantothenamide- induced growth inhibition by one of two proposed mechanisms: first, by acting on the pantothenamides as alternate substrates (allowing their conversion into CoA antimetabolites, with subsequent effects on CoA- and acyl carrier protein-dependent processes) or, second, by being directly inhibited by them (causing a reduction in CoA biosynthesis). In the present study we used structurally modified pantothenamides to probe whether PanKs interact with these compounds in the same manner. We show that the three distinct types of eubacterial PanKs that are known to exist (PanKI, PanKII and PanKIII) respond very differently and, consequently, are responsible for determining the pantothenamide mode of action in each case: although the promiscuous PanKI enzymes accept them as substrates, the highly selective PanKIIIs are resistant to their inhibitory effects. Most unexpectedly, Staphylococcus aureus PanK (the only known example of a bacterial PanKII) experiences uncompetitive inhibition in a manner that is described for the first time. In addition, we show that pantetheine, a CoA degradation product that closely resembles the pantothenamides, causes the same effect. This suggests that, in S. aureus, pantothenamides may act by usurping a previously unknown role of pantetheine in the regulation of CoA biosynthesis, and validates its PanK as a target for the development of new antistaphylococcal agents. © 2014 FEBS.Coenzyme A; Growth inhibition; Pantetheine; Pantothenamide; Pantothenate kinaseacyl carrier protein; coenzyme A; growth inhibitor; pantetheine; pantothenamide; pantothenate kinase; pantothenate kinase 1; pantothenate kinase 2; pantothenate kinase 3; unclassified drug; amide; antiinfective agent; coenzyme A; isoenzyme; pantothenate kinase; pantothenic acid; phosphotransferase; vitamin B complex; Article; bacterial cell; binding affinity; concentration response; drug design; drug determination; drug mechanism; drug screening; drug structure; drug synthesis; enzyme mechanism; enzyme substrate; enzyme synthesis; Escherichia coli; growth inhibition; inhibition kinetics; minimum inhibitory concentration; molecular probe; nonhuman; protein protein interaction; Staphylococcus aureus; structure activity relation; structure analysis; binding site; chemical structure; drug effects; enzymology; growth, development and aging; kinetics; metabolism; Amides; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Binding Sites; Coenzyme A; Drug Design; Isoenzymes; Kinetics; Molecular Structure; Pantothenic Acid; Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor); Staphylococcus aureus; Vitamin B Complex; Bacteria (microorganisms); Staphylococcus aureusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84881479814Variant ataxia telangiectasia: Clinical and molecular findings and evaluation of radiosensitive phenotypes in a patient and relativesClaes K., Depuydt J., Taylor A.M.R., Last J.I., Baert A., Schietecatte P., Vandersickel V., Poppe B., De Leeneer K., D'Hooghe M., Vral A.2013NeuroMolecular Medicine15310.1007/s12017-013-8231-4Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom; NRF IThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West 7129, South Africa; Department of Neurology and Child Neurology AZ St-Jan, 8000 Brugge, BelgiumClaes, K., Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; Depuydt, J., Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; Taylor, A.M.R., School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom; Last, J.I., School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom; Baert, A., Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; Schietecatte, P., Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; Vandersickel, V., NRF IThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West 7129, South Africa; Poppe, B., Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; De Leeneer, K., Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; D'Hooghe, M., Department of Neurology and Child Neurology AZ St-Jan, 8000 Brugge, Belgium; Vral, A., Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, BelgiumVariant ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) may be an underdiagnosed entity. We correlate data from radiosensitivity and kinase assays with clinical and molecular data from a patient with variant A-T and relatives. The coding region of ATM was sequenced. To evaluate the functional effect of the mutations, we performed kinase assays and developed a novel S-G2 micronucleus test. Our patient presented with mild dystonia, moderately dysarthric speech, increased serum α-fetoprotein but no ataxia nor telangiectasias, no nystagmus or oculomotor dyspraxia. She has a severe IgA deficiency, but does not have recurrent infections. She is compound heterozygote for ATM c.8122G>A (p.Asp2708Asn) and c.8851-1G>T, leading to in frame loss of 63 nucleotides at the cDNA level. A trace amount of ATM protein is translated from both alleles. Residual kinase activity is derived only from the p.Asp2708Asn allele. The conventional G0 micronucleus test, based on irradiation of resting lymphocytes, revealed a radiosensitive phenotype for the patient, but not for the heterozygous relatives. As ATM is involved in homologous recombination and G2/M cell cycle checkpoint, we optimized an S-G2 micronucleus assay, allowing to evaluate micronuclei in lymphocytes irradiated in the S and G2 phases. This test showed increased radiosensitivity for both the patient and the heterozygous carriers. Intriguingly, heterozygous carriers of c.8851-1G>T (mutation associated with absence of kinase activity) showed a stronger radiosensitive phenotype with this assay than heterozygous carriers of p.Asp2708Asn (mutation associated with residual kinase activity). The modified S-G2 micronucleus assay provided phenotypic insight into complement the diagnosis of this atypical A-T patient. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.ATM heterozygous carriers; cDNA analysis; In vitro radiosensitivity; Kinase assay; S-G2 micronucleus assay; Variant ataxia telangiectasiaalpha fetoprotein; baclofen; levodopa; psychotropic agent; tetrazepam; adult; anamnesis; article; ataxia telangiectasia; ATM gene; case report; cell cycle checkpoint; cell cycle progression; cerebral palsy; clinical feature; controlled study; disease severity; dystonia; enzyme activity; female; gene; gene locus; gene mutation; gene sequence; genetic transcription; genetic variability; heterozygosity; homologous recombination; human; immunoglobulin A deficiency; mental disease; micronucleus test; missense mutation; molecular typing; mutational analysis; nucleotide sequence; phenotype; priority journal; protein blood level; psychotherapy; radiosensitivity; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; strabismus; Ataxia telangiectasia; Adult; Amino Acid Substitution; Ataxia Telangiectasia; Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins; Breast Neoplasms; Caffeine; Child; Exons; Female; G2 Phase; Heterozygote; Humans; Lymphocytes; Male; Micronucleus Tests; Mutation, Missense; Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary; Neurologic Examination; Pedigree; Phenotype; Radiation Tolerance; Recombinational DNA Repair; Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal; RNA Splice Sites; S Phase; Sequence Analysis, DNANone
Scopus2-s2.0-84942249582Variable piperaquine exposure significantly impacts protective efficacy of monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the prevention of malaria in Ugandan childrenSundell K., Jagannathan P., Huang L., Bigira V., Kapisi J., Kakuru M.M., Savic R., Kamya M.R., Dorsey G., Aweeka F.2015Malaria Journal14110.1186/s12936-015-0908-8Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, United States; Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco, United States; Infectious Diseases Research CollaborationKampala, Uganda; Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, United States; Department of Medicine, Makerere University, College of Health SciencesKampala, UgandaSundell, K., Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Jagannathan, P., Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, United States; Huang, L., Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco, United States; Bigira, V., Infectious Diseases Research CollaborationKampala, Uganda; Kapisi, J., Infectious Diseases Research CollaborationKampala, Uganda; Kakuru, M.M., Infectious Diseases Research CollaborationKampala, Uganda; Savic, R., Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, United States; Kamya, M.R., Department of Medicine, Makerere University, College of Health SciencesKampala, Uganda; Dorsey, G., Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, United States; Aweeka, F., Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco, United StatesBackground: Anti-malarial chemoprevention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA/PQ) is a promising tool for malaria control, but its efficacy in children may be limited by inadequate drug exposure. Methods: Children were enrolled in a non directly-observed trial of DHA/PQ chemoprevention in a high transmission setting in Uganda. Children were randomized at 6 months of age to no chemoprevention (n = 89) or monthly DHA/PQ (n = 87) and followed through 24 months of age, with pharmacokinetic sampling performed at variable times following monthly dosing of DHA/PQ. A previously published pharmacokinetic model was used to estimate piperaquine (PQ) exposure in each child, and associations between PQ exposure and the protective efficacy (PE) of DHA/PQ were explored. Results: The incidence of malaria was 6.83 and 3.09 episodes per person year at risk in the no chemoprevention and DHA/PQ arms, respectively (PE 54 %, 95 % CI 39-66 %, P < 0.001). Among children randomized to DHA/PQ, 493 pharmacokinetic samples were collected. Despite nearly 100 % reported adherence to study drug administration at home, there was wide variability in PQ exposure, and children were stratified into three groups based on average PQ exposure during the intervention that was determined by model generated percentiles (low, n = 40; medium, n = 37, and high, n = 10). Gender and socioeconomic factors were not significantly associated with PQ exposure. In multivariate models, the PE of DHA/PQ was 31 % in the low PQ exposure group (95 % CI 6-49 %, P = 0.02), 67 % in the medium PQ exposure group (95 % CI 54-76 %, P < 0.001), and 97 % in the high PQ exposure group (95 % CI 89-99 %, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The protective efficacy of DHA/PQ chemoprevention in young children was strongly associated with higher drug exposure; in children with the highest PQ exposure, monthly DHA/PQ chemoprevention was nearly 100 % protective against malaria. Strategies to ensure good adherence to monthly dosing and optimize drug exposure are critical to maximize the efficacy of this promising malaria control strategy. Trial Registration: Current Controlled Trials Identifier NCT00948896 © 2015 Sundell et al.Chemoprevention; Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine; Malaria; Pharmacokinetics; Plasmodium falciparumdihydroartemisinin plus piperaquine; area under the curve; Article; child; controlled study; drug efficacy; drug half life; female; human; infection prevention; malaria; male; medication compliance; oral clearance; patient compliance; randomized controlled trial (topic); socioeconomics; Ugandan; volume of distribution5R01HD068174-05, NICHD, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; 5R01HD068174-05, NIH, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; K23 AI100949, NIAID, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; K23 AI100949,
Scopus2-s2.0-84900524562Variable-gear EV reluctance synchronous motor drives -An evaluation of rotor structures for position-sensorless controlVillet W.T., Kamper M.J.2014IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics611010.1109/TIE.2013.2288231Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, 7599 Stellenbosch, South AfricaVillet, W.T., Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, 7599 Stellenbosch, South Africa; Kamper, M.J., Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, 7599 Stellenbosch, South AfricaThe reluctance synchronous motor (RSM) is identified to be well suited for the variable-gear (VG) electric vehicle (EV) drive. It is shown in this paper, however, that the RSM drive's position-sensorless capability is limited at zero or very small current magnitudes due to a limited saliency magnitude. In this paper, a novel epoxy-resin-casted rotor with no iron ribs is proposed to increase the saliency of the RSM at zero reference current. This rotor RSM is simulated in finite-element (FE) analysis, built, evaluated, and compared with conventional flux barrier rotor RSMs. The effect of rotor skewing on the position-sensorless control (PSC) capability of the RSM is also evaluated by means of FE analysis and measurements. Other performance aspects are also considered in this paper. It is concluded that, overall, the skewed epoxy-resin-casted rotor RSM drive has no PSC problems in the entire load and speed regions and is well suited for VG EV drives. © 1982-2012 IEEE.position sensorless control; Reluctance synchronous machines; variable speed drivesElectric drives; Finite element method; Resins; Synchronous motors; Variable speed drives; Current magnitudes; Flux barrier; Performance aspects; Position sensorless control; Reference currents; Reluctance synchronous machine; Reluctance synchronous motors; Rotor structures; Position controlNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78149351112Valvular regurgitation impact on left ventricular 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic indices in patients with essential hypertensionAjayi O.E., Abiona T.C., Balogun M.O., Ajayi A.A.L.2010Journal of the National Medical Association10210NoneDivision of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; Department of Health Studies, College of Health Sciences, Chicago State University, Chicago, IL, United States; Division of Hypertension and Clinical PharmacologAjayi, O.E., Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; Abiona, T.C., Department of Health Studies, College of Health Sciences, Chicago State University, Chicago, IL, United States; Balogun, M.O., Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; Ajayi, A.A.L., Department of Health Studies, College of Health Sciences, Chicago State University, Chicago, IL, United States, Division of Hypertension and Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United StatesBackground: Blacks have both a higher hypertension prevalence and accelerated cardiac end organ damage. Because blacks also have a higher prevalence of valvular heart disease, which occurs at a younger age than for whites, we further examined the contribution of valvular regurgitation to the severity of hypertensive heart disease in Nigerians. Methods: We evaluated and compared echocardiographic indexes in 75 essential hypertensive Nigerians with (n = 48) and without (n = 27) valvular regurgitations. Demographic and echocardiographic indices, as well as the types and severity of valvular lesions were compared between the groups using bivariate logistic regression and analysis of variance. Results: The 2 groups were of similar demographics, but those with regurgitations had larger cardiac size (p &lt; .05), greater mass (147 ± 31 vs 122 ± 32 g/m 2, p = .01) higher volume (p &lt; .01), and left atrial size (35.6 ± 4.6 vs 33.3 ± 4.6 mm, p &lt; .05). Atrial size, cardiac volume, and dimension were independent correlates/predictors of regurgitation occurrence. Relative wall thickness of at least 0.6 was more common in regurgitation patients. Cardiac mass was correlated to increasing age (r = 0.23, p = .043). The valvular lesions frequencies were aortic regurgitation, 8; mitral regurgitation, 22; and mixed, 18. The aortic orifice dimension was significantly different among the regurgitant cases, highest in aortic regurgitation (p = .001). Aortic orifice dimension increased with hypertension duration (p = .028). Conclusions: Regurgitant lesions are common and occur early in hypertensive Africans. Apparently mild valvular regurgitation may accentuate preclinical concentric hypertrophy in hypertensive blacks.Cardiovascular; Hypertension; Nigeriaadult; aorta valve regurgitation; arterial wall thickness; artery diameter; article; cardiovascular risk; clinical article; clinical assessment; comparative study; controlled study; disease duration; disease severity; Doppler echocardiography; essential hypertension; female; heart left atrium; heart left ventricle ejection fraction; heart left ventricle enddiastolic volume; heart left ventricle filling; heart rate; heart size; heart volume; human; male; mitral valve regurgitation; Nigeria; priority journal; two dimensional echocardiography; Adult; African Continental Ancestry Group; Aged; Echocardiography, Doppler; Female; Heart Valve Diseases; Heart Ventricles; Humans; Hypertension; Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular; Male; Middle Aged; Nigeria; Organ Size; Ventricular Function, LeftNone
Scopus2-s2.0-20144361977Valuing the impacts of climate change on protected areas in AfricaVelarde S.J., Malhi Y., Moran D., Wright J., Hussain S.2005Ecological Economics53110.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.07.024Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn Programme, World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya; School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, United Kingdom; School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom; Land Economy, Scottish Agricultural College, Kings Buildings, West Main Rd., Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, United Kingdom; Department of Geography, University of Southampton, United KingdomVelarde, S.J., Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn Programme, World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya; Malhi, Y., School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, United Kingdom, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom; Moran, D., Land Economy, Scottish Agricultural College, Kings Buildings, West Main Rd., Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, United Kingdom; Wright, J., Department of Geography, University of Southampton, United Kingdom; Hussain, S., Land Economy, Scottish Agricultural College, Kings Buildings, West Main Rd., Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, United KingdomThis study quantifies the economic costs of climate change impacts on protected areas in Africa. Downscaled results from four Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are used to classify different ecosystems in accordance with the Holdridge Life Zone (HLZ) system. A benefits transfer approach is then used to place an economic value on the predicted ecosystem shifts resulting from climate change in protected areas. The results provide approximations for the impacts on biodiversity in Africa under the "business-as-usual" scenario established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for the middle and end of the 21st century. The geographical analysis shows that there are twenty HLZs in Africa and all of them are represented in the protected area network. Three of these HLZs do not change in extent as a result of climate change. Assuming initially that the willingness to pay (WTP) values and the preferences for different ecosystem services remain constant, three of the GCM models show an (undiscounted) negative economic impact of climate change for protected areas in Africa for the year 2100. The worst-case damage scenario totals USD 74.5 million by 2100. However, the model for the year 2065 shows a higher undiscounted value than the present. The finding of positive net impacts from warming is consistent with the predictions of other macro models that show potential gains from warming scenarios. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.African protected areas; Benefits transfer; Climate change; Ecosystem shifts; Holdridge life zonesclimate change; economic impact; environmental impact; protected area; Africa; Eastern Hemisphere; WorldNone
Scopus2-s2.0-60649115420Valuing the Guinea current large marine ecosystem: Estimates of direct output impact of relevant marine activitiesChukwuone N.A., Ukwe C.N., Onugu A., Ibe C.A.2009Ocean and Coastal Management524243310.1016/j.ocecoaman.2008.12.008Centre for Entrepreneurship and Development Research, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria; Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria; Water Management Unit, Energy and Cleaner Production Branch, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, VIC Box 300, A-1400 Vienna, Austria; Bioresources Development and Conservation programme (BDCP), Abuja, Nigeria; Interim Guinea Current Commission, 1 Akosombo Street, Airport Residential Area, Accra, GhanaChukwuone, N.A., Centre for Entrepreneurship and Development Research, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria; Ukwe, C.N., Water Management Unit, Energy and Cleaner Production Branch, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, VIC Box 300, A-1400 Vienna, Austria; Onugu, A., Bioresources Development and Conservation programme (BDCP), Abuja, Nigeria; Ibe, C.A., Interim Guinea Current Commission, 1 Akosombo Street, Airport Residential Area, Accra, GhanaThis study is a first step towards valuing the Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem (GCLME), one of the five world's most productive marine areas that are rich in fishery resources, petroleum production, and an important global region of marine biological diversity. The area is highly degraded and thus demands urgent attention to recover and sustain depleted fisheries; restore degraded habitats; and reduce land and ship-based pollutions. Achieving this goal would be a mirage if the actual value of the ecosystem's contribution to the society is not known. Valuation can help identify the main beneficiaries of conservation and the magnitude of benefits they receive, and help design measures to capture some of these benefits and contribute to financing of conservation. Hence this study used the direct output approach to estimate the value of relevant marine activities in the area. The result shows that the total value of output in GCLME when some outputs namely, marine fishery, offshore oil production, NTFP (periwinkle) and mining, are considered as $49,941.4 million. Among these uses, offshore oil production has the highest value accounting for 59.79% of the total estimate. These estimates provides sufficient evidence to show that GCLME provide enormous value and should be managed appropriately to sustain the gains if the economic development would be guaranteed especially considering that most countries in the GCLM depend on natural resources for their survival. Evolving a well defined property rights regime and an efficient governance system for management is recommended. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.NoneEcosystems; Fisheries; Ocean currents; Offshore oil fields; Biological diversities; Design measures; Economic development; Fishery resources; Global regions; Governance systems; Large marine ecosystems; Marine areas; Marine fisheries; Offshore oil productions; Petroleum productions; Property rights; Total values; Offshore oil well production; anthropogenic effect; biodiversity; conservation; human activity; marine ecosystem; marine pollution; Africa; Guinea; Sub-Saharan Africa; West Africa; Catharanthus roseusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84951202383Values orientation, needs satisfaction and job performance of public servants in Cross River State of NigeriaBassey P.U., Omori A.E.2015Organizational Cultures1404-MarNoneDepartment of Educational Psychology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, NigeriaBassey, P.U., Department of Educational Psychology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; Omori, A.E., University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, NigeriaThe purpose of this research was to examine the effect of values orientation and needs satisfaction on public servants’ job performance in Cross River State, Nigeria. Survey data collected from five hundred (500) public servants were used in the study. In all, four hypotheses were formulated covering the variables in the study. The Workers’ Values Orientation, Needs Satisfaction and Performance Questionnaire (WVANSAPQ) was used, and data collected was tested at the 0.05 level of significance using the Pearson Moment Coefficient. The results and data analysis indicated that values orientation and needs satisfaction had significant influence on public servants’ job performance. Consequently, the study recommended that the government and counselors as well as employers of labour should embark on reorienting workers, particularly public servants in the area of values orientation and counseling in the public sector in order to raise their level of awareness and consciousness to the variables in the study as a means of facilitating their job effectiveness in the 21st century. © Common Ground, Peter Unoh Bassey, Anne Emmanuel Omori, All Rights Reserved.Job performance; Needs satisfaction; Public servants; Values orientationNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-81855212815Value based financial performance measures: An evaluation of relative and incremental information contentErasmus P.2008Corporate Ownership and Control60.041666666667NoneDepartment of Business Management, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South AfricaErasmus, P., Department of Business Management, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South AfricaValue-based (VB) financial performance measures are often advanced as improvements over traditional measures. It is argued that the inclusion of a firms cost of capital in the calculation of these measures facilitates the evaluation of value creation. Furthermore they attempt to remove some accounting distortions resulting from the limitations of conventional accounting information. This paper investigates the ability of four VB measures to explain market-adjusted share returns and compare it to that of some traditional measures. Empirical results indicate that the relative information contents of the VB measures are not greater than that of earnings. The incremental information content tests indicate that their components add significantly to the information content of earnings, but that the level of significance is relatively low.Accounting information; Cost of capital; Financial performanceNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80051681371Value and impact of massive blood transfusion protocols in the management of trauma patientsOrtega-Gonzalez M.D.C., Monzon-Torres B.I.2011Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia174NoneDepartment of Anaesthesia, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa; Trauma Directorate, Division of Surgery, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Soweto, Johannesburg, South AfricaOrtega-Gonzalez, M.D.C., Department of Anaesthesia, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa; Monzon-Torres, B.I., Trauma Directorate, Division of Surgery, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Soweto, Johannesburg, South AfricaTrauma-related injuries are the second leading cause of death and disability in South Africa. The traditional approach to surgery and resuscitation of severely injured patients has undergone change over the past 10 years. New concepts like damage control surgery and damage control resuscitation radically changed the practice of conventional resuscitation. Bleeding trauma patients die as a consequence of the so-called lethal triad or bloody vicious cycle: acidosis, coagulopathy and hypothermia. Effective initial management of trauma patients can help to improve outcomes. © SASA.Coagulopathy; Damage control resuscitation; Damage control surgery; Hypothermia; Massive bleeding; Massive blood transfusion protocol; Metabolic acidosisaccidental injury; article; bleeding; blood clotting disorder; blood component therapy; blood transfusion; damage control surgery; human; hypothermia; injury; metabolic acidosis; resuscitation; South Africa; traumatologyNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33747196960Validation study of the Siriraj stroke score in African Nigerians and evaluation of the discriminant values of its parameters: A preliminary prospective CT scan studyKolapo K.O., Ogun S.A., Danesi M.A., Osalusi B.S., Odusote K.A.2006Stroke37810.1161/01.STR.0000229893.02732.02Department of Medicine, Ogun State University Teaching Hospital Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria; Department of Medicine, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos State, Nigeria; West African Post Graduate Medical College, Yaba, Lagos State, Nigeria; DepartmeKolapo, K.O., Department of Medicine, Ogun State University Teaching Hospital Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria; Ogun, S.A., Department of Medicine, Ogun State University Teaching Hospital Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria, Department of Medicine, Ogun State University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria, P.O.Box 1333, Ikorodu, Lagos state, Nigeria; Danesi, M.A., Department of Medicine, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos State, Nigeria; Osalusi, B.S., Department of Medicine, Ogun State University Teaching Hospital Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria; Odusote, K.A., West African Post Graduate Medical College, Yaba, Lagos State, NigeriaBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - CT scanning is important to identify stroke pathology and exclude mimics. Its poor availability in our environment makes the search for simple, reliable clinical-score imperative. This study aims to validate the Siriraj Stroke score (SSS) and determine the discriminant values of its parameters in the black population of African-Nigerians. METHODS - A prospective multicenter study was carried out on patients that presented with stroke and had brain CT scan done within 14 days of onset. An interviewer structured questionnaire was administered and SSS computed. The stroke-type was classified and compared with CT diagnosis. Data were analyzed using Epi-info-2002. RESULTS - 1122 patients presented with clinical features of stroke, of which only 101 (9%) could afford the cost of CT scan. Of these, 90 had CT-scan features consistent with acute stroke, 5 had cortical atrophy and 1 was normal. Thus, 96 patients were analyzed, of which 68 (71%) had cerebral ischemia and 28 (29%) had intracerebral hemorrhage. The 6 patients with no visible infarct on CT were regarded as cerebral infarction. The correlation between SSS, headache, vomiting, loss-of-consciousness and CT diagnosis achieved statistical significance, whereas atheroma markers and diastolic blood pressure did not. The SSS has an overall predictive accuracy of 80%. CONCLUSIONS - This preliminary study has shown that only 9% of our hospital stroke population had benefit of CT scan. The limited number of patients studied and their potential lack of representativeness, represent a funding issue to properly establish the performance of clinical scoring systems and assist in descriptive epidemiology of hospital and community-based stroke studies in resource-poor settings. However, in this study, the SSS diagnosis correlates significantly with CT diagnosis. © 2006 American Heart Association, Inc.Clinical studies; CT; Strokeadult; aged; article; atheroma; brain atrophy; brain hemorrhage; brain infarction; brain ischemia; clinical feature; clinical trial; community; comparative study; computer assisted tomography; consciousness level; controlled clinical trial; controlled study; correlation analysis; diagnostic accuracy; diagnostic procedure; diastolic blood pressure; discriminant validity; female; headache; health care cost; hospital; human; interview; major clinical study; male; multicenter study; Negro; prediction; priority journal; prospective study; questionnaire; statistical significance; stroke; validation process; vomiting; brain hemorrhage; brain infarction; cerebrovascular accident; computer assisted tomography; differential diagnosis; discriminant analysis; economics; hospitalization; middle aged; Negro; Nigeria; pathophysiology; radiography; sensitivity and specificity; statistics; validation study; Adult; African Continental Ancestry Group; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Cerebral Hemorrhage; Cerebral Infarction; Cerebrovascular Accident; Diagnosis, Differential; Discriminant Analysis; Female; Health Care Costs; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Nigeria; Prospective Studies; Questionnaires; Sensitivity and Specificity; Severity of Illness Index; Tomography, X-Ray ComputedNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79953714555Validation study of immunoaffinity column chromatography coupled with solution fluorometry or HPLC for the detection of aflatoxin in peanuts and corn: Performance Tested MethodSM 050901Lupo A., Quain A., Fitzsimmons A., Allan A., Popping B., Trucksess M., Shephard G.2011Journal of AOAC International942NoneSubmitting Company, Neogen Corp., 620 Lesher Pl, Lansing, MI 48912, United States; Trilogy Analytical Laboratories, 870 Vossbrink Dr., Washington, MO 63090, United States; Eurofins, CTC, Neulaender Gewerbepark 1, D-21078, Hamburg, Germany; U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy, College Park, MD 20740, United States; AOAC General Referee, Mycotoxins, PROMEC, Medical Research Council, South AfricaLupo, A., Submitting Company, Neogen Corp., 620 Lesher Pl, Lansing, MI 48912, United States, Trilogy Analytical Laboratories, 870 Vossbrink Dr., Washington, MO 63090, United States; Quain, A., Submitting Company, Neogen Corp., 620 Lesher Pl, Lansing, MI 48912, United States, Trilogy Analytical Laboratories, 870 Vossbrink Dr., Washington, MO 63090, United States; Fitzsimmons, A., Submitting Company, Neogen Corp., 620 Lesher Pl, Lansing, MI 48912, United States, Trilogy Analytical Laboratories, 870 Vossbrink Dr., Washington, MO 63090, United States; Allan, A., Submitting Company, Neogen Corp., 620 Lesher Pl, Lansing, MI 48912, United States, Trilogy Analytical Laboratories, 870 Vossbrink Dr., Washington, MO 63090, United States; Popping, B., Eurofins, CTC, Neulaender Gewerbepark 1, D-21078, Hamburg, Germany; Trucksess, M., U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy, College Park, MD 20740, United States; Shephard, G., AOAC General Referee, Mycotoxins, PROMEC, Medical Research Council, South AfricaNeogen Corp. has developed the Neocolumn for Aflatoxin DR for the detection of total aflatoxin by HPLC or solution fluorometry. The purpose of this study was to validate the method under the requirements of the AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested MethodsSM (PTM) program. There are several AOAC Official MethodsSM for detection of total aflatoxin in corn; they consist of rapid and analytical-based methods and two rapid methods (PTMs 030701 and 050901) that have been performance tested by the AOAC Research Institute. A widely used reference method, however, is AOAC Official MethodSM 991.31, which uses immumoaffinity cleanup followed by HPLC or solution fluorometry and is referred to as the reference method in this document. In internal studies, the Neocolumn method coupled with solution fluorometry demonstrated a relative recovery from peanuts of 101.6% of the reference value, with a CV of 3.9% across all levels analyzed; when coupled with HPLC, the Neocolumn method demonstrated a relative recovery from peanuts of 103.0% of the reference value with a CV of 3.5% across all levels analyzed. The Neocolumn method coupled with solution fluorometry demonstrated a relative recovery from corn of 116.9% of the reference value with a CV of 6.1% across all levels analyzed; when coupled with HPLC, the Neocolumn method demonstrated a relative recovery from corn of 91.2% of the reference value, with a CV of 5.4% across all levels analyzed. Calculations were made by comparison with the mean result obtained by the HPLC reference method, which showed respective CV values of 3.9 and 2.0% for recoveries from peanuts and corn, respectively.NoneCV value; Immunoaffinity columns; Rapid method; Reference method; Reference values; Research institutes; Total aflatoxins; Validation study; Aflatoxins; Column chromatography; Fluorometers; High performance liquid chromatography; Recovery; aflatoxin; article; chemistry; chromatography; fluorometry; food analysis; high performance liquid chromatography; maize; methodology; peanut; reproducibility; sensitivity and specificity; Aflatoxins; Arachis hypogaea; Chromatography; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid; Fluorometry; Food Analysis; Reproducibility of Results; Sensitivity and Specificity; Zea mays; Zea maysNone
NoneNoneValidation, performance under field conditions, and cost-effectiveness of Capillus HIV-1/HIV-2 and determine HIV-1/2 rapid human immunodeficiency virus antibody assays using sequential and parallel testing algorithms in TanzaniaMayhood M.K., Afwamba I.A., Odhiambo C.O., Ndanu E., Thielman N.M., Morrissey A.B., Shao J.F., Pence B.W., Crump J.A.2008Journal of Clinical Microbiology461210.1128/JCM.01045-08Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States; Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania; Kikundi Cha Wanawake Kilimanjaro Kupambana na UKIMWI (KIWAKKUKI; Women Against AIDS in Kilimanjaro), Moshi, Tanzania; Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States; Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Tumaini University, Moshi, Tanzania; Sanford Institute of Public Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States; Center for Health Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States; Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3867, Durham, NC 27710, United StatesMayhood, M.K., Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States; Afwamba, I.A., Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania; Odhiambo, C.O., Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania; Ndanu, E., Kikundi Cha Wanawake Kilimanjaro Kupambana na UKIMWI (KIWAKKUKI; Women Against AIDS in Kilimanjaro), Moshi, Tanzania; Thielman, N.M., Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States, Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States; Morrissey, A.B., Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania; Shao, J.F., Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Tumaini University, Moshi, Tanzania; Pence, B.W., Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States, Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, Sanford Institute of Public Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, Center for Health Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States; Crump, J.A., Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania, Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Tumaini University, Moshi, Tanzania, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3867, Durham, NC 27710, United StatesRapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests support the effort to expand access to HIV testing and counseling services in remote, rural, and poor parts of the world. We validated the Capillus HIV-1/HIV-2 (Trinity Biotech PLC, Bray, County Wicklow, Ireland) and Determine HIV-1/2 (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) rapid tests in a reference laboratory using patient samples from Tanzania and evaluated the performance of the tests under field conditions in northern Tanzania. We used the resulting data to study sequential and parallel testing algorithms. In the validation study, sensitivity, specificity, the predictive value of a positive test (PV+), and the predictive value of a negative test (PV-) were all 100% for Capillus and Determine. In the field evaluation among 12,737 clients, sensitivity, specificity, PV+, and PV- were 99.7%, 99.8%, 98.7%, and 99.9%, respectively, for Capillus and 99.6%, 99.9%, 99.5%, and 99.9%, respectively, for Determine. A sequential testing algorithm that did not confirm a negative initial Capillus result with a Determine result cost $7.77 per HIV diagnosis but missed 0.3% of HIV infections. A sequential testing algorithm that did not confirm a negative initial Determine result with a Capillus result cost $7.64 per HIV diagnosis but missed 0.4% of HIV infections. A parallel testing algorithm cost $13.46 per HIV diagnosis but detected more HIV-infected clients. Copyright © 2008, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.Nonevirus antibody; algorithm; article; controlled study; cost effectiveness analysis; human; Human immunodeficiency virus 1; Human immunodeficiency virus 2; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; immunoassay; performance measurement system; priority journal; sensitivity analysis; sensitivity and specificity; sequential analysis; Tanzania; validation study; Cost-Benefit Analysis; HIV Antibodies; HIV Infections; HIV-1; HIV-2; Humans; Immunoassay; Predictive Value of Tests; Sensitivity and Specificity; Tanzania; Human immunodeficiency virus; Human immunodeficiency virus 1; Human immunodeficiency virus 2None
Scopus2-s2.0-24344464067Validation of species-climate impact models under climate changeAraújo M.B., Pearson R.G., Thuiller W., Erhard M.2005Global Change Biology11910.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.01000.xBiodiversity Research Group, School of Geography and Environment, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TD, United Kingdom; Biogeography and Conservation Laboratory, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom; Macroecology and Conservation Unit, University of Évora, Estrada dos Leões, 7000-730 Évora, Portugal; Climate Change Research Group, Kirstenbosch Research Centre, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Private Bag x7, Claremont 7735 Cape Town, South Africa; Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biologia Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, SpainAraújo, M.B., Biodiversity Research Group, School of Geography and Environment, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TD, United Kingdom, Biogeography and Conservation Laboratory, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom, Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biologia Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain; Pearson, R.G., Biodiversity Research Group, School of Geography and Environment, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TD, United Kingdom, Macroecology and Conservation Unit, University of Évora, Estrada dos Leões, 7000-730 Évora, Portugal; Thuiller, W., Climate Change Research Group, Kirstenbosch Research Centre, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Private Bag x7, Claremont 7735 Cape Town, South Africa; Erhard, M., Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, GermanyIncreasing concern over the implications of climate change for biodiversity has led to the use of species-climate envelope models to project species extinction risk under climate-change scenarios. However, recent studies have demonstrated significant variability in model predictions and there remains a pressing need to validate models and to reduce uncertainties. Model validation is problematic as predictions are made for events that have not yet occurred. Resubstituition and data partitioning of present-day data sets are, therefore, commonly used to test the predictive performance of models. However, these approaches suffer from the problems of spatial and temporal autocorrelation in the calibration and validation sets. Using observed distribution shifts among 116 British breeding-bird species over the past ∼20 years, we are able to provide a first independent validation of four envelope modelling techniques under climate change. Results showed good to fair predictive performance on independent validation, although rules used to assess model performance are difficult to interpret in a decision-planning context. We also showed that measures of performance on nonindependent data provided optimistic estimates of models' predictive ability on independent data. Artificial neural networks and generalized additive models provided generally more accurate predictions of species range shifts than generalized linear models or classification tree analysis. Data for independent model validation and replication of this study are rare and we argue that perfect validation may not in fact be conceptually possible. We also note that usefulness of models is contingent on both the questions being asked and the techniques used. Implementations of species-climate envelope models for testing hypotheses and predicting future events may prove wrong, while being potentially useful if put into appropriate context. © 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Bioclimatic-envelope models; Breeding birds; Britain; Climate change; Model accuracy; Uncertainty; Validationbiodiversity; bird; breeding population; climate change; extinction risk; Eurasia; Europe; United Kingdom; Western Europe; AvesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84892454034Validation of public health competencies and impact variables for low- and middle-income countriesZwanikken P.A.C., Alexander L., Huong N.T., Qian X., Valladares L.M., Mohamed N.A., Ying X.H., Gonzalez-Robledo M.C., Linh L.C., Wadidi M.S.E.A., Tahir H., Neupane S., Scherpbier A.2014BMC Public Health14110.1186/1471-2458-14-55Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands; School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Capetown, South Africa; Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Viet Nam; School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico; Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan; Department of Demography, Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Viet Nam; Human Resource Development, Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan; University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan; Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, NetherlandsZwanikken, P.A.C., Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Alexander, L., School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Capetown, South Africa; Huong, N.T., Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Viet Nam; Qian, X., School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Valladares, L.M., National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico; Mohamed, N.A., Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan; Ying, X.H., School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Gonzalez-Robledo, M.C., National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico; Linh, L.C., Department of Demography, Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Viet Nam; Wadidi, M.S.E.A., Human Resource Development, Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan; Tahir, H., University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan; Neupane, S., School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Capetown, South Africa; Scherpbier, A., Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, NetherlandsBackground: The number of Master of Public Health (MPH) programmes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is increasing, but questions have been raised regarding the relevance of their outcomes and impacts on context. Although processes for validating public health competencies have taken place in recent years in many high-income countries, validation in LMICs is needed. Furthermore, impact variables of MPH programmes in the workplace and in society have not been developed. Method. A set of public health competencies and impact variables in the workplace and in society was designed using the competencies and learning objectives of six participating institutions offering MPH programmes in or for LMICs, and the set of competencies of the Council on Linkages Between Academia and Public Health Practice as a reference. The resulting competencies and impact variables differ from those of the Council on Linkages in scope and emphasis on social determinants of health, context specificity and intersectoral competencies. A modified Delphi method was used in this study to validate the public health competencies and impact variables; experts and MPH alumni from China, Vietnam, South Africa, Sudan, Mexico and the Netherlands reviewed them and made recommendations. Results: The competencies and variables were validated across two Delphi rounds, first with public health experts (N = 31) from the six countries, then with MPH alumni (N = 30). After the first expert round, competencies and impact variables were refined based on the quantitative results and qualitative comments. Both rounds showed high consensus, more so for the competencies than the impact variables. The response rate was 100%. Conclusion: This is the first time that public health competencies have been validated in LMICs across continents. It is also the first time that impact variables of MPH programmes have been proposed and validated in LMICs across continents. The high degree of consensus between experts and alumni suggests that these public health competencies and impact variables can be used to design and evaluate MPH programmes, as well as for individual and team assessment and continuous professional development in LMICs. © 2014 Zwanikken et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Impact; Low- and middle-income countries; Master of Public Health; Public health competenciesarticle; China; Delphi study; developing country; education; human; Mexico; professional competence; program evaluation; public health; public health service; South Africa; standard; Sudan; validation study; Viet Nam; China; Delphi Technique; Developing Countries; Humans; Mexico; Professional Competence; Program Evaluation; Public Health; Public Health Administration; South Africa; Sudan; VietnamNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84868348815Validation of non-pollen palynomorphs as paleoenvironmental indicators in tropical Africa: Contrasting ~200-year paleolimnological records of climate change and human impactGelorini V., Ssemmanda I., Verschuren D.2012Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology186None10.1016/j.revpalbo.2012.05.006Limnology Unit, Department of Biology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium; Department of Geology, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, UgandaGelorini, V., Limnology Unit, Department of Biology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium; Ssemmanda, I., Department of Geology, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda; Verschuren, D., Limnology Unit, Department of Biology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, BelgiumMulti-proxy investigation of high-resolution, ~. 200-year sediment records from two shallow, climate-sensitive crater lakes in western Uganda, surrounded by either presently undisturbed (Lake Chibwera) or severely disturbed (Lake Kanyamukali) catchments, provides insights into lake ecosystem and vegetation response to short-term natural climate variability, as separate from local human impact. Here, we present fossil non-pollen palynomorph (NPP) assemblages, mainly including spores of saprotrophic, coprophilous (dung-colonizing), and/or mycorrhizal fungi, to assess and validate their paleoecological significance in a tropical African context. At both sites, high abundances of the saprotrophic Coniochaeta spp. broadly coincide with documented decade-scale episodes of increased humidity (early- to mid-19th century, ~. 1870-1900. AD and late 20th century). Severe drought in the late 18th and early 19th century reduced both lakes to ephemeral ponds, which were intensively visited by large wild and/or domestic herbivores, as indicated by abundant Sordaria spp. and Delitschia spp., obligately growing on herbivore dung. From the mid-19th century onwards, large herbivore presence at Chibwera declined, and remained low as the site became incorporated in a game reserve in the early 20th century, and was added to Queen Elizabeth National Park in 1965. In contrast, herbivore presence remained strong at Kanyamukali, where grazing and subsistence farming intensified from the mid-20th century onwards. The location of Lake Kanyamukali near an ancient cattle trail and/or trading route underscores its historical linkage with transhumance. Grazing activity at Kanyamukali is indicated mainly by slightly increased abundances of coprophilous Sordaria spp. and of Glomus sp., indicative of soil erosion. Only this modest change in the NPP assemblage can be uniquely attributed to relatively intense recent human impact at Kanyamukali, contrasting with the strong NPP response at both lakes to the shifts in large herbivore behavior associated with late 18th- and early 19th century climatic drought. Comparison of the two records therefore allows us to conclude that in African lakes, (i) only high densities of domestic large herbivores create a paleoenvironmental NPP signature that can be unambiguously linked to past pastoralist activity, and (ii) facultative coprophilous fungal spores are overwhelmingly controlled by natural, climate-driven fluctuations in the local availability of preferred substrates for the fungi. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.Climate change; Human impact; Lake sediment records; Late Holocene; Non-pollen palynomorphs; Western Ugandaanthropogenic effect; climate variation; fossil record; fungus; Holocene; lacustrine deposit; paleoecology; paleoenvironment; paleolimnology; palynomorph; Uganda; Bacteria (microorganisms); Bos; Coniochaeta; Coprophilous; Delitschia; Fungi; Glomus; SordariaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84858738941Validation of noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical endocrine activity in ground-feeding aardwolves (Proteles cristata): Exemplifying the influence of consumption of inorganic material for fecal steroid analysisGanswindt A., Muilwijk C., Engelkes M., Muenscher S., Bertschinger H., Paris M., Palme R., Cameron E.Z., Bennett N.C., Dalerum F.2012Physiological and Biochemical Zoology85210.1086/664591Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa; Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; Department of Equine Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht 3584CM, Netherlands; Institute for Breeding Rare and Endangered Mammals, Edinburgh, United Kingdom; Department of Biomedical Sciences/Biochemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna A-1210, Austria; School of Zoology, University of Tasmania, Hobart TAS 7001, Australia; Centre for Wildlife Management, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028, South Africa; School of Animal Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, AustraliaGanswindt, A., Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa, Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; Muilwijk, C., Department of Equine Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht 3584CM, Netherlands; Engelkes, M., Department of Equine Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht 3584CM, Netherlands; Muenscher, S., Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; Bertschinger, H., Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; Paris, M., Department of Equine Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht 3584CM, Netherlands, Institute for Breeding Rare and Endangered Mammals, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, School of Animal Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia; Palme, R., Department of Biomedical Sciences/Biochemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna A-1210, Austria; Cameron, E.Z., Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa, School of Zoology, University of Tasmania, Hobart TAS 7001, Australia; Bennett, N.C., Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa; Dalerum, F., Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa, Centre for Wildlife Management, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028, South AfricaBiologically inert material in feces may confound interpretations of noninvasive fecal endocrine data, because it may induce variance related to differences in foraging behavior rather than to differences in endocrine activity. We evaluated two different enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for the noninvasive evaluation of adrenocortical activity in ground-feeding aardwolves (Proteles cristata) and tested the influence of soil content in aardwolffeces on the interpretation of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite data. Using adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges for validation, we successfully identified a cortisol EIA suitable for assessing adrenocortical activity in aardwolves. An alternatively tested 11-oxoetiocholanolone EIA failed to detect a biologically relevant signal after ACTH administration. Although the proportion of inorganic content in aardwolf feces did not alter qualitative conclusions from the endocrine data, the data related to mass of organic content had a larger amount of variance attributed to relevant biological contrasts and a lower amount of variance attributed to individual variation, compared with data related to total dry mass of extracted material. Compared with data expressed as dry mass of extracted material, data expressed as mass of organic content may provide a more refined and statistically powerful measure of endocrine activity in species that ingest large amounts of indigestible material. © 2012 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.None11 oxoetiocholanolone; 11-ketoetiocholanolone; corticotropin; drug derivative; etiocholanolone; glucocorticoid; hydrocortisone; comparative study; endocrine disruptor; feces; felid; foraging behavior; immunoassay; steroid; adrenal cortex; animal; article; Carnivora; chemistry; diet; enzyme immunoassay; feces; feeding behavior; female; immunology; male; metabolism; methodology; soil; validation study; Adrenal Cortex; Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; Animals; Diet; Etiocholanolone; Feces; Feeding Behavior; Female; Glucocorticoids; Hyaenidae; Hydrocortisone; Immunoenzyme Techniques; Male; Soil; Proteles; Proteles cristatusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84856575875Validation of a new test for Schistosoma haematobium based on detection of Dra1 DNA fragments in urine: Evaluation through latent class analysisIbironke O., Koukounari A., Asaolu S., Moustaki I., Shiff C.2012PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases6110.1371/journal.pntd.0001464Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States; MRC Centre of Outbreak Analysis and Modeling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St. Mary's Campus, London, UIbironke, O., Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States; Koukounari, A., MRC Centre of Outbreak Analysis and Modeling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St. Mary's Campus, London, United Kingdom; Asaolu, S., Department of Zoology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria; Moustaki, I., Department of Statistics, London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom; Shiff, C., Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United StatesBackground: Diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis in chronically infected adults is challenging but important, especially because long term infection of the bladder and urinary tract can have dire consequences. We evaluated three tests for viable infection: detection of parasite specific DNA Dra1 fragments, haematuria and presence of parasite eggs for sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp). Methods: Over 400 urine specimens collected from adult volunteers in an endemic area in Western Nigeria were assessed for haematuria then filtered in the field, the filter papers dried and later examined for eggs and DNA. The results were stratified according to sex and age and subjected to Latent Class analysis. Conclusions: Presence of Dra1 in males (Se = 100%; Sp = 100%) exceeded haematuria (Se = 87.6%: Sp = 34.7%) and detection of eggs (Se = 70.1%; Sp = 100%). In females presence of Dra1 was Se = 100%: Sp = 100%, exceeding haematuria (Se = 86.7%: Sp = 77.0%) and eggs (Se = 70.1%; Sp = 100%). Dra1 became undetectable 2 weeks after praziquantel treatment. We conclude detection of Dra1 fragment is a definitive test for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium infection. © 2012 Ibironke et al.NoneDNA fragment; dra1 DNA fragment; praziquantel; unclassified drug; helminth DNA; helminth protein; adult; article; diagnostic test accuracy study; female; hematuria; human; latent class analysis; male; microscopy; Nigeria; nonhuman; parasite identification; polymerase chain reaction; Schistosoma hematobium; schistosomiasis; sensitivity and specificity; statistical analysis; urinalysis; animal; chemistry; genetics; hematuria; isolation and purification; middle aged; parasitology; schistosomiasis haematobia; urine; validation study; Adult; Animals; DNA, Helminth; Female; Helminth Proteins; Hematuria; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Nigeria; Parasite Egg Count; Schistosoma haematobium; Schistosomiasis haematobia; Sensitivity and Specificity; UrineNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33748526198UV-visible and electrochemical monitoring of carbon monoxide release by donor complexes to myoglobin solutions and to electrodes modified with films containing heminObirai J.C., Hamadi S., Ithurbide A., Wartelle C., Nyokong T., Zagal J., Top S., Bedioui F.2006Electroanalysis181710.1002/elan.200603571Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris, Unité de Pharmacologie Chimique et Génétique, UMR CNRS 8151/U INSERM 640, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231, Paris Cedex 05, France; Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa; Facultad de Química Y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago, Chile; Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris, Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie des Complexes Moléculaires, UMR CNRS 7576, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, FranceObirai, J.C., Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris, Unité de Pharmacologie Chimique et Génétique, UMR CNRS 8151/U INSERM 640, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231, Paris Cedex 05, France, Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa; Hamadi, S., Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris, Unité de Pharmacologie Chimique et Génétique, UMR CNRS 8151/U INSERM 640, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231, Paris Cedex 05, France; Ithurbide, A., Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris, Unité de Pharmacologie Chimique et Génétique, UMR CNRS 8151/U INSERM 640, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231, Paris Cedex 05, France; Wartelle, C., Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris, Unité de Pharmacologie Chimique et Génétique, UMR CNRS 8151/U INSERM 640, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231, Paris Cedex 05, France; Nyokong, T., Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa; Zagal, J., Facultad de Química Y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago, Chile; Top, S., Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris, Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie des Complexes Moléculaires, UMR CNRS 7576, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France; Bedioui, F., Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris, Unité de Pharmacologie Chimique et Génétique, UMR CNRS 8151/U INSERM 640, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231, Paris Cedex 05, FranceThis study reports on the evaluation of the CO donating behavior of tricarbonyl dichloro ruthenium(II) dimer ([Ru(CO)3Cl 2]2) and 1,3-dimethoxyphenyl tricarbonyl chromium (C 6H3(MeO)2Cr(CO)3) complex by UV-visible technique and electrochemical technique. The CO release was monitored by following the modifications of the UV-visible features of MbFe(II) in phosphate buffer solution and the redox features of reduced Hemin, HmFe(II), confined at the surface of a vitreous carbon electrode. In the latter case, the interaction between the hemin-modified electrode and the released CO was seen through the observation of an increase of the reduction current related to the FeIII/FeII redox process of the immobilized porphyrin. While the ruthenium-based complex, ([Ru(CO)3Cl2] 2), depended on the presence of Fe(II) species to release CO, it was found that the chromium-based complex released spontaneously CO. This was facilitated by illuminating and/or simple stirring of the solution containing the complex. © 2006 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH &amp; Co. KGaA.Carbon monoxide; Chromium CO-releasing complex; Cyclic voltammetry; Hemin modified electrode; Myoglobin; Ruthenium complex; UV-visible spectrophotometryNoneNone
WoSWOS:000317880300013Utilizing community health worker data for program management and evaluation: Systems for data quality assessments and baseline results from RwandaBasinga, Paulin,Drobac, Peter,Farmer, Didi Bertrand,Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany,Hirschhorn, Lisa,Karamaga, Adolphe,Mitsunaga, Tisha,Mugeni, Cathy,Ngabo, Fidele,Ngizwenayo, Elias2013SOCIAL SCIENCE &amp; MEDICINE85None10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.02.033Harvard University, University of Rwanda, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Minist Hlth, PIH, Rwinkwavu Dist Hosp"Basinga, Paulin: University of Rwanda","Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany: Harvard University",Community health workers (CHWs) have and continue to play a pivotal role in health services delivery in many resource-constrained environments. The data routinely generated through these programs are increasingly relied upon for providing information for program management, evaluation and quality assurance. However, there are few published results on the quality of CHW-generated data, and what information exists suggests quality is low. An ongoing challenge is the lack of routine systems for CHW data quality assessments (DQAs). In this paper, we describe a system developed for CHW DQAs and results of the first formal assessment in southern Kayonza, Rwanda, May-June 2011. We discuss considerations for other programs interested in adopting such systems. While the results identified gaps in the current data quality, the assessment also identified opportunities for strengthening the data to ensure suitable levels of quality for use in management and evaluation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Africa,"community case management","community health worker","DATA QUALITY","Lot Quality Assurance Sampling",LQAS,RWANDA,CHALLENGES,COUNTRIES,INFORMATION-SYSTEM,MALAWI,POLICYNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84938702208Utilization of law library collections for improving academic performance by undergraduate law students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, AwkaOnwudinjo O.T.U., Ogbonna U.A., Nwadiogwa O.J.2015Library Philosophy and Practice20151NoneNnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria; Digital Library, Festus Nwako Library, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, NigeriaOnwudinjo, O.T.U., Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria; Ogbonna, U.A., Digital Library, Festus Nwako Library, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria; Nwadiogwa, O.J., Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, NigeriaThis study showcases the law library collections and their utilization by the undergraduate students of Faculty of Law, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent of the use being made of the resources by the undergraduate law students of the university, the types of law library resources, benefits derived and the frequency of use. The research method was a descriptive survey. The population consisted of the law undergraduate students of the university in the 2013/2014 academic session which had 550 registered users of the library. The sample was 132 students made up of 100 to 500 levels. 132 questionnaire were administered randomly to the students. Out of this number, 132 was returned representing 100% rate of response. Data collected were analysed using frequency count and simple percentage. The study shows that greater number of law students use law library at least twice a week for preparing for examinations. In the light of this, the study recommended that the law library should be adequately stocked with current and relevant law resources, as well as improving the reading environment so as to make it more conducive for learning and research.Faculty of law; Frequency of use; Law journals; Law library collections; Law reports; Law statutesNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-18144391576Utilization of cellobiose by recombinant β-glucosidase-expressing strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Characterization and evaluation of the sufficiency of expressionMcBride J.E., Zietsman J.J., Van Zyl W.H., Lynd L.R.2005Enzyme and Microbial Technology37110.1016/j.enzmictec.2005.01.034Chem. and Biochem. Eng. Program, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, United States; Department of Microbiology, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South AfricaMcBride, J.E., Chem. and Biochem. Eng. Program, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, United States; Zietsman, J.J., Department of Microbiology, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Van Zyl, W.H., Department of Microbiology, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Lynd, L.R., Chem. and Biochem. Eng. Program, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, United StatesTwo recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the BGL1 (β-glucosidase) gene originating from Saccharomycopsis fibuligera were characterized with respect to gene expression and growth on cellobiose under air and nitrogen gas phases. The laboratory strain Y294[ySF1], with β-glucosidase expression from a multi-copy plasmid, grew at comparable rates on cellobiose and glucose under both air and nitrogen gas phases. By contrast, strain N96[ySF1] grew at a much slower rate on cellobiose than on glucose under both gas phases. For the various strain and substrate combinations tested, cell-specific enzyme activity was significantly higher under a nitrogen gas phase as compared to an air gas phase. The ability of these strains to grow on cellobiose, a non-native substrate, was evaluated in terms of a dimensionless 'sufficiency' parameter, S, consisting of the ratio of the maximum cell-specific rate of glucose production from cellobiose to the maximum cell-specific rate of glucose consumption. At sufficiency values substantially less than one, specific growth rates were found to be limited by heterologous enzyme expression, whereas for values of sufficiency near and greater to one, specific growth rates on cellobiose approached their values on glucose. The concept of sufficiency appears to have general utility for work aimed at growth enablement on non-native substrates by virtue of heterologous enzyme expression. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.β-Glucosidase; Cellobiose; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; SufficiencyCell culture; Genes; Glucose; Microorganisms; Strain; Substrates; Cellobiose; Gas phase; Gene expression; Saccharomycel cerevisiae; Enzymes; beta glucosidase; cellobiose; nitrogen; air; article; controlled study; culture medium; fungal metabolism; fungal strain; fungus growth; gene expression; glucose metabolism; growth rate; nonhuman; protein expression; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Saccharomycopsis fibuligeraNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33845295765Utility of the Koppitz norms for the Bender Gestalt Test performance of a group of Sesotho-speaking childrenMakhele L., Walker S., Esterhuyse K.2006Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health182NoneDepartment of Psychology, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South AfricaMakhele, L., Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; Walker, S., Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; Esterhuyse, K., Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South AfricaObjective: This study investigated the utility of the Koppitz administration, scoring and norms for the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) as a neurocognitive screening instrument for Sesotho-speaking children. Method: The BGT protocols of 671 Sesotho-speaking children between the ages of seven and nine were reviewed. Data pertaining to socioeconomic status were also gathered for 360 of the participants. The BGT performance of the Sesotho sample was compared to that of the original Koppitz norm group. Furthermore, the two groups were compared with regard to their respective age-related rates of improvement in BGT performance. The effects of gender and socioeconomic status on the BGT performance of the Sesotho group were also investigated. Results: The Sesotho-speaking group incurred a significantly higher number of errors, compared to the Koppitz norm group. Moreover, the Sesotho group exhibited no age-related improvement in their BGT performance. Socioeconomic status showed no effect on the group's BGT performance, while age only showed a significant effect within the nine-year-old group. Conclusions: The BGT exhibits limited utility as a screening instrument for neurocognitive impairment amongst Sesotho-speaking children. Limitations of the current study are highlighted and suggestions are made regarding future directions for research. Copyright © NISC Pty Ltd.Nonearticle; Bender test; cognition; controlled study; education program; ethnic group; female; human; human experiment; language; language ability; male; medical research; neuropsychological test; practice guideline; school child; socioeconomics; Student t testNone
Scopus2-s2.0-17844409094Utility of rapid on-site evaluation of transbronchial needle aspiratesDiacon A.H., Schuurmans M.M., Theron J., Louw M., Wright C.A., Brundyn K., Bolliger C.T.2005Respiration72210.1159/000084050Department of Internal Medicine, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Anatomical Pathology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Internal Medicine, PO Box 19063, 7505 Tygerberg, South AfricaDiacon, A.H., Department of Internal Medicine, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa, Department of Internal Medicine, PO Box 19063, 7505 Tygerberg, South Africa; Schuurmans, M.M., Department of Internal Medicine, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa; Theron, J., Department of Internal Medicine, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa; Louw, M., Department of Anatomical Pathology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa; Wright, C.A., Department of Anatomical Pathology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa; Brundyn, K., Department of Anatomical Pathology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa; Bolliger, C.T., Department of Internal Medicine, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South AfricaBackground: Rapid on-site evaluation has been proposed as a method to improve the yield of transbronchial needle aspiration. Objectives: This study investigated whether on-site analysis facilitates routine diagnostic bronchoscopy in terms of sampling, yield and cost. Methods: Patients with lesions accessible for transbronchial needle aspiration on computed tomography were investigated. A cytopathologist screened the needle aspirates on site for the presence of diagnostic material. The bronchoscopic sampling process was adjusted according to the results. In 90 consecutive patients with neoplastic disease (n = 70; 78%), non-neoplastic disease (n = 16; 18%) or undiagnosed lesions (n = 4; 4%) we aspirated 162 lung tumours or lymph node sites (mediastinal: 7%; tracheobronchial: 68%; other: 25%). In 90 consecutive patients with neoplastic disease (n = 70; 78%), non-neoplastic disease (n = 16; 18%) or undiagnosed lesions (n = 4; 4%) we aspirated 162 lung lesions (paratracheal tumours or lymph nodes: 7%; tracheobronchial lymph nodes: 68%; other: 25%). Results: The diagnostic yield of needle aspiration was 77 and 25% in patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions, respectively. Sampling could be terminated in 64% of patients after needle aspiration had been performed as the only diag-nostic modality, and on-site analysis identified diagnostic material from the first site aspirated in 50% of patients. Only in 2 patients (2%) diagnostic aspirates were not recognized on site. On-site analysis was cost effective due to savings for disposable diagnostic tools, which exceeded the extra expense for the on-site cytology service provided. Conclusions: Rapid on-site analysis of transbronchial aspirates is a highly useful, accurate and cost-effective addition to routine diagnostic bronchoscopy. Copyright © 2005 S. Karger AG.Bronchoscopy; Cytodiagnosis; Fine-needle biopsy; Lung neoplasms; Transbronchial needle aspirationadolescent; adult; aged; article; bronchoscopy; cancer diagnosis; computer assisted tomography; cost benefit analysis; cytopathology; diagnostic accuracy; diagnostic value; female; human; human tissue; lung cancer; lymph node; major clinical study; male; needle biopsy; priority journal; sampling; tracheobronchial tree; transbronchial biopsy; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Biopsy, Fine-Needle; Bronchi; Bronchoscopy; Cost-Benefit Analysis; Diagnosis, Differential; Female; Humans; Lung Diseases; Male; Middle Aged; Prospective Studies; Reproducibility of Results; Time FactorsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84887212781Utility and diagnostic performance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by two immunochromatographic assays as compared with the molecular Genotype assay in NigeriaPokam B.T., Asuquo A.E., Goh K.S., Abia-Bassey L.N., Rastogi N.2013International Journal of Mycobacteriology2110.1016/j.ijmyco.2012.12.002Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Cameroon; Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Nigeria; WHO Supranational TB Reference Laboratory, TB and MyPokam, B.T., Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Cameroon; Asuquo, A.E., Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Nigeria; Goh, K.S., WHO Supranational TB Reference Laboratory, TB and Mycobacteria Unit, Institut Pasteur de la Guadeloupe, 97183 Abymes, Guadeloupe; Abia-Bassey, L.N., Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Nigeria; Rastogi, N., WHO Supranational TB Reference Laboratory, TB and Mycobacteria Unit, Institut Pasteur de la Guadeloupe, 97183 Abymes, GuadeloupeAmong the disadvantages of smear microscopy for detection of tuberculosis cases is its inability to differentiate between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). This study evaluated two, new immunochromatographic assays - Capilia TB-Neo and SD Bioline - on unheated and heated cultures at 80. °C for 30. min respectively for their ability to discriminate between MTB complex and NTM as compared with the molecular Genotype assay. Mycobacteria used in the study were obtained from smear-positive specimens collected from patients at four major hospitals in Cross River State, Nigeria. Capilia TB-Neo and SD Bioline showed sensitivities of 98.8% and 93.8% respectively and 100% specificity for both assays. Heating the isolates did not significantly impact the test performance. Both tests are recommended for use in rapid differentiation of strains isolated in Nigeria. © 2013 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology.Capilia TB-Neo; Heated strains; Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex; Non-tuberculous mycobacteria; SD Biolinearticle; bacterium culture; bacterium identification; controlled study; diagnostic test accuracy study; diagnostic value; genotype; genotyping technique; heating; human; immunoaffinity chromatography; intermethod comparison; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Nigeria; nonhuman; priority journal; sensitivity and specificity; sputum smear; strain difference; tuberculosisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33646880433Utilisation and impact of the Essential Electronic Agricultural Database (TEEAL) on library services in a Nigerian university of agricultureOduwole A.A., Sowole A.O.2006Program40210.1108/00330330610669271University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, NigeriaOduwole, A.A., University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria; Sowole, A.O., University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, NigeriaPurpose - This study examined the utilisation of the Essential Electronic Agricultural Library database (TEEAL) at the University of Agriculture Library, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach - Data collection was by questionnaire following a purposive sampling technique. A total of 104 out 150 (69.3 per cent) responses were received and analysed. Findings - Postgraduate and final year undergraduates are the major users of the TEEAL database. The study also revealed that though most of the users are computer literate, they still seek the assistance of library staff for database searching. The major constraints to the use of the TEEAL database include the high cost of printing of selected papers and the limited number of workstations. Practical implications - The study recommends that the number of workstations be increased, the cost of printouts should be subsidised by the university and more library staff should be trained in ICT. Originality/value - Offers recommendations to improve the accessibility of quality information for research in Nigerian universities. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Agriculture; Developing countries; Information retrieval; Nigeria; University librariesNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84948823505Uterine prolapse and its impact on quality of life in the jhaukhel-duwakot health demographic surveillance site, Bhaktapur, NepalShrestha B., Onta S., Choulagai B., Paudel R., Petzold M., Krettek A.2015Global Health Action8110.3402/gha.v8.28771Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Maharajgunj Medical Campus, Kathmandu, Nepal; Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Health Metrics, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Department of Biomedicine and Public Health, School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, Skö vde, Sweden; Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, NorwayShrestha, B., Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Maharajgunj Medical Campus, Kathmandu, Nepal, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Onta, S., Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Maharajgunj Medical Campus, Kathmandu, Nepal; Choulagai, B., Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Maharajgunj Medical Campus, Kathmandu, Nepal, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Paudel, R., Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Maharajgunj Medical Campus, Kathmandu, Nepal; Petzold, M., Health Metrics, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Krettek, A., Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, Department of Biomedicine and Public Health, School of Health and Education, University of Skövde, Skö vde, Sweden, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, NorwayBackground: Uterine prolapse (UP) is a reproductive health problem and public health issue in low-income countries including Nepal. Objective: We aimed to identify the contributing factors and stages of UP and its impact on quality of life in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site of Bhaktapur, Nepal. Design: Our three-phase study used descriptive cross-sectional analysis to assess quality of life and stages of UPand case-control analysis to identify contributing factors. First, a household survey explored the prevalence of self-reported UP (Phase 1). Second, we used a standardized tool in a 5-day screening camp to determine quality of life among UP-affected women (Phase 2). Finally, a 1-month community survey traced self-reported cases from Phase 1 (Phase 3). To validate UP diagnoses, we reviewed participants' clinical records, and we used screening camp records to trace women without UP. Results: Among 48 affected women in Phase 1, 32 had Stage II UP and 16 had either Stage I or Stage III UP. Compared with Stage I women (4.62%), almost all women with Stage III UP reported reduced quality of life. Decreased quality of life correlated significantly with Stages I-III. Self-reported UP prevalence (8.7%) included all treated and non-treated cases. In Phase 3, 277 of 402 respondents reported being affected by UP and 125 were unaffected. The odds of having UP were threefold higher among illiterate women compared with literate women (OR-3.02, 95% CI 1.76-5.17), 50% lower among women from nuclear families compared with extended families (OR-0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.90) and lower among women with 1-2 parity compared to -5 parity (OR-0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.75). Conclusions: The stages of UP correlated with quality of life resulting from varied perceptions regarding physical health, emotional stress, and social limitation. Parity, education, age, and family type associated with UP. Our results suggest the importance of developing policies and programs that are focused on early health care for UP. Through family planning and health education programs targeting women, as well as women empowerment programs for prevention of UP, it will be possible to restore quality of life related to UP. © 2015 Binjwala Shrestha et al.Health Demographic Surveillance Site; Nepal; Quality of life; Uterine prolapseNoneNone
NoneNoneUsing verbal autopsy to measure causes of death: The comparative performance of existing methodsMurray C.J.L., Lozano R., Flaxman A.D., Serina P., Phillips D., Stewart A., James S.L., Vahdatpour A., Atkinson C., Freeman M.K., Ohno S.L., Black R., Ali S.M., Baqui A.H., Dandona L., Dantzer E., Darmstadt G.L., Das V., Dhingra U., Dutta A., Fawzi W., Gó2014BMC Medicine12110.1186/1741-7015-12-5Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, 2301 5th Avenue Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121, United States; National Institute of Public Health, Universidad 655, 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico; Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe St #5041, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States; Public Health Laboratory-IdC, P.O. BOX 122 Wawi Chake Chake Pemba, Zanzibar, Tanzania; Public Health Foundation of India, ISID Campus, 4 Institutional Area, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi 110070, India; Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02215, United States; Global Development, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, PO Box 23350, Seattle, WA 98012, United States; CSM Medical University, Shah Mina Road, Chowk, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226003, India; Dept of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, E5521, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States; Public Health Laboratory-Ivo de Carneri, Wawi, Chake-Chake, Pemba, Zanzibar, Tanzania; Johns Hopkins University, 214A Basement, Vinobapuri Lajpat Nagar-II, New Delhi 110024, India; Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115-6018, United States; The George Institute for Global Health, The University of Sydney, 83/117 Missenden Rd, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia; Community Empowerment Lab, Shivgarh, India; Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Corporate Ave, Muntinlupa City 1781, Philippines; Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, 314 Savage Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States; The George Institute for Global Health, 839C, Road No. 44A, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad 500033, India; Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, United Nations Rd, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Level 2 Public Health Building School of Population Health, Herston Road, Herston, QLD 4006, Australia; University of Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, Building 379, 207 Bouverie St., Parkville 3010, VIC, AustraliaMurray, C.J.L., Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, 2301 5th Avenue Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121, United States; Lozano, R., Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, 2301 5th Avenue Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121, United States, National Institute of Public Health, Universidad 655, 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico; Flaxman, A.D., Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, 2301 5th Avenue Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121, United States; Serina, P., Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, 2301 5th Avenue Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121, United States; Phillips, D., Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, 2301 5th Avenue Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121, United States; Stewart, A., Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, 2301 5th Avenue Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121, United States; James, S.L., Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, 2301 5th Avenue Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121, United States; Vahdatpour, A., Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, 2301 5th Avenue Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121, United States; Atkinson, C., Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, 2301 5th Avenue Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121, United States; Freeman, M.K., Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, 2301 5th Avenue Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121, United States; Ohno, S.L., Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, 2301 5th Avenue Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121, United States; Black, R., Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe St #5041, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States; Ali, S.M., Public Health Laboratory-IdC, P.O. BOX 122 Wawi Chake Chake Pemba, Zanzibar, Tanzania; Baqui, A.H., Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe St #5041, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States; Dandona, L., Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, 2301 5th Avenue Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121, United States, Public Health Foundation of India, ISID Campus, 4 Institutional Area, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi 110070, India; Dantzer, E., Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02215, United States; Darmstadt, G.L., Global Development, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, PO Box 23350, Seattle, WA 98012, United States; Das, V., CSM Medical University, Shah Mina Road, Chowk, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226003, India; Dhingra, U., Dept of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, E5521, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States, Public Health Laboratory-Ivo de Carneri, Wawi, Chake-Chake, Pemba, Zanzibar, Tanzania; Dutta, A., Johns Hopkins University, 214A Basement, Vinobapuri Lajpat Nagar-II, New Delhi 110024, India; Fawzi, W., Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115-6018, United States; Gómez, S., National Institute of Public Health, Universidad 655, 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico; Hernández, B., Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, 2301 5th Avenue Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98121, United States; Joshi, R., The George Institute for Global Health, The University of Sydney, 83/117 Missenden Rd, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia; Kalter, H.D., Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe St #5041, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States; Kumar, A., Community Empowerment Lab, Shivgarh, India; Kumar, V., Community Empowerment Lab, Shivgarh, India; Lucero, M., Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Corporate Ave, Muntinlupa City 1781, Philippines; Mehta, S., Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, 314 Savage Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States; Neal, B., The George Institute for Global Health, The University of Sydney, 83/117 Missenden Rd, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia; Praveen, D., The George Institute for Global Health, 839C, Road No. 44A, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad 500033, India; Premji, Z., Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, United Nations Rd, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Ramírez-Villalobos, D., National Institute of Public Health, Universidad 655, 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico; Remolador, H., Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Corporate Ave, Muntinlupa City 1781, Philippines; Riley, I., School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Level 2 Public Health Building School of Population Health, Herston Road, Herston, QLD 4006, Australia; Romero, M., National Institute of Public Health, Universidad 655, 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico; Said, M., Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, United Nations Rd, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Sanvictores, D., Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Corporate Ave, Muntinlupa City 1781, Philippines; Sazawal, S., Dept of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, E5521, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States, Public Health Laboratory-Ivo de Carneri, Wawi, Chake-Chake, Pemba, Zanzibar, Tanzania; Tallo, V., Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Corporate Ave, Muntinlupa City 1781, Philippines; Lopez, A.D., University of Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, Building 379, 207 Bouverie St., Parkville 3010, VIC, AustraliaBackground: Monitoring progress with disease and injury reduction in many populations will require widespread use of verbal autopsy (VA). Multiple methods have been developed for assigning cause of death from a VA but their application is restricted by uncertainty about their reliability.Methods: We investigated the validity of five automated VA methods for assigning cause of death: InterVA-4, Random Forest (RF), Simplified Symptom Pattern (SSP), Tariff method (Tariff), and King-Lu (KL), in addition to physician review of VA forms (PCVA), based on 12,535 cases from diverse populations for which the true cause of death had been reliably established. For adults, children, neonates and stillbirths, performance was assessed separately for individuals using sensitivity, specificity, Kappa, and chance-corrected concordance (CCC) and for populations using cause specific mortality fraction (CSMF) accuracy, with and without additional diagnostic information from prior contact with health services. A total of 500 train-test splits were used to ensure that results are robust to variation in the underlying cause of death distribution.Results: Three automated diagnostic methods, Tariff, SSP, and RF, but not InterVA-4, performed better than physician review in all age groups, study sites, and for the majority of causes of death studied. For adults, CSMF accuracy ranged from 0.764 to 0.770, compared with 0.680 for PCVA and 0.625 for InterVA; CCC varied from 49.2% to 54.1%, compared with 42.2% for PCVA, and 23.8% for InterVA. For children, CSMF accuracy was 0.783 for Tariff, 0.678 for PCVA, and 0.520 for InterVA; CCC was 52.5% for Tariff, 44.5% for PCVA, and 30.3% for InterVA. For neonates, CSMF accuracy was 0.817 for Tariff, 0.719 for PCVA, and 0.629 for InterVA; CCC varied from 47.3% to 50.3% for the three automated methods, 29.3% for PCVA, and 19.4% for InterVA. The method with the highest sensitivity for a specific cause varied by cause.Conclusions: Physician review of verbal autopsy questionnaires is less accurate than automated methods in determining both individual and population causes of death. Overall, Tariff performs as well or better than other methods and should be widely applied in routine mortality surveillance systems with poor cause of death certification practices. © 2014 Murray et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Cause of death; InterVA; King-Lu; Random forests; Symptom pattern; Tariff; VA; Validation; Verbal autopsyarticle; autopsy; cause of death; controlled study; diagnostic procedure; groups by age; health service; human; medical information system; mortality; physician; stillbirth; verbal autopsy; Adult; Autopsy; Cause of Death; Child; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Internationality; Physician's Role; Reproducibility of ResultsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77956953727Using the servqual model to evaluate the impact of public service reforms in the provision of primary health care in BotswanaPansiri J., Mmereki R.N.2010Journal of African Business11210.1080/15228916.2010.509005Department of Management, Faculty of Business, University of Botswana, 4775 Notwane Rd., Gaborone, Private Bag, UB 0022, BotswanaPansiri, J., Department of Management, Faculty of Business, University of Botswana, 4775 Notwane Rd., Gaborone, Private Bag, UB 0022, Botswana; Mmereki, R.N., Department of Management, Faculty of Business, University of Botswana, 4775 Notwane Rd., Gaborone, Private Bag, UB 0022, BotswanaThe health sector is pivotal to any national development initiative;hence,Botswana has taken seriously the principle of primary health care as contained in the the Alma-Ata declaration of 1978. As a demonstration of their commitment, the government of Botswana has passed a number of National Development Plans, health policies, and numerous reforms with a view of enhancing service quality in this sector. Many reforms and restructuring exercises are still ongoing. This study uses the SERVQUAL model to evaluate the implementation of Work Improvement Teams (WITs) in the hospitals/clinics as a reform initiative adopted by the Botswana government to enhance the productivity, efficiency, and performance of the public sector (particularly the health sector). This discussion will demonstrate that the SERVQUAL model can be used to review the impact of public policy. This will be achieved by measuring the level of service quality and customer satisfaction using the SERVQUAL model through data that were collected from 151 hospital/clinic customers in Gaborone, the capital city of the Republic of Botswana. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data, and the findings indicate that the adoption and implementation of reforms in the public health sector have not improved the level of service quality and customer satisfaction as indicated by a significant gap between customer expectations and perceptions. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.Botswana; Primary health care; Public service reforms; Work improvement teamshealth care; health policy; health services; health worker; hospital sector; modeling; public service; reform process; Botswana; Gaborone; AlmaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84929153772Using theory and formative research to design interventions to improve community health worker motivation, retention and performance in Mozambique and UgandaStrachan D.L., Källander K., Nakirunda M., Ndima S., Muiambo A., Hill Z., Meek S., Tibenderana J., Castel-Branco A.C., Kertho E., Strachan D., Kirkwood B., Soremekun S., Lingam R., Vassal A., Kasteng F.2015Human Resources for Health13110.1186/s12960-015-0020-8UCL Institute for Global Health, 30 Guilford St., London, United Kingdom; Malaria Consortium, Development House, 56-64 Leonard Street, London, United Kingdom; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Malaria Consortium Uganda, Plot 25 Upper Naguru East Road, P.O.Box 8045, Kampala, Uganda; Malaria Consortium Mozambique, Rua Joseph Ki-Zerbo 191, PO Box 3655, Coop, Maputo, Mozambique; Malaria Consortium, United Kingdom; UCL Institute for Global Health, United Kingdom; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United KingdomStrachan, D.L., UCL Institute for Global Health, 30 Guilford St., London, United Kingdom; Källander, K., Malaria Consortium, Development House, 56-64 Leonard Street, London, United Kingdom, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Malaria Consortium, United Kingdom; Nakirunda, M., Malaria Consortium Uganda, Plot 25 Upper Naguru East Road, P.O.Box 8045, Kampala, Uganda; Ndima, S., Malaria Consortium Mozambique, Rua Joseph Ki-Zerbo 191, PO Box 3655, Coop, Maputo, Mozambique; Muiambo, A., Malaria Consortium Mozambique, Rua Joseph Ki-Zerbo 191, PO Box 3655, Coop, Maputo, Mozambique; Hill, Z., UCL Institute for Global Health, 30 Guilford St., London, United Kingdom, UCL Institute for Global Health, United Kingdom; Meek, S., Malaria Consortium, United Kingdom; Tibenderana, J., Malaria Consortium, United Kingdom; Castel-Branco, A.C., Malaria Consortium, United Kingdom; Kertho, E., Malaria Consortium, United Kingdom; Strachan, D., UCL Institute for Global Health, United Kingdom; Kirkwood, B., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom; Soremekun, S., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom; Lingam, R., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom; Vassal, A., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom; Kasteng, F., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United KingdomBackground: Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly being used in low-income countries to address human resources shortages, yet there remain few effective, evidence-based strategies for addressing the enduring programmatic constraints of worker motivation, retention and performance. This paper describes how two interventions were designed by the Innovations at Scale for Community Access and Lasting Effects (inSCALE) project to address these constraints in Uganda and Mozambique drawing on behavioural theory and formative research results. Methods: A review of the work motivation and CHW motivation literature-incorporating influences on retention and performance-was conducted on articles sourced through electronic web searches. Formative research with a focus on the barriers and facilitators to CHW motivation, retention and performance was conducted with community health workers and key stakeholders in Uganda and Mozambique. An analytical induction approach to the thematic analysis of transcripts from 98 in-depth interviews and 26 focus group discussions was adopted across the country settings. Results: From the theoretical review, it was determined that the interventions should promote CHWs as members of a collective by highlighting a sense of shared experience, focus on alignment between worker and programme goals, and emphasise the actions that lead to good performance. The Social Identity Approach was selected as the theory most likely to lead to the development of effective, scalable and sustainable interventions by addressing the identified gap in the literature of the influence of CHW working context. The formative research indicated that CHWs value feedback and feeling connected to the health system and their community, are motivated by status and community standing, and want to be provided with the necessary tools to perform. Two interventions based on these results were developed: a participatory, local community approach and an information communication technology (ICT) approach. Conclusions: Drawing on contextual data and theory that is sensitive to context can potentially lead to the development of appropriate and effective interventions when aiming to improve the motivation, retention and performance of CHWs in Uganda and Mozambique and other comparable settings. Evaluation of the developed interventions is crucial to assess this potential. © 2015 Strachan et al.Community health workers; Human resources for health; Motivation; Mozambique; Performance; Retention; Social identity approach; UgandaNoneNone
NoneNoneUsing the Hawthorne effect to examine the gap between a doctor's best possible practice and actual performanceLeonard K.L., Masatu M.C.2010Journal of Development Economics93210.1016/j.jdeveco.2009.11.001University of Maryland College Park, 2200 Symons Hall, MD 20742, United States; Centre for Educational Development in Health, Arusha (CEDHA), P.O. Box 1162, Arusha, TanzaniaLeonard, K.L., University of Maryland College Park, 2200 Symons Hall, MD 20742, United States; Masatu, M.C., Centre for Educational Development in Health, Arusha (CEDHA), P.O. Box 1162, Arusha, TanzaniaMany doctors in developing countries provide considerably lower quality care to their patients than they have been trained to provide. The gap between best possible practice and actual performance (often referred to as the know-do gap) is difficult to measure among doctors who differ in levels of training and experience and who face very different types of patients. We exploit the Hawthorne effect-in which doctors change their behavior when a researcher comes to observe their practices-to measure the gap between best and actual performance. We analyze this gap for a sample of doctors and also examine the impact of the organization for which doctors work on their performance. We find that some organizations succeed in motivating doctors to work at levels of performance that are close to their best possible practice. This paper adds to recent evidence that motivation can be as important to health care quality as training and knowledge. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.Hawthorne effect; Health care; Motivation; Practice quality; Tanzaniadeveloping world; health care; health worker; performance assessment; training; TanzaniaNone
NoneNoneUsing Task Clarification and Feedback Training to Improve Staff Performance in an East African Nongovernmental OrganizationDurgin A., Mahoney A., Cox C., Weetjens B.J., Poling A.2014Journal of Organizational Behavior Management34210.1080/01608061.2014.914007Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, United States; APOPO, Morogoro, TanzaniaDurgin, A., Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, United States, APOPO, Morogoro, Tanzania; Mahoney, A., APOPO, Morogoro, Tanzania; Cox, C., APOPO, Morogoro, Tanzania; Weetjens, B.J., APOPO, Morogoro, Tanzania; Poling, A., Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, United States, APOPO, Morogoro, TanzaniaThe present study used a multiple-baseline design to illustrate the effectiveness of an intervention package consisting of a multipurpose job aid and feedback training in improving the performance of supervisors and animal trainers in a nongovernmental organization headquartered in East Africa. Prior to the intervention, the performance of three supervisors and three animal trainers was suboptimal. Performance improved when supervisors were taught to use the job aid and provide feedback, and reached a high and consistent level during a subsequent phase, in which supervisors used the job aid independently. Limited maintenance and generalization data suggest that the intervention package produced lasting and generalized effects, and social validity data suggest that supervisors viewed the intervention as acceptable. These findings appear to be the first experimentally controlled demonstration of the potential value of organizational behavior management in improving performance in nongovernmental organizations working in resource-poor areas. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.feedback; job aid; nongovernmental organization; organizational behavior management; social validity; task clarificationNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84900308543Using systemic structural activity approach in identifying strategies enhancing human performance in mining production drilling activitySanda M.-A., Johansson J., Johansson B., Abrahamsson L.2014Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science15310.1080/1463922X.2012.705916Department of Organization and Human Resource Management, University of Ghana Business School, PO Box LG 78, Legon, Accra, Ghana; Division of Industrial Work Environment, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå 97187, SwedenSanda, M.-A., Department of Organization and Human Resource Management, University of Ghana Business School, PO Box LG 78, Legon, Accra, Ghana; Johansson, J., Division of Industrial Work Environment, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå 97187, Sweden; Johansson, B., Division of Industrial Work Environment, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå 97187, Sweden; Abrahamsson, L., Division of Industrial Work Environment, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå 97187, SwedenThis article seeks to identify performance-enhancing strategies that could be used to improve and optimise human-technology collaboration in rock drilling 'activity' in deep mines. Results from the analysis of miners' motor actions during rock drilling activity showed that by using procedurally driven strategies, they were able to perform simultaneously two specific tasks that required high levels of concentration and visual control in the normal visual field available to them from inside the protective cabin of the high-technology equipment they were using. The miners simultaneously combine their mental actions and motor actions in recognising and remedying the constraining effects of unfamiliar stimuli during the rock drilling task. It is concluded that the functional efficiency and effectiveness of rock drilling as well as the miner's productive performance in future automated and digitised deep mines could be enhanced by identifying the procedural characteristics of their performance-enhancing actions and operational strategies. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.digitised deep mine; performance-enhancing strategy; procedural and declarative knowledge; rock drilling task; systemic structural analysisNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78149369683Using school performance data to drive school and education district office accountability and improvement: The case of GhanaPrew M., Quaigrain K.2010Educational Management Administration and Leadership38610.1177/1741143210379057Centre for Education Policy Development (CEPD), PostNet Suite 561, Private Bag X113, Melville 2109, South AfricaPrew, M., Centre for Education Policy Development (CEPD), PostNet Suite 561, Private Bag X113, Melville 2109, South Africa; Quaigrain, K., Centre for Education Policy Development (CEPD), PostNet Suite 561, Private Bag X113, Melville 2109, South AfricaThis article looks at a school management tool that allows school managers and education district offices to review the performance of their schools and use the broad-based data to undertake orchestrated planning with districts planning delivery based on the needs of schools and in support of school improvement plans. The review process also allows communities to engage with their schools and hold them accountable for their performance and to steer schools to meet community expectations. A district in northern Ghana is presented as a case study. The article concludes that this generation of school-level data and its use to inform improved planning and delivery also allows districts and schools to monitor how well they are doing in promoting access for all children to school and monitoring the quality of schooling they receive. This is critical information needed to understand the dynamics of school enrolment and drop-out and to make schools more accountable. So school performance review, as practised in Ghana, allows schools to improve while becoming more accountable to their communities. © The Author(s) 2010.accountability; inspection; quality education; school and district leadership; school improvement; school performance review; universal primary educationNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-40349096731Using radar charts with qualitative evaluation: Techniques to assess change in blended learningKaczynski D., Wood L., Harding A.2008Active Learning in Higher Education9110.1177/1469787407086743University of West Florida, 11000 University Parkway, Pensecola, FL 32514-5750, United States; Division of Economic and Financial Studies, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia; University of Pretoria, Department of Maths and Applied Maths, 0002 Pretori, South AfricaKaczynski, D., University of West Florida, 11000 University Parkway, Pensecola, FL 32514-5750, United States; Wood, L., Division of Economic and Financial Studies, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia; Harding, A., University of Pretoria, Department of Maths and Applied Maths, 0002 Pretori, South AfricaWhen university academics implement changes in learning, such as introducing blended learning, it is conventional practice to examine and evaluate the impact of the resulting curriculum reform. Judging the worth and impact of an educational development is a complex task involving subtle differences in learning. Qualitative methods to explore these deep processes in learning include using interviews, observations and open-ended questionnaires targeting all stakeholders in the process, such as students, teachers, administration and technical staff. These evaluation tasks generate a mass of raw data that many faculty members in higher education are unaccustomed to analyzing. This article provides a framework using radar charts adapted from the field of organizational development. A modified six-zone radar chart was used to assess the extent of blended learning in order to compare changes in the learning environment. Data collection included interviews, classroom observations and electronic records generated during educational delivery over a 1-year period of time. A purposeful sample of online course data was collected by three participating universities in South Africa, Australia, and the United States. © 2008 SAGE Publications.Blended learning; Curriculum development; Evaluation; Instructional assessment; International education; Qualitative research; Radar chartNoneNone
WoSWOS:000242192600012Using qualitative methods for course evaluation - A case study from BotswanaBrown, Marie Scott,Mogobe, Keitshokile D.,Ntsayagae, Esther,Sabone, Motshedisi,Sebego, Miriam,Seboni, Naomi2006NURSE EDUCATOR316NoneWashington State University, Univ Botswana & SwazilandNoneThis article is a report of a qualitative evaluation of a course on human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome carried out jointly by faculty from Botswana and the United States at a University in Botswana. It demonstrates the importance of both international nurse educator expertise in impacting a major pandemic and the use of qualitative methods for course evaluation.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84920895474Using provider performance incentives to increase HIV testing and counseling services in Rwandade Walque D., Gertler P.J., Bautista-Arredondo S., Kwan A., Vermeersch C., de Dieu Bizimana J., Binagwaho A., Condo J.2015Journal of Health Economics40None10.1016/j.jhealeco.2014.12.001Development Research Group, The World Bank, United States; Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley, United States; National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico; The World Bank, United States; Camris International, United States; Ministry of Health, Government of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda; Harvard Medical School, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, United States; Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, United States; School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwandade Walque, D., Development Research Group, The World Bank, United States; Gertler, P.J., Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley, United States; Bautista-Arredondo, S., National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico; Kwan, A., National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico; Vermeersch, C., The World Bank, United States; de Dieu Bizimana, J., Camris International, United States; Binagwaho, A., Ministry of Health, Government of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda, Harvard Medical School, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, United States, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, United States; Condo, J., School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, RwandaPaying for performance provides financial rewards to medical care providers for improvements in performance measured by utilization and quality of care indicators. In 2006, Rwanda began a pay for performance scheme to improve health services delivery, including HIV/AIDS services. Using a prospective quasi-experimental design, this study examines the scheme's impact on individual and couples HIV testing. We find a positive impact of pay for performance on HIV testing among married individuals (10.2 percentage points increase). Paying for performance also increased testing by both partners by 14.7 percentage point among discordant couples in which only one of the partners is an AIDS patient. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.Africa; Couple testing; Health human resources; HIV testing and counseling; Performance-based financingacquired immune deficiency syndrome; health services; human immunodeficiency virus; incentive; acquired immune deficiency syndrome; adolescent; adult; Article; controlled study; female; health care delivery; health care planning; health care quality; HIV test; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; male; marital therapy; pay for performance; personnel management; prospective study; quasi experimental study; Rwanda; total quality management; RwandaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78651242373Using performance indicators as a water loss management tool in developing countriesMutikanga H., Sharma S., Vairavamoorthy K., Cabrera Jr. E.2010Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology - AQUA59810.2166/aqua.2010.066National Water and Sewerage Corporation, PO Box 7053, Kampala, Uganda; UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft, Netherlands; Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN, Delft, Netherlands; University of Birmingham, School of Civil Engineering, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom; ITA-Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46022 Valencia, SpainMutikanga, H., National Water and Sewerage Corporation, PO Box 7053, Kampala, Uganda, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft, Netherlands, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN, Delft, Netherlands; Sharma, S., UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft, Netherlands; Vairavamoorthy, K., UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft, Netherlands, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN, Delft, Netherlands, University of Birmingham, School of Civil Engineering, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom; Cabrera Jr., E., ITA-Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46022 Valencia, SpainWater utilities in developing countries are facing the challenges of substantial water losses in their water supply systems. In order to deliver water to their customers more efficiently and effectively, utilities must be able to measure and assess the performance of their water supply systems against set management objectives. However, water loss assessment is still not widely practised in developing countries. The task of measuring and evaluating performance is accomplished by performance assessment systems through well-defined performance indicators (PIs). Most PIs currently used are often not applicable in developing countries. This paper presents an eight-step participatory methodology for the selection of indicators and highlights challenges of integrating a PI culture in developing countries. In total, 25 PIs have been proposed as part of a standardized water balance methodology and so far 16 PIs have been tested successfully. The other nine PIs have not been tested, as the costs of generating and collecting reliable data outweigh the added benefits. In addition an appropriate water loss performance indicator computational tool has been developed to promote use of standardized water balance and performance measures by the utilities of developing countries. © IWA Publishing 2010.Developing countries; Indicators; Performance assessment; Water lossesComputational tools; Indicators; Management objectives; Performance assessment; Performance indicators; Performance measure; Water balance; Water loss; Water loss management; Water losses; Water utility; Benchmarking; Electric utilities; Rating; Reservoirs (water); Waste disposal; Water supply; Water supply systems; Developing countries; developing world; performance assessment; water management; water supplyNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84944877292Using pay for performance incentives (P4P) to improve management of suspected malaria fevers in rural Kenya: A cluster randomized controlled trialMenya D., Platt A., Manji I., Sang E., Wafula R., Ren J., Cheruiyot O., Armstrong J., Neelon B., O'Meara W.P.2015BMC Medicine13110.1186/s12916-015-0497-yMoi University School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Eldoret, Kenya; Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States; Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare, Eldoret, Kenya; Moi University School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Eldoret, Kenya; Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, United StatesMenya, D., Moi University School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Eldoret, Kenya; Platt, A., Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States; Manji, I., Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare, Eldoret, Kenya; Sang, E., Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare, Eldoret, Kenya; Wafula, R., Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare, Eldoret, Kenya; Ren, J., Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States; Cheruiyot, O., Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare, Eldoret, Kenya; Armstrong, J., Moi University School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Eldoret, Kenya; Neelon, B., Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States; O'Meara, W.P., Moi University School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Eldoret, Kenya, Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, United StatesBackground: Inappropriate treatment of non-malaria fevers with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) is a growing concern, particularly in light of emerging artemisinin resistance, but it is a behavior that has proven difficult to change. Pay for performance (P4P) programs have generated interest as a mechanism to improve health service delivery and accountability in resource-constrained health systems. However, there has been little experimental evidence to establish the effectiveness of P4P in developing countries. We tested a P4P strategy that emphasized parasitological diagnosis and appropriate treatment of suspected malaria, in particular reduction of unnecessary consumption of ACTs. Methods: A random sample of 18 health centers was selected and received a refresher workshop on malaria case management. Pre-intervention baseline data was collected from August to September 2012. Facilities were subsequently randomized to either the comparison (n=9) or intervention arm (n=9). Between October 2012 and November 2013, facilities in the intervention arm received quarterly incentive payments based on seven performance indicators. Incentives were for use by facilities rather than as payments to individual providers. All non-pregnant patients older than 1year of age who presented to a participating facility and received either a malaria test or artemether-lumefantrine (AL) were eligible to be included in the analysis. Our primary outcome was prescription of AL to patients with a negative malaria diagnostic test (n=11,953). Our secondary outcomes were prescription of AL to patients with laboratory-confirmed malaria (n=2,993) and prescription of AL to patients without a malaria diagnostic test (analyzed at the cluster level, n=178 facility-months). Results: In the final quarter of the intervention period, the proportion of malaria-negative patients in the intervention arm who received AL was lower than in the comparison arm (7.3% versus 10.9%). The improvement from baseline to quarter 4 in the intervention arm was nearly three times that of the comparison arm (ratio of adjusted odds ratios for baseline to quarter 4=0.36, 95% CI: 0.24-0.57). The rate of prescription of AL to patients without a test was five times lower in the intervention arm (adjusted incidence rate ratio=0.18, 95% CI: 0.07-0.48). Prescription of AL to patients with confirmed infection was not significantly different between the groups over the study period. Conclusions: Facility-based incentives coupled with training may be more effective than training alone and could complement other quality improvement approaches. Trial registration: This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01809873 ) on 11 March 2013. © 2015 Menya et al.Kenya; Malaria; Malaria case management; Pay for performance; Performance-based incentivesartemether; artemisinin; benflumetol; Article; child; clinical effectiveness; controlled study; diagnostic test accuracy study; endemic disease; evidence based medicine; financial management; funding; health care cost; health care delivery; health care facility; health center; health program; human; Kenya; major clinical study; malaria; microscopy; multicenter study; outcome assessment; pay for performance program; preschool child; quality control; randomized controlled trial; rural population; school child; sensitivity and specificityNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84874255771Using participatory impact diagrams to evaluate a community development project in Kenya [Utilisation des diagrammes d'impact participatives pour évaluer un projet de développement communautaire au Kenya]Kariuki J., Njuki J.2013Development in Practice23110.1080/09614524.2013.753031International Livestock Research Institute, KenyaKariuki, J., International Livestock Research Institute, Kenya; Njuki, J., International Livestock Research Institute, KenyaParticipatory approaches for impact assessment are increasingly becoming popular with development organisations for engaging multiple stakeholders. We present our use of participatory impact diagrams as an evaluation tool within a mixed methods impact assessment of several drought-reduction interventions in Kenya. Results show that because men and women have different roles, their experiences of interventions vary. We discuss how this methodology encouraged communities to describe various intervention outcomes including unintended impacts, often overlooked by conventional impact assessment approaches. Methodological challenges included the integration of quantitative data; opportunities for its application within the wider discipline of monitoring and evaluation are considered. © 2013 Copyright International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI).Aid - Monitoring and evaluation; Aid - Aid effectiveness; Gender and diversity; Methods; Monitoring and evaluation; Sub-Saharan Africaaid organization; assessment method; community development; development aid; drought; gender; monitoring; participatory approach; stakeholder; KenyaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-67349151120Using participatory epidemiological techniques to estimate the relative incidence and impact on livelihoods of livestock diseases amongst nomadic pastoralists in Turkana South District, KenyaBett B., Jost C., Allport R., Mariner J.2009Preventive Veterinary Medicine9004-Mar10.1016/j.prevetmed.2009.05.001International Livestock Research Institute, Old Naivasha Rd, Kabete, Nairobi, Kenya; Vétérinaires Sans Frontières Belgium, P.O. Box 13986-00800, Nairobi, KenyaBett, B., International Livestock Research Institute, Old Naivasha Rd, Kabete, Nairobi, Kenya; Jost, C., International Livestock Research Institute, Old Naivasha Rd, Kabete, Nairobi, Kenya; Allport, R., Vétérinaires Sans Frontières Belgium, P.O. Box 13986-00800, Nairobi, Kenya; Mariner, J., International Livestock Research Institute, Old Naivasha Rd, Kabete, Nairobi, KenyaA participatory epidemiological (PE) study was carried out with Turkana pastoralists in Turkana South District, Kenya, to determine the relative incidence of livestock diseasess and their impact on livelihoods. A sub-location was used as the sampling unit. A sub-location is the smallest administrative unit and is occupied by clusters of families (called adakars) that share common grazing patterns. A total of 32 sub-locations were randomly selected for the study. At least one focus group discussion involving more than 10 people was held with each adakar. In addition, key informant interviews involving local leaders and animal health service providers were conducted before or after the group sessions. PE techniques that were used with the stock owners include participatory mapping, relative incidence scoring, proportional piling, disease impact matrix scoring, seasonal calendars and probing. The methods used were pre-tested in four sub-locations that were excluded from further study. The study revealed that goats, with median score of 33 (10th and 90th percentiles of 25, 44, respectively) and sheep, median score of 20.5 (15, 26) were perceived to be the most abundant livestock species while goats (median score of 32 [21, 56]) and camels (median score of 22.5 [11, 33]) contributed the most to the livelihoods of the pastoralists. For goats, the overall relative incidence scores of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) and mange were 23.5% (15, 34), 25% (21, 45) and 20% (19, 28), respectively. The respective median scores for case fatality rates were 66% (45, 76.5), 62.5% (25, 100) and 73.2% (21.4, 85.7). Disease impact matrix scores indicated that mange was the most important disease of goats. Mange (range: 28-32%) and pox (range: 16-38%) were perceived to be the most prevalent diseases in camels. Livestock movements, limited access to veterinary services and stock theft were identified as key factors that contributed to the high prevalence and persistence of these diseases. This paper discusses strategies that could be used to control these diseases given the challenges associated with nomadic pastoralism and insecurity. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Diseases; Goats; Kenya; Participatory epidemiology (PE); Turkana pastoralistsanimal; animal husbandry; article; camel; economics; goat; goat disease; human; incidence; Kenya; sheep; sheep disease; socioeconomics; Animal Husbandry; Animals; Camels; Goat Diseases; Goats; Humans; Incidence; Kenya; Sheep; Sheep Diseases; Socioeconomic Factors; Animalia; Camelidae; Capra; Capra hircus; Mycoplasma; Ovis aries; Peste-des-petits-ruminants virusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-82255179058Using OVA modeling to improve classification performance for large datasetsLutu P.E.N., Engelbrecht A.P.2012Expert Systems with Applications39410.1016/j.eswa.2011.09.156Department of Computer Science, University of Pretoria, South AfricaLutu, P.E.N., Department of Computer Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa; Engelbrecht, A.P., Department of Computer Science, University of Pretoria, South AfricaOne-Versus-All (OVA) classification is a classifier construction method where a k-class prediction task is decomposed into k 2-class sub-problems. One base model is constructed for each sub-problem and the base models are then combined into one model. Aggregate model implementation is the process of constructing several base models which are then combined into a single model for prediction. In essence, OVA classification is a method of aggregate modeling. This paper reports studies that were conducted to establish whether OVA classification can provide predictive performance gains when large volumes of data are available for modeling as is commonly the case in data mining. It is demonstrated in this paper that firstly, OVA modeling can be used to increase the amount of training data while at the same time using base model training sets whose size is much smaller than the total amount of available training data. Secondly, OVA models created from large datasets provide a higher level of predictive performance compared to single k-class models. Thirdly, the use of boosted OVA base models can provide higher predictive performance compared to un-boosted OVA base models. Fourthly, when the combination algorithm for base model predictions is able to resolve tied predictions, the resulting aggregate models provide a higher level of predictive performance. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Boosting; Dataset partitioning; Dataset sampling; Dataset selection; Ensemble classification; Model aggregation; OVA classification; ROC analysisAggregate model; Base models; Boosting; Classification performance; Construction method; Data sets; Ensemble classification; Large datasets; Prediction tasks; Predictive performance; ROC analysis; Sub-problems; Training data; Forecasting; Classification (of information)None
Scopus2-s2.0-33645005227Using niche-based modelling to assess the impact of climate change on tree functional diversity in EuropeThuiller W., Lavorel S., Sykes M.T., Araújo M.B.2006Diversity and Distributions12110.1111/j.1366-9516.2006.00216.xCentre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, 1919 route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cedex 5, France; Climate Change Research Group, Kirstenbosch Research Center, South African National Biodiversity Institute, P/Bag x 7, Claremont 7735, Cape Town, South Africa; Macroecology and Conservation Unit, University of Évora, Estrada dos Leões, 7000-730 Évora, Portugal; Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine, CNRS, Université J. Fournier, BP 53X, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France; Geobiosphere Science Centre, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62 Lund, Sweden; Biodiversity Research Group, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford University, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TB, United Kingdom; Department of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, C/Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006, Madrid, SpainThuiller, W., Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, 1919 route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cedex 5, France, Climate Change Research Group, Kirstenbosch Research Center, South African National Biodiversity Institute, P/Bag x 7, Claremont 7735, Cape Town, South Africa, Macroecology and Conservation Unit, University of Évora, Estrada dos Leões, 7000-730 Évora, Portugal, Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine, CNRS, Université J. Fournier, BP 53X, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France; Lavorel, S., Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, 1919 route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cedex 5, France, Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine, CNRS, Université J. Fournier, BP 53X, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France; Sykes, M.T., Geobiosphere Science Centre, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62 Lund, Sweden; Araújo, M.B., Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, 1919 route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cedex 5, France, Macroecology and Conservation Unit, University of Évora, Estrada dos Leões, 7000-730 Évora, Portugal, Biodiversity Research Group, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford University, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TB, United Kingdom, Department of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, C/Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006, Madrid, SpainRapid anthropogenic climate change is already affecting species distributions and ecosystem functioning worldwide. We applied niche-based models to analyse the impact of climate change on tree species and functional diversity in Europe. Present-day climate was used to predict the distributions of 122 tree species from different functional types (FT). We then explored projections of future distributions under one climate scenario for 2080, considering two alternative dispersal assumptions: no dispersal and unlimited dispersal. The species-rich broadleaved deciduous group appeared to play a key role in the future of different European regions. Temperate areas were projected to lose both species richness and functional diversity due to the loss of broadleaved deciduous trees. These were projected to migrate to boreal forests, thereby increasing their species richness and functional diversity. Atlantic areas provided an intermediate case, with a predicted reduction in the numbers of species and occasional predicted gains in functional diversity. This resulted from a loss in species within the broadleaved deciduous FT, but overall maintenance of the group. Our results illustrate the fact that both species-specific predictions and functional patterns should be examined separately in order to assess the impacts of climate change on biodiversity and gain insights into future ecosystem functioning. © 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Climate change; Functional diversity; Niche-based models; Species richnessclimate change; ecosystem function; functional response; modeling; niche; species richness; Eurasia; EuropeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84868676563Using multivariate techniques to evaluate impact of coal mining on river Achokpa stream sedimentsAmeh E.G., Omali A.O., Imeokparia E.G.2011International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences63NoneEarth Sciences Dept., Kogi State University, P.M.B.1008 Anyigba, Nigeria; Dept. of Geology, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin- City, NigeriaAmeh, E.G., Earth Sciences Dept., Kogi State University, P.M.B.1008 Anyigba, Nigeria; Omali, A.O., Earth Sciences Dept., Kogi State University, P.M.B.1008 Anyigba, Nigeria; Imeokparia, E.G., Dept. of Geology, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin- City, NigeriaParameters analysed shows strong, positive correlation between Cu and Zn, Cu and Pb; moderate correlation was observed between Pb and Ni; weak correlation between Fe and Cu; Fe and Zn. Moderate to weak correlations exist between Mg and Cd, Mg and Zn, Mg and Cu and moderate to weak negative correlations were observed between Ca and Mg, Ca and Cu, Na and K, Na and Pb, Na and Ni. Anthropogenic factor (AF) revealed 96.52% for Pb, 93.39% for Cu, 85.39% for Cu, 81.22 for Zn, 75.27% for Ni and 58.36% for Cd. Factor analysis show that factor one has 26.48% of variance with high loadings of Pb and Ni. Factor two accounts for 25.33% of variance with high to moderate loading for Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb while factors three and four accounted for 21.13% and 18.72% of variance with moderate loadings of Mg and Cu; Na and Fe respectively. R-mode cluster analysis revealed three clusters: cluster one consists of Cu, Pb, Mg and Zn; cluster two is made up of Na, Fe and Cd and cluster three consists of K, Ni and Ca. Q-mode cluster analysis extracted two clusters: cluster one consists of locations OK06,OK10, OK04, OK09, OK01 and OK05 while cluster two include OK02 and OK03. EF shows that Zn has the highest EF in almost all locations, followed by Pb, Ni, Cu and Cd. Fe has the least impact and all locations except OK01 is not impacted by these heavy metals. Igeo index revealed Pb has the highest Igeo index in all locations, followed by Cu, and Fe. Cd has the least contamination. These heavy metals are highest at locations OK06, OK05, OK04, OK03, and OK02. CF index indicates Pb to be the most contaminated of all heavy metals, followed by Cu and Fe. The least metal is Cd. Most affected locations are OK05, OK06, OK04, OK03, OK02, OK01 and OK08. PLI shows progressive deterioration of all sites with locations OK06, Ok05, OK04, OK03 and OK02 as the most affected. © Research India Publications.Anthropogenic; Enrichment factor; Geo-accumulation index; Multivariate analysisAnthropogenic; Anthropogenic factors; Coal mining; Enrichment factors; Geo-accumulation index; High loadings; Multi variate analysis; Multivariate techniques; Negative correlation; Positive correlations; Stream sediments; Weak correlation; Cadmium; Cadmium compounds; Calcium; Cluster analysis; Coal mines; Lead; Loading; Multivariant analysis; Sodium; Zinc; Copper; cluster analysis; enrichment; environmental impact; factor analysis; fluvial deposit; geoaccumulation index; heavy metal; loading; multivariate analysis; sediment pollutionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77953770102Using mathematical modelling to estimate the impact of periodic presumptive treatment on the transmission of sexually transmitted infections and HIV among female sex workersVickerman P., Ndowa F., O'Farrell N., Steen R., Alary M., Delany-Moretlwe S.2010Sexually Transmitted Infections86310.1136/sti.2008.034678Health Policy Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Pasteur Suite, Ealing Hospital, London, United Kingdom; Population Health Research Unit, Universitaire de Québec, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada; Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit, Johannesburg, South AfricaVickerman, P., Health Policy Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Ndowa, F., World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; O'Farrell, N., Pasteur Suite, Ealing Hospital, London, United Kingdom; Steen, R., World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Alary, M., Population Health Research Unit, Universitaire de Québec, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada; Delany-Moretlwe, S., Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit, Johannesburg, South AfricaBackground: In settings with poor sexually transmitted infection (STI) control in high-risk groups, periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) can quickly reduce the prevalence of genital ulcers, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). However, few studies have assessed the impact on HIV. Mathematical modelling is used to quantify the likely HIV impact of different PPT interventions. Methods: A mathematical model was developed to project the impact of PPT on STI/HIV transmission amongst a homogeneous population of female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients. Using data from Johannesburg, the impact of PPT interventions with different coverages and PPT frequencies was estimated. A sensitivity analysis explored how the projections were affected by different model parameters or if the intervention was undertaken elsewhere. Results: Substantial decreases in NG/CT prevalence are achieved among FSWs receiving PPT. Although less impact is achieved among all FSWs, large decreases in NG/CT prevalence (>50%) are possible with >30% coverage and supplying PPT every month. Higher PPT frequencies achieve little additional impact, whereas improving coverage increases impact until NG/CT becomes negligible. The impact on HIV incidence is smaller, longer to achieve, and depends heavily on the assumed NG/CT cofactors, whether they are additive, the assumed STI/HIV transmission probabilities and STI durations. Greater HIV impact can be achieved in settings with lower sexual activity (except at high coverage), less STI treatment or high prevalences of Haemophilus ducreyi. Conclusions: Despite the model's assumption of homogeneous risk behaviour probably resulting in optimistic projections, and uncertainty in STI cofactors and transmission probabilities, projections suggest PPT interventions with sufficient coverage (≥40%) and follow-up (≥2 years) could noticeably decrease the HIV incidence (>20%) among FSW populations with inadequate STI treatment.Nonearticle; Chlamydia trachomatis; controlled study; disease transmission; female; Haemophilus ducreyi; high risk population; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; information processing; male; mathematical model; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; prevalence; priority journal; prostitution; sensitivity analysis; sexual behavior; sexually transmitted disease; South Africa; Female; HIV Infections; Humans; Incidence; Male; Models, Biological; Prevalence; Prostitution; Risk Reduction Behavior; Sexually Transmitted Diseases; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84873747198Using Large Climate Ensembles to Plan for the Hydrological Impact of Climate Change in the Freshwater EnvironmentFung F., Watts G., Lopez A., Orr H.G., New M., Extence C.2013Water Resources Management27410.1007/s11269-012-0080-7Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QY, United Kingdom; Environment Agency of England and Wales, Horizon House, Deanery Road, Bristol, BS1 5AH, United Kingdom; Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics and Political Sciences, Houghton Street, London, WC2A 2AE, United Kingdom; Department of Environmental and Geographic Science, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa; African Climate and Development Initiative, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, 7701, South AfricaFung, F., Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QY, United Kingdom; Watts, G., Environment Agency of England and Wales, Horizon House, Deanery Road, Bristol, BS1 5AH, United Kingdom; Lopez, A., Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QY, United Kingdom, Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics and Political Sciences, Houghton Street, London, WC2A 2AE, United Kingdom; Orr, H.G., Environment Agency of England and Wales, Horizon House, Deanery Road, Bristol, BS1 5AH, United Kingdom; New, M., Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QY, United Kingdom, Department of Environmental and Geographic Science, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa, African Climate and Development Initiative, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa; Extence, C., Environment Agency of England and Wales, Horizon House, Deanery Road, Bristol, BS1 5AH, United KingdomWe explore the use of large ensembles of climate scenarios to inform climate change adaptation in response to hydrological impacts on the freshwater environment, using a sensitive chalk river in south east England to illustrate the approach. The climateprediction. net experiment provides large ensembles of transient climate series from 1920 to 2080. We use 246 transient climate series in the CATCHMOD rainfall-run-off model to develop large ensembles of plausible river flows for the River Itchen. This transient ensemble allows the exploration of how flows may change through the twenty-first century, and demonstrates the range of possible consequences for freshwater ecosystems, based on invertebrate community impacts. Hydrological modelling of flow sequences including abstraction allows the continued effectiveness of river support from groundwater to be assessed. A new environmental impact matrix considers the response of the freshwater ecosystem in the Itchen, concentrating particularly on macro-invertebrates. Through the century increasing numbers of models fail the flow targets, with a minority of models suggesting flows that would lead to irreversible change to the invertebrate community. The large ensemble provides a richer picture of the range of possible change, allowing managers to explore a range of different responses. The approach used is illustrative, but demonstrates that large ensembles may be of great value in improving the understanding of the possible impact of climate change, provided that they can be communicated effectively to decision-makers. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.Climate change; Decision making; Large ensembles; Macro-invertebrate response; Modelling; River ecosystems; Uncertainty; Water resourcesClimate change adaptation; Climate scenarios; Decision makers; England; Freshwater ecosystem; Freshwater environments; Hydrological impacts; Hydrological modelling; Invertebrate communities; Irreversible changes; Large ensembles; Macroinvertebrates; River ecosystem; River flow; Uncertainty; Climate change; Decision making; Ecosystems; Environmental impact; Groundwater; Models; Rivers; Uncertainty analysis; Water resources; Climate models; climate change; climate effect; climate prediction; decision making; ensemble forecasting; environmental impact; freshwater environment; hydrological modeling; macroinvertebrate; rainfall-runoff modeling; river flow; river system; uncertainty analysis; England; Hampshire; Itchen River; United Kingdom; InvertebrataNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34250323557Using internal incentive contracts to improve water utility performance: The case of Uganda's NWSCMugisha S., Berg S.V., Muhairwe W.T.2007Water Policy9310.2166/wp.2007.010Institutional Development and Performance Management Expert, National Water and Sewerage Corporation, Plot 23, Jinja Road, Kampala, Uganda; Public Utility Research Center, University of Florida, Warrington College of Business, PO Box 117142, Gainesville, FL 32611-7142, United StatesMugisha, S., Institutional Development and Performance Management Expert, National Water and Sewerage Corporation, Plot 23, Jinja Road, Kampala, Uganda; Berg, S.V., Public Utility Research Center, University of Florida, Warrington College of Business, PO Box 117142, Gainesville, FL 32611-7142, United States; Muhairwe, W.T., Institutional Development and Performance Management Expert, National Water and Sewerage Corporation, Plot 23, Jinja Road, Kampala, UgandaThe achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015 requires significant managerial innovation and creativity, especially in low-income countries where utility inefficiencies are still most prevalent. This paper describes approaches that have been used in Uganda's National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC). We outline the potential for internal incentive contracts in delivering efficiency gains under public - public water management settings. No simple recipe for promoting efficiency exists. However, this paper highlights useful ingredients, including proper contract framework design, competition for managerial responsibility, effective business planning, performance monitoring and the use of managerial incentives. We conclude that these factors require careful consideration during the planning and implementation of incentive contracts. © IWA Publishing 2007.Contracts; Incentives; Performance; Uganda; Water utilityNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84863785889Using individual differences to predict job performance: Correcting for direct and indirect restriction of rangeSjöberg S., Sjöberg A., Näswall K., Sverke M.2012Scandinavian Journal of Psychology53410.1111/j.1467-9450.2012.00956.xStockholm University, Sweden; University of Canterbury, New Zealand; North-West University, South AfricaSjöberg, S., Stockholm University, Sweden; Sjöberg, A., Stockholm University, Sweden; Näswall, K., Stockholm University, Sweden, University of Canterbury, New Zealand; Sverke, M., Stockholm University, Sweden, North-West University, South AfricaThe present study investigates the relationship between individual differences, indicated by personality (FFM) and general mental ability (GMA), and job performance applying two different methods of correction for range restriction. The results, derived by analyzing meta-analytic correlations, show that the more accurate method of correcting for indirect range restriction increased the operational validity of individual differences in predicting job performance and that this increase primarily was due to general mental ability being a stronger predictor than any of the personality traits. The estimates for single traits can be applied in practice to maximize prediction of job performance. Further, differences in the relative importance of general mental ability in relation to overall personality assessment methods was substantive and the estimates provided enables practitioners to perform a correct utility analysis of their overall selection procedure. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.General mental ability; Job performance; Personality; Personnel selection; Range restriction correctionaptitude; article; human; individuality; methodology; personality; personality test; personnel management; psychological model; regression analysis; Aptitude; Employee Performance Appraisal; Humans; Individuality; Models, Psychological; Personality; Personality Assessment; Personnel Selection; Regression AnalysisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-50949100402Using in-depth qualitative data to enhance our understanding of quantitative results regarding the impact of HIV and AIDS on households in rural UgandaSeeley J., Biraro S., Shafer L.A., Nasirumbi P., Foster S., Whitworth J., Grosskurth H.2008Social Science and Medicine67910.1016/j.socscimed.2008.07.001School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom; MRC, UVRI Research Unit on AIDS, Uganda; School of Public Health, Boston University, United States; Wellcome Trust, London, United Kingdom; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United KingdomSeeley, J., School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom; Biraro, S., MRC, UVRI Research Unit on AIDS, Uganda; Shafer, L.A., MRC, UVRI Research Unit on AIDS, Uganda; Nasirumbi, P., MRC, UVRI Research Unit on AIDS, Uganda; Foster, S., School of Public Health, Boston University, United States; Whitworth, J., Wellcome Trust, London, United Kingdom; Grosskurth, H., MRC, UVRI Research Unit on AIDS, Uganda, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United KingdomTwo significant challenges face researchers tracking HIV-related socio-economic and demographic change over time in large cohort studies. Firstly, data collected in cohort studies established to describe the dynamics of HIV infection may contain no systematic data on household consumption expenditures which is an established measure of current and long-run household welfare. The second challenge is the choice of the unit of analysis in order to recognise and record impact; this is because most cohorts use the household as that unit. This means that the influence of factors outside that unit cannot easily be tracked. In this paper we show how a detailed understanding of the impact of HIV and AIDS on wider families and social networks, obtained through in-depth longitudinal research with a small number of households, can shed light on the findings from quantitative analysis from a larger cohort in the same population in rural Uganda. The findings of large-scale survey data from more than 2000 households over a 12-year period showed a lack of a strong association between poverty, HIV status and/or death of the household head. In-depth ethnographic research with 26 households in 1991/2 and a restudy of the same households in 2006/7 provide insights into the reasons for this finding: the choice of socio-economic indicators and support from other family and community members play a part in affecting survey findings on the impact of HIV at household level. One other factor is important in explaining the findings. HIV-infected family members from outside the household may drain resources from the household, so looking at the impact of HIV and AIDS on people's wider families provides pointers to why those who have not had an AIDS-related death in their own household may have failed to prosper. Our qualitative findings show that AIDS may well throw households into disarray and poverty, but more often reduces development and hinders families from getting out of poverty. Used strategically, small longitudinal studies can provide important information with which to explain patterns observed in large-scale quantitative datasets. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.HIV/AIDS; Households; Longitudinal research; Mixed methods; Ugandaacquired immune deficiency syndrome; cohort analysis; health impact; health survey; household expenditure; human immunodeficiency virus; qualitative analysis; quantitative analysis; rural area; socioeconomic conditions; welfare impact; acquired immune deficiency syndrome; article; cohort analysis; death; disease association; ethnographic research; family; female; health survey; household; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient; longitudinal study; male; poverty; qualitative analysis; quantitative analysis; rural area; social network; socioeconomics; Uganda; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Adult; Chi-Square Distribution; Cross-Sectional Studies; Family Characteristics; Female; HIV Infections; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Pedigree; Poverty; Qualitative Research; Risk Factors; Rural Health; Rural Population; Uganda; Africa; East Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; UgandaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84907092997Using impacts of deep-level mining to research karst hydrology—a Darcy-based approach to predict the future of dried-up dolomitic springs in the Far West Rand goldfield (South Africa). Part 2: predicting inter-compartmental flow and final groundwater tablSchrader A., Winde F., Erasmus E.2014Environmental Earth Sciences72710.1007/s12665-014-3298-2North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa; Mine Water Re-Search Group, North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South AfricaSchrader, A., North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa; Winde, F., Mine Water Re-Search Group, North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa; Erasmus, E., Mine Water Re-Search Group, North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South AfricaSome of the world’s deepest goldmines operate below dolomitic karst aquifers in the Far West Rand (FWR) goldfield, South Africa. Associated impacts include the continuous dewatering of karst aquifers for over six decades and irreversible changes of the hydrogeological setting. Affecting an area of approximately 400 km2 by drawing down the water table up to 700 m, these impacts, and the large amounts of data generated in the process, are used as unique research opportunities to better understand the complex karst hydrology. The focus of this study is on predicting final water table elevations in rewatered aquifers after mining ceases taking the fact that mines hydraulically linked previously disconnected aquifers into account. While part 1 of this series develops the conceptual model, this second part utilises large sets of pertinent data to calculate actual flow rates for predicting the fate of dried up springs after mine closure. Following a Darcy-based approach first applied by Swart et al. (Environ Geol 44:751–770, 2003a) it is not only predicted that the springs will flow again but also shown that linear relationships exist between flow rates through a combined system of karst-fractured aquifers overlying the mine void and the associated hydraulic head driving them. This suggests that—at this scale—porous media-based equations can be meaningfully used to predict flow in non-porous media. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Darcy’s law; Deep-level mining; Dewatered dolomitic compartments; Dried-up karst springs; Post-mine closure rewateringAquifers; Dewatering; Flow rate; Forecasting; Gold; Groundwater resources; Landforms; Plant shutdowns; Porous materials; Springs (water); Deep-level mining; Dewatered dolomitic compartments; Hydrogeological settings; Karst springs; Large amounts of data; Re-watering; Research opportunities; Water table elevation; Hydrogeology; closure; dewatering; hydraulic head; karst; karst hydrology; mining; water flow; water table; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84919863409Using impacts of deep-level mining to research karst hydrology—a Darcy-based approach to predict the future of dried-up dolomitic springs in the Far West Rand goldfield (South Africa). Part 1: a conceptual model of recharge and inter-compartmental flowSchrader A., Winde F., Erasmus E.2014Environmental Earth Sciences72910.1007/s12665-014-3263-0North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa; Mine Water Re-Search Group, North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South AfricaSchrader, A., North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa; Winde, F., Mine Water Re-Search Group, North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa; Erasmus, E., Mine Water Re-Search Group, North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South AfricaSome of the world’s deepest goldmines are located in the Far West Rand (FWR) goldfield operating below of up to 1.2-km-thick dolomites hosting some of the largest karst aquifers in South Africa. Associated impacts include the dewatering of the overlying karst aquifers as well as linking previously disconnected compartments by mining through aquicludes (dykes). The focus of the study is on predicting groundwater balances in re-watered aquifers after mining ceases as this will determine whether or not associated karst springs that dried-up due to dewatering will ever flow again. Critically revisiting, Swart et al. (Environ Geol 44:751–770, 2003a) who predict that all springs will flow again, this study uses significantly larger data sets and modified assumptions to increase the robustness of findings as the question is crucial for post-closure development. As a first of two papers, this part develops a conceptual model on the mega-compartment concept that predicts a flat water table across all linked compartments that would leave the springs dry. The model identifies the ratio between inflowing surface water (recharge) and underground water losses to downstream compartments via mined-through dykes (‘inter-compartmental groundwater flow’, IGF) as a key factor governing the elevation of the post-mining water table, creating the base for part 2, where the IGF and the post-mining water tables are determined using unique large data sets that have not been evaluated before. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Dewatering; Dolomitic compartments; Mega-compartment concept; Post-mining spring flow; Re-wateringAquifers; Dewatering; Forecasting; Gold; Groundwater; Groundwater flow; Groundwater resources; Hydrogeology; Landforms; Springs (water); Surface waters; Conceptual model; Deep-level mining; Dolomitic compartments; Karst hydrology; Large datasets; Mega-compartment concept; Re-watering; Spring flow; Recharging (underground waters); conceptual framework; Darcy law; data set; dewatering; dike; dolomite; environmental impact; gold mine; groundwater flow; karst hydrology; prediction; recharge; water budget; water table; South Africa; Centrostegia thurberi86331, NRF, National Research Foundation
Scopus2-s2.0-84920281316Using hydrochemical tracers to assess impacts of unsewered urban catchments on hydrochemistry and nutrients in groundwaterNyenje P.M., Foppen J.W., Uhlenbrook S., Lutterodt G.2014Hydrological Processes282410.1002/hyp.10070Department of Water Science and Engineering, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, PO Box 3015, Delft, Netherlands; Makerere University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, PO Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda; Section of Water Resources, Delft University of Technology, PO Box 5048, Delft, Netherlands; Department of Civil Engineering, Central University College, PO Box DS 2310, Dansoman-Accra, GhanaNyenje, P.M., Department of Water Science and Engineering, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, PO Box 3015, Delft, Netherlands, Makerere University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, PO Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda; Foppen, J.W., Department of Water Science and Engineering, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, PO Box 3015, Delft, Netherlands; Uhlenbrook, S., Department of Water Science and Engineering, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, PO Box 3015, Delft, Netherlands, Section of Water Resources, Delft University of Technology, PO Box 5048, Delft, Netherlands; Lutterodt, G., Department of Civil Engineering, Central University College, PO Box DS 2310, Dansoman-Accra, GhanaWe applied graphical methods and multivariate statistics to understand impacts of an unsewered slum catchment on nutrients and hydrochemistry of groundwater in Kampala, Uganda. Data were collected from 56 springs (groundwater), 22 surface water sites and 13 rain samples. Groundwater was acidic and dominated by Na, Cl and NO3. These ions were strongly correlated, indicating pollution originating from wastewater infiltration from on-site sanitation systems. Results also showed that rain, which was acidic, impacted on groundwater chemistry. Using Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis, we identified three distinct water quality groups. The first group had springs dominated by Ca-Cl-NO3, low values of electrical conductivity (EC), pH and cations, and relatively high NO3 values. These springs were shown to have originated from the acidic rains because their chemistry closely corresponded to ion concentrations that would occur from rainfall recharge, which was around 3.3 times concentrated by evaporation. The second group had springs dominated by Na-K-Cl-NO3 and Ca-Cl-NO3, low pH but with higher values of EC, NO3 and cations. We interpreted these as groundwater affected by both acid rain and infiltration of wastewater from urban areas. The third group had the highest EC values (average of 688μS/cm), low pH and very high concentrations of NO3 (average of 2.15mmol/l) and cations. Since these springs were all located in slum areas, we interpreted them as groundwater affected by infiltration of wastewater from poorly sanitized slums areas. Surface water was slightly reducing and eutrophic because of wastewater effluents, but the contribution of groundwater to nutrients in surface water was minimal because o-PO4 was absent, whereas NO3 was lost by denitification. Our findings suggest that groundwater chemistry in the catchment is strongly influenced by anthropogenic inputs derived from nitrogen-containing rains and domestic wastewater. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Acid rain; Groundwater; Multivariate statistics; Nutrients; Slums; UgandaAcid rain; Calcium; Catchments; Cluster analysis; Effluents; Groundwater; Groundwater geochemistry; Hierarchical systems; Housing; Infiltration; Multivariant analysis; Nutrients; pH; Positive ions; Precipitation (meteorology); Rain; River pollution; Runoff; Sanitation; Surface waters; Water quality; Electrical conductivity; Groundwater chemistry; Hierarchical cluster analysis; Hydrochemical tracers; Multivariate statistics; On-site sanitation systems; Slums; Uganda; HydrochemistryNone
NoneNoneUsing HIV-attributable mortality to assess the impact of antiretroviral therapy on adult mortality in rural TanzaniaKanjala C., Michael D., Todd J., Slaymaker E., Calvert C., Isingo R., Wringe A., Zaba B., Urassa M.2014Global Health Action7None10.3402/gha.v7.21865National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza, Tanzania; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United KingdomKanjala, C., National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza, Tanzania, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Michael, D., National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza, Tanzania; Todd, J., National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza, Tanzania, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Slaymaker, E., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Calvert, C., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Isingo, R., National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza, Tanzania; Wringe, A., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Zaba, B., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Urassa, M., National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza, TanzaniaBackground: The Tanzanian national HIV care and treatment programme has provided free antiretroviral therapy (ART) to HIV-positive persons since 2004. ART has been available to participants of the Kisesa open cohort study since 2005, but data to 2007 showed a slow uptake of ART and a modest impact on mortality. Additional data from the 2010 HIV serological survey provide an opportunity to update the estimated impact of ART in this setting. Methods: The Kisesa Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) has collected HIV serological data and demographic data, including verbal autopsy (VA) interviews since 1994. Serological data to the end of 2010 were used to make two estimates of HIV-attributable mortality, the first among HIV positives using the difference in mortality between HIV positives and HIV negatives, and the second in the population using the difference between the observed mortality rate in the whole population and the mortality rate among the HIV negatives. Four time periods (1994-1999, 2000-2004, 2005-2007, and 2008-2010) were used and HIVattributable mortality estimates were analysed in detail for trends over time. A computer algorithm, InterVA-4, was applied to VA data to estimate the HIV-attributable mortality for the population, and this was compared to the estimates from the serological survey data. Results: Among HIV-positive adults aged 45-59 years, high mortality rates were observed across all time periods in both males and females. In HIV-positive men, the HIV-attributable mortality was 91.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 84.6%-95.3%) in 2000-2004 and 86.3% (95% CI: 71.1%-93.3%) in 2008-2010, while among women, the HIV-attributable mortality was 87.8% (95% CI: 71.1%-94.3%) in 2000-2004 and 85.8% (95% CI: 59.6%-94.4%) in 2008-2010. In the whole population, using the serological data, the HIV-attributable mortality among men aged 30-44 years decreased from 57.2% (95% CI: 46.9%-65.3%) in 2000-2004 to 36.5% (95% CI: 18.8%-50.1%) in 2008-2010, while among women the corresponding decrease was from 57.3% (95% CI: 49.7%-63.6%) to 38.7% (95% CI: 27.4%-48.2%). The HIV-attributable mortality in the population using estimates from the InterVA model was lower than that from HIV sero-status data in the period prior to ART, but slightly higher once ART became available. Discussion: In the Kisesa HDSS, ART availability corresponds with a decline in adult overall mortality, although not as large as expected. Using InterVA to estimate HIV-attributable mortality showed smaller changes in HIV-related mortality following ART availability than the serological results. © 2014 Chifundo Kanjala et al.ART; HDSS; HIV-attributable mortality; InterVA model; Serological survey; Verbal autopsyNoneNone
WoSWOS:000339242700008Using Health Surveillance Systems Data to Assess the Impact of AIDS and Antiretroviral Treatment on Adult Morbidity and Mortality in BotswanaBoerma, Ties,Granich, Reuben,Korenromp, Eline,Lazenby, Mark,Letebele, Judith,Low-Beer, Daniel,Motlapele, Diemo,Stoneburner, Rand,Tassie, Jean-Michel2014PLOS ONE9710.1371/journal.pone.0100431Erasmus University Rotterdam, World Health Organization, Yale University, Grad Inst Int & Dev Studies, Republ Botswana Minist Hlth, UNAIDS"Lazenby, Mark: Yale University","Tassie, Jean-Michel: World Health Organization",Introduction: Botswana's AIDS response included free antiretroviral treatment (ART) since 2002, achieving 80% coverage of persons with CD4&lt;350 cells/mu l by 2009-10. We explored impact on mortality and HIV prevalence, analyzing surveillance and civil registration data. Methods: Hospital natural cause admissions and deaths from the Health Statistics Unit (HSU) over 1990-2009, all-cause deaths from Midnight Bed Census (MNC) over 1990-2011, institutional and non-institutional deaths recorded in the Registry of Birth and Deaths (RBD) over 2003-2010, and antenatal sentinel surveillance (ANC) over 1992-2011 were compared to numbers of persons receiving ART. Mortality was adjusted for differential coverage and completeness of institutional and non-institutional deaths, and compared to WHO and UNAIDS Spectrum projections. Results: HSU deaths per 1000 admissions declined 49% in adults 15-64 years over 2003-2009. RBD mortality declined 44% (807 to 452/100,000 population in adults 15-64 years) over 2003-2010, similarly in males and females. Generally, death rates were higher in males; declines were greater and earlier in younger adults, and in females. In contrast, death rates in adults 65+, particularly females increased over 2003-2006. MNC all-age post-neonatal mortality declined 46% and 63% in primary and secondary level hospitals, over 2003-2011. We estimated RBD captured 80% of adult deaths over 2006-2011. Comparing empirical, completeness-adjusted deaths to Spectrum estimates, declines over 2003-2009 were similar overall (47% vs. 54%); however, Spectrum projected larger and earlier declines particularly in women. Following stabilization and modest decreases over 1998-2002, HIV prevalence in pregnant women 15-24 and 25-29-years declined by &gt;50% and &gt;30% through 2011, while continuing to increase in older women. Conclusions: Adult mortality in Botswana fell markedly as ART coverage increased. HIV prevalence declines may reflect ART-associated reductions in sexual transmission. Triangulation of surveillance system data offers a reasonable approach to evaluate impact of HIV/AIDS interventions, complementing cohort approaches that monitor individual-level health outcomes.,COMMUNITY,DEATHS,HIV,IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS-INFECTION,INDIVIDUALS,NEW-YORK-CITY,PREVALENCE,SOUTH-AFRICA,SPECTRUM,THERAPYNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84910645933Using geographic information systems to track polio vaccination team performance: Pilot project reportGammino V.M., Nuhu A., Chenoweth P., Manneh F., Young R.R., Sugerman D.E., Gerber S., Abanida E., Gasasira A.2014Journal of Infectious Diseases210None10.1093/infdis/jit285Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS-E05, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA, United States; Geospatial Research Analysis, and Services Program, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA, United StaGammino, V.M., Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS-E05, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA, United States; Nuhu, A., Geospatial Research Analysis, and Services Program, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA, United States; Chenoweth, P., Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS-E05, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA, United States; Manneh, F., National Primary Health Care Development Agency of Nigeria, Nigeria; Young, R.R., Expanded Programme on Immunization, World Health Organization, Abuja, Nigeria; Sugerman, D.E., Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS-E05, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA, United States; Gerber, S., Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS-E05, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA, United States, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA, United States; Abanida, E., Geospatial Research Analysis, and Services Program, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA, United States; Gasasira, A., National Primary Health Care Development Agency of Nigeria, NigeriaThe application of geospatial data to public health problems has expanded significantly with increased access to low-cost handheld global positioning system (GPS) receivers and free programs for geographic information systems analysis. In January 2010, we piloted the application of geospatial analysis to polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in northern Nigeria. SIA teams carried GPS receivers to compare hand-drawn catchment area route maps with GPS tracks of actual vaccination teams. Team tracks overlaid on satellite imagery revealed that teams commonly missed swaths of contiguous households and indicated that geospatial data can improve microplanning and provide nearly real-time monitoring of team performance. © 2014 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.geospatial analysis; GIS; immunization campaign; operations research; polio; program evaluation; supplemental immunization activityArticle; artifact; geographic information system; global positioning system; health care delivery; health program; household; human; monitoring; Nigeria; pilot study; reference database; rural area; satellite imagery; study; urban area; vaccination; epidemiology; female; male; poliomyelitis; utilization; poliomyelitis vaccine; Female; Geographic Information Systems; Humans; Male; Nigeria; Pilot Projects; Poliomyelitis; Poliovirus Vaccines; VaccinationNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84897471101Using evaluation as action research: Reflections on teaching practice using Brookfield's four lenses modelNdebele C.2014Anthropologist172NoneCentre for Higher Education Teaching and Learning, University of Venda, P. Bag. X 5050, Thohoyandou, South AfricaNdebele, C., Centre for Higher Education Teaching and Learning, University of Venda, P. Bag. X 5050, Thohoyandou, South AfricaAs one goes about the process of teaching there is need to sit down after every session and take stock of the proceedings with a view to identifying what went well and what might need further improvement Four lenses that teachers could use to critically reflect on their practice are discussed in this article: eliciting evaluation from students, peer evaluation, research and theory and our own autobiographies as learners and teachers. To some extent academics are all prisoners trapped within the perceptual frameworks that determine how they view their experiences and in order to break away from this prison there is need to engage in critical reflection. In this article, through a qualitative analysis of student evaluation data, peer feedback and relevant literature; The researcher shares his reflection on his practice through experimenting with the four lenses at a historically disadvantaged university.What emerged from the reflective exercise is that looking beyond one's own self to others for their views on one's practice does indeed enrich one's knowledge and helps to improve practice. Colleagues, the literature and students can indeed serve as critical mirrors reflecting back to lecturers' images of their actions that often take them by surprise. © Kamla-Raj 2014.Autobiography; Feedback; Peer review; Relevant literature; Student eyes; TriangulationNoneNone
WoSWOS:000323978800001Using electronic technology to improve clinical care - results from a before-after cluster trial to evaluate assessment and classification of sick children according to Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) protocol in TanzaniaHedt-Gauthier, Bethany L.,Lesh, Neal,Mitchell, Marc,Msellemu, Daniel,Nkaka, Melania2013BMC MEDICAL INFORMATICS AND DECISION MAKING13None10.1186/1472-6947-13-95Harvard University, Dimagi Inc, D Tree Int, Ifakara Hlth InstNoneBackground: Poor adherence to the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) protocol reduces the potential impact on under-five morbidity and mortality. Electronic technology could improve adherence; however there are few studies demonstrating the benefits of such technology in a resource-poor settings. This study estimates the impact of electronic technology on adherence to the IMCI protocols as compared to the current paper-based protocols in Tanzania. Methods: In four districts in Tanzania, 18 clinics were randomly selected for inclusion. At each site, observers documented critical parts of the clinical assessment of children aged 2 months to 5 years. The first set of observations occurred during examination of children using paper-based IMCI (pIMCI) and the next set of observations occurred during examination using the electronic IMCI (eIMCI). Children were re-examined by an IMCI expert and the diagnoses were compared. A total of 1221 children (671 paper, 550 electronic) were observed. Results: For all ten critical IMCI items included in both systems, adherence to the protocol was greater for eIMCI than for pIMCI. The proportion assessed under pIMCI ranged from 61% to 98% compared to 92% to 100% under eIMCI (p &lt; 0.05 for each of the ten assessment items). Conclusions: Use of electronic systems improved the completeness of assessment of children with acute illness in Tanzania. With the before-after nature of the design, potential for temporal confounding is the primary limitation. However, the data collection for both phases occurred over a short period (one month) and so temporal confounding was expected to be minimal. The results suggest that the use of electronic IMCI protocols can improve the completeness and consistency of clinical assessments and future studies will examine the long-term health and health systems impact of eIMCI.,GUIDELINES,HEALTH-WORKERS,IMPLEMENTATION,"MULTICOUNTRY EVALUATION",STRATEGYNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84926250365Using decision tree analysis to understand foundation science student performance. Insight gained at one south african universityFrances Kirby N., Roslyn Dempster E.2014International Journal of Science Education361710.1080/09500693.2014.936921School of Education, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg Campus, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, 3209, South AfricaFrances Kirby, N., School of Education, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg Campus, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, 3209, South Africa; Roslyn Dempster, E., School of Education, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg Campus, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, 3209, South AfricaThe Foundation Programme of the Centre for Science Access at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa provides access to tertiary science studies to educationally disadvantaged students who do not meet formal faculty entrance requirements. The low number of students proceeding from the programme into mainstream is of concern, particularly given the national imperative to increase participation and levels of performance in tertiary-level science. An attempt was made to understand foundation student performance in a campus of this university, with the view to identifying challenges and opportunities for remediation in the curriculum and processes of selection into the programme. A classification and regression tree analysis was used to identify which variables best described student performance. The explanatory variables included biographical and school-history data, performance in selection tests, and socio-economic data pertaining to their year in the programme. The results illustrate the prognostic reliability of the model used to select students, raise concerns about the inefficiency of school performance indicators as a measure of students’ academic potential in the Foundation Programme, and highlight the importance of accommodation arrangements and financial support for student success in their access year. ©2014 Taylor & FrancisAccess to tertiary science studies; Factors affecting performance; Foundation Programme; Tree analysisNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84855537022Using crystallisation fractionation to monitor thermo-oxidative degradation of impact poly(propylene) copolymersDe Goede E., Mallon P.E., Pasch H.2012Macromolecular Materials and Engineering297110.1002/mame.201100058Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South AfricaDe Goede, E., Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; Mallon, P.E., Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; Pasch, H., Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South AfricaICPPs are complex materials that contain various ethylene/propylene copolymers in addition to the majority poly(propylene) phase. To understand their molecular structure, multiple fractionation and analysis techniques are used. In this study, TREF and CRYSTAF are used to study the difference in the thermo-oxidative degradation of two grades of ICPPs with different ethylene contents. Direct correlations are drawn between the carbonyl index, molecular weight and crystallisability at various stages of degradation. The higher ethylene content sample shows increased thermal stability. This is due to the fact that the ethylene/propylene fraction is more stable due to the higher comonomer content and lower isotacticity as well as due to the higher amount of this fraction in the material. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.differential scanning calorimetry; impact PP copolymers; SEC/FTIR; temperature rising elution fractionation; thermo-oxidative degradationAnalysis techniques; Carbonyl index; Comonomer content; Complex materials; Ethylene/propylene copolymers; Isotacticities; Poly(propylene) copolymers; SEC/FTIR; Thermo-oxidative degradation; Copolymers; Degradation; Differential scanning calorimetry; Ethylene; Propylene; PolypropylenesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-83955164254Using Competitive Population Evaluation in a differential evolution algorithm for dynamic environmentsDu Plessis M.C., Engelbrecht A.P.2012European Journal of Operational Research218110.1016/j.ejor.2011.08.031Department of Computer Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaDu Plessis, M.C., Department of Computer Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Engelbrecht, A.P., Department of Computer Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaThis paper proposes two adaptations to DynDE, a differential evolution-based algorithm for solving dynamic optimization problems. The first adapted algorithm, Competitive Population Evaluation (CPE), is a multi-population DE algorithm aimed at locating optima faster in the dynamic environment. This adaptation is based on allowing populations to compete for function evaluations based on their performance. The second adapted algorithm, Reinitialization Midpoint Check (RMC), is aimed at improving the technique used by DynDE to maintain populations on different peaks in the search space. A combination of the CPE and RMC adaptations is investigated. The new adaptations are empirically compared to DynDE using various problem sets. The empirical results show that the adaptations constitute an improvement over DynDE and compares favorably to other approaches in the literature. The general applicability of the adaptations is illustrated by incorporating the combination of CPE and RMC into another Differential Evolution-based algorithm, jDE, which is shown to yield improved results. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Differential evolution; Dynamic environments; Evolutionary computation; OptimizationCompetitive population; Differential Evolution; Differential evolution algorithms; Dynamic environments; Dynamic optimization problems; Empirical results; Evolutionary computations; Multi-population DE algorithms; Reinitialization; Search spaces; Optimization; Evolutionary algorithmsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84905019402Using clickers to facilitate interactive engagement activities in a lecture room for improved performance by studentsTlhoaele M., Hofman A., Naidoo A., Winnips K.2014Innovations in Education and Teaching International51510.1080/14703297.2013.796725Teaching and Learning with Technology, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa; Teacher Education, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands; Curriculum Development and Support, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South AfricaTlhoaele, M., Teaching and Learning with Technology, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa; Hofman, A., Teacher Education, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands; Naidoo, A., Curriculum Development and Support, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa; Winnips, K., Teacher Education, University of Groningen, Groningen, NetherlandsWhat impact can interactive engagement (IE) activities using clickers have on students' motivation and academic performance during lectures as compared to attending traditional types of lectures? This article positions the research on IE within the comprehensive model of educational effectiveness and Gagné's instructional events model. For the study on which this article is based, an IE model was designed and explored within a pilot group. This model identified situations that make the model effective in terms of improving students' motivation and academic performance. Personal response systems (PRS, also referred to as 'clickers') were used to promote interaction. A pre-test/post-test control group design was used. Data were collected through a questionnaire and class tests. The results indicated the significance of IE activities amongst students in this research. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.class discussion; group discussion; individual effort; interactive engagement; personal response systemNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34247376503Using blended learning to boost motivation and performance in introductory economics modulesvan Der Merwe A.2007South African Journal of Economics75110.1111/j.1813-6982.2007.00109.xDepartment of Applied Management, Durban University of Technology, Scottsville, South Africavan Der Merwe, A., Department of Applied Management, Durban University of Technology, Scottsville, South AfricaThis paper explores the potential of online learning, in a local context, to provide academic economics with much of the context it currently lacks and which may be implicated in students' lack of motivation to engage with the discipline. Since weak motivation can be expected to play out in poor performance, the study set out to establish, firstly, whether the online intervention was a motivational experience for students. Secondly, various tests were performed to determine whether - and how strongly - motivation and performance are related. The study concludes that even the weak statistical promise of online learning, as in this particular case, should be embraced given the interest displayed by students in online economics teaching and learning. © 2007 The Author. Journal compilation © 2007 Economic Society of South Africa 2007.Noneacademic performance; economics; learning; student; teachingNone
NoneNoneUsing a new odour-baited device to explore options for luring and killing outdoor-biting malaria vectors: A report on design and field evaluation of the Mosquito Landing BoxMatowo N.S., Moore J., Mapua S., Madumla E.P., Moshi I.R., Kaindoa E.W., Mwangungulu S.P., Kavishe D.R., Sumaye R.D., Lwetoijera D.W., Okumu F.O.2013Parasites and Vectors6110.1186/1756-3305-6-137Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O.Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania; Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United Kingdom; Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United KingdomMatowo, N.S., Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O.Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania, Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United Kingdom; Moore, J., Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O.Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania, Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United Kingdom; Mapua, S., Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O.Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania; Madumla, E.P., Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O.Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania; Moshi, I.R., Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O.Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania; Kaindoa, E.W., Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O.Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania; Mwangungulu, S.P., Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O.Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania; Kavishe, D.R., Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O.Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania; Sumaye, R.D., Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O.Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania; Lwetoijera, D.W., Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O.Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania, Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Okumu, F.O., Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O.Box 53, Ifakara, TanzaniaBackground: Mosquitoes that bite people outdoors can sustain malaria transmission even where effective indoor interventions such as bednets or indoor residual spraying are already widely used. Outdoor tools may therefore complement current indoor measures and improve control. We developed and evaluated a prototype mosquito control device, the 'Mosquito Landing Box' (MLB), which is baited with human odours and treated with mosquitocidal agents. The findings are used to explore technical options and challenges relevant to luring and killing outdoor-biting malaria vectors in endemic settings. Methods. Field experiments were conducted in Tanzania to assess if wild host-seeking mosquitoes 1) visited the MLBs, 2) stayed long or left shortly after arrival at the device, 3) visited the devices at times when humans were also outdoors, and 4) could be killed by contaminants applied on the devices. Odours suctioned from volunteer-occupied tents were also evaluated as a potential low-cost bait, by comparing baited and unbaited MLBs. Results: There were significantly more Anopheles arabiensis, An. funestus, Culex and Mansonia mosquitoes visiting baited MLB than unbaited controls (P≤0.028). Increasing sampling frequency from every 120 min to 60 and 30 min led to an increase in vector catches of up to 3.6 fold (P≤0.002), indicating that many mosquitoes visited the device but left shortly afterwards. Outdoor host-seeking activity of malaria vectors peaked between 7:30 and 10:30pm, and between 4:30 and 6:00am, matching durations when locals were also outdoors. Maximum mortality of mosquitoes visiting MLBs sprayed or painted with formulations of candidate mosquitocidal agent (pirimiphos-methyl) was 51%. Odours from volunteer occupied tents attracted significantly more mosquitoes to MLBs than controls (P<0.001). Conclusion: While odour-baited devices such as the MLBs clearly have potential against outdoor-biting mosquitoes in communities where LLINs are used, candidate contaminants must be those that are effective at ultra-low doses even after short contact periods, since important vector species such as An. arabiensis make only brief visits to such devices. Natural human odours suctioned from occupied dwellings could constitute affordable sources of attractants to supplement odour baits for the devices. The killing agents used should be environmentally safe, long lasting, and have different modes of action (other than pyrethroids as used on LLINs), to curb the risk of physiological insecticide resistance. © 2013 Matowo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Noneinsecticide; pirimiphos methyl; unclassified drug; Anopheles arabiensis; Anopheles funestus; article; controlled study; Culex; disease carrier; field study; human; malaria; mansonia; medical device; mortality; mosquito; mosquito landing box; nonhuman; odor; Tanzania; vector control; Adult; Animals; Anopheles; Behavior, Animal; Culex; Entomology; Equipment and Supplies; Human Experimentation; Humans; Insect Vectors; Male; Pheromones; Smell; Sterculiaceae; Tanzania; Anopheles arabiensisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84942501614Using a dual kernel density estimate as a preliminary evaluation of the spatial distribution of diagnosed chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Edo State, NigeriaOviasu O.I.2015GeoJournal80510.1007/s10708-014-9590-6Regional Centre for Training in Aerospace Surveys (RECTAS), Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaOviasu, O.I., Regional Centre for Training in Aerospace Surveys (RECTAS), Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaChronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing problem in Nigeria, presenting challenges to the nation’s health and economy. This study presents an analysis of 442 patients with CKD referred to the renal department at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria between 2006 and 2009. It investigates the spatial distribution of the disease across the study area using the kernel density estimate to evaluate the spatial distribution of CKD cases within the state. It involves the analysis of the distribution of CKD cases in relation to their underlying population to determine the areas of high and low density of diagnosed CKD cases across the state. The result highlighted the spatial distribution of diagnosed CKD and also highlighted the areas of concern regarding the spatial distribution of diagnosed CKD within the state. The findings derived from this study would be helpful in the preliminary assessment needed for policy-making decisions that pertain to the strategic allocation of resources for CKD treatment within the health sector. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.Chronic kidney disease; Dual kernel density estimate; Edo State; Spatial analysisDecision making; Hospitals; Areas of concerns; Chronic kidney disease; Edo State; Kernel density estimate; Policy making; Preliminary assessment; Spatial analysis; Strategic allocation; Spatial distributionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84870265731Using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance modelingRezazadeh S., Mehrabi M., Pashaee T., Mirzaee I.2012Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology261110.1007/s12206-012-0844-2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran; Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Pretoria Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Elm-o-Fan University, Urmia, IranRezazadeh, S., Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran; Mehrabi, M., Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Pretoria Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Pashaee, T., Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Elm-o-Fan University, Urmia, Iran; Mirzaee, I., Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia, IranIn this paper, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used for modeling proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance using some numerically investigated and compared with those to experimental results for training and test data. In this way, current density I (A/cm2) is modeled to the variation of pressure at the cathode side PC (atm), voltage V (V), membrane thickness (mm), Anode transfer coefficient αan, relative humidity of inlet fuel RHa and relative humidity of inlet air RHc which are defined as input (design) variables. Then, we divided these data into train and test sections to do modeling. We instructed ANFIS network by 80% of numerical-validated data. 20% of primary data which had been considered for testing the appropriateness of the models was entered ANFIS network models and results were compared by three statistical criterions. Considering the results, it is obvious that our proposed modeling by ANFIS is efficient and valid and it can be expanded for more general states. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.ANFIS; Fuel cell performance; PEM fuel cells; Relative humidityAdaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system; ANFIS; Fuel cell performance; Inlet air; Membrane thickness; Network models; PEM fuel cell; Performance Modeling; Primary data; Statistical criterion; Test data; Test sections; Transfer coefficient; Atmospheric humidity; Fuzzy systems; Tracking (position); Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)None
Scopus2-s2.0-79959709463Use-value or performance: Towards a better understanding of small reservoirs in sub-Saharan Africa [Valeurs d'usage ou performances techniques: Comment apprécier le rôle des petits barrages en Afrique subsaharienne?]Venot J.-P., Cecchi P.2011Cahiers Agricultures204237110.1684/agr.2010.0457International Water Management Institute (IWMI), PMB CT 112, Cantonments, Accra, Ghana; IRD, UMR G-Eau, Cemagref-Hortus, 361, rue J-F Breton BP 5095, 34196 Montpellier cedex 5, FranceVenot, J.-P., International Water Management Institute (IWMI), PMB CT 112, Cantonments, Accra, Ghana; Cecchi, P., IRD, UMR G-Eau, Cemagref-Hortus, 361, rue J-F Breton BP 5095, 34196 Montpellier cedex 5, FranceSmall reservoirs are a reality of rural sub-Saharan Africa. They trigger technical and institutional innovations, appear to be in high demand among local communities, and remain popular on the agendas of national policy-makers and international development partners in spite of recurrent analyses highlighting that these systems function well below the expectations of their promoters. This paper proposes an analytical framework to understand this apparent contradiction. Local communities do make use of small reservoirs inmany ways but not always as implied by policy discourses and development strategies. Social, eco-technical and managerial analyses would then not disclose the real use-value of these innovations at either the local or the regional (watershed) scales. Understanding the opportunities and risks linked to an intensificationof themultipleuses of small reservoirs requires considering them as rural development and planning interventions. They induce changes in the relations that societies nurture with their environment and catalyze new and multiple claims and uses that sometimes appearconflictual and irreconcilable.Evaluation; Innovation; Land use planning; Subsaharan Africa; Water reservoirsNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70450174230Use of white rot-fungi in upgrading maize straw and, the resulting impact on chemical composition and in-vitro digestibilityAkinfemi A., Adu O.A., Adebiyi O.A.2009Livestock Research for Rural Development2110NoneNasarawa State University, Keffi, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Shabu-Lafia, Nigeria; Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Animal Science, University of IbAkinfemi, A., Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Shabu-Lafia, Nigeria; Adu, O.A., Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Adebiyi, O.A., Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, NigeriaStudies were carried out for 40 days on the conversion of maize straw into value added ruminant feed using two white-rot fungi: Pleurotus sajor caju and Pleurotus pulmonarius in a solid state fermentation. The chemical composition and in- vitro digestibility of the resulting substrate were determined. The results of the study showed that the crude protein (CP) increased from 7.37% for the control (UM) to 9.66% for the Pleurotus pulmonarius degraded maize straw (PPM) and Pleurotus sajor caju degraded maize straw (PSM). The ether extracts (EE) and ash contents also follow the same trend. On the contrary, Crude Fiber fractions (Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), Acid detergent fiber (ADF),acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose and hemicellulose) decreased significantly (p<0.05) during the period of solid state fermentation. The estimated short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and metabolisable energy (ME) were not significantly different (p>0.05).Organic matter digestibility (OMD) were enhanced by the fungi used compared with the untreated straw. Gas volume also follows the same trend while the rate of gas production constant (c) was highest in UM and PSM. This study shows that the fungal treatment of maize straw enhanced the chemical composition and in -vitro digestibility.Fermentation; Fungi; Pleurotus pulmonarius; Pleurotus sajor caju; RuminantBovidae; Fungi; Pleurotus; Pleurotus pulmonarius; Pleurotus sajor-caju; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84882996014Use of volcanic ash and its impact on algae proliferation in drinking water filtrationMpagi K.H., Rose K., Elzbieta P.2013Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development3210.2166/washdev.2013.080Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda; External Services, National Water and Sewerage Corporation, P.O. Box 7053, Kampala, Uganda; Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Brinellvägen 32, SE-100 44 Stockholm, SwedenMpagi, K.H., Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda; Rose, K., External Services, National Water and Sewerage Corporation, P.O. Box 7053, Kampala, Uganda; Elzbieta, P., Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Brinellvägen 32, SE-100 44 Stockholm, SwedenWith increasing pollution of the available water resources, development of safe drinking water supplies is increasingly becoming a challenge, both for developing and developed countries. To alleviate the prevailing difficulties, approaches should focus on sustainable water supply and treatment systems that require minimal maintenance and operator skills. In this study, a pre-treatment of water containing algae using a combination of volcanic ash (VA) and sand in a filtration system was assessed. The results indicated that a combination of VA and sand performed better in the removal of algae than sand alone. However, it was noted that different algae genera were removed at different rates within the two types of media arrangement. In addition, there was an increase in the filtration run length of the ash-sand columns with VA on top of sand of about two and half times compared with the sand columns. It is therefore anticipated that pre-treatment of raw water laden with algae using ash-sand would probably improve on the performance of the subsequent conventional processes in removing intact cells of algae and thus reduce the threat of releasing toxins into the water that may not be removed by the subsequent conventional treatment processes. © IWA Publishing 2013.Algae; Drinking water; Filtration; Intact cells; Pre-treatment; Volcanic ashNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84918586205Use of the myocardial performance index as a prognostic indicator of adverse fetal outcome in poorly controlled gestational diabetic pregnanciesBhorat I.E., Bagratee J.S., Pillay M., Reddy T.2014Prenatal Diagnosis341310.1002/pd.4471Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Biostatistics Unit, Medical Research Council, Durban, South AfricaBhorat, I.E., Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Bagratee, J.S., Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Pillay, M., Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Reddy, T., Biostatistics Unit, Medical Research Council, Durban, South AfricaWhat is known about the topic?Fetal complications in gestational diabetes without microvascular complications are related to fetal hyperinsulinism. Our present prenatal surveillance techniques in diabetic pregnancies are neither appropriate nor sufficient as a monitoring tool. Impaired cardiac function in fetuses of diabetic pregnancies has been documented, but no link to adverse outcome has been demonstrated. What this study adds to the topic?This study has established an association between fetal cardiac dysfunction and abnormal fetal outcomes in poorly controlled gestational diabetic pregnancies. There seems to be an association between severity of the myocardial performance index elevation and rates of abnormal outcomes. Myocardial performance index may be an attractive monitoring tool of the fetus in poorly controlled diabetic pregnancy. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether there are any changes in cardiac function in fetuses of poorly controlled gestational diabetics and whether these changes influence perinatal outcome. Methods: Twenty-nine pregnant women with severe gestational diabetes on insulin therapy in the third trimester of pregnancy were recruited and matched with 29 women with normal pregnancies (control group). Using Doppler echocardiography, the modified myocardial performance index (Mod-MPI) and E wave/A wave peak velocities (E/A) ratios were determined. Placental resistance Doppler markers were also determined in both groups. Adverse perinatal outcome was defined as perinatal death, admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, cord pH <7.15, 5-min Apgar score <7 and presence of cardiomyopathy. Results: The median Mod-MPI was increased (0.59 vs 0.38; p<0.0001) and the E/A ratio was decreased (0.65 vs 0.76; p<0.0001) in fetuses of diabetic mothers compared with controls. An MPI >0.52 had a sensitivity of 100% [95% confidence interval (CI) 85-100%] and specificity of 92% (95% CI 70-92%) for prediction of adverse perinatal outcome, including one stillbirth and one neonatal death. No abnormal outcomes occurred in the control group. Conclusions: There is significant impairment of cardiac function in fetuses of poorly controlled gestational diabetics. Mod-MPI and E/A ratio have the potential to improve fetal surveillance in diabetic pregnancies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Noneadult; clinical trial; cross-sectional study; female; fetus heart; heart function test; human; pathophysiology; pregnancy; pregnancy diabetes mellitus; pregnancy outcome; prospective study; Adult; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diabetes, Gestational; Female; Fetal Heart; Heart Function Tests; Humans; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Outcome; Prospective StudiesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84938526082Use of the MSCR test to characterize the asphalt binder properties relative to HMA rutting performance - A laboratory studyZhang J., Walubita L.F., Faruk A.N.M., Karki P., Simate G.S.2015Construction and Building Materials94None10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.06.044Texas AandM University, College Station, TX, United States; Texas AandM Transportation Institute, Texas AandM University System, College Station, TX, United States; School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits 2050, Johannesburg, South AfricaZhang, J., Texas AandM University, College Station, TX, United States; Walubita, L.F., Texas AandM Transportation Institute, Texas AandM University System, College Station, TX, United States; Faruk, A.N.M., Texas AandM Transportation Institute, Texas AandM University System, College Station, TX, United States; Karki, P., Texas AandM Transportation Institute, Texas AandM University System, College Station, TX, United States; Simate, G.S., School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits 2050, Johannesburg, South AfricaAbstract Permanent deformation (or rutting) is one of the common distresses occurring in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. HMA is predominantly composed of aggregates and asphalt binder; and the asphalt binder plays a significant role in the HMA performance including permanent deformation and rutting resistance. In order to characterize the properties of the asphalt binder related to HMA rutting, the Superpave performance grade system uses the high-temperature grade, which is determined based on the complex shear modulus (|G∗|) and phase angle (δ) parameter (G∗/sinδ) that is measured from the Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) test. However, G∗/sinδ is not a performance-based parameter. Therefore, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has developed a performance-based PG binder test, the Multiple Stress Creep and Recovery (MSCR) test, to supplement the conventional DSR high temperature test. The primary objective of this laboratory study was to compare the two asphalt binder tests (the MSCR and the DSR high-temperature grade) and two HMA rutting related performance tests (the Hamburg Wheel Tracking Test [HWTT] and the Repeated Loading Permanent Deformation [RLPD] Test) for characterizing the asphalt binder high temperature properties relative to HMA permanent deformation and rutting performance. For the asphalt binders and HMA evaluated, the MSCR showed a better correlation with the two rutting related performance tests (HWTT and RLPD) than the DSR high temperature grade. Thus, the MSCR test results shows promise to supplement or serve as a surrogate to the existing DSR test in characterizing the asphalt binder high temperature properties that are related to HMA rutting. However, more lab testing and field validation is still warranted to complement the results and findings reported herein. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.Asphalt binder; DSR; G∗; HWTT; J<inf>nr</inf>; MSCR; Permanent deformation; RLPD; RuttingAsphalt; Asphalt pavements; Creep; Deformation; High temperature properties; Highway administration; Asphalt binders; DSR; HWTT; MSCR; Permanent deformations; RLPD; Rutting; BindersTxDOT, Texas Department of Transportation
Scopus2-s2.0-84900528190Use of survey data to evaluate teaching: A comparison of self and peer evaluations of teachingOgbonnaya U.I.2014Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences5910.5901/mjss.2014.v5n9p370Tshwane University of Technology, South AfricaOgbonnaya, U.I., Tshwane University of Technology, South AfricaSurvey is one of the most widely used methods of investigation into educational systems and practices. While the results from surveys might give insight into what goes on in the educational system, important questions arise: how reliable are the results of surveys in evaluating educational systems and practices? And can the results be used to take high-stakes decisions about teaching and learning? This study examines the reliability of surveys in evaluating teaching by comparing the degree of agreement between mathematics teachers' self-evaluation of their teaching and their peers' evaluation of it. A sample of 31 grade 11 mathematics teachers took part in the study. The result shows that teachers' self-evaluations of their teaching generally did not agree significantly with their peers' evaluations. This finding suggests caution in the use of self and peer evaluations in taking high-stakes decisions on teaching and learning.Evaluation of teaching; Mathematics teaching; Peer evaluation; Self-evaluation; SurveyNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-26944448208Use of stored serum from Uganda for development and evaluation of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 testing algorithm involving multiple rapid immunoassaysSinger D.E., Kiwanuka N., Serwadda D., Nalugoda F., Hird L., Bulken-Hoover J., Kigozi G., Malia J.A., Calero E.K., Sateren W., Robb M.L., Wabwire-Mangen F., Wawer M., Gray R.H., Sewankambo N., Birx D.L., Michael N.L.2005Journal of Clinical Microbiology431010.1128/JCM.43.10.5312-5315.2005Division of Retrovirology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1600 East Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United States; U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1600 East Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United States; Rakai Health Sciences Project, Kalisizo, Uganda; Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Uniformed Services University School of Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20814, United States; Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York City, NY 10032, United States; Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21215, United States; College of Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Department of Molecular Diagnostics and Pathogenesis, Division of Retrovirology, Walter-Reed Army Institute of Research, 1600 E. Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United StatesSinger, D.E., Division of Retrovirology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1600 East Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United States, U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1600 East Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United States; Kiwanuka, N., Rakai Health Sciences Project, Kalisizo, Uganda; Serwadda, D., Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Nalugoda, F., Rakai Health Sciences Project, Kalisizo, Uganda; Hird, L., Uniformed Services University School of Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20814, United States; Bulken-Hoover, J., Uniformed Services University School of Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20814, United States; Kigozi, G., Rakai Health Sciences Project, Kalisizo, Uganda; Malia, J.A., Division of Retrovirology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1600 East Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United States, U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1600 East Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United States; Calero, E.K., Division of Retrovirology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1600 East Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United States, U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1600 East Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United States; Sateren, W., Division of Retrovirology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1600 East Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United States, U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1600 East Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United States; Robb, M.L., U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1600 East Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United States; Wabwire-Mangen, F., Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Wawer, M., Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York City, NY 10032, United States; Gray, R.H., Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21215, United States; Sewankambo, N., College of Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Birx, D.L., Division of Retrovirology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1600 East Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United States, U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1600 East Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United States; Michael, N.L., Division of Retrovirology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1600 East Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United States, U.S. Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1600 East Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United States, Department of Molecular Diagnostics and Pathogenesis, Division of Retrovirology, Walter-Reed Army Institute of Research, 1600 E. Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United StatesWe report the development and evaluation of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 testing algorithm consisting of three rapid antibody detection tests. Stored serum samples from Uganda were utilized with a final algorithm sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% (95% confidence interval, 98.6% to 99.3%). Copyright © 2005, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.Nonealgorithm; antibody detection; article; human; Human immunodeficiency virus 1; immunoassay; mass screening; nonhuman; priority journal; sensitivity and specificity; serum; Uganda; virus identification; AIDS Serodiagnosis; Algorithms; Confidence Intervals; HIV Antibodies; HIV Infections; HIV-1; Humans; Immunoassay; Sensitivity and Specificity; Serum; Specimen Handling; Time Factors; Uganda; Human immunodeficiency virus 1None
Scopus2-s2.0-84938864176Use of ServQUAL in the evaluation of service quality of academic libraries in developing countriesAsogwa B.E., Asadu B.U., Ezema J.U., Ugwu C.I., Ugwuanyi F.C.2014Library Philosophy and Practice20141NoneNnamdi Azikiwe library, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, NigeriaAsogwa, B.E., Nnamdi Azikiwe library, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; Asadu, B.U., Nnamdi Azikiwe library, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; Ezema, J.U., Nnamdi Azikiwe library, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; Ugwu, C.I., Nnamdi Azikiwe library, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; Ugwuanyi, F.C., Nnamdi Azikiwe library, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, NigeriaPurpose - This paper assesses the quality of services to users in academic libraries in developing countries using ServQUAL model. The purpose was to expose the service areas where the desires of library users' are not met, ascertain the causes, and suggest corrective measures. Approach - Both primary and secondary sources were explored for data collection. Questionnaire and the websites were used, and the 3,832 library users sampled from four developing countries was the research population of this article. Data was analyzed and discussed using descriptive statistics, and other illustrations. Findings - The paper revealed that in developing countries: all the service indicators evaluated were negatively marked; There is significant different between the perceptions and expectations of library users; Academic libraries are not satisfying users' expectations; While tangibility and empathy were the highest and lowest dimensions in developing countries, reliability and tangibility were the order in developed countries; factors such as lack of modern facilities, poor funding, and weak e-leadership quality were negatively affecting the quality of library services. Greater efforts should be channeled toward closing the gaps between the perceptions and the expectations of library users. Practical Implications -This result could be used in comparing the service quality of academic libraries in developed and developing countries. Originality -This paper is the first attempt to use ServQUAL model in the comparison of service quality of academic libraries in developed and developing countries.Academic libraries; Service quality; ServQUAL in academic libraries; ServQUAL in developing countries; ServQual modelNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84925428074Use of multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of temporal and spatial variations in water quality of the Kaduna River, NigeriaOgwueleka T.C.2015Environmental Monitoring and Assessment187310.1007/s10661-015-4354-4Department of Civil Engineering, University of Abuja, Abuja, FCT, NigeriaOgwueleka, T.C., Department of Civil Engineering, University of Abuja, Abuja, FCT, NigeriaMultivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA), were used to investigate the temporal and spatial variations and to interpret large and complex water quality data sets collected from the Kaduna River. Kaduna River is the main tributary of Niger River in Nigeria and represents the common situation of most natural rivers including spatial patterns of pollutants. The water samples were collected monthly for 5 years (2008–2012) from eight sampling stations located along the river. In all samples, 17 parameters of water quality were determined: total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, Thard, dissolved oxygen (DO), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4-N, Cl, SO4, Ca, Mg, total coliform (TColi), turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), HCO3 −, NO3 −, and temperature (T). Hierarchical CA grouped 12 months into two seasons (dry and wet seasons) and classified eight sampling stations into two groups (low- and high-pollution regions) based on seasonal differences and different levels of pollution, respectively. PCA/FA for each group formed by CA helped to identify spatiotemporal dynamics of water quality in Kaduna River. CA illustrated that water quality progressively deteriorated from headwater to downstream areas. The results of PCA/FA determined that 78.7 % of the total variance in low pollution region was explained by five factor, that is, natural and organic, mineral, microbial, organic, and nutrient, and 87.6 % of total variance in high pollution region was explained by six factors, that is, microbial, organic, mineral, natural, nutrient, and organic. Varifactors obtained from FA indicated that the parameters responsible for water quality variations are resulted from agricultural runoff, natural pollution, domestic, municipal, and industrial wastewater. Mann–Whitney U test results revealed that TDS, pH, DO, T, EC, TColi, turbidity, total hardness (THard), Mg, Ca, NO3 −, COD, and BOD were identified as significant variables affecting temporal variation in river water, and TDS, EC, and TColi were identified as significant variables affecting spatial variation. In addition, box-whisker plots facilitated and supported multivariate analysis results. This study illustrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for classification and processing of large and complex data sets of water quality parameters, identification of latent pollution factors/sources and their spatial-temporal variations, and determination of the corresponding significant parameters in river water quality. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.Box plots; Cluster analysis; Factor analysis; Principal component analysis; Temporal-spatial variations; Water quality managementAgricultural runoff; Biochemical oxygen demand; Calcium; Chemical oxygen demand; Chlorine; Classification (of information); Cluster analysis; Dissolved oxygen; Factor analysis; Magnesium; Multivariant analysis; Nutrients; Oxygen; Parameter estimation; Pollution; Principal component analysis; Quality control; Quality management; Rivers; Statistical methods; Turbidity; Water conservation; Water management; Water pollution; Water quality; Water resources; Box plots; Electrical conductivity; Multivariate statistical techniques; Spatial variations; Spatio-temporal dynamics; Temporal and spatial variation; Water quality parameters; Water quality variations; River pollution; ammonium nitrate; calcium; chloride; dissolved organic matter; dissolved oxygen; magnesium; runoff; sulfate; cluster analysis; factor analysis; multivariate analysis; principal component analysis; river pollution; river water; spatial analysis; temporal analysis; water quality; Article; chemical oxygen demand; cluster analysis; coliform bacterium; discriminant analysis; dry season; electric conductivity; factorial analysis; hydrology; multivariate analysis; Nigeria; nonhuman; pH; principal component analysis; river; season; seasonal variation; soil erosion; spatiotemporal analysis; statistical analysis; temperature; turbidity; water analysis; water pollution; water quality; water sampling; weathering; wet season; biochemical oxygen demand; chemistry; environmental monitoring; procedures; statistics and numerical data; water pollution; water quality; Kaduna River; Nigeria; Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis; Cluster Analysis; Environmental Monitoring; Factor Analysis, Statistical; Multivariate Analysis; Nigeria; Principal Component Analysis; Rivers; Seasons; Temperature; Water Pollution; Water QualityNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84903945381Use of job enrichment technique and human resource management performance, among extension managers in North West Province South AfricaThafe D.R., Oladele O.I.2014Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences51510.5901/mjss.2014.v5n15p11Department of Agricultural Extension, North West University, South AfricaThafe, D.R., Department of Agricultural Extension, North West University, South Africa; Oladele, O.I., Department of Agricultural Extension, North West University, South AfricaThe study examined knowledge and utilization of job enrichment techniques among extension managers in North West Province. The population of the study area is extension managers in the North West Province of South Africa. Thirty (30) Extension Managers were sampled randomly from the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development database in the four district municipalities of the Province. Data were collected using questionnaires and analysis was done with statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) using frequency counts, percentages and multiple regressions. The findings show that 70% of extension managers are married and mostly are male (66.7%), 86.7% have 1 to 3 children with 63.4% having 1-3 dependents; 33.3% of the respondents were Diploma holders; 30% were Degree holders, 30% had Honours, 6.7% had MSc; 70% are currently studying for higher degree. The most prominently used information sources were advisory leaflets (100%), most managers were not knowledgeable on removal of power of a subordinate improve job satisfaction(80); while the most prominent job enriching techniques used by extension managers was adjustment of performance target (80%). The results further show that there is a significant relationship between the independent variables and the use of job enrichment techniques with F value of 1.83, p < 0.05, R = 0.717. The result further predicted 52 percent of the variation in use of job enrichment techniques and human resource management performance by extension managers. The significant determinants of use of job enrichment techniques and human resource management performance among extension managers in North West Province are age (t = -2.155, p =.046), tenure in profession (t = 2.202, p =.042) and job designation (t = -2.273, p =.036).NoneNoneNone
NoneNoneUse of hybrid cultivars in Kagera region, Tanzania, and their impactEdmeades S., Nkuba J.M., Smale M.2007Research Report of the International Food Policy Research InstituteNone155NoneAgriculture and the Rural Development, World Bank, Washington, DC, United States; Maruku Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Bukoba, Tanzania; IFPRI, IPGRIEdmeades, S., Agriculture and the Rural Development, World Bank, Washington, DC, United States; Nkuba, J.M., Maruku Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Bukoba, Tanzania; Smale, M., IFPRI, IPGRIBanana hybrid use in Kagera Region, Tanzania have been beneficial in that the reduce vulnerability to production losses from biotic pressures. In order to assess, a treatment model is used as well as for the identification of the determinants of adoption and the effects of adoption on expected yield losses from pests and diseases. Meanwhile, the hybrids are high yielding and resistant to pests and diseases that ravaged banana production in the lakes region. It was shown that the intended impact of reducing yield losses to pests and diseases has been achieved, supporting research efforts aimed at developing resistant planting material and the formal diffusion program. Findings from the research showed that there is a need to disseminate new cultivars to sustain the benefits. Using the disease and pest resistant cultivars help farmers reduce dependence on pesticides and fungicides which are costly and bear health risks for farming communities, not to mention degrade the environment.Nonebiotic factor; cultivar; health risk; hybrid; pest resistance; pesticide resistance; yield; Africa; East Africa; Kagera; Sub-Saharan Africa; TanzaniaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84919572776Use of ground-penetrating radar for construction monitoring and evaluation of perpetual pavementsLi J., Walubita L.F., Simate G.S., Alvarez A.E., Liu W.2015Natural Hazards75110.1007/s11069-014-1314-1Changsha University of Science and Technology (CUST), Changsha, Hunan, China; TTI, PVAMU - The Texas A&M University System, College Station, TX, United States; School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Magdalena, Santa Marta, Colombia; TTI, College Station, TX, United StatesLi, J., Changsha University of Science and Technology (CUST), Changsha, Hunan, China, TTI, College Station, TX, United States; Walubita, L.F., TTI, PVAMU - The Texas A&M University System, College Station, TX, United States; Simate, G.S., School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Alvarez, A.E., Department of Civil Engineering, University of Magdalena, Santa Marta, Colombia; Liu, W., TTI, College Station, TX, United StatesThe inherent quality of perpetual pavement (PP) governs its performance, which consequently influences the frequency and level of the potential accidents during the whole service life.This paper presents the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) as a nondestructive testing (NDT) tool that was utilized for construction monitoring and evaluation of Texas (USA) perpetual pavements. The currently existing Texas PP sections typically consist of hot-mix asphalt layers of over 350-mm total thickness supported on a 200-mm-thick treated (6 % lime or 2 % cement) base, which is resting on a well-compacted in situ subgrade soil. Overall, the results indicate that the GPR has great potential as an effective NDT tool for aiding with the construction quality monitoring, forensic investigations, and structural/performance evaluation of PP structures. In particular, the GPR is useful in determining pavement layer thicknesses, assessing compaction uniformity, locating areas of moisture retention, identifying low-density spots and localized high voided areas, indicative assessment of vertical segregation and debonding, and quality assessment of construction joints. Additionally, the current GPR system has the advantage of rapidly and continuously collecting pavement data up to a depth of 610 mm, together with integrated video images and a GPS system, over any desired highway length while traveling at a nominal speed of about 113 km/h without disturbing conventional traffic. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.Accidents; Construction; Density; Ground-penetrating radar; Moisture; Perpetual pavementNoneFHWA, Federal Highway Administration
Scopus2-s2.0-84929614187Use of electromagnetic non-destructive techniques for monitoring water and chloride ingress into concreteVillain G., Ihamouten A., Du Plooy R., Palma Lopes S., Dérobert X.2015Near Surface Geophysics13310.3997/1873-0604.2015016LUNAM Université de Nantes Angers Le Mans, IFSTTAR Centre de Nantes, CS4, Bouguenais, France; CEREMA, DLRCA, Techniques Physiques Avancées, ERA17, Angers, France; AURECON, Aurecon Center Lynnwood Bridge Office, Tshwane (Pretoria), South AfricaVillain, G., LUNAM Université de Nantes Angers Le Mans, IFSTTAR Centre de Nantes, CS4, Bouguenais, France; Ihamouten, A., CEREMA, DLRCA, Techniques Physiques Avancées, ERA17, Angers, France; Du Plooy, R., LUNAM Université de Nantes Angers Le Mans, IFSTTAR Centre de Nantes, CS4, Bouguenais, France, AURECON, Aurecon Center Lynnwood Bridge Office, Tshwane (Pretoria), South Africa; Palma Lopes, S., LUNAM Université de Nantes Angers Le Mans, IFSTTAR Centre de Nantes, CS4, Bouguenais, France; Dérobert, X., LUNAM Université de Nantes Angers Le Mans, IFSTTAR Centre de Nantes, CS4, Bouguenais, FranceThis paper deals with the use of three electromagnetic non-destructive in situ techniques to assess concrete conditions: electrical resistivity, capacimetry, and ground-penetrating radar. It shows the potential of these methods to monitor the ingress of water and chlorides into concrete. The electromagnetic properties that are studied here are dielectric permittivity and electrical resistivity, both sensitive to volumetric water content and chloride content. Results are presented from an experimental study conducted on concrete slabs (and corresponding core cylinders) in a controlled laboratory environment. Then, the discussion is focused on the ability of three electromagnetic techniques to assess the depth of the ingress front of different salt solutions and to discern between the 3 NaCl concentrations (0, 15 and 30 g/L). © 2015 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84882932531Use of APSDM and EM_press inversion to impact evaluation of a west africa deepwater discoveryZhang M., Lazaratos S., Yu Y., Lee J.J., Boorman S., Anderson K., Illo O.2009SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts281NoneExxonMobil Exploration Company, Houston, United States; ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH, United States; ExxonMobil Development Company, United States; Esso Exploration and Production Nigeria Deepwater West Limited, NigeriaZhang, M., ExxonMobil Exploration Company, Houston, United States; Lazaratos, S., ExxonMobil Exploration Company, Houston, United States; Yu, Y., ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH, United States; Lee, J.J., ExxonMobil Development Company, United States; Boorman, S., ExxonMobil Development Company, United States; Anderson, K., ExxonMobil Development Company, United States; Illo, O., Esso Exploration and Production Nigeria Deepwater West Limited, NigeriaSummary: In this paper we discuss the impact of APSDM and EM_PreSS inversion technology on the evaluation of a West Africa deepwater field. The field is located in an ExxonMobil operated block. The trap was defined as a distributary channel complex (DCC) on the flank of a faulted anticline. The hydrocarbon bearing sands have a class III AVO response for gas and a class III or II AVO response for oil. An exploration well and its side track discovered multiple oil reservoirs in Miocene sands. Using pre-stack time migrated (PSTM) data, dual fluid contacts were observed and interpreted for multiple reservoirs in several fault blocks. In general, oil-water-contacts (OWC's) observed on the PSTM data conform better to the depth structure maps than the gas-oil-contacts (GOC's). The GOC's are inconsistent across the fault blocks. The imaging of the GOC's was improved by anisotropic pre-stack depth migration (APSDM) and further sharpened by additional EM_PreSS inversion processing. An appraisal well and its side track confirmed the GOC determined from seismic interpretation. Use of the APSDM and EM_PreSS inversion favorably impacted business decisions during field appraisal and development planning, increasing our confidence to pursue development without drilling more appraisal wells.NoneNoneNone
WoSWOS:000324164000001Use of anchoring vignettes to evaluate health reporting behavior amongst adults aged 50 years and above in Africa and Asia - testing assumptionsBlomstedt, Yulia,Debpuur, Cornelius,Gomez-Olive, Xavier,Hirve, Siddhivinayak,Juvekar, Sanjay,Ng, Nawi,Oti, Samuel,Tollman, Stephen,Wall, Stig2013GLOBAL HEALTH ACTION6None10.3402/gha.v6i0.21064Navrongo Health Research Center, Umea University, University of Witwatersrand, African Populat & Hlth Res Ctr, KEM Hosp Res Ctr"Blomstedt, Yulia: Umea University","Debpuur, Cornelius: Navrongo Health Research Center","Gomez-Olive, Xavier: University of Witwatersrand","Ng, Nawi: Umea University","Tollman, Stephen: University of Witwatersrand","Wall, Stig: Umea University",Background: Comparing self-rating health responses across individuals and cultures is misleading due to different reporting behaviors. Anchoring vignettes is a technique that allows identifying and adjusting self-rating responses for reporting heterogeneity (RH). Objective: This article aims to test two crucial assumptions of vignette equivalence (VE) and response consistency (RC) that are required to be met before vignettes can be used to adjust self-rating responses for RH. Design: We used self-ratings, vignettes, and objective measures covering domains of mobility and cognition from the WHO study on global AGEing and adult health, administered to older adults aged 50 years and above from eight low-and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. For VE, we specified a hierarchical ordered probit (HOPIT) model to test for equality of perceived vignette locations. For RC, we tested for equality of thresholds that are used to rate vignettes with thresholds derived from objective measures and used to rate their own health function. Results: There was evidence of RH in self-rating responses for difficulty in mobility and cognition. Assumptions of VE and RC between countries were violated driven by age, sex, and education. However, within a country context, assumption of VE was met in some countries (mainly in Africa, except Tanzania) and violated in others (mainly in Asia, except India). Conclusion: We conclude that violation of assumptions of RC and VE precluded the use of anchoring vignettes to adjust self-rated responses for RH across countries in Asia and Africa."anchoring vignettes",COGNITION,MOBILITY,"reporting heterogeneity","RESPONSE CONSISTENCY",SELF-RATING,"Vignette equivalence",HETEROGENEITY,SATISFACTION,"SELF-RATED HEALTH"NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33744914994Usefulness of histological evaluation of excised nasopharyngeal tumour in a 12-year-old Nigerian boy mimicking adenoidsAlabi B.S., Rafindadi A.H., Saeed N., Anka A.2006International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra1210.1016/j.pedex.2006.02.001Department of Otolaryngology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Federal Medical Centre, Gusau, Nigeria; Department of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria; Departments of Surgery and ENT, Federal Medical Centre, GusauAlabi, B.S., Department of Otolaryngology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Federal Medical Centre, Gusau, Nigeria; Rafindadi, A.H., Department of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria; Saeed, N., Departments of Surgery and ENT, Federal Medical Centre, Gusau, Nigeria; Anka, A., Departments of Surgery and ENT, Federal Medical Centre, Gusau, NigeriaBackground/aim: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is the commonest benign nasopharyngeal tumour, which tends to bleed is found exclusively in male adolescents. This case was seen at the Federal Medical Centre, Gusau, Nigeria, a relatively new tertiary health institution in North Western Nigeria in May 2005, this is to stress the importance of excision biopsy for tumours rather than incisional biopsy in an environment with limited facilities. Results: This 12-year-old male Nigerian boy presented with nasal obstruction, obstructive sleep apnoea and nasal speech previously treated by the native doctors. The tumour was diagnosed based on clinical, posterior rhinoscopy and plain radiological findings and it was surgically excised via a transpalatal approach and histological evaluation of the excised tumour revealed juvenile angiofibroma. Conclusions: The management is discussed with reference to the literature and the limitation of diagnostic facilities is highlighted in a developing country setting and the need for complete surgical excision rather than incisional biopsy especially in the unwary. © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Histology; Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma; Male adolescents; Posterior rhinoscopy; Transpalatal approachadenoid; article; biopsy technique; case report; clinical feature; computer assisted tomography; developing country; diagnostic value; ear nose throat surgery; endoscopy; excision; health care facility; histopathology; human; intermethod comparison; male; medical literature; nasopharynx fibroma; nasopharynx tumor; Nigeria; nose obstruction; school child; sleep apnea syndrome; surgical approach; tertiary health careNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84857117291Urine heme dipsticks are useful in monitoring the impact of Praziquantel treatment on Schistosoma haematobium in sentinel communities of Delta State, NigeriaEmukah E., Gutman J., Eguagie J., Miri E.S., Yinkore P., Okocha N., Jibunor V., Nebe O., Nwoye A.I., Richards F.O.2012Acta Tropica122110.1016/j.actatropica.2012.01.002The Carter Center, Plot R/60 GRA, Off High Court Road, Box 4034, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston, 2015 Uppergate Dr., Atlanta, GA 30322, United States; The Carter Center, 1 Jeka Kadima Street,Emukah, E., The Carter Center, Plot R/60 GRA, Off High Court Road, Box 4034, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Gutman, J., Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston, 2015 Uppergate Dr., Atlanta, GA 30322, United States; Eguagie, J., The Carter Center, 1 Jeka Kadima Street, Box 7772, Jos, Nigeria; Miri, E.S., The Carter Center, 1 Jeka Kadima Street, Box 7772, Jos, Nigeria; Yinkore, P., Primary Health Care Development Agency, Ministry of Health, No. 1 Onyeka Close, Off Delta Broadcasting Service Road, Near LGSC, Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria; Okocha, N., Primary Health Care Development Agency, Ministry of Health, No. 1 Onyeka Close, Off Delta Broadcasting Service Road, Near LGSC, Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria; Jibunor, V., Primary Health Care Development Agency, Ministry of Health, No. 1 Onyeka Close, Off Delta Broadcasting Service Road, Near LGSC, Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria; Nebe, O., Federal Ministry of Health, Federal Secretariat Phase 3, Garki Abuja, Nigeria; Nwoye, A.I., Federal Ministry of Health, Federal Secretariat Phase 3, Garki Abuja, Nigeria; Richards, F.O., The Carter Center, One Copenhill Avenue NE, Atlanta, GA 30307-1406, United StatesNigeria is highly endemic for infection with Schistosoma haematobium, which most commonly manifests itself with blood in urine. To monitor the impact of annual mass drug administration (MDA) with Praziquantel for S. haematobium in Delta State, Nigeria, cross-sectional hematuria surveys of school children were conducted in 8 sentinel villages (SVs) at baseline (n= 240) and after two annual doses (n= 402). We assessed the comparability of three assessments of hematuria (child's reported history, nurse visual diagnosis (NVD) and dipstick) to determine the need for mass treatment. Dipstick was considered to be the gold standard. Prior to treatment, history and NVD each identified only the 3 most highly prevalent SVs, and overall this represented just 37.5% of the 8 SVs in need of treatment. Following treatment, after dipstick prevalence decreased by 88.5% (p< 0.001), and history and NVD identified only one of two villages still needing treatment. The study suggests that dipsticks should be the recommended method for launching and monitoring mass treatment for S. haematobium. © 2012.Hematuria; Mass treatment; Monitoring; Nigeria; Praziquantel; Schistosomiasispraziquantel; baseline survey; biomonitoring; child health; comparative study; disease prevalence; disease treatment; drug; endemic species; infectivity; schistosomiasis; village; adolescent; analytic method; article; child; community; cross-sectional study; drug monitoring; female; health survey; hematuria; human; major clinical study; male; Nigeria; preschool child; prevalence; schistosomiasis haematobia; school child; urine heme dipstick; Adolescent; Animals; Anthelmintics; Child; Child, Preschool; Clinical Laboratory Techniques; Cross-Sectional Studies; Drug Monitoring; Female; Heme; Humans; Male; Nigeria; Praziquantel; Prevalence; Schistosoma haematobium; Schistosomiasis haematobia; Schools; Urine; Delta; Nigeria; Schistosoma haematobiumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84888154310Urea/oxalamide tethered β-lactam-7-chloroquinoline conjugates: Synthesis and in vitro antimalarial evaluationSingh P., Raj R., Singh P., Gut J., Rosenthal P.J., Kumar V.2014European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry71None10.1016/j.ejmech.2013.10.079Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, Punjab, India; Department of Chemistry, Durban University of Technology, Durban 4000, South Africa; Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United StatesSingh, P., Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, Punjab, India; Raj, R., Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, Punjab, India; Singh, P., Department of Chemistry, Durban University of Technology, Durban 4000, South Africa; Gut, J., Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States; Rosenthal, P.J., Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States; Kumar, V., Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, Punjab, IndiaThe manuscript pertains to the synthesis of urea/oxalamide tethered β-lactam-7-chloroquinoline conjugates with well modulated chain lengths and their antimalarial evaluation. The results reveal the dependence of activity profiles on the N-1 substituent of the β-lactam ring, the nature of the linker as well as the length of the alkyl chain. The most potent of the tested compounds showed an IC50 of 34.97 nM against chloroquine resistant W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.Antimalarial evaluation; beta;-Lactam-7-chloroquinoline conjugates; Structure-activity relationship; Urea/oxalamide linker(1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl) carbamic acid ethyl ester; (2 oxo 4 styryl 1 p tolyl azetidin 3 yl) carbamic acid ethyl ester; 1 [2 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) ethyl] 3 (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl) urea; 1 [2 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) ethyl] 3 (2 oxo 4 styryl 1 p tolyl azetidin 3 yl) urea; 1 [3 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) propyl] 3 (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl) urea; 1 [3 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) propyl] 3 (2 oxo 4 styryl 1 p tolyl azetidin 3 yl) urea; 1 [4 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) butyl] 3 (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl) urea; 1 [4 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) butyl] 3 (2 oxo 4 styryl 1 p tolyl azetidin 3 yl) urea; 1 [6 ( 7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) hexyl] 3 (2 oxo 4 styryl 1 p tolyl azetidin 3 yl) urea; 1 [6 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) hexyl] 3 (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl) urea; artemisinin; bleomycin; chloroquine; deethylamodiaquine; doxorubicin; n (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl) oxalamic acid ethyl ester; n (2 oxo 4 styryl 1 p tolyl azetidin 3 yl) oxalamic acid ethyl ester; n [1 (4 chloro phenyl) 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl] n' [4 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) butyl] oxalamide; n [1 (4 chloro phenyl) 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl] oxalamic acid ethyl ester; n [2 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) ethyl] n' (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl oxalamide; n [2 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) ethyl] n' (2 oxo 4 styryl 1 p tolyl azetidin 3 yl) oxalamide; n [3 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) propyl] n' (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4-styry azetidin 3 oxalimide; n [4 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) butyl] n' (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetiidn 3 oxalamide; n [6 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) hexyl] n' (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 oxalamide; n[1 (4 chloro phenyl) 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl] n' [6 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) hexyl] oxalamide; n[3 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) propyl] n' (2 oxo 4 styryl 1 p tolyl azetidin 3 yl) oxalamide; quinine; quinoline derivative; unclassified drug; urea derivative; (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl) carbamic acid ethyl ester; (2 oxo 4) styryl 1 4 tolyl azetidin 3 yl) carbamic acid ethyl ester; 1 [2 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) ethyl] 3 (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl) urea; 1 [2 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) ethyl] 3 (2 oxo 4 styryl 1 4 azetidin 3 yl) urea; 1 [3 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) propyl] 3 (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl) urea; 1 [3 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) propyl] 3 (2 oxo 4 styryl 1 4 azetidin 3 yl) urea; 1 [4 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) butyl] 3 (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl) urea; 1 [4 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) butyl] 3 (2 oxo 4 styryl 1 4 azetidin 3 yl) urea; 1 [6 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) hexyl] 3 (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl) urea; 1 [6 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) hexyl] 3 (2 oxo 4 styryl 1 4 azetidin 3 yl) urea; antimalarial agent; artemisinin; beta lactam 7 chloroquinoline derivative; chloroquine; deethylamodiaquine; n (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl) oxalamic acid ethyl ester; n (2 oxo 4 styryl 1 4 tolyl azetidin 3 yl) oxalamic acid ethyl ester; n [1 (4 chloro phenyl) 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl] n' [4 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) butyl] oxalamide; n [1 (4 chloro phenyl) 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl] n' [6 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) hexyl] oxalamide; n [1 (4 chloro phenyl) 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl] oxalamic acid ethyl ester; n [2 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) ethyl] n' (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl) oxalamide; n [2 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) ethyl] n' (2 oxo 4 styryl 1 4 tolyl azetidin 3 yl) oxalamide; n [3 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) propyl] n' (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl) oxalamide; n [3 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) propyl] n' (2 oxo 4 styryl 1 4 tolyl azetidin 3 yl) oxalamide; n [4 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) butyl] n' (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl) oxalamide; n [6 (7 chloro quinolin 4 ylamino) hexyl] n' (1 cyclohexyl 2 oxo 4 styryl azetidin 3 yl) oxalamide; oxalamide; quinine; urea; antimalarial activity; article; controlled study; drug conjugation; drug synthesis; human; human cell; IC 50; in vitro study; melting point; Plasmodium falciparum; proton nuclear magnetic resonance; thin layer chromatography; antimalarial drug resistance; Article; cytotoxicity; female; HeLa cell line; hydrogen bond; IC50; nonhuman; Antimalarial evaluation; Structure-activity relationship; Urea/oxalamide linker; β-Lactam-7-chloroquinoline conjugates; Antimalarials; beta-Lactams; Chloroquine; Humans; Malaria, Falciparum; Oxamic Acid; Plasmodium falciparum; Structure-Activity Relationship; UreaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84921469715Urban transport safety assessment in Akure based on corresponding performance indicatorsOye A., Aderinlewo O., Croope S.2013Central European Journal of Engineering3110.2478/s13531-012-0043-zCivil Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria; Delaware Department of Transportation, Delaware, United StatesOye, A., Civil Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria; Aderinlewo, O., Civil Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria; Croope, S., Delaware Department of Transportation, Delaware, United StatesThe level of safety of the transportation system in Akure, Nigeria was assessed by identifying the associated road safety problems and developing the corresponding safety performance indicators. These indicators were analysed with respect to accidents that occurred within the city from the year 2005 to 2009 based on the corresponding attributable risk measures. The results of the analysis showed the state of existing safety programs in Akure town. Six safety performance indicators were identified namely alcohol and drug use, excessive speeds, protection system (use of seat belts and helmets), use of day time running lights, state of vehicles (passive safety) and road condition. These indicators were used to determine the percentage of injury accidents as follows: 83.33% and 86.36% for years 2005 and 2006 respectively, 81.46% for year 2007 while years 2008 and 2009 had 82.86% and 78.12% injury accidents respectively. © Versita sp. z o.o.Attributable risk; Injury accidents; Protection system; Safety performance indicators; VulnerabilityNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84938204432Urban Impacts of Resource Booms: the Emergence of Oil-Led Gentrification in Sekondi-Takoradi, GhanaEduful A., Hooper M.2015Urban Forum26310.1007/s12132-015-9257-5Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Administration Block II, 2nd Floor, UPO PMB, Kumasi, Ghana; Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, 401A Gund Hall, 48 Quincy Street, Cambridge, MA, United StatesEduful, A., Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Administration Block II, 2nd Floor, UPO PMB, Kumasi, Ghana; Hooper, M., Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, 401A Gund Hall, 48 Quincy Street, Cambridge, MA, United StatesExisting research on resource booms and their impacts has largely focused at the national level and been undertaken from an economic perspective, primarily through the lens of the resource curse. This study investigates an emergent resource boom in Ghana, where oil was discovered in 2007. Given the considerable existing research on national-level impacts of resource extraction, this study looks at the urban impacts of oil exploitation on the city of Sekondi-Takoradi, the largest urban settlement closest to the nation’s offshore oil fields. Drawing on detailed questionnaires completed by 636 people across multiple neighbourhoods, the study examines how oil discovery and exploitation have impacted the city. The study finds that many of the changes facing Sekondi-Takoradi can be understood in light of gentrification theory. This is important because there has been considerable debate over the extent to which models of gentrification, largely forged in the developed world, are relevant in the developing world. The findings of this study extend existing knowledge by not only connecting resource booms to processes of urban gentrification in Sub-Saharan Africa but by also demonstrating that multiple forms of gentrification take place simultaneously in these conditions. The paper concludes by suggesting several avenues through which planners and policymakers might better prepare for the kinds of urban changes that are likely to result from developing world resource booms. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.Gentrification; Ghana; Natural resources; Oil; Sekondi-Takoradi; Urbandeveloping world; exploitation; gentrification; natural resource; neighborhood; numerical model; oil field; policy making; urban economy; urban policy; Ghana; Sekondi-Takoradi; Sub-Saharan Africa; Western RegionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-67349190849Urban impact on ecological integrity of nearby rivers in developing countries: The Borkena River in highland EthiopiaBeyene A., Legesse W., Triest L., Kloos H.2009Environmental Monitoring and Assessment1534237310.1007/s10661-008-0371-xPlant Science and Nature Management (APNA), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050, Belgium; Environmental Health, Jimma University, P.O. Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, United StatesBeyene, A., Plant Science and Nature Management (APNA), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050, Belgium, Environmental Health, Jimma University, P.O. Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia; Legesse, W., Environmental Health, Jimma University, P.O. Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia; Triest, L., Plant Science and Nature Management (APNA), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050, Belgium; Kloos, H., Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, United StatesAccelerated pollution and eutrophication of rivers and streams because of human activity are a concern throughout the world and severe in Africa where Ethiopia is case in point. The objective of this study was to assess the urban impact on the ecological integrity of the Borkena River at the eastern escarpment of the central Ethiopian highlands. The water quality status and macroinvertebrate distribution and diversity of the river were assessed during the dry and wet seasons. Diversity indices revealed that a severe decline in the ecological integrity of the Borkena River downstream of Dessie and within Kombolcha towns in terms of macroinvertebrate abundance and composition. Clustering and ordination analysis clearly separated reference sites from urban impacted sites. At the urban-impacted sites, dissolved oxygen was also depleted to 0.5 mg/l and BOD5 values were reached to a level of above 1,000 mg/l, with extremely low biological diversity of pollution-sensitive taxa. These patterns are the result of a combination of rampant dumping of untreated wastes exacerbated by geologic, topographic, climatic and land use factors. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.Borkena river; Ecological integrity; Ethiopia; Faunal diversity; Macroinvertebrate; PollutionBorkena river; Ecological integrity; Ethiopia; Faunal diversity; Macroinvertebrate; Developing countries; Dissolution; Dissolved oxygen; Eutrophication; Land use; Natural resources; Pollution; Quality assurance; Rivers; Water quality; River pollution; dissolved oxygen; cluster analysis; developing world; dissolved oxygen; environmental impact; Index of Biotic Integrity; macroinvertebrate; river water; species diversity; water quality; article; biochemical oxygen demand; biodiversity; climate; cluster analysis; controlled study; dumping; environmental impact; Ethiopia; eutrophication; geology; human activities; land use; macroinvertebrate; population abundance; river ecosystem; season; taxon; topography; urban area; water pollution; water quality; Ecology; Environmental Monitoring; Environmental Pollution; Ethiopia; Geography; Rivers; Africa; Borkena River; Dese; East Africa; Ethiopia; Sub-Saharan AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-5744226295Urban consumer preferences and sensory evaluation of locally produced and imported rice in West AfricaTomlins K.I., Manful J.T., Larwer P., Hammond L.2005Food Quality and Preference16110.1016/j.foodqual.2004.02.002Natural Resources Institute, The Univ. of Greenwich at Medway, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, United Kingdom; Food Research Institute, P.O. Box M20, Accra, GhanaTomlins, K.I., Natural Resources Institute, The Univ. of Greenwich at Medway, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, United Kingdom; Manful, J.T., Food Research Institute, P.O. Box M20, Accra, Ghana; Larwer, P., Food Research Institute, P.O. Box M20, Accra, Ghana; Hammond, L., Natural Resources Institute, The Univ. of Greenwich at Medway, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, United KingdomParboiled rice produced in Ghana is of poor quality and is being overtaken by imported rice. This study sought to investigate consumer preference and relate sensory attributes with consumer acceptability of rice. The majority of consumers preferred imported raw and parboiled rice to that produced locally. Acceptability was influenced by location and gender. Individual preferences of consumers varied and four different segments of consumers with similar liking of the rice samples were identified. The largest three segments (86% of consumers) preferred the imported rice but differed in their preferences for the local rice. A niche segment (14%) mostly preferred traditional local rice. Regression models to predict consumer preference from the sensory panel scores were based on either brown colour of the cooked rice or unshelled paddy in the uncooked form. The models were suitable for three of the consumer segments representing 86% of the consumers. This suggests that while a sensory panel could be used to rapidly monitor consumer acceptability in product development, it was not valid for all consumers. The implications of these findings are discussed. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Africa; Consumer acceptability; Ghana; Rice; Sensory evaluationadult; Africa; aged; article; color; controlled study; female; food intake; food processing; food quality; gender; geography; human; male; monitoring; prediction; regression analysis; rice; scoring system; sensory analysis; statistical model; taste preference; urban areaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84897500506Urban cities and waste generation in developing countries: A GIS evaluation of two cities in Burkina FasoYiougo L.S.A., Oyedotun T.D.T., Some C.Y.C., Da E.C.D.2013Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering7210.4090/juee.2013.v7n2.280285International Institute for Water and Environment Engineering, 01 BP 594, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; Department of Geography and Planning Sciences, Adekunle Ajasin University, P. M. B. 001, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria; Department of Geography, UnivYiougo, L.S.A., International Institute for Water and Environment Engineering, 01 BP 594, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; Oyedotun, T.D.T., Department of Geography and Planning Sciences, Adekunle Ajasin University, P. M. B. 001, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria; Some, C.Y.C., International Institute for Water and Environment Engineering, 01 BP 594, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; Da, E.C.D., Department of Geography, University of Ouagadougou, 03 BP 7021, Ouagadougou, Burkina FasoCities in developing countries are faced waste management challenges in terms of quantity and quality. Most of the time, solid and liquid wastes are dumped on street and open spaces. Uncontrolled waste dumped has led to diverse kind of health problems. The purpose of this article is to characterize urban cities and evaluate their waste generation using the Geographical Information System (GIS). The focus is on two cities in Burkina Faso. Specific variables which were considered during the survey include urban fabric, grey water outlets and household garbage dumps sites/techniques. The study shows that in the two cities, the most dominant urban fabric is low standard of living (about 64% of housing in Fada and 62% of housing in Pouytenga). The urban fabric is also characterized by the existence of empty spaces. Overall, the average density of grey water discharge points is 0.85 points and 5.7 points per ha of street in Fada N'Gourma and Pouytenga respectively. The average density of solid waste dumps is 1.45 waste dumps per ha street and 7 waste dumps per ha street in Fada N'Gourma and Pouytenga respectively. In case of urgent waste management intervention, the priority areas for speedy intervention are area 10 in Fada N'Gourma, areas 2 and 5 in Pouytenga. GIS applied to waste management can be a decision making tool for urban planners in developing country. © 2013 Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering (JUEE). All rights reserved.Developing countries; Discharges; Fada N'Gourma; GIS; Pouytenga; WastesNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84947033836Uptake of Genetic Counseling, Knowledge of Bleeding risks and Psychosocial Impact in a South African Cohort of Female Relatives of People with HemophiliaGillham A., Greyling B., Wessels T.-M., Mbele B., Schwyzer R., Krause A., Mahlangu J.2015Journal of Genetic Counseling24610.1007/s10897-015-9834-8National Bioproducts Institute, P.O. Box 818, Pinegowrie, Johannesburg, South Africa; Division of Human Genetics, National Health Laboratory Service and School of Pathology, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Division of Molecular Medicine and Haematology, Hemophilia Comprehensive Care Centre, University of the Witwatersrand and Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South AfricaGillham, A., National Bioproducts Institute, P.O. Box 818, Pinegowrie, Johannesburg, South Africa; Greyling, B., Division of Human Genetics, National Health Laboratory Service and School of Pathology, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Wessels, T.-M., Division of Human Genetics, National Health Laboratory Service and School of Pathology, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Mbele, B., Division of Molecular Medicine and Haematology, Hemophilia Comprehensive Care Centre, University of the Witwatersrand and Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa; Schwyzer, R., Division of Molecular Medicine and Haematology, Hemophilia Comprehensive Care Centre, University of the Witwatersrand and Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa; Krause, A., Division of Human Genetics, National Health Laboratory Service and School of Pathology, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Mahlangu, J., Division of Molecular Medicine and Haematology, Hemophilia Comprehensive Care Centre, University of the Witwatersrand and Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South AfricaIn excess of 200 people with hemophilia (PWH) and their families have received genetic counseling (GC) at the Hemophilia Comprehensive Care Centre at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital. However, very few of their at-risk female relatives have attended GC to discuss their reproductive risks and options, or their potential bleeding risks. Limited research has been conducted internationally on factors influencing uptake of GC and testing amongst female relatives of PWH. This prospective study aimed to explore the factors that influence the uptake of GC and testing by female relatives of PWH. An open-ended semi-structured interview schedule was developed. Participants included female relatives of PWH who at least had a family member who had received GC. Seventeen participants were interviewed; 7 who had GC previously and 10 who had not. All participants who had previously received GC found the service helpful and were mothers referred because their sons had hemophilia. Of those who had not had GC, possible deterrents included: being unaware of GC service, focus in clinic on PWH and not potential carriers, misunderstood risks related to hemophilia and carrier status, fear of finding out carrier status, and non-disclosure in families. Most participants were unaware of potential bleeding risks for carriers. The information will be used to provide a better service to female relatives of PWH with a goal being to set up a dedicated hemophilia carrier clinic. © 2015, National Society of Genetic Counselors, Inc.Bleeding risks; Genetic counseling; Hemophilia carriers; Psychosocial impact; South AfricaNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-39749097394Uptake and performance of farm-based measures for reducing crop raiding by elephants Loxodonta africana among smallholder farms in Laikipia District, KenyaGraham M.D., Ochieng T.2008ORYX42110.1017/S0030605308000677Laikipia Elephant Project, Centre for Training and Research in ASAL Development, P.O. Box 144, Nanyuki, Kenya; Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EN, United KingdomGraham, M.D., Laikipia Elephant Project, Centre for Training and Research in ASAL Development, P.O. Box 144, Nanyuki, Kenya, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EN, United Kingdom; Ochieng, T., Laikipia Elephant Project, Centre for Training and Research in ASAL Development, P.O. Box 144, Nanyuki, KenyaHuman-elephant conflict, in particular the damage caused by elephants to smallholder crops, is a major challenge to the conservation of African elephant Loxodonta africana. Conventional tools used to address this problem are capital intensive and require high levels of expertise. In recent years simple, affordable farm-based elephant deterrents, using locally available materials, have been encouraged by a number of human-elephant conflict researchers. There are very few published studies demonstrating the performance of these deterrents, however, and little is known about levels of uptake among smallholder farmers. We trialled a number of such farm-based elephant deterrents with local farmers in three sites within Laikipia District, Kenya. Levels of crop raiding declined after the introduction of treatments but not significantly when compared with control farms. Variable levels of uptake among the participating farmers made it difficult to draw clear conclusions from the trials. However, participating farmers were positive about the deterrent effect of the tools introduced, corroborated by their willingness to make financial commitments towards sustaining future trials. Availability of household labour, local politics, and insecurity were identified as important barriers to uptake of some of the deterrents introduced. Household labour availability should be a key consideration in future endeavours to trial farm-based elephant deterrents. © 2008 Fauna and Flora International.African elephant; Community-based; Human-elephant conflict; Kenya; Laikipia; Loxodonta africana; Uptakeconflict management; damage; elephant; smallholder; species conservation; willingness to pay; Africa; East Africa; Kenya; Laikipia; Rift Valley; Sub-Saharan Africa; Elephantidae; Loxodonta; Loxodonta africanaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79953007457Upper body muscle strength and batting performance in cricket batsmenTaliep M.S., Prim S.K., Gray J.2010Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research241210.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e7261bDepartment of Sports Management, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Human Biology, MRC/UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Newlands, South AfricaTaliep, M.S., Department of Sports Management, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa; Prim, S.K., Department of Human Biology, MRC/UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Newlands, South Africa; Gray, J., Department of Human Biology, MRC/UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, University of Cape Town, Newlands, South AfricaThe aim of this study was to determine if upper body muscle strength (as measured by the 1 repetition maximum bench press) was associated with cricket batting performance. Cricket batting performance was defined by the maximum hitting distance during a batting task and batting average and strike rate during 1-Day and Twenty/20 (T/20) matches. Eighteen, provincial level, elite cricket batsmen participated in the study. Upper body muscle strength was found to be positively correlated with maximum hitting distance (ρ = 0.0052). There were no significant correlations between upper body strength, batting average, and strike rate for both the 1-Day and T/20 matches. The results of this study have implications for coaches choosing a particular batting line-up. Batsmen who have stronger upper bodies could be favored to bat when a match situation requires them to hit powerful strokes resulting in boundaries. However, coaches cannot use upper body strength as a predictor of overall batting performance in 1-Day or T/20 matches. © 2010 National Strength and Conditioning Association.Elite; Fitness; Power; Skill; TrainingNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70350475582Unwanted pregnancy and it's impact on maternal health and utilization of health services in Tigray region (Adigrat hospital)Gessessew A.2009Ethiopian Medical Journal471NoneDepartment of Gynecology, Mekele Hospital, Tigray, EthiopiaGessessew, A., Department of Gynecology, Mekele Hospital, Tigray, EthiopiaBackground: Unwanted pregnancy is associated with increased risk of maternal mortality and morbidity. Knowledge of the causes and its impact on maternal health and utilization of health services is crucial to develop preventive strategies. Objective: To assess possible factors of unwanted pregnancy and its impact on maternal health and utilization of health services. Methods: This is a prospective study (February 1, 2002-January 31,2004) conducted on patients with diagnosis of abortion and admitted to gynecological ward of a zonal hospital. Results: Totally 907 patients were admitted with a diagnosis of abortion which accounted for 12.6% of all hospital and 60.6% of gynecological admissions. Majority (69.8%) had unwanted pregnancy. Interference was reported in 81.4% of unwanted pregnancy. More than 95% of patients with wanted and 74.9% of unwanted pregnancies reported to the hospital within 3days of vaginal bleeding (P<0.0001). High incidence of complication was reported on patients with unwanted pregnancy. There were three maternal deaths and all were related to unwanted pregnancy. The mean hospital stay was 1.42 days in wanted and 2.06 days in unwanted pregnancies. Forced sex and failure of contraception were among the reasons for unwanted pregnancy. Conclusion: Unwanted pregnancy is associated with increased risk of maternal morbidity and mortality. Besides, it poses a burden to the utilization of health services. The development and prompt implementation of a strategy, that enables to safely manage unwanted pregnancy in recommended.Nonearticle; Ethiopia; female; health service; hospital; human; incidence; induced abortion; marriage; maternal mortality; maternal welfare; mortality; parity; pregnancy; prospective study; psychological aspect; questionnaire; risk; socioeconomics; statistics; unwanted pregnancy; utilization review; Abortion, Induced; Ethiopia; Female; Hospitals; Humans; Incidence; Marital Status; Maternal Health Services; Maternal Mortality; Maternal Welfare; Parity; Pregnancy; Pregnancy, Unwanted; Prospective Studies; Questionnaires; Risk; Socioeconomic FactorsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84877022912Untapped potential of health impact assessment [Un potentiel inexploité de l'évaluation de l'impact sanitaire]Winkler M.S., Krieger G.R., Divall M.J., Cissé G., Wielga M., Singer B.H., Tannera M., Utzingera J.2013Bulletin of the World Health Organization91410.2471/BLT.12.112318Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland; New Fields, Denver, United States; SHAPE Consulting Ltd, Pretoria, South Africa; Temkin Wielga and Hardt LLP, Denver, United States; Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, United StatesWinkler, M.S., Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland; Krieger, G.R., New Fields, Denver, United States; Divall, M.J., SHAPE Consulting Ltd, Pretoria, South Africa; Cissé, G., Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland; Wielga, M., Temkin Wielga and Hardt LLP, Denver, United States; Singer, B.H., Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, United States; Tannera, M., Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland; Utzingera, J., Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, CH-4051 Basel, SwitzerlandThe World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to "green economy" and "institutional framework" strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century's sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure.Nonehealth impact; human development index; population growth; public health; sustainable development; urbanization; World Health Organization; article; climate change; economic aspect; environmental impact assessment; environmental protection; health care policy; health impact assessment; health program; human; human development; population growth; social aspect; sustainable development; United Nations; urbanization; world health organization; Conservation of Natural Resources; Decision Making; Developing Countries; Environment; Health Impact Assessment; Humans; Policy; Population Dynamics; World Health; World Health OrganizationNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84897406677University lecturers' views on student-lecturer evaluationsMakondo L., Ndebele C.2014Anthropologist172NoneUniversity of Venda, Centre for Higher Education Teaching and Learning, Thohoyandou, South AfricaMakondo, L., University of Venda, Centre for Higher Education Teaching and Learning, Thohoyandou, South Africa; Ndebele, C., University of Venda, Centre for Higher Education Teaching and Learning, Thohoyandou, South AfricaThis paper discusses university lecturers' views on student-lecturer evaluation of teaching and learning process. Specific reference is given to the university lecturers' views on the usefulness of the evaluation exercise, the evaluation process, items in the evaluation questionnaires and evaluation feedback reports at a formerly disadvantaged South African University. A total of 118 (53.8%) lecturers out of a staff establishment of 219 teaching staff volunteered their participation in this study. Participating lecturers in this descriptive survey design that used predominantly a quantitative approach, were given the opportunity to make their comments based on the results of the student-lecturer evaluation findings. Data were then analysed using content analysis and emerging themes were identified and discussed. The findings of the study show that insights from student-lecturer evaluations are an important source of information for university teaching staff and administration to consider in their quest to improve on the quality of university teaching and learning moves that can help improve on throughput rates. Based on the findings, we conclude that student-lecturer evaluations are beneficial and recommend that their contributions be taken with an open mind alongside other sources of data such as peer evaluations. © Kamla-Raj 2014.Effectiveness; Grading leniency; Quality; Rating; Student feedbackNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79960748565University lecturers' perceptions of students evaluation of their instructional practicesMachingambi S., Wadesango N.2011Anthropologist133NoneWalter Sisulu Universit, Centre for Learning and Teaching Development, South AfricaMachingambi, S., Walter Sisulu Universit, Centre for Learning and Teaching Development, South Africa; Wadesango, N., Walter Sisulu Universit, Centre for Learning and Teaching Development, South AfricaThis article examines lecturers' perceptions of student evaluations on their instructional practices. A total of sixty lecturers from an institution of higher learning in South Africa participated in the study. Data were collected through a researcher- constructed 20-item Likert-type questionnaire. Data were analysed using frequency tables and the discussion revolved around the three research questions that formed the pillar of the study. The study established that generally university lecturers had negative perceptions of students' evaluation of their instructional practices. The study specifically revealed that while lecturers were sometimes positive about the use of results of student evaluations for formative purposes, they were strongly opposed to the use of such information for summative purposes. The study, therefore, recommends that student evaluations of teaching must always be triangulated with other multidimensional evaluation methods so as to increase validity and reliability in the evaluation of teaching effectiveness in higher education. © Kamla-Raj 2011.Formative; Lecture; Summative; TeachingNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84960077215Unintended Pregnancies Observed with Combined Use of the Levonorgestrel Contraceptive Implant and Efavirenz-based Antiretroviral Therapy: A Three-Arm Pharmacokinetic Evaluation over 48 WeeksScarsi K.K., Darin K.M., Nakalema S., Back D.J., Byakika-Kibwika P., Else L.J., DIlly Penchala S., Buzibye A., Cohn S.E., Merry C., Lamorde M.2015Clinical Infectious Diseases62610.1093/cid/civ1001Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, United States; Center for Global Health, United States; Division of Infectious Diseases, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States; Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom; Department of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, IrelandScarsi, K.K., Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, United States; Darin, K.M., Center for Global Health, United States, Division of Infectious Diseases, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States; Nakalema, S., Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; Back, D.J., Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom; Byakika-Kibwika, P., Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; Else, L.J., Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom; DIlly Penchala, S., Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom; Buzibye, A., Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; Cohn, S.E., Division of Infectious Diseases, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States; Merry, C., Center for Global Health, United States, Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda, Department of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland; Lamorde, M., Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, UgandaBackground. Levonorgestrel subdermal implants are preferred contraceptives with an expected failure rate of <1% over 5 years. We assessed the effect of efavirenz- or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) coadministration on levonorgestrel pharmacokinetics. Methods. This nonrandomized, parallel group, pharmacokinetic evaluation was conducted in three groups of human immunodeficiency virus-infected Ugandan women: ART-naive (n = 17), efavirenz-based ART (n = 20), and nevirapine-based ART (n = 20). Levonorgestrel implants were inserted at baseline in all women. Blood was collected at 1, 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks. The primary endpoint was week 24 levonorgestrel concentrations, compared between the ART-naive group and each ART group by geometric mean ratio (GMR) with 90% confidence interval (CI). Secondary endpoints included week 48 levonorgestrel concentrations and unintended pregnancies. Results. Week 24 geometric mean levonorgestrel concentrations were 528, 280, and 710 pg/mL in the ART-naive, efavirenz, and nevirapine groups, respectively (efavirenz: ART-naive GMR, 0.53; 90% CI,. 50,. 55 and nevirapine: ART-naive GMR, 1.35; 90% CI, 1.29, 1.43). Week 48 levonorgestrel concentrations were 580, 247, and 664 pg/mL in the ART-naive, efavirenz, and nevirapine groups, respectively (efavirenz: ART-naive GMR, 0.43; 90% CI,. 42,. 44 and nevirapine: ART-naive GMR, 1.14; 90% CI, 1.14, 1.16). Three pregnancies (3/20, 15%) occurred in the efavirenz group between weeks 36 and 48. No pregnancies occurred in the ART-naive or nevirapine groups. Conclusions. Within 1 year of combined use, levonorgestrel exposure was markedly reduced in participants who received efavirenz-based ART, accompanied by contraceptive failures. In contrast, nevirapine-based ART did not adversely affect levonorgestrel exposure or efficacy. © 2015 The Author 2015.Contraceptive implant; Efavirenz; Levonorgestrel; Nevirapine; Unintended pregnancyNoneNone
WoSWOS:000315865700003Unintended Impacts and the Gendered Consequences of Peacekeeping Economies in LiberiaAning, Kwesi,Edu-Afful, Fiifi2013INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING20110.1080/13533312.2013.761828KAIPTCNoneDespite increased international attention to managing the potential impacts of peacekeeping on host countries, unintended consequences continue to emerge. This article focuses particularly on the alternative economies that peacekeeping operations generate and the differential economic impacts on individuals who come into contact with peacekeepers. Based on empirical evidence derived from fieldwork in Liberia, the article highlights the everyday lives of women whose livelihoods have been affected by the presence of peacekeeping missions. It also discusses how such economies adjust during the peacekeeping drawdown phase, and explores the dynamics that such economies have on specific segments of the Liberian population. The argument is that, while peacekeeping economies are critical in stimulating the local economy and providing livelihoods during and in the immediate aftermath of war, they have negative unintended impacts that need mitigation.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84858226639Unethical behaviour in Nigerian organizational settings: Its evolution, dimensions and impact on national developmentUgwu L.I.2011Asian Social Science72NoneDepartment of Psychology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, NigeriaUgwu, L.I., Department of Psychology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, NigeriaA disturbing but unavoidable fact of organizational life is that employees sometimes engage in ethically questionable activities that harm their companies, their co-workers, or the general public. Unethical behaviour in the workplace can take different dimensions ranging from lying, cheating, stealing, sabotage, corruption, to hiding or destruction of official documents. The paper traced the origin of employees' unethical behaviour to the undesirable activities of the colonialists and the corresponding employees' tacit resistance that manifested in the form of unethical behaviour. The employees' undesirable activities were designed to reduce the perceived input-outcome differentials that favoured the colonialists. The questionable ethical activities of the employees have the potential of slowing down the pace of economic development and tarnish the image of the organizations, with gross reduction in public confidence, which invariably deter investors. Consequently, the economic costs of such unethical behaviour in the workplace cannot easily be estimated, but it is likely that billions of Naira is lost annually. The paper contends that individual value system, organizational practices, and wider external environments are some influential factors of unethical behaviour, and therefore, recommends periodic workshops, seminars, and ethics training for employees so that they can internalize high ethical standards in their daily behaviour.Individual variables and organizational settings; Unethical behaviourNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-76349120879Underutilization of vaginal hysterectomy and its impact on residency trainingOcheke A.N., Ekwempu C.C., Musa J.2009West African Journal of Medicine285NoneDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, P MB 2076, Jos, Plateau State, NigeriaOcheke, A.N., Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, P MB 2076, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria; Ekwempu, C.C., Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, P MB 2076, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria; Musa, J., Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, P MB 2076, Jos, Plateau State, NigeriaBACKGROUND: The advantages of vaginal hysterectomy over abdominal hysterectomy include lower morbidity, shorter hospital stay, and reduced cost to the patient. It is, therefore, important to pass the required skill for vaginal hysterectomy unto trainees. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of vaginal hysterectomies done in a residency training institution in Nigeria and its possible impact on the proficiency of future gynaecologists in performing the procedure. METHODS : A chart review was done on all documented cases of hysterectomies for benign gynaecological conditions done in Jos University Teaching Hospital, over a four-year period (January 2002 to December 2005). Case files of patients who had hysterectomy during the study period were retrieved and the relevant information obtained for analysis of frequencies and percentages. RESULTS: A total of 94 hysterectomies for benign gynaecological conditions were done during the study period. Nine (∼10%) vaginal hysterectomies were done. All the vaginal hysterectomies performed were for uterovaginal prolapse by consultants. However, 45 (53%) of the abdominal hysterectomies were performed by consultants and 40 (47%) by residents. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that residents' exposure and training on the act of vaginal hysterectomy is inadequate. This has potential implications on future gynaecologist proficiency to perform this method of surgery that has documented advantages and better outcome for patients.Abdominal hysterectomy; Hysterectomy; Nigeria; Residency training; Vaginal hysterectomyabdominal hysterectomy; adult; article; benign tumor; bladder injury; female; fistula; human; intermethod comparison; medical record review; medical student; Nigeria; outcome assessment; patient information; professional competence; residency education; surgical approach; thrombophlebitis; ureter injury; urinary tract infection; uterus prolapse; vaginal hysterectomy; wound infection; Adult; Female; Gynecology; Hospitals, Teaching; Humans; Hysterectomy; Hysterectomy, Vaginal; Internship and Residency; Middle Aged; Nigeria; Physician's Practice Patterns; Retrospective StudiesNone
NoneNoneUnderstanding watershed dynamics and impacts of climate change and variability in the Pangani River Basin, TanzaniaLalika M.C.S., Meire P., Ngaga Y.M., Chang'a L.2015Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology15110.1016/j.ecohyd.2014.11.002Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Physical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3038, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania; Department of Forest Economics, Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3011, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania; Tanzania Meteorological Agency, P.O. Box 3056, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaLalika, M.C.S., Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, Antwerp, Belgium, Department of Physical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3038, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania; Meire, P., Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, Antwerp, Belgium; Ngaga, Y.M., Department of Forest Economics, Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3011, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania; Chang'a, L., Tanzania Meteorological Agency, P.O. Box 3056, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaWatersheds and rivers are vital ecological features for the provision of hydrological services for the health, welfare and prosperity of human communities. Nevertheless, anthropogenic activities coupled with climate change and climate variability are blamed for degrading watersheds and rivers and decreasing their capacity to irrigate. To address the situation, it is important to understand why and how water shortages are occurring. This paper reports findings of a study carried out to identify and assess drivers of water shortages and adaptation strategies to climate change and variability in Pangani River Basin of Tanzania. To assess the influence of climate change and variability on hydrological flow and water shortages, time series data on rainfall and temperature were compiled from the Tanzania Meteorological Agency. We also used structured questionnaires to collect data on villagers' perceptions about the drivers of water shortages and adaptation strategies. Results indicated a decreasing trend of water flow (p < 0.05) at Kikuletwa-Karangai gauging station along Pangani River Basin. Trend analysis indicated a slight decrease of rainfall and increase of temperature. Although there is no empirical evidence to associate climate change with the decline of rainfall and water flow, adaptation measures need to be put in place in order to mitigate against increasing climate variability, reduced water flow, and projected climate change. Therefore, watershed conservation strategies should also focus on improving the welfare of local communities. Additionally, involvement of stakeholders in the entire PRB is crucial toward watersheds conservation for steady flow of hydrological services. © 2014 European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology of Polish Academy of Sciences.Basin; Climate change; Ecosystem services; Pangani; River; Water; Watershed degradationclimate change; climate effect; climate variation; ecosystem service; environmental degradation; river basin; water flow; watershed; Pangani Basin; TanzaniaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84925378460Understanding the role of the OneLove campaign in facilitating drivers of social and behavioral change in Southern Africa: A qualitative evaluationJana M., Letsela L., Scheepers E., Weiner R.2015Journal of Health Communication20310.1080/10810730.2014.925014School of Social Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa; Research Unit, Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication, Johannesburg, South Africa; School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaJana, M., School of Social Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa; Letsela, L., Research Unit, Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication, Johannesburg, South Africa; Scheepers, E., Research Unit, Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication, Johannesburg, South Africa; Weiner, R., Research Unit, Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication, Johannesburg, South Africa, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaIn the wake of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, health communication has played an important role in social and behavior change in HIV prevention and treatment efforts. Despite this significant role, it is not always clear how health communication influences individuals and communities to facilitate social and behavior change. Guided predominantly by Lewin's theory of change in the context of complexity thinking, and supported by qualitative evidence from Soul City Institute's midterm evaluation of the OneLove multimedia campaign in 9 southern African countries, this article illustrates how carefully designed health edutainment communication materials facilitate drivers of social and behavior change. Thus, researched and theory-based health communication aimed at behavior and social change remains an important pillar in HIV prevention and treatment, where personal and social agency remain key. Copyright © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84872297388Understanding the Impact of Subsidizing Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies (ACTs) in the Retail Sector - Results from Focus Group Discussions in Rural KenyaKedenge S.V., Kangwana B.P., Waweru E.W., Nyandigisi A.J., Pandit J., Brooker S.J., Snow R.W., Goodman C.A.2013PLoS ONE8110.1371/journal.pone.0054371Malaria Public Health Group, Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya; Division of Malaria Control, Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Nairobi, Kenya; Pharmacy and Poisons Board, Nairobi, Kenya; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomKedenge, S.V., Malaria Public Health Group, Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya; Kangwana, B.P., Malaria Public Health Group, Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya; Waweru, E.W., Malaria Public Health Group, Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya; Nyandigisi, A.J., Division of Malaria Control, Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Nairobi, Kenya; Pandit, J., Pharmacy and Poisons Board, Nairobi, Kenya; Brooker, S.J., Malaria Public Health Group, Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Snow, R.W., Malaria Public Health Group, Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya, Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Goodman, C.A., Malaria Public Health Group, Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United KingdomBackground: There is considerable interest in the potential of private sector subsidies to increase availability and affordability of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for malaria treatment. A cluster randomized trial of such subsidies was conducted in 3 districts in Kenya, comprising provision of subsidized packs of paediatric ACT to retail outlets, training of retail staff, and community awareness activities. The results demonstrated a substantial increase in ACT availability and coverage, though patient counselling and adherence were suboptimal. We conducted a qualitative study in order to understand why these successes and limitations occurred. Methodology/Principal Findings: Eighteen focus group discussions were conducted, 9 with retailers and 9 with caregivers, to document experiences with the intervention. Respondents were positive about intervention components, praising the focused retailer training, affordable pricing, strong promotional activities, dispensing job aids, and consumer friendly packaging, which are likely to have contributed to the positive access and coverage outcomes observed. However, many retailers still did not stock ACT, due to insufficient supplies, lack of capital and staff turnover. Advice to caregivers was poor due to insufficient time, and poor recall of instructions. Adherence by caregivers to dosing guidelines was sub-optimal, because of a wish to save tablets for other episodes, doses being required at night, stopping treatment when the child felt better, and the number and bitter taste of the tablets. Caregivers used a number of strategies to obtain paediatric ACT for older age groups. Conclusions/Significance: This study has highlighted that important components of a successful ACT subsidy intervention are regular retailer training, affordable pricing, a reliable supply chain and community mobilization emphasizing patient adherence and when to seek further care. © 2013 Kedenge et al.Noneartemether; artemisin; benflumetol; tibamal; unclassified drug; article; awareness; bitter taste; caregiver; drug cost; drug indication; drug marketing; drug packaging; health care availability; health care facility; health education; health promotion; human; intervention study; Kenya; perception; pharmacy; qualitative research; rural area; Antimalarials; Artemisinins; Female; Focus Groups; Humans; Kenya; MaleNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84928714381Understanding the impact of hazardous and harmful use of alcohol and/or other drugs on ARV adherence and disease progressionKader R., Govender R., Seedat S., Koch J.R., Parry C.2015PLoS ONE10510.1371/journal.pone.0125088Alcohol Tobacco and Other Drug Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; Centre for Social Science Research, Department of Sociology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Psychiatry, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Institute for Drug and Alcohol Studies, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United StatesKader, R., Alcohol Tobacco and Other Drug Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; Govender, R., Centre for Social Science Research, Department of Sociology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Seedat, S., Department of Psychiatry, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Koch, J.R., Institute for Drug and Alcohol Studies, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States; Parry, C., Alcohol Tobacco and Other Drug Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa, Department of Psychiatry, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South AfricaThe objective of this study was to understand the impact of hazardous and harmful use of alcohol and/or other drugs on ARV adherence and disease progression among HIV patients. A cross-sectional study design was used. A total of 1503 patients attending HIV clinics in Cape Town, South Africa were screened for problematic substance use. A sub-sample of 607 patients (303 patients who screened positive for problematic substance use and 304 who did not) participated in this study. Hazardous or harmful alcohol use and problematic drug use predicted missing and stopping ARVs which, in turn, was associated with a decrease in CD4 counts and more rapid HIV-disease progression and poorer health outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The findings of this study underscore the need for an integrated approach to managing substance-use disorders in PLWHA. © 2015 Kader et al.Noneantiretrovirus agent; acquired immune deficiency syndrome; adult; alcohol abuse; Article; CD4 lymphocyte count; controlled study; cross-sectional study; disease course; drug abuse; drug treatment failure; female; human; human cell; Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; major clinical study; male; patient attitude; patient compliance; prediction; South Africa; substance abuse; treatment response5U2GPS001137, CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Scopus2-s2.0-30644458223Understanding the impact of eliminating user fees: Utilization and catastrophic health expenditures in UgandaXu K., Evans D.B., Kadama P., Nabyonga J., Ogwal P.O., Nabukhonzo P., Aguilar A.M.2006Social Science and Medicine62410.1016/j.socscimed.2005.07.004World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; WHO Office, Uganda; Ministry of Health, Uganda; Uganda Bureau of Statistics, UgandaXu, K., World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Evans, D.B., World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Kadama, P., World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Nabyonga, J., WHO Office, Uganda; Ogwal, P.O., Ministry of Health, Uganda; Nabukhonzo, P., Uganda Bureau of Statistics, Uganda; Aguilar, A.M., World Health Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandThere is currently considerable discussion between governments, international agencies, bilateral donors and advocacy groups on whether user fees levied at government health facilities in poor countries should be abolished. It is claimed that this would lead to greater access for the poor and reduce the risks of catastrophic health expenditures if all other factors remained constant, though other factors rarely remain constant in practice. Accordingly, it is important to understand what has actually happened when user fees have been abolished, and why. All fees at first level government health facilities in Uganda were removed in March 2001. This study explores the impact on health service utilization and catastrophic health expenditures using data from National Household Surveys undertaken in 1997, 2000 and 2003. Utilization increased for the non-poor, but at a lower rate than it had in the period immediately before fees were abolished. Utilization among the poor increased much more rapidly after the abolition of fees than beforehand. Unexpectedly, the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure among the poor did not fall. The most likely explanation is that frequent unavailability of drugs at government facilities after 2001 forced patients to purchase from private pharmacies. Informal payments to health workers may also have increased to offset the lost revenue from fees. Countries thinking of removing user charges should first examine what types of activities and inputs at the facility level are funded from the revenue collected by fees, and then develop mechanisms to ensure that these activities can be sustained subsequently. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Catastrophic expenditure; Service utilization; Uganda; User chargeshealth and disease; article; clinical pharmacy; health care cost; health care facility; health care personnel; health care utilization; incidence; mathematical analysis; risk reduction; Uganda; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Catastrophic Illness; Child; Child, Preschool; Community Health Centers; Developing Countries; Fees and Charges; Female; Health Care Surveys; Health Expenditures; Health Policy; Health Services Research; Hospitals, Public; Humans; Incidence; Logistic Models; Male; Middle Aged; Patient Acceptance of Health Care; Poverty; UgandaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34948840889Understanding the impact of a microfinance-based intervention on women's empowerment and the reduction of intimate partner violence in South AfricaKim J.C., Watts C.H., Hargreaves J.R., Ndhlovu L.X., Phetla G., Morison L.A., Busza J., Porter J.D.H., Pronyk P.2007American Journal of Public Health971010.2105/AJPH.2006.095521Rural AIDS and Development Action Research Programme, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Acornhoek, South Africa; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; RADAR, PO Box 2, Acornhoek, 1360, South AfricaKim, J.C., Rural AIDS and Development Action Research Programme, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Acornhoek, South Africa, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, RADAR, PO Box 2, Acornhoek, 1360, South Africa; Watts, C.H., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Hargreaves, J.R., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Ndhlovu, L.X., Rural AIDS and Development Action Research Programme, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Acornhoek, South Africa; Phetla, G., Rural AIDS and Development Action Research Programme, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Acornhoek, South Africa; Morison, L.A., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Busza, J., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Porter, J.D.H., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Pronyk, P., Rural AIDS and Development Action Research Programme, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Acornhoek, South Africa, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United KingdomObjectives. We sought to obtain evidence about the scope of women's empowerment and the mechanisms underlying the significant reduction in intimate partner violence documented by the Intervention With Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE) cluster-randomized trial in rural South Africa. Methods. The IMAGE intervention combined a microfinance program with participatory training on understanding HIV infection, gender norms, domestic violence, and sexuality. Outcome measures included past year's experience of intimate partner violence and 9 indicators of women's empowerment. Qualitative data about changes occurring within intimate relationships, loan groups, and the community were also collected. Results. After 2 years, the risk of past-year physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner was reduced by more than half (adjusted risk ratio=0.45; 95% confidence interval=0.23, 0.91). Improvements in all 9 indicators of empowerment were observed. Reductions in violence resulted from a range of responses enabling women to challenge the acceptability of violence, expect and receive better treatment from partners, leave abusive relationships, and raise public awareness about intimate partner violence. Conclusions. Our findings, both qualitative and quantitative, indicate that economic and social empowerment of women can contribute to reductions in intimate partner violence.Noneacquired immune deficiency syndrome; article; controlled study; empowerment; female; financial management; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; partner violence; rural area; sexual abuse; sexuality; South Africa; wellbeing; women's health; adolescent; adult; aged; clinical trial; controlled clinical trial; domestic violence; economics; male; middle aged; organization; organization and management; psychological aspect; randomized controlled trial; rural population; women's rights; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Domestic Violence; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Organizational Objectives; Rural Population; South Africa; Women's RightsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84861540352Understanding student performance in a large classSnowball J.D., Boughey C.2012Innovations in Education and Teaching International49210.1080/14703297.2012.677658Department of Economics and Economic History, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa; Centre for Higher Education Research, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South AfricaSnowball, J.D., Department of Economics and Economic History, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa; Boughey, C., Centre for Higher Education Research, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South AfricaAcross the world, university teachers are increasingly being required to engage with diversity in the classes they teach. Using the data from a large Economics 1 class at a South African university, this attempts to understand the effects of diversity on chances of success and how assessment can impact on this. By demonstrating how theory can be used to understand results, the paper aims to encourage university teachers to adopt proactive strategies in managing diversity, rather than simply explaining it using student characteristics. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.assessment; Economics teaching; student diversityNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84928615589Understanding sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents: Evidence from a formative evaluation in Wakiso district, Uganda Adolescent HealthAtuyambe L.M., Kibira S.P.S., Bukenya J., Muhumuza C., Apolot R.R., Mulogo E.2015Reproductive Health12110.1186/s12978-015-0026-7Department of Community Health and Behavioural Sciences, Makerere University School of Public Health, P.O.Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda; Department of Community Health, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Kampala, UgandaAtuyambe, L.M., Department of Community Health and Behavioural Sciences, Makerere University School of Public Health, P.O.Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda; Kibira, S.P.S., Department of Community Health and Behavioural Sciences, Makerere University School of Public Health, P.O.Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda; Bukenya, J., Department of Community Health and Behavioural Sciences, Makerere University School of Public Health, P.O.Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda; Muhumuza, C., Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda; Apolot, R.R., Department of Community Health and Behavioural Sciences, Makerere University School of Public Health, P.O.Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda; Mulogo, E., Department of Community Health, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Kampala, UgandaIntroduction: Adolescents are frequently reluctant to seek sexual and reproductive health services (SRH). In Uganda, adolescent health and development is constrained by translation of the relevant policies to practice. Recent studies done in central Uganda have shown that there is need for a critical assessment of adolescent friendly services (AFS) to gain insights on current practice and inform future interventions. This study aimed to assess the sexual reproductive health needs of the adolescents and explored their attitudes towards current services available. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in Wakiso district, central Uganda in September 2013.Twenty focus group discussions (FGDs) stratified by gender (10 out-of-school, and 10 in-school), were purposefully sampled. We used trained research assistants (moderator and note taker) who used a pretested FGD guide translated into the local language to collect data. All discussions were audio taped, and were transcribed verbatim before analysis. Thematic areas on; adolescent health problems, adolescent SRH needs, health seeking behaviour and attitudes towards services, and preferred services were explored. Data was analysed using atlas ti version 7 software. Results: Our results clearly show that adolescents have real SRH issues that need to be addressed. In and out-of-school adolescents had sexuality problems such as unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), defilement, rape, substance abuse. Unique to the females was the issue of sexual advances by older men and adolescents. We further highlight RH needs which would be solved by establishing adolescent friendly clinics with standard recommended characteristics (sexuality information, friendly health providers, a range of good clinical services such as post abortion care etc.). With regard to health seeking behaviour, most adolescents do not take any action at first until disease severity increase. Conclusions: Adolescents in Uganda have multiple sexual and reproductive health needs that require special focus through adolescent friendly services. This calls for resource support in terms of health provider training, information education and communication materials as well as involvement of key stakeholders that include parents, teachers and legislators. © 2015 Atuyambe et al.; licensee BioMed Central.Adolescent; Needs; Reproductive health; Sexual; Ugandaabortion; adolescent; adolescent behavior; adolescent health; adolescent sexual behavior; adult; Article; child; circumcision; condom use; disease severity; female; health care need; health education; help seeking behavior; human; major clinical study; male; qualitative research; rape; reproductive health; sexual education; sexual health; sexuality; sexually transmitted disease; substance abuse; Uganda; unwanted pregnancyNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84866464944Understanding Long-Term Variations in an Elephant Piosphere Effect to Manage ImpactsLandman M., Schoeman D.S., Hall-Martin A.J., Kerley G.I.H.2012PLoS ONE7910.1371/journal.pone.0045334Centre for African Conservation Ecology, Department of Zoology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, DC, QLD, Australia; Hall-Martin Consulting CC, Somerset West, South AfricaLandman, M., Centre for African Conservation Ecology, Department of Zoology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; Schoeman, D.S., Centre for African Conservation Ecology, Department of Zoology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, DC, QLD, Australia; Hall-Martin, A.J., Hall-Martin Consulting CC, Somerset West, South Africa; Kerley, G.I.H., Centre for African Conservation Ecology, Department of Zoology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South AfricaSurface water availability is a key driver of elephant impacts on biological diversity. Thus, understanding the spatio-temporal variations of these impacts in relation to water is critical to their management. However, elephant piosphere effects (i.e. the radial pattern of attenuating impact) are poorly described, with few long-term quantitative studies. Our understanding is further confounded by the complexity of systems with elephant (i.e. fenced, multiple water points, seasonal water availability, varying population densities) that likely limit the use of conceptual models to predict these impacts. Using 31 years of data on shrub structure in the succulent thickets of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, we tested elephant effects at a single water point. Shrub structure showed a clear sigmoid response with distance from water, declining at both the upper and lower limits of sampling. Adjacent to water, this decline caused a roughly 300-m radial expansion of the grass-dominated habitats that replace shrub communities. Despite the clear relationship between shrub structure and ecological functioning in thicket, the extent of elephant effects varied between these features with distance from water. Moreover, these patterns co-varied with other confounding variables (e.g. the location of neighboring water points), which limits our ability to predict such effects in the absence of long-term data. We predict that elephant have the ability to cause severe transformation in succulent thicket habitats with abundant water supply and elevated elephant numbers. However, these piosphere effects are complex, suggesting that a more integrated understanding of elephant impacts on ecological heterogeneity may be required before water availability is used as a tool to manage impacts. We caution against the establishment of water points in novel succulent thicket habitats, and advocate a significant reduction in water provisioning at our study site, albeit with greater impacts at each water point. © 2012 Landman et al.Nonearticle; biodiversity; confounding variable; elephant; grass; habitat; nonhuman; population density; prediction; quantitative study; scrub; sea surface waters; vegetation; water availability; water management; water supply; Animals; Biodiversity; Drinking Water; Ecosystem; Elephants; Population Density; Water SupplyNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84945484673Understanding inter-community performance assessments in community-based resource management at Avu Lagoon, GhanaAgyare A.K., Murray G., Dearden P., Rollins R.2015Environment, Development and Sustainability17610.1007/s10668-014-9617-7Wildlife Division of Forestry Commission, Accra, Ghana; Vancouver Island University, Nanaimo, BC, Canada; University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, CanadaAgyare, A.K., Wildlife Division of Forestry Commission, Accra, Ghana; Murray, G., Vancouver Island University, Nanaimo, BC, Canada; Dearden, P., University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada; Rollins, R., Vancouver Island University, Nanaimo, BC, CanadaCommunity-based natural resources governance (CBNRG) is becoming increasingly important as a means to achieve both conservation and sustainable livelihood goals. Assessing the performance of such approaches is an important step in improving their performance and facilitating their expansion. However, CBNRG initiatives are often not restricted to one community, and significant differences may exist among communities that can be obscured using performance assessments that do not attend to those differences. This paper first assesses the performance of the Avu Lagoon Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) in Ghana through a survey of 232 households and an 18 participant workshop that compares desired outcomes with those outcomes that were perceived to have been achieved (i.e. performance). This paper next examines the differences among four communities within the Avu Lagoon CREMA and provides some insight as to why these differences occur. Results indicate that overall, achieved outcomes fall short of desired outcomes. This is particularly the case for socio-economic outcomes and less so for conservation outcomes. We also find that communities are more homogenous in their desired outcomes than they are in their assessment of performance outcomes. There are important differences among the four communities in terms of the importance attached to outcomes and the achievement of those outcomes. Influential variables include how and who introduced the CBNRG concept to the local communities, existing socio-economic and cultural context, the development status and challenges of the community, effective leadership, and institutional capabilities. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.Avu Lagoon CREMA; CBNRG; Community; Conservation; Livelihoods; Protected areas; Variabilitycommunity dynamics; household survey; institutional development; leadership; performance assessment; protected area; resource management; socioeconomic impact; sustainability; GhanaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84943182494Understanding Heterogeneity in the Impact of National Neglected Tropical Disease Control Programmes: Evidence from School-Based Deworming in KenyaNikolay B., Mwandawiro C.S., Kihara J.H., Okoyo C., Cano J., Mwanje M.T., Sultani H., Alusala D., Turner H.C., Teti C., Garn J., Freeman M.C., Allen E., Anderson R.M., Pullan R.L., Njenga S.M., Brooker S.J.2015PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases9910.1371/journal.pntd.0004108London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Eastern and Southern Africa Centre of International Parasite Control Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Neglected Tropical Diseases Unit, Division of Communicable Disease Prevention and Control, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research, London, United Kingdom; Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, St Marys Campus, London, United Kingdom; Evidence Action, Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States; Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United KingdomNikolay, B., London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Mwandawiro, C.S., Eastern and Southern Africa Centre of International Parasite Control Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Kihara, J.H., Eastern and Southern Africa Centre of International Parasite Control Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Okoyo, C., Eastern and Southern Africa Centre of International Parasite Control Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Cano, J., London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Mwanje, M.T., Neglected Tropical Diseases Unit, Division of Communicable Disease Prevention and Control, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; Sultani, H., Neglected Tropical Diseases Unit, Division of Communicable Disease Prevention and Control, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; Alusala, D., Neglected Tropical Diseases Unit, Division of Communicable Disease Prevention and Control, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; Turner, H.C., London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research, London, United Kingdom, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, St Marys Campus, London, United Kingdom; Teti, C., Evidence Action, Nairobi, Kenya; Garn, J., Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States; Freeman, M.C., Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States; Allen, E., Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Anderson, R.M., London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research, London, United Kingdom, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, St Marys Campus, London, United Kingdom; Pullan, R.L., London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Njenga, S.M., Eastern and Southern Africa Centre of International Parasite Control Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Brooker, S.J., London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United KingdomBackground: The implementation of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) treatment programmes occurs in varied environmental, social and economic contexts. Programme impact will be influenced by factors that affect the reduction in the prevalence and intensity of infections following treatment, as well as the subsequent rate of reinfection. To better understand the heterogeneity of programme impact and its underlying reasons, we investigated the influence of contextual factors on reduction in STH infection as part of the national school based deworming (SBD) programme in Kenya. Materials and Methods: Data on the prevalence and intensity of infection were collected within the monitoring and evaluation component of the SBD programme at baseline and after delivery of two annual treatment rounds in 153 schools in western Kenya. Using a framework that considers STH epidemiology and transmission dynamics, capacity to deliver treatment, operational feasibility and financial capacity, data were assembled at both school and district (county) levels. Geographic heterogeneity of programme impact was assessed by descriptive and spatial analyses. Factors associated with absolute reductions of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infection prevalence and intensity were identified using mixed effects linear regression modelling adjusting for baseline infection levels. Principal Findings: The reduction in prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides and hookworms varied significantly by county and within counties by school. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with programme impact showed that absolute A. lumbricoides reductions varied by environmental conditions and access to improved sanitation at schools or within the community. Larger reduction in prevalence and intensity of hookworms were found in schools located within areas with higher community level access to improved sanitation and within counties with higher economic and health service delivery indicator scores. Conclusions: The study identifies factors associated with the impact of school-based deworming and in particular highlights how access to water, sanitation and hygiene and environmental conditions influence the impact of deworming programmes. © 2015 Nikolay et al.Noneanthelmintic agent; Article; Ascaris lumbricoides; deworming program; disease severity; environmental factor; financial management; health care delivery; health program; helminthiasis; hookworm infection; human; hygiene; Kenya; sanitation; socioeconomics; soil; water supplyNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84961119304Understanding global change impacts on South African biomes using Dynamic Vegetation ModelsMoncrieff G.R., Scheiter S., Slingsby J.A., Higgins S.I.2015South African Journal of Botany101None10.1016/j.sajb.2015.02.004Fynbos Node, South African Environmental Observation Network (SAEON), Centre for Biodiversity Conservation, Kirstenbosch Gardens, Private Bag X7, Rhodes Drive, Claremont, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberg Research Institute, Natural History Museum, Senckenberganlage 25, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Centre for Statistics in Ecology, Environment and Conservation, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, South Africa; Department of Botany, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, New ZealandMoncrieff, G.R., Fynbos Node, South African Environmental Observation Network (SAEON), Centre for Biodiversity Conservation, Kirstenbosch Gardens, Private Bag X7, Rhodes Drive, Claremont, Cape Town, South Africa, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Scheiter, S., Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberg Research Institute, Natural History Museum, Senckenberganlage 25, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Slingsby, J.A., Fynbos Node, South African Environmental Observation Network (SAEON), Centre for Biodiversity Conservation, Kirstenbosch Gardens, Private Bag X7, Rhodes Drive, Claremont, Cape Town, South Africa, Centre for Statistics in Ecology, Environment and Conservation, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, South Africa; Higgins, S.I., Department of Botany, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, New ZealandThe distribution of South African biomes is expected to be drastically altered as a result of climatic change and increasing atmospheric CO2 in the 21st century. Developing the capacity to anticipate change is of critical importance if we are to mitigate and efficiently adapt to the reorganization of South African vegetation cover. Dynamic Vegetation Models (DVMs) simulate the distribution and functioning of plant functional types (PFTs) and their interactions. Outputs include biome distribution maps, assessments of carbon cycling and the quantification of plant productivity, all of which can be produced for past, present and future conditions. DVMs were originally conceived of as analogs to general circulation models (GCMs) and applied globally, but to be unbiased globally necessitates choosing parameters and representing processes that may not be regionally appropriate. Models populated with a modified suite of PFTs and parameterized appropriately for local conditions are better suited to studies concerned with vegetation dynamics and global change impacts at the country or continent-scale. In their current form DGVMs do not include the plant types and key processes of many South African biomes. Therefore, while projections of global change impacts are available for biomes dominated by forest trees, savanna trees and grasses, little can be learned about some of our most biodiverse and threatened biomes, particularly the Fynbos and Thicket biomes, and the Succulent Karoo. We outline the limitations of existing DVMs and improvements required before reliable projections of global change impacts on South African biomes can be produced. Reparameterization of some PFTs and fire models could easily be achieved, and would lead to large improvements in model simulations. However, there remain numerous processes and facets of the ecology of South African vegetation that will limit the applicability of DVMs in their current form. © 2015 South African Association of Botanists.Biome; CO2; Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM); Dynamic Vegetation Model (DVM); Fynbos; Global change; Plant functional type (PFT)NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-50449084792Understanding diversity in impact and responses among HIV/AIDS-affected households: The case of Msinga, South AfricaSwaans K., Broerse J., Van Diepen I., Salomon M., Gibson D., Bunders J.2008African Journal of AIDS Research7210.2989/AJAR.2008.7.2.2.519Athena Institute for Research on Innovation and Communication in Health and Life Sciences, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands; Medical Anthropology and Sociology Unit, University of Amsterdam, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, Netherlands; Farmer Support Group, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 1 Golf Road, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaSwaans, K., Athena Institute for Research on Innovation and Communication in Health and Life Sciences, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands; Broerse, J., Athena Institute for Research on Innovation and Communication in Health and Life Sciences, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands; Van Diepen, I., Athena Institute for Research on Innovation and Communication in Health and Life Sciences, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands, Medical Anthropology and Sociology Unit, University of Amsterdam, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, Netherlands; Salomon, M., Farmer Support Group, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 1 Golf Road, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Gibson, D., Medical Anthropology and Sociology Unit, University of Amsterdam, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, Netherlands; Bunders, J., Athena Institute for Research on Innovation and Communication in Health and Life Sciences, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, NetherlandsTo gain a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of HIV and AIDS on rural households in Msinga, South Africa, the sustainable livelihoods framework was adapted. An ethnographic perspective was employed to examine: 1) the impact of HIV/AIDS-related illnesses on people's mind and spirit (the internal environment), and 2) the influence of institutional structures and processes (the external environment), in order to better understand 3) the actions taken by individuals and households in response to HIV and AIDS. Members of three support groups at a local drop-in centre were consulted about the impact of HIV and AIDS on their lives through focus groups, a questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The study shows that the psychosocial impact and associated coping strategies, as well as prevailing gender-based power relations and exclusion from social-exchange networks - which are not (readily) available factors in the sustainable livelihoods framework - affect people's lives in different ways and depend on the specific situation of the individual or household concerned. The study confirms the need to restore a household's resource base and to address psychosocial issues. However, the variation in impact to different households requires a diversified and holistic programme of development interventions. Copyright © NISC Pty Ltd.Accessibility; Coping; Mitigation strategies; Psychosocial aspects; Resource-poor settings; Sustainable livelihoods frameworkacquired immune deficiency syndrome; adolescent; adult; article; coping behavior; ethnographic research; female; holistic care; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence; interview; major clinical study; male; questionnaire; rural area; sex ratio; social aspect; social psychology; South Africa; support group; sustainable developmentNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84892502314Under-graduate academic programme self-evaluation contained in higher education context: A defense from South Africa UniversitySelesho J.M.2013Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences41410.5901/mjss.2013.v4n14p45Vaal University Technology, Vanderbijlpark, South AfricaSelesho, J.M., Vaal University Technology, Vanderbijlpark, South AfricaRecently institutional self-evaluation has become an important management tool implemeted by universities in improving the quality of academic programmes. Compared to earlier decades, not only employers are demanding quality from universities but the goverment is also putting pressure for accountability and improvement. This study is monitoring the use of selfevaluation as a management tool to improve the quality of teaching and learning at undegraduate level. The study did use the documental analyses as data gathering instrument from the two schools selected in a university. The findings revealed that the two case study schools have a mixed quality management porcess with regard to Teaching and Learning approach. The findings did provide the study with an alignment of teaching and learning together with assessment. The study did reveal that quality assessment can only be achieved once quality teaching and learning has taken place. There were a number of lesson learnt in the study for instances linking of teaching, learning and assessment was an eye opener since this takes the quality of teaching and its efficiency and its effectiveness.Assessment; Institutional self-evaluation; Teaching and learning; UndergraduateNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84859588001'Unconditional aid': Assessing the impact of China's development assistance to ZimbabweHodzi O., Hartwell L., de Jager N.2012South African Journal of International Affairs19110.1080/10220461.2012.670435University of Osnabrueck, Germany; Department of Political Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Political Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, South AfricaHodzi, O., University of Osnabrueck, Germany; Hartwell, L., Department of Political Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa; de Jager, N., Department of Political Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, South AfricaChina's development assistance to Africa has attracted varied criticisms from academics, Western governments and international donor organisations. The main criticisms have been directed at the lack of good governance conditions on its development assistance to African governments and its dealings with countries under sanction or isolation from the international community, owing to poor governance, human rights abuses and/or corruption. Using the case of Zimbabwe in the current period, the impact of China's development assistance on its prospects for sustainable development is assessed. Since 2000 Zimbabwe has experienced a crisis of governance leading to socio-economic and political decline. This crisis has arguably been exacerbated by China's varied assistance to the Robert Mugabe regime, as well as China's protection of the regime in the United Nations Security Council. It is argued that without encouraging good governance, and managing this relationship for the benefit of Zimbabwe, Harare will not see the gains from development assistance that will lead to the sustainable development of Zimbabwe as a whole. © 2012 The South African Institute of International Affairs.Aid; China; Development; Governance; MDC-T; Transition; ZANU-PF; ZimbabweNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84876872489Uncertainty Surrounding Projections of the Long-Term Impact of Ivermectin Treatment on Human OnchocerciasisTurner H.C., Churcher T.S., Walker M., Osei-Atweneboana M.Y., Prichard R.K., Basáñez M.-G.2013PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases7410.1371/journal.pntd.0002169Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, United Kingdom; Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Water Research Institute, Department of Environmental Biology and Health, Accra, Ghana; Institute of Parasitology, Centre for Host-Parasite Interactions, McGill University, Sainte Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, CanadaTurner, H.C., Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, United Kingdom; Churcher, T.S., Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, United Kingdom; Walker, M., Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, United Kingdom; Osei-Atweneboana, M.Y., Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Water Research Institute, Department of Environmental Biology and Health, Accra, Ghana; Prichard, R.K., Institute of Parasitology, Centre for Host-Parasite Interactions, McGill University, Sainte Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada; Basáñez, M.-G., Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, United KingdomBackground: Recent studies in Mali, Nigeria, and Senegal have indicated that annual (or biannual) ivermectin distribution may lead to local elimination of human onchocerciasis in certain African foci. Modelling-based projections have been used to estimate the required duration of ivermectin distribution to reach elimination. A crucial assumption has been that microfilarial production by Onchocerca volvulus is reduced irreversibly by 30-35% with each (annual) ivermectin round. However, other modelling-based analyses suggest that ivermectin may not have such a cumulative effect. Uncertainty in this (biological) and other (programmatic) assumptions would affect projected outcomes of long-term ivermectin treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings: We modify a deterministic age- and sex-structured onchocerciasis transmission model, parameterised for savannah O. volvulus-Simulium damnosum, to explore the impact of assumptions regarding the effect of ivermectin on worm fertility and the patterns of treatment coverage compliance, and frequency on projections of parasitological outcomes due to long-term, mass ivermectin administration in hyperendemic areas. The projected impact of ivermectin distribution on onchocerciasis and the benefits of switching from annual to biannual distribution are strongly dependent on assumptions regarding the drug's effect on worm fertility and on treatment compliance. If ivermectin does not have a cumulative impact on microfilarial production, elimination of onchocerciasis in hyperendemic areas may not be feasible with annual ivermectin distribution. Conclusions/Significance: There is substantial (biological and programmatic) uncertainty surrounding modelling projections of onchocerciasis elimination. These uncertainties need to be acknowledged for mathematical models to inform control policy reliably. Further research is needed to elucidate the effect of ivermectin on O. volvulus reproductive biology and quantify the patterns of coverage and compliance in treated communities. © 2013 Turner et al.Noneivermectin; article; disease elimination; drug efficacy; female; fertility; health care need; human; mass immunization; mathematical model; nonhuman; Onchocerca volvulus; onchocerciasis; parasite clearance; parasite load; parasite transmission; patient attitude; Simulium damnosum; treatment outcome; Antiparasitic Agents; Female; Humans; Ivermectin; Male; Models, Theoretical; Onchocerciasis; Treatment OutcomeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84907281063Unannounced quizzes: A teaching and learning initiative that enhances academic performance and lecture attendance in large undergraduate classesDerera E., Naude M.2014Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences52010.5901/mjss.2014.v5n20p1193School of Management, IT and Governance, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaDerera, E., School of Management, IT and Governance, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Naude, M., School of Management, IT and Governance, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaWithout a doubt, lecture non-attendance is a growing trend at tertiary institutions. Many academics confront this challenge by implementing different teaching initiatives that encourage lecture attendance. However, lecture attendance does not necessarily mean that learning is taking place. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish whether the use of unannounced quizzes improves class attendance, the module pass rate and academic performance in a large undergraduate class at a university in South Africa. This is an exploratory study which adopted a mixed method research approach to collect data over a period of two semesters during the 2012 academic year. The three data sources used include observations, a questionnaire survey and the university student data base. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used to analyse data. The findings reveal that the use of unannounced quizzes has merit; significant positive effects were seen in all three areas-class attendance, module pass rate and students’ academic performance. The study contributes to the field of teaching and learning in three ways, by: (1) exploring a teaching and learning initiative that encourages class attendance; (2) responding to a call for new thinking about how universities could increase their throughput ratio; and (3) possibly reviving future debate about how to effectively impact knowledge creation in a large class situation. © MCSER-Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research.Higher education practices; Large classes; Teaching and learning; Unannounced quizzesNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77951615444Umgidi at the Mabambas': Gender, practice and performance among farm workers in the Sundays River ValleyConnor T.2010Journal of Southern African Studies36110.1080/03057071003607345Department of Development Studies, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Campus, Summerstrand, Port Elizabeth, South AfricaConnor, T., Department of Development Studies, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Campus, Summerstrand, Port Elizabeth, South AfricaThis article describes and analyses an umgidi, a celebratory feast that usually accompanies the final 'coming out' phase of circumcision, among farm workers in the Sundays River Valley, Eastern Cape. Anthropological monographs describing circumcision rituals among Xhosa-speakers appear not to discuss such a feast at all, despite this event being familiar to most rural and urban Xhosa-speakers, particularly in the western half of the Eastern Cape. In the absence of comparative information, this article introduces an umgidi feast as a multivocal event that comments on the spatial, performative and practice-oriented elements of life among workers in the Sundays River Valley. I show that farm workers have a definite sense of identity and place connected to the occupation of land as labour tenants and later as labourers. Their conservative rural values are closely associated with the memories of previous land occupation, but are also combined with experiences of displacement, so that memories of lost land directly inform the creation of current identities. An umgidi feast allows the unification of fragmented groups of kin and clan, and provides an opportunity for workers to articulate the pressures of modern farm employment. The prominence of female workers at umgidi feasts also heightens the use of domestic space as an idiom for commentary on experiences of disruption and labour domination. Broadly, the article contributes to an understanding of ritual among displaced communities in southern Africa, particularly labour tenants and farm workers on white farms. © 2010 The Editorial Board of the Journal of Southern African Studies.Noneagricultural worker; cultural identity; cultural tradition; gender; kinship; memory; Eastern Cape; South Africa; Sundays ValleyNone
Scopus2-s2.0-15844375196Ultraviolet protective performance of photoprotective lipsticks: Change of spectral transmittance because of ultraviolet exposureMaier H., Schauberger G., Martincigh B.S., Brunnhofer K., Hönigsmann H.2005Photodermatology Photoimmunology and Photomedicine21210.1111/j.1600-0781.2005.00143.xDiv. of Special/Environ. Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria; Inst. of Med. Physics/Biostatistics, Univ. of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria; School of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban, South Africa; Austrian Consumers' Association, Vienna, AustriaMaier, H., Div. of Special/Environ. Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria; Schauberger, G., Inst. of Med. Physics/Biostatistics, Univ. of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Martincigh, B.S., School of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban, South Africa; Brunnhofer, K., Austrian Consumers' Association, Vienna, Austria; Hönigsmann, H., Div. of Special/Environ. Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, AustriaBackground: Photoinstability of sunscreens because of ultraviolet (UV) exposure is a well-known and common phenomenon. Recently, it was also shown that sunscreens with complex filter combinations are photo-inactivated by UV exposures, which can easily be acquired by solar exposure over several hours. Objectives: To assess the change of the spectral transmission after UV exposure (UV-challenged protective performance) of 27 commercially available photoprotective lipsticks. Methods: Quartz slides were covered with a lipstick layer (area density 1.0 ± 0.1 mg/cm2 ) and irradiated with increasing doses of solar-simulated radiation. The spectral transmission (T) was measured spectrophotometrically before and after 5, 12.5, 25, and 50 standard erythema doses (SED) of exposure. We calculated the change in transmission (photoinstability) as the difference between the spectral transmission before and after a defined UV exposure, ΔT, and the arithmetic mean, for both the UVA (ΔTA) and UVB (ΔTB) ranges. A product was labelled as photounstable if the mean photoinstability in the UVA, ΔTA, or UVB range, ΔTB, was higher than 5% for an UV exposure of 12.5 SED. Results: Eleven products showed a significant photoinstability in the UVA range (ΔTA between 6% and 27%), only one product in the UVB range (ΔTB = 13%), and one product in both the UVA (ΔTA = 31%) and UVB (ΔTB = 9%) range. In one product photoinstability became significant in the UVA range at higher UV exposures. Conclusions: Out of 27 lipsticks only 13 products showed a photostable performance (ΔTA&lt;5% and ΔTB&lt;5% for 12.5 SED). We propose therefore that only products, which fulfil these UV photostability criteria should be marketed. Copyright © Blackwell Munksgaard 2005.Lipstick; Photoinactivation; Photoprotection; Photostability; Solar-simulated radiation; Sunscreen; Ultraviolet radiation; UV; UVA; UVBcosmetic; sunscreen; article; controlled study; erythema; in vitro study; mathematical computing; priority journal; radiation exposure; radiation protection; spectrophotometry; ultraviolet A radiation; ultraviolet B radiation; ultraviolet radiation; Humans; Lip; Photochemistry; Radiation Protection; Skin; Sunscreening Agents; Ultraviolet RaysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84940387791Ultrasound evaluation of obstructive uropathy and its hemodynamic responses in southwest NigeriaApoku I.N., Ayoola O.O., Salako A.A., Idowu B.M.2015International Braz J Urol41310.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2014.0197Department of Radiology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile - Ife, Osun state, Nigeria; Department of Surgery, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile - Ife, Osun state, NigeriaApoku, I.N., Department of Radiology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile - Ife, Osun state, Nigeria; Ayoola, O.O., Department of Radiology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile - Ife, Osun state, Nigeria; Salako, A.A., Department of Surgery, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile - Ife, Osun state, Nigeria; Idowu, B.M., Department of Radiology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile - Ife, Osun state, NigeriaPurpose: To determine the renal arterial hemodynamic changes induced by obstructive uropathy using Doppler ultrasonography. Materials and Methods: 60 adult subjects with suspected obstructive uropathy and 60 asymptomatic apparently healthy controls with normal renal ultrasound features were evaluated. B-mode sonography of the kidneys and spectral Doppler examination of the renal interlobar arteries of all the participants were performed. The mean resistive indices (mRI) of both interlobar arteries were obtained and compared to that of the controls. The mRI of bilaterally obstructed kidneys were also compared with the mRI of unilaterally obstructed kidneys. Results: The mRI of the right and left kidneys of subjects were 0.72±0.04 and 0.69±0.06 while those of the controls were 0.64±0.04 and 0.63±0.03 respectively. The mRI for the grades of caliectasis increased from grade I (0.72±0.03) to grade II (0.73±0.03) and grade III (0.73±0.02) but fell within the most severe levels of obstruction (0.69±0.07). There was no statistically significant relationship between the grades of caliectasis and unilateral or bilateral obstruction for both kidneys. The results show a sensitivity and specificity of 86.7% and 90% respectively when mRI≥0.7 was used to determine presence of obstruction. Conclusion: Renal duplex sonography is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosis of obstructive uropathy. Increased resistive index of the obstructed kidney may be a useful diagnostic tool in situations where intravenous urography cannot be done or is contraindicated.Hemodynamics; Renal artery; Ultrasonography; Urologic diseasesadult; aged; Doppler flowmetry; echography; epidemiology; female; hemodynamics; human; kidney; kidney artery; kidney calyx; lesions and defects; male; middle aged; Nigeria; pathology; pathophysiology; physiology; procedures; reproducibility; ureter obstruction; vascularization; Adult; Aged; Dilatation, Pathologic; Epidemiologic Methods; Female; Hemodynamics; Humans; Kidney; Kidney Calices; Male; Middle Aged; Nigeria; Renal Artery; Reproducibility of Results; Ultrasonography, Doppler; Ureteral ObstructionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84908897402Ultrasound evaluation of intima-media thickness of carotid arteries in adults with primary hypertension at Ibadan, Nigeria [Evaluation échographique de l’épaisseur de l’intima-media des artères carotides d’adultes avec une hypertension essentielle à IbadaUmeh E.O., Agunloye, Adekanmi A.J., Adeyinka A.O.2013West African Journal of Medicine321NoneDepartment of Radiology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, NigeriaUmeh, E.O., Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Agunloye, Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Adekanmi, A.J., Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Adeyinka, A.O., Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, NigeriaBACKGROUND: Ultrasound measured Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) is a simple and inexpensive tool for assessing the cumulative effects of hypertension on the carotid arterial walls. It is also an independent predictor of future myocardial infarctionand stroke risk. OBJECTIVES: This study compared ultrasound measured CIMT in hypertensive adults with non-smoking normotensive controls. It also documented variations in CIMT with subjects’ age and sex. METHODOLOGY: Hypertensives (120) of both sexes aged 18years and above were recruited from the Hypertension Clinic at University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan. Normotensive controls (120) were also recruited from the general public. The CIMT was measured on B- mode ultrasound using the technique of ‘Multiple Carotid Sites Measurement’ RESULTS: Mean CIMT values were 0.756mm ± 0.130 and 0.751mm ± 0.129 for the hypertensive group and 0.638mm ± 0.088 and 0.670mm ± 0.107 for the control group on the left and right sides respectively (P=0.000). Higher CIMT values were noted among male hypertensive subjects (P=0.030). CIMT values also showed positive correlation with subjects’ age. CONCLUSION: There was a significant difference in CIMT for hypertensives when compared with normotensives in the study area. CIMT also varies with subjects’ age and sex. © 2013, West African Journal of Medicine. All rights reserved.Carotid; Hypertension; Intima-media thickness; Ultrasoundadult; aged; arterial wall thickness; Article; B scan; case control study; controlled study; correlation coefficient; female; human; hypertension; major clinical study; male; middle aged; Nigeria; prospective study; young adult; age; article; carotid artery; cerebrovascular accident; echography; heart infarction; pathology; risk factor; sex difference; very elderly; Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Carotid Arteries; Carotid Intima-Media Thickness; Case-Control Studies; Female; Humans; Hypertension; Male; Middle Aged; Myocardial Infarction; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; Stroke; Young AdultNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77954398316Ultrasound evaluation of brain infections and its complications in Nigerian infantsNzeh D., Oyinloye O.I., Odebode O.T., Akande H., Braimoh K.2010Tropical Doctor40310.1258/td.2010.090384Department of Radiology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Kwara, Ilorin, Nigeria; Department of Surgery, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Kwara, Ilorin, NigeriaNzeh, D., Department of Radiology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Kwara, Ilorin, Nigeria; Oyinloye, O.I., Department of Radiology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Kwara, Ilorin, Nigeria; Odebode, O.T., Department of Surgery, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Kwara, Ilorin, Nigeria; Akande, H., Department of Radiology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Kwara, Ilorin, Nigeria; Braimoh, K., Department of Radiology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Kwara, Ilorin, NigeriaInfantile meningitis is a clinical diagnosis. However, suspicion of its complications may warrant further investigations; and transfrontanelle ultrasound is a reliable and cheap way to evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography in diagnosing the complications of infantile meningitis. This is a retrospective study of the transfrontanelle ultrasound findings in 40 infants presenting with clinical indicators of complicated acute bacterial meningitis. There were 20 boys and 20 girls aged 5-115 days (mean, 42.6 ± 30.1 days).The complications of meningitis detectable on ultrasoundwere: hydrocephalus (21[52.5%]); cerebral abscess (2[5%]); subdural empyema (2 [5%]); and ventriculitis (3[7.5%]).Twelve babies (30%) had no abnormal findings. Hydrocephalus is the most common complication of meningitis in our setting. Transfontanelle ultrasound proved to be very reliable in the initial diagnosis and follow-up of complicated meningitis.Nonearticle; bacterial meningitis; brain abscess; brain ventriculitis; clinical article; diagnostic value; evaluation; female; follow up; human; hydrocephalus; infant; male; Nigeria; reliability; retrospective study; subdural empyema; ultrasound; African Continental Ancestry Group; Brain Abscess; Diagnosis, Differential; Empyema, Subdural; Female; Hospitals, University; Humans; Hydrocephalus; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Meningitis, Bacterial; Nigeria; Retrospective Studies; Bacteria (microorganisms)None
Scopus2-s2.0-79960165665Ultrasound evaluation of abdominal masses in Ethiopian child patientsKebede A.G., Nigussie Y.2011Tropical Doctor41310.1258/td.2011.100253College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, PO Box 1410, Gondar, EthiopiaKebede, A.G., College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, PO Box 1410, Gondar, Ethiopia; Nigussie, Y., College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, PO Box 1410, Gondar, EthiopiaThe aim of this study was to assess the pattern of abdominal masses and evaluate the value of ultrasound in paediatric abdominal masses. We used a cross-sectional study of abdominal masses in children attending a university teaching hospital. The common abdominal masses were: Wilms' tumour, 12 (14.8%); lym-phoma,11 (13.6%); appendiceal mass/abscess,11 (13.6%); neuroblastoma,7 (8.6%);TB,6 (7.4%); hydronephrosis, 5 (6.2%); abdominal wall abscess,6 (7.4%); hydatidcyst, 4 (4.9%); mesenteric cyst, 3 (3.7%); and intussusceptions, 3 (3.7%). Identification of a purely cystic mass was suggestive of benign lesion (odds ratio [OR] 1/4 1 1 8, P1/4 0.0001) and masses found in the,5 years age group tend to be malignant (OR 1/4 2.77).The most common sites of origin were kidneys, retroperitoneal extra renal and gastrointestinal tract. The overall diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound was 88.9%.Noneabdominal abscess; abdominal mass; appendix tumor; article; child; diagnostic accuracy; echinococcosis; echography; ectopic kidney; female; gallbladder; gastrointestinal tract; human; hydronephrosis; hydrops; infant; intussusception; liver abscess; liver cell carcinoma; lymphoma; major clinical study; male; mesentery cyst; multicystic dysplastic kidney; nephroblastoma; neuroblastoma; pancreas cyst; peritoneum; preschool child; rhabdomyosarcoma; school child; splenomegaly; teratoma; university hospital; Abdomen; Abscess; Child; Child, Preschool; Cross-Sectional Studies; Cysts; Ethiopia; Female; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Lymphoma; Male; Neoplasms; Neuroblastoma; Predictive Value of Tests; Wilms Tumor; PhomaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80051699689Ultrasonographic and laparoscopic evaluation of the reproductive tract of the captive female African lion (Panthera leo)Kirberger R.M., Schulman M.L., Hartman M.J.2011Theriogenology76510.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.04.013Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South AfricaKirberger, R.M., Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; Schulman, M.L., Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; Hartman, M.J., Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South AfricaThe use of transabdominal ultrasonography to assess the oestrous cycle has not been previously described in the African lion (Panthera leo). Twelve sexually mature lionesses and five female cubs had their reproductive organs assessed by transabdominal ultrasound. Ovarian findings were compared to laparoscopic findings while performing laparoscopic ovariectomy or salpingectomy. Vaginal cytology was performed and serum progesterone levels were determined. By combining all data the oestrous cycle stage of each lion was determined. One lion was far pregnant and was not operated on. In adults a uterine body could be seen ultrasonographically in 67% of lions while mural structures could be distinguished in 44% of lions. Five uterine horns could be seen in 3 lions. In 12 adults 10 ovaries were found of which eight had discernable follicles or luteal structures. During laparoscopy 12 active ovaries were seen with luteal structures seen in 11 ovaries and follicles in 2 ovaries. Using laparoscopy as the gold standard, ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 66% and specificity of 83% to detect ovarian reproductive activity. Two uterine cysts and a cluster of periovarian cysts were seen in three different lions. Three lions were pregnant, two were in oestrus, three in a luteal phase (dioestrus), and four were in anoestrus. Transabdominal ultrasound in combination with serum progesterone levels and vaginal cytology can be used to assess ovarian cyclical activity with reasonable accuracy in captive bred lions. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.Cyclical activity; Laparoscopy; Lioness; Panthera leo; Reproduction; Ultrasoundprogesterone; animal; animal disease; article; blood; comparative study; cytology; echography; estrus cycle; female; histology; laparoscopy; lion; ovary; pregnancy; reproduction; uterus; vagina; Animals; Estrous Cycle; Female; Laparoscopy; Lions; Ovary; Pregnancy; Progesterone; Reproduction; Ultrasonography; Uterus; Vagina; Panthera; Panthera leoNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84946477870Ultrasonographic and laparoscopic evaluation of the reproductive tract in older captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)Schulman M.L., Kirberger R.M., Tordiffe A.S.W., Marker L.L., Schmidt-Küntzel A., Hartman M.J.2015Theriogenology84910.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.08.011Section of Reproduction, Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa; Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa; National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa; Cheetah Conservation Fund, Otjiwarongo, NamibiaSchulman, M.L., Section of Reproduction, Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa; Kirberger, R.M., Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa; Tordiffe, A.S.W., National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa; Marker, L.L., Cheetah Conservation Fund, Otjiwarongo, Namibia; Schmidt-Küntzel, A., Cheetah Conservation Fund, Otjiwarongo, Namibia; Hartman, M.J., Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South AfricaThe study uniquely described the clinical value of transabdominal ultrasonography for monitoring features characterizing the estrous cycle in female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The reproductive tracts of 21 female, iparous, and relatively aged (median: 11 and interquartile range: 9.25-14 years) captive cheetahs resident on two sites in Namibia were assessed by transabdominal ultrasound. Subsequently, the ovarian findings on ultrasound were compared with direct visualization while performing laparoscopic sterilization. A combination of these observations supported by concurrent sampling for vaginal cytology and serum progesterone concentrations defined the estrous status of individual animals. At one site, six cheetahs had been implanted with the GnRH agonist, deslorelin as a contraceptive at least once within the preceding 11 years. On ultrasound, 31 uterine horns and 35 ovaries with discernible structures on 28 (86%) were visualized in the 21 cheetahs. The uterine body was difficult to visualize because of its intrapelvic location. Eleven of 19 uteri (58%) visualized showed endometrial edema suggestive of estrogenization. The uteri of four cheetahs (19%) showed evidence of mild cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Paraovarian cysts were seen on ultrasound (n = 21) and laparoscopy (n = 26) in 16 (76.2%) and 18 (85.7%) cheetahs, respectively. Ovarian volumes obtained from ultrasonographically determined dimensions predicted cyclic activity. Laparoscopy showed that 19 ovaries had discernible follicular structures. In the study population, 10 (47.6%) cheetahs were in proestrus or estrus; none in the luteal phase; and 11 (52.4%) in anestrus. Transabdominal ultrasound, in combination with serum progesterone concentrations and vaginal cytology, was used with acceptable accuracy to assess cyclic ovarian activity in captive cheetahs. A considerable proportion of this aged population showed ovarian activity and the prevalence of paraovarian cysts was notable. A history of prior deslorelin treatment was not associated with either reproductive activity or uterine pathology. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.Cheetah; Cystic endometrial hyperplasia; Deslorelin; Ovarian activity; Paraovarian cystNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33744520712Ultrasensitive quantitative HIV-1 p24 antigen assay adapted to dried plasma spots to improve treatment monitoring in low-resource settingsKnuchel M.C., Tomasik Z., Speck R.F., Lüthy R., Schüpbach J.2006Journal of Clinical Virology36110.1016/j.jcv.2005.12.005Swiss National Center for Retroviruses, University of Zürich, Gloriastrasse 30 /32, CH-8006 Zürich, Switzerland; Division of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland; Swiss AIDS Care International, Harare, ZimbabweKnuchel, M.C., Swiss National Center for Retroviruses, University of Zürich, Gloriastrasse 30 /32, CH-8006 Zürich, Switzerland; Tomasik, Z., Swiss National Center for Retroviruses, University of Zürich, Gloriastrasse 30 /32, CH-8006 Zürich, Switzerland; Speck, R.F., Division of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland; Lüthy, R., Swiss AIDS Care International, Harare, Zimbabwe; Schüpbach, J., Swiss National Center for Retroviruses, University of Zürich, Gloriastrasse 30 /32, CH-8006 Zürich, SwitzerlandBackground: Our group has previously developed a quantitative and ultrasensitive HIV-1 p24 antigen assay that is inexpensive, easy-to-perform, and can be carried out in low-resource settings. Since antiretroviral therapies are becoming more accessible in resource-constrained countries, methods to assess HIV-1 viraemia are urgently needed to achieve a high standard of care in HIV-1 management. Objectives: To adapt our quantitative assay to dried plasma spots (DPS), in order to further simplify this test and make it more accessible to resource-constrained countries. Study design: DPS from 47 HIV-seropositive, treated or untreated adult individuals and 30 healthy individuals were examined. Results: A specificity of 100% was observed when p24 antigen was measured using DPS, and no differences of p24 concentration could be seen between DPS and venous plasma. The correlation between DPS and venous plasma p24 was excellent (R = 0.93, CI95% = 0.88-0.96, p &lt; 0.0001). Similarly, p24 antigen concentrations using DPS were well correlated with RNA viral load (R = 0.53, CI95% = 0.27-0.72, p = 0.0002). Conclusions: This quantitative p24 antigen test has similar sensitivity and specificity using DPS and venous plasma, and has the potential to improve health care delivery to HIV-affected individuals in resource-constrained countries. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Dried plasma spots; HIV-1; Low-resource setting; p24 antigen; Treatment monitoring; Viral loadantigen p24; virus RNA; anti human immunodeficiency virus agent; Gag protein; Human immunodeficiency virus antibody; Human immunodeficiency virus antigen; article; correlation analysis; diagnostic accuracy; enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; Human immunodeficiency virus 1; nonhuman; priority journal; quantitative analysis; virus identification; virus load; adult; blood; case control study; chemistry; child; comparative study; cost; economics; evaluation; heat; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; immunology; methodology; protein denaturation; sensitivity and specificity; serodiagnosis; treatment outcome; virology; Adult; AIDS Serodiagnosis; Anti-HIV Agents; Case-Control Studies; Child; Costs and Cost Analysis; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; Evaluation Studies; Heat; HIV Antibodies; HIV Antigens; HIV Core Protein p24; HIV Infections; HIV Seropositivity; HIV-1; Humans; Protein Denaturation; Sensitivity and Specificity; Treatment Outcome; Viral LoadNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77951623942Udder health problems and major bacterial causes of camel mastitis in Jijiga, Eastern Ethiopia: Implication for impacting food securityAbera M., Abdi O., Abunna F., Megersa B.2010Tropical Animal Health and Production42310.1007/s11250-009-9424-6Hawassa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Po box 05, Hawassa, EthiopiaAbera, M., Hawassa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Po box 05, Hawassa, Ethiopia; Abdi, O., Hawassa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Po box 05, Hawassa, Ethiopia; Abunna, F., Hawassa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Po box 05, Hawassa, Ethiopia; Megersa, B., Hawassa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Po box 05, Hawassa, EthiopiaOne hundred and forty-five traditionally kept lactating camels (Camelus dromederius) were examined for mastitis by combination of clinical, mastitis card test and subsequent bacteriological isolation. Clinical and sub-clinical mastitis were prevalent in 8.3% (95%CI = 4.6, 14.4) and 20.7% (95%CI = 14.6, 28.4) of the studied animals, respectively. This gives an overall mastitis prevalence of 29.0% (95%CI = 21.9, 37.2) at animal and 17.9% (95%CI = 14.9, 21.3) at quarter levels. High proportion (33.8%) of lactating camels had blind teats and 5.5% had lesions on udder or teat. Taking clinical mastitis and blocked teats into account, the study revealed that only 57.9% of the camels have four teats for milk production. Out of the 505 quarter milk samples examined, 80 (15.8 %) quarters were positive for indicator paper. Upon subsequent culturing, 68.8% (55 out of 80) of the quarter milk samples yielded bacteria. Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, E. coli and Bacillus species were the major isolates. Mastitis prevalence was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by tick infestations, udder lesions, and increased age and parity of the animals. In conclusion, mastitis is a major problem in traditionally managed camels and deserves further attention owning to its potential impact on milk production affecting food security. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.Camels; Card test; Ethiopia; Etiology; Mastitis; Prevalence; Risk factorsAnimalia; Bacillus (bacterium); Bacteria (microorganisms); Camelidae; Camelus; Escherichia coli; Ixodida; Staphylococcus; Streptococcus; animal; animal disease; animal husbandry; article; camel; catering service; chemistry; Ethiopia; female; human; information processing; mastitis; microbiology; milk; questionnaire; udder; Animal Husbandry; Animals; Camels; Data Collection; Ethiopia; Female; Food Supply; Humans; Mammary Glands, Animal; Mastitis; Milk; QuestionnairesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-63149102742Two-year virologic outcomes of an alternative AIDS care model: Evaluation of a peer health worker and nurse-staffed community-based program in ugandaChang L.W., Alamo S., Guma S., Christopher J., Suntoke T., Omasete R., Montis J.P., Quinn T.C., Juncker M., Reynolds S.J.2009Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes50310.1097/QAI.0b013e3181988375Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 1830 East Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States; Reach Out Mbuya Parish HIV/AIDS Initiative, Kampala, Uganda; National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United StatesChang, L.W., Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 1830 East Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States; Alamo, S., Reach Out Mbuya Parish HIV/AIDS Initiative, Kampala, Uganda; Guma, S., Reach Out Mbuya Parish HIV/AIDS Initiative, Kampala, Uganda; Christopher, J., Reach Out Mbuya Parish HIV/AIDS Initiative, Kampala, Uganda; Suntoke, T., National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States; Omasete, R., Reach Out Mbuya Parish HIV/AIDS Initiative, Kampala, Uganda; Montis, J.P., Reach Out Mbuya Parish HIV/AIDS Initiative, Kampala, Uganda; Quinn, T.C., Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 1830 East Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States; Juncker, M., Reach Out Mbuya Parish HIV/AIDS Initiative, Kampala, Uganda; Reynolds, S.J., Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 1830 East Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United StatesBACKGROUND: There is growing concern about the human resources needed to care for increasing numbers of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. We evaluated an alternative model, community-based, comprehensive antiretroviral program staffed primarily by peer health workers and nurses. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy during the first 10 months of program enrollment beginning in late 2003. Virologic, immunologic, clinical, and adherence data were collected. RESULTS: Of 360 patients started on treatment, 258 (72%) were active and on therapy approximately 2 years later. Viral load testing demonstrated that 86% of active patients (211/246 tested) had a viral load <400 copies per milliliter. The median CD4 increase for active patients was 197 cells per cubic millimeter (interquartile range, 108-346). Patients with either a history of antiretroviral use or lack of CD4 response were more likely to experience virologic failure. Survival was 84% at 1 year and 82% at 2 years. World Health Organization stage 4 was predictive of both not sustaining therapy and increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: A community-based antiretroviral treatment program in a resource-limited setting can provide excellent AIDS care over at least a 2-year period. A comprehensive program based upon peer health workers and nurses provides an effective alternative model for AIDS care. © 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Adherence; Africa; Antiretroviral treatment; Community health services; Nurses; Program evaluationantiretrovirus agent; efavirenz; lamivudine; lamivudine plus zidovudine; nevirapine; stavudine; tuberculostatic agent; zidovudine; anti human immunodeficiency virus agent; adult; antiviral therapy; article; CD4 lymphocyte count; CD4+ T lymphocyte; community health nursing; drug treatment failure; drug withdrawal; female; health care personnel; health program; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; major clinical study; male; mortality; nurse; outcome assessment; patient compliance; priority journal; prognosis; retrospective study; Uganda; unspecified side effect; virus load; world health organization; community care; health care quality; manpower; nonbiological model; nurse; organization and management; peer group; standard; virology; Adult; Anti-HIV Agents; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; Community Health Services; Female; HIV Infections; Humans; Male; Models, Organizational; Nurses; Patient Compliance; Peer Group; Program Evaluation; Retrospective Studies; Uganda; Viral LoadNone
WoSWOS:000291851000001Two-year evaluation of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Children (IPTc) combined with timely home treatment for malaria control in GhanaAhorlu, Collins K.,Koram, Kwadwo A.,Seake-Kwawu, Atsu,Weiss, Mitchell G.2011MALARIA JOURNAL10None10.1186/1475-2875-10-127Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Basel, University of Ghana, Keta Dist Hlth Management Team, Swiss Tropical & Public Health Institute"Ahorlu, Collins K.: Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research","Ahorlu, Collins K.: University of Ghana","Koram, Kwadwo A.: Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research","Koram, Kwadwo A.: University of Ghana","Weiss, Mitchell G.: University of Basel",Background: Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) has recently been accepted as an important component of the malaria control strategy. Intermittent preventive treatment for children (IPTc) combined with timely treatment of malaria related febrile illness at home to reduce parasite prevalence and malaria morbidity in children aged between six and 60 months in a coastal community in Ghana. This paper reports persistence of reduced parasitaemia two years into the intervention. The baseline and year-one-evaluation findings were published earlier. Objective: The main objective in the second year was to demonstrate whether the two interventions would further reduce parasite prevalence and malaria-related febrile illness in the study population. Methods: This was an intervention study designed to compare baseline and evaluation findings without a control group. The study combined home-based delivery of intermittent preventive treatment for children (IPTc) aged 6 - 60 months and home treatment of suspected febrile malaria-related illness within 24 hours. All children aged 6 - 60 months received home-based delivery of intermittent preventive treatment using amodiaquine + artesunate, delivered at home by community assistants every four months (6 times in 24 months). Malaria parasite prevalence surveys were conducted before the first and after the third and sixth IPTc to the children. The evaluation surveys were done four months after the third and sixth IPTc was given. Results: Parasite prevalence which reduced from 25% to 3.0% at year-one evaluation had reduced further from 3% to 1% at year-two-evaluation. At baseline, 13.8% of the children were febrile (axilary temperature of &gt;= 37.5 degrees C) compared to 2.2% at year-one-evaluation while 2.1% were febrile at year-two-evaluation. Conclusion: The year-two-evaluation result indicates that IPTc given three times in a year (every four months) combined with timely treatment of febrile malaria illness, is effective to reduce malaria parasite prevalence in children aged 6 to 60 months in the study community. This must give hope to malaria control programme managers in sub-Saharan Africa where the burden of the disease is most debilitating.,AFRICA,ANEMIA,DELIVERY,INFANTS,"PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL",RANDOMIZED-TRIAL,"ROUTINE VACCINATIONS","SOUTHERN GHANA",SULFADOXINE-PYRIMETHAMINE,TRANSMISSIONNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80755139509Two dimensional fluidised bed reactor: Performance of a novel multi-vortex distributorBrink H.G., Saayman J., Nicol W.2011Chemical Engineering Journal175110.1016/j.cej.2011.09.077University of Pretoria, Department Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria Main Campus, Corner Lynwood and Roper Street, Hatfield, Pretoria, 0002, South AfricaBrink, H.G., University of Pretoria, Department Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria Main Campus, Corner Lynwood and Roper Street, Hatfield, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa; Saayman, J., University of Pretoria, Department Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria Main Campus, Corner Lynwood and Roper Street, Hatfield, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa; Nicol, W., University of Pretoria, Department Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria Main Campus, Corner Lynwood and Roper Street, Hatfield, Pretoria, 0002, South AfricaThe influence of the distributor configuration on interphase mass transfer, gas axial dispersion and bubble size was studied in a pseudo 2-D fluidised bed reactor for two types of distributor configurations; a novel multi-vortex (MV) distributor with tubes directed vertically and horizontally at different heights and a standard perforated plate distributor (baseline). The linear inlet velocity (U0) ranged between 0.1m/s and 0.35m/s, with air as fluidising medium at ambient conditions. The ozone decomposition reaction over Fe2O3 impregnated FCC catalyst was used as an indirect measure for the performance of the FBR and it was found that the MV distributor causes a significant improvement (15% average) in the conversion efficiencies at all velocities tested. Bubble size measurements (using two separate techniques) indicated larger bubbles for the MV distributor, while the visual bubbling to turbulent transition boundary (Uc) for the MV distributor was found to be lower than the baseline distributor. The interphase bubble-emulsion mass transfer was quantified using the model derived by Thompson et al. [32] and was found to be 52% higher for the MV distributor than the baseline distributor. In addition the MV distributor exhibited near plug flow characteristics at velocities exceeding Uc, while this was not the case for the baseline distributor. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.Interphase mass transfer quantification; Multi-vortex distributor; Ozone decomposition reaction; Two dimensional fluidized bed reactorAmbient conditions; Axial dispersions; Bubble size; Bubble size measurement; Different heights; FCC catalysts; Fluidised bed; Indirect measure; Inlet velocity; Inter-phase mass transfer; Multi-vortex distributor; Ozone decomposition; Ozone decomposition reaction; Plug flow; Thompson; Turbulent transition; Chemical reactors; Conversion efficiency; Emulsification; Fluid catalytic cracking; Fluidization; Mass transfer; Ozone; Perforated plates; Two dimensional; Vortex flow; Fluidized bedsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-64149113743Tutorial classes - Why bother? An investigation into the impact of tutorials on the performance of economics studentsHorn P.M., Jansen A.I.2009South African Journal of Economics77110.1111/j.1813-6982.2009.01194.xDepartment of Economics, Stellenbosch University (SU), Stellenbosch, South AfricaHorn, P.M., Department of Economics, Stellenbosch University (SU), Stellenbosch, South Africa; Jansen, A.I., Department of Economics, Stellenbosch University (SU), Stellenbosch, South AfricaThe deteriorating performance of first-year economics students has become a concern at many South African universities. Addressing the issue requires an understanding of the factors influencing students' success. Studies analysing academic performance use the education production function approach. This approach identifies inputs that are crucial to learning and to achieving certain outputs. Factors that have been investigated in other studies include the impact of lecture attendance on performance, school-leaving exam (matriculation) results, particularly performance in mathematics, and the gender and age of students. This study adds to existing local empirical research by analysing the impact of the tutorial programme as an input. The case study investigates the tutorial programme for first-year economics students at Stellenbosch University using quantitative analysis. Results confirm what previous studies have found, namely that lecture attendance, gender, and matriculation results contribute positively to the performance of first-year economics students. The main finding of the paper is that tutorial attendance also contributes positively to academic performance. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 The Economic Society of South Africa.Academic performance; Economics; First-year students; Tutorial programmeeconomics; education; learning; performance assessment; student; Africa; South Africa; Southern Africa; Sub-Saharan AfricaNone
WoSWOS:000286143100001Turning around an ailing district hospital: a realist evaluation of strategic changes at Ho Municipal Hospital (Ghana)Dedzo, McDamien,Kegels, Guy,Marchal, Bruno2010BMC PUBLIC HEALTH10None10.1186/1471-2458-10-787Ghana Health Service, Inst Trop Med"Dedzo, McDamien: Ghana Health Service",Background: There is a growing consensus that linear approaches to improving the performance of health workers and health care organisations may only obtain short-term results. An alternative approach premised on the principle of human resource management described as a form of 'High commitment management', builds upon a bundles of balanced practices. This has been shown to contribute to better organisational performance. This paper illustrates an intervention and outcome of high commitment management (HiCom) at an urban hospital in Ghana. Few studies have shown how HiCom management might contribute to better performance of health services and in particular of hospitals in low and middle-income settings. Methods: A realist case study design was used to analyse how specific management practices might contribute to improving the performance of an urban district hospital in Ho, Volta Region, in Ghana. Mixed methods were used to collect data, including document review, in-depth interviews, group discussions, observations and a review of routine health information. Results: At Ho Municipal Hospital, the management team dealt with the crisis engulfing the ailing urban district hospital by building an alliance between hospital staff to generate a sense of ownership with a focus around participative problem analysis. The creation of an alliance led to improving staff morale and attitude, and contributed also to improvements in the infrastructure and equipment. This in turn had a positive impact on the revenue generating capacity of the hospital. The quick turn around in the state of this hospital showed that change was indeed possible, a factor that greatly motivated the staff. In a second step, the management team initiated the development of a strategic plan for the hospital to maintain the dynamics of change. This was undertaken through participative methods and sustained earlier staff involvement, empowerment and feelings of reciprocity. We found that these factors acted as the core mechanisms underlying the changes taking place at Ho Municipal Hospital. Conclusions: This study shows how a hospital management team in Ghana succeeded in resuscitating an ailing hospital. Their high commitment management approach led to the active involvement and empowerment of staff. It also showed how a realist evaluation approach such as this, could be used in the research of the management of health care organisations to explain how management interventions may or may not work.,AFRICA,CARE,CLIMATE,COMMITMENT,CULTURE,HEALTH,"HUMAN-RESOURCE MANAGEMENT","PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT",PERFORMANCE,POLICYNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84884549824Turks and Caicos Islands climate and its impactsJury M.R.2013Earth Interactions171810.1175/2012ei000490.1Physics Department, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South AfricaJury, M.R., Physics Department, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South AfricaThe Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) climate is described using mesoscale ocean and atmosphere datasets with a focus on thermodynamic versus kinematic controls, the influence of the nearby island of Hispaniola, and factors affecting early colonization and fluctuations of marine resources. The key findings include the following: trade winds accelerate to 7 m s21 north of Hispaniola and enhance anticyclonic subsidence; there is a dry-south/wet-north pattern of rainfall that opposes surface temperature and salinity fields; ocean currents near TCI are northwestward but there is a counterclockwise gyre near Haiti that guided colonization; conch catch increases when trade winds strengthen and SST declines; TCI's dry climate limits groundwater resources, food production, and population density; and Caicos Island sheds a wind wake that boosts SST and local convection, as evident in Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) observations and operational model products. Further studies of small island climates will benefit from an ever-increasing stream of mesoscale datasets. © 2013.Antilles climate; Caicos Island wind wake; Impacts on resources; Marine environmentAntilles; Impacts on resources; Kinematic control; Marine environment; Operational model; Population densities; Quick scatterometer (QuikSCAT); Surface temperatures; Atmospheric temperature; Commerce; Groundwater; Marine biology; Ocean currents; Population statistics; Wakes; Climate models; anticyclone; atmospheric dynamics; climate effect; climatology; island; kinematics; mesoscale meteorology; QuikSCAT; rainfall; sea surface temperature; thermodynamics; trade wind; wake; Turks and Caicos IslandsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84862072624Turfgrass performance of diploid buffalograss [buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] half-sib populationsSerba D.D., Gulsen O., Abeyo B.G., Amundsen K.L., Lee D.J., Baenziger P.S., Heng-Moss T.M., Eskridge K.M., Shearman R.C.2012HortScience472NoneForage Improvement Division, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Inc., Ardmore, OK 73401, United States; Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Erciyes University, Melikgazi, 38039 Kayseri, Turkey; CIMMYT, ILRI Campus, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 377H Plant Science Hall, Lincoln, NE 68583, United States; Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583, United States; Department of Statistics, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583, United States; Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583, United StatesSerba, D.D., Forage Improvement Division, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Inc., Ardmore, OK 73401, United States; Gulsen, O., Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Erciyes University, Melikgazi, 38039 Kayseri, Turkey; Abeyo, B.G., CIMMYT, ILRI Campus, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Amundsen, K.L., Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 377H Plant Science Hall, Lincoln, NE 68583, United States; Lee, D.J., Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 377H Plant Science Hall, Lincoln, NE 68583, United States; Baenziger, P.S., Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 377H Plant Science Hall, Lincoln, NE 68583, United States; Heng-Moss, T.M., Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583, United States; Eskridge, K.M., Department of Statistics, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583, United States; Shearman, R.C., Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583, United StatesHybridization and selection has been one of the methods used to generate turf grass cultivars in buffalo grass improvement. Three half-sib populations were developed by crossing three buffalo grass female genotypes, NE 3296, NE 2768, and NE 2769, with NE 2871, a male genotype, to 1) investigate the pattern of genetic variability generated for turf grass characteristics through hybridization; 2) assess the effect of parental change on the level of genetic variability generated in a buffalo grass diploid population; and 3) predict the performance of a progeny generated from two heterozygous parents for turf grass performance. The four parents and 20 random F1 progeny selected from each population were established in 2006 at the John Seaton Anderson Turf grass Research Facility located near Mead, NE. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used with the progeny nested in the crosses. A visual rating scale of 1-9 was used to evaluate the population. Mean population lateral spread, genetic color, density, and turf grass quality from early summer to fall ranged from 3.5 to 4.5, 7.1 to 7.9, 6.9 to 8.1, and 5.2 and 6.8, respectively. There were significant differences among the crosses and the parents for all the traits studied except quality in June and August. The progeny nested within crosses differed for turf grass genetic color and quality. Best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) indicated a high improvement potential for turf grass lateral spread and spring density in NE 2768 × NE 2871 and for turf grass genetic color in NE 3296 × NE 2871. From these findings, it can be concluded that hybridization breeding is a worthwhile approach for generating and identifying trans gressive segregants for specific buffalo grass traits.Genetic color; Lateral spread; Quality; Spring density; Turf grassBuchloe; Buchloe dactyloides; Poaceae; Urochloa muticaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84930943078Tuning optimization algorithms under multiple objective function evaluation budgetsDymond A.S., Engelbrecht A.P., Kok S., Heyns P.S.2015IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation19310.1109/TEVC.2014.2322883Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Computer Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaDymond, A.S., Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Engelbrecht, A.P., Department of Computer Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Kok, S., Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Heyns, P.S., Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaMost sensitivity analysis studies of optimization algorithm control parameters are restricted to a single objective function evaluation (OFE) budget. This restriction is problematic because the optimality of control parameter values (CPVs) is dependent not only on the problem's fitness landscape, but also on the OFE budget available to explore that landscape. Therefore, the OFE budget needs to be taken into consideration when performing control parameter tuning. This paper presents a new algorithm tuning multiobjective particle swarm optimization (tMOPSO) for tuning the CPVs of stochastic optimization algorithms under a range of OFE budget constraints. Specifically, for a given problem tMOPSO aims to determine multiple groups of CPVs, each of which results in optimal performance at a different OFE budget. To achieve this, the control parameter tuning problem is formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem. Additionally, tMOPSO uses a noise-handling strategy and CPV assessment procedure, which are specialized for tuning stochastic optimization algorithms. Conducted numerical experiments provide evidence that tMOPSO is effective at tuning under multiple OFE budget constraints. © 2014 IEEE.Control parameter tuning; multiobjective optimization; objective function evaluation (OFE) budgetAlgorithms; Budget control; Control system analysis; Function evaluation; Optimization; Parameter estimation; Particle swarm optimization (PSO); Sensitivity analysis; Control parameters; Multi objective particle swarm optimization; Multi-objective optimization problem; Multiple objective functions; Numerical experiments; objective function evaluation (OFE) budget; Optimization algorithms; Stochastic optimization algorithm; Multiobjective optimizationNational Research Foundation
Scopus2-s2.0-79958751374Tuberculosis surveillance in Cape Town, South Africa: An evaluationHeidebrecht C.L., Tugwell P.S., Wells G.A., Engel M.E.2011International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease15710.5588/ijtld.10.0296Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricaHeidebrecht, C.L., Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; Tugwell, P.S., Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; Wells, G.A., Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; Engel, M.E., Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricaSETTING: Cape Town, South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current system of tuberculosis surveillance in the Cape Metro region. DESIGN: This evaluation was based on the 'Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems' of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, modified to render the framework applicable to the context of tuberculosis (TB) surveillance. The evaluation incorporated qualitative exploration of perceptions and experiences of system users. RESULTS: System users were very accepting of the system and were committed to seeing it achieve its purpose within public health. Some individuals expressed concerns about the rigidity of the Electronic TB Register software and its analysis capabilities. Dissemination of TB data and evidence-based action within the Cape Metro region are strong attributes of Cape Town's TB surveillance system. At the time of the evaluation, integration of TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) data was weak, as was multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) surveillance; the South African Tuberculosis Control Programme is developing initiatives to improve these areas. CONCLUSIONS: Cape Metro's TB surveillance is strong, although it would be strengthened by increasing availability of data reflecting TB-HIV co-infection and MDR-TB. Systems operations could be improved by increasing software flexibility, and increased integration of electronic data across health regions would enhance the capacity and assessment of control efforts. © 2011 The Union.Epidemiology; Evaluation study; Surveillance; Tuberculosisarticle; computer program; disease registry; disease surveillance; evidence based practice; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; information dissemination; medical information system; multidrug resistant tuberculosis; priority journal; public health; South Africa; tuberculosis; tuberculosis control; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.); Guidelines as Topic; HIV Infections; Humans; Population Surveillance; Registries; Software; South Africa; Tuberculosis; Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant; United StatesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84927911032Tuberculosis distorts the inhibitory impact of interleukin-10 in HIV infectionChetty S., Porichis F., Govender P., Zupkosky J., Ghebremichael M., Pillay M., Walker B.D., Ndung'u T., Kaufmann D.E., Kasprowicz V.O.2014AIDS281810.1097/QAD.0000000000000437HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for TB and HIV (K-RITH), KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, 400 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA, United States; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD, United States; Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Centre de Recherche Du Centre Hospitalier de L'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), Montréal, QC, Canada; Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricaChetty, S., HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for TB and HIV (K-RITH), KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Porichis, F., Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, 400 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA, United States; Govender, P., HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; Zupkosky, J., Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, 400 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA, United States; Ghebremichael, M., Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, 400 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA, United States; Pillay, M., HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; Walker, B.D., Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, 400 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA, United States, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD, United States; Ndung'u, T., HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, 400 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA, United States; Kaufmann, D.E., Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, 400 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA, United States, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, Centre de Recherche Du Centre Hospitalier de L'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), Montréal, QC, Canada; Kasprowicz, V.O., HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for TB and HIV (K-RITH), KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, 400 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA, United StatesObjectives: This study aimed to assess how Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) coinfection alters the impact of interleukin-10 in chronic HIV infection. Design: We assessed plasma cytokine levels (interleukin-10, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-γ, interleukin-2, interleukin-6 and interleukin-13) in 82 individuals presenting with HIV monoinfection, HIV-LTBI (latent MTB infection) coinfection or HIV-TB (active tuberculosis) coinfection. We also assessed the influence of MTB on the functional impact of interleukin-10 receptor alpha (interleukin-10Ra) blockade on HIV and MTB-specific CD4+ T cells. Methods: Plasma cytokine levels were measured by high sensitivity Luminex. We used an ex-vivo interleukin-10Ra blockade assay to assess if functional enhancement of HIV and MTB-specific CD4+ T cells was possible following a 48-h stimulation with HIV gag or pooled ESAT-6 (6 kDa early secretory antigenic target) and CFP-10 (10-kDa culture filtrate protein) peptides. Cell supernatant was collected 48 h after stimulation and the cytokine profile was measured by Luminex. Results: Plasma interleukin-10 levels were elevated in HIV-TB as compared with HIV monoinfection (P&lt;0.05) and HIV-LTBI (P&lt;0.05). Plasma interleukin-10 levels correlated to HIV viral load in HIV monoinfection (P=0.016) and HIV-LTBI (P=0.042), but not HIV-TB. Ex-vivo blockade of interleukin-10Ra significantly enhanced MTB and HIVspecific CD4+ T-cell function in HIV-LTBI individuals but not in HIV-TB individuals. Conclusion: Tuberculosis disrupts the correlation between interleukin-10 and markers of HIV disease progression. In addition, HIV-TB is associated with a more inflammatory cytokine milieu compared with HIV monoinfection. Interestingly, interleukin-10Ra blockade can enhance both HIV and MTB-specific T-cell function in HIV-LTBI, but not in HIV-TB coinfection. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.HIV coinfection; Immune regulation; Interleukin-10; Interleukin-10 receptor alpha blockade; Mycobacterium tuberculosisculture filtrate protein 10; gamma interferon; interleukin 10; interleukin 10 receptor alpha; interleukin 13; interleukin 2; interleukin 6; tumor necrosis factor alpha; interleukin 10; Article; CD4+ T lymphocyte; controlled study; cytokine release; disease course; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; major clinical study; mixed infection; priority journal; protein blood level; protein expression; tuberculosis; virus load; blood; complication; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; immunology; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; tuberculosis; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes; HIV Infections; Humans; Interleukin-10; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; TuberculosisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84884487797Tuberculosis Case Finding: Evaluation of a Paper Slip Method to Trace ContactsMwansa-Kambafwile J., McCarthy K., Gharbaharan V., Venter F.W.D., Maitshotlo B., Black A.2013PLoS ONE8910.1371/journal.pone.0075757TB/HIV Unit, Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa; Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa; Epidemiology Unit, The Aurum Institute, Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South AfricaMwansa-Kambafwile, J., TB/HIV Unit, Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa; McCarthy, K., Epidemiology Unit, The Aurum Institute, Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa; Gharbaharan, V., TB/HIV Unit, Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa; Venter, F.W.D., TB/HIV Unit, Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa; Maitshotlo, B., TB/HIV Unit, Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa; Black, A., TB/HIV Unit, Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South AfricaSetting:South Africa has the third highest tuberculosis (TB) burden in the world. Intensified case finding, recommended by WHO, is one way to control TB.Objective:To evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a paper slip method for TB contact tracing.Method:TB patients were offered paper slips to give to their contacts, inviting them for TB screening. The number of contacts screened and the proportion diagnosed with TB was calculated. Contacts that returned to the clinic after receiving the slips were interviewed. A focus group discussion (FGD) with TB patients was held to determine their acceptability.Results:From 718 paper slips issued, a 26% TB contact tracing rate was found, with a 12% case detection rate. The majority (68%) of contacts were screened within 2 weeks of receiving the slip. Age and gender were not significantly associated with time to screening. 16% of the contacts screened did not reside with the TB patients. 98% of the contacts said the method was acceptable. FGD findings show that this method is acceptable and may prevent stigma associated with TB/HIV.Conclusion:This simple, inexpensive method yields high contact tracing and case detection rates and potentially would yield additional benefits outside households. © 2013 Mwansa-Kambafwile et al.Noneadult; article; case finding; controlled study; female; human; male; paper slip method; screening; social network; South Africa; stigma; tuberculosis; tuberculosis control; Contact Tracing; Humans; Mass Screening; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Paper; South Africa; TuberculosisUSAID, United States Agency for International Development
Scopus2-s2.0-33846624283Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution disease: Incidence, risk factors and impact in an antiretroviral treatment service in South AfricaLawn S.D., Myer L., Bekker L.-G., Wood R.2007AIDS21310.1097/QAD.0b013e328011efacInstitute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Clinical Research Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States; Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South AfricaLawn, S.D., Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa; Myer, L., Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States; Bekker, L.-G., Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Wood, R., Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricaOBJECTIVE: To determine the burden and impact of immune reconstitution disease (IRD) associated with tuberculosis (TB) among patients initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a study cohort enrolled over 3 years within a community-based ART service in South Africa. METHODS: Patients receiving treatment for TB at the time ART was initiated (n = 160) were studied. Cases of TB-associated IRD during the first 4 months of ART were ascertained. RESULTS: The median baseline CD4 cell count was 68 cells/μl [interquartile range (IQR), 29 - 133 cells/μl) and ART was initiated after a median of 105 days (IQR, 61 - 164 days) from TB diagnosis. Although IRD was diagnosed in just 12% (n = 19) of patients overall, IRD developed in 32% (n = 12) of those who started ART within 2 months of TB diagnosis. Pulmonary involvement was observed in 84% (n = 16) and intra-abdominal manifestations were also common (37%). Overall, 4% (n = 7) of the cohort required secondary level health-care for IRD and two (1%) patients died. In multivariate analysis, risk of IRD was strongly associated with early ART initiation and low baseline CD4 cell count. Of patients with CD4 counts < 50 cells/μl, the proportions who developed IRD following initiation of ART within 0-30, 31-60, 61-90, 91-120 and > 120 days of TB diagnosis were 100%, 33%, 14%, 7% and 0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of TB-associated IRD in this setting is very high for those with low baseline CD4 cell counts initiating ART early in the course of antituberculosis treatment. However, most cases were self-limiting; overall secondary health-care utilization and mortality risk from IRD were low. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Africa; Antiretroviral treatment; Immune reconstitution disease; Resource-limited country; Tuberculosisantiretrovirus agent; corticosteroid; efavirenz; lamivudine; RNA directed DNA polymerase inhibitor; stavudine; tuberculostatic agent; abdominal disease; adult; article; CD4 lymphocyte count; death; female; health care; human; immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome; laparotomy; lung disease; major clinical study; male; morbidity; multivariate analysis; priority journal; retrospective study; risk; risk factor; South Africa; tuberculosis; Adult; AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections; Anti-HIV Agents; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active; Antitubercular Agents; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; Developing Countries; Epidemiologic Methods; Female; HIV Infections; Humans; Immune System Diseases; Inflammation; Male; South Africa; TuberculosisNone
WoSWOS:000273850100001Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection: its impact on quality of lifeApers, Ludwig,Belachew, Tefera,Colebunders, Robert,Daba, Shallo,Deribew, Amare,Hailmichael, Yohannes,Negussu, Nebiyu,Tesfaye, Markos,Wogi, Ajeme2009HEALTH AND QUALITY OF LIFE OUTCOMES7None10.1186/1477-7525-7-105University of Antwerp, Inst Trop Med, Jimma Univ, Oromiya Reg Hlth Bur, Somali Reg Hlth BurNoneBackground-: Very little is known about the quality of life of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV co-infected patients. In this study in Ethiopia, we compared the quality of life HIV positive patients with and without TB. Methods-: A cross sectional study was conducted from February to April, 2009 in selected hospitals in Oromiya Regional state, Ethiopia. The study population consisted of 467 HIV patients and 124 TB/HIV co-infected patients. Data on quality of life was collected by trained nurses through face to face interviews using the short Amharic version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument for HIV clients (WHOQOL HIV). Depression was assessed using a validated version of the Kessler scale. Data was collected by trained nurses and analyzed using SPSS 15.0 statistical software. Results: TB/HIV co-infected patients had a lower quality of life in all domains as compared to HIV infected patients without active TB. Depression, having a source of income and family support were strongly associated with most of the Quality of life domains. In co-infected patients, individuals who had depression were 8.8 times more likely to have poor physical health as compared to individuals who had no depression, OR = 8.8(95%CI: 3.2, 23). Self-stigma was associated with a poor quality of life in the psychological domain. Conclusion-: The TB control program should design strategies to improve the quality of life of TB/HIV co-infected patients. Depression and self-stigma should be targeted for intervention to improve the quality of life of patients.,DISTRESS,HEALTH,INFECTION,INSTRUMENT,VERSIONNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84864946809Tuberculosis among children in Kenya: Epidemiology and impact of HIV in two provincesCavanaugh J., Genga K., Marigu I., Laserson K., Ackers M., Cain K.2012Journal of Tropical Pediatrics58410.1093/tropej/fmr098Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, United States; Division of TB Elimination, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, United States; Division of Leprosy TB and Lung Disease, Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Nairobi, 00202, Kenya; Global AIDS Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi, 00200, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kisumu, 40100, Kenya; Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, United StatesCavanaugh, J., Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, United States, Division of TB Elimination, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, United States; Genga, K., Division of Leprosy TB and Lung Disease, Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Nairobi, 00202, Kenya; Marigu, I., Global AIDS Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi, 00200, Kenya; Laserson, K., Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kisumu, 40100, Kenya, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, United States; Ackers, M., Global AIDS Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi, 00200, Kenya; Cain, K., Division of TB Elimination, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, United StatesWe collected clinical register data on children in two provinces of Kenya and conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses to assess characteristics associated with death. Among 987 children with tuberculosis (TB), pulmonary disease was diagnosed in 689 (70%) children. Final outcomes were known for 830 children, 40 (5%) of whom died during TB treatment. HIV test results were available for 670 (68%) children; 371 (55%) of whom tested positive. Only 63 of 134 (47%) of children <1 year were tested for HIV. There were no data on CD4 or anti-retroviral use. The relative risk for death for HIV-infected children compared to HIV-uninfected children was 9.3 for children <1 year [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-69.2], 3.9 for children aged 1-4 (95% CI 0.9-17.7) and 0.9 for children aged 5-14 (95% CI 0.3-2.6). In Kenya, HIV infection in children with TB is common, and our data suggest that HIV is particularly deadly in TB patients <1 year, the group with the lowest rate of testing. Poor data recording and reporting limit our understanding of TB in this age group. Expansion of HIV testing may improve survival, and more complete data recording and reporting will enhance our understanding of pediatric TB. Published by Oxford University Press 2011.Epidemiology; HIV; Pediatrics; Tuberculosisantiretrovirus agent; tuberculostatic agent; adolescent; adult; article; bivariate analysis; child; childhood disease; clinical assessment; controlled study; epidemiology; female; highly active antiretroviral therapy; HIV test; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; infant; Kenya; lung disease; lung tuberculosis; major clinical study; male; mortality; multivariate analysis; preschool child; register; school child; tuberculosis; Adolescent; Age Distribution; AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections; Antitubercular Agents; Child; Child, Preschool; Confidence Intervals; Female; HIV Infections; Humans; Infant; Kenya; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Treatment Outcome; Tuberculosis, PulmonaryNone
Scopus2-s2.0-22744456563Tryptic digests of sorghum malt sprouts: Evaluation of their stimulatory roles during very-high-gravity ethanol fermentationEzeogu L.I., Okolo B.N., Ogbonna J.C.2005Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists63310.1094/ASBCJ-63-0121Brewing Science Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; Institute of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8572, Japan; Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South AfricaEzeogu, L.I., Brewing Science Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria, Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South Africa; Okolo, B.N., Brewing Science Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; Ogbonna, J.C., Institute of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8572, JapanTryptic digests of sprouts from two Nigerian sorghum cultivars were evaluated for their effects on very-high-gravity-fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae WY1006. Yeast growth, fermentation vigor, and ethanol production were considerably (P &lt; 0.05) enhanced by small amounts (1.25 to 6.25 g/L) of digests. CO2 emission rates after 24 hr were 48.3 to 69.2 mg/hr (Local White [TDSS-LW] digest) and 67.1 to 89.2 mg/hr (Local Red [TDSS-LR] digest) compared with 41.3 mg/hr in the unsupplemented control. Yeast growth increased 1.6- to 2.0- and 1.7- to 2.2-fold, respectively with TDSS-LW and TDSS-LR. At 83.7 to 105.0 and 102.0 to 128.8 g/L, respectively, TDSS-LW and TDSS-LR supported significantly (P &lt; 0.05) higher ethanol production than did the control (64.0 g/L). Final ethanol values with TDSS-LR were always (P &lt; 0.05) higher than those with TDSS-LW, but very comparable with values from yeast extract-supplemented media (105.9 to 137.5 g/L). Sprout digest concentrations supporting maximum ethanol production were 5.0 and 3.75 g/L, respectively for TDSS-LW and TDSS-LR. At 3.75 g/L or below, more ethanol was produced by yeast in media with TDSS-LR than was observed in corresponding yeast extract-containing media. Results suggest that tryptic digests of sorghum sprouts can serve as viable alternatives to expensive yeast extract in ethanologenic fermentation. © 2005 American Society of Brewing Chemists, Inc.Ethanol production; Fermentation vigor; Supplementation; Yeast growthSaccharomyces cerevisiaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84938288655Trypanosome infection in dromedary camels in Eastern Ethiopia: Prevalence, relative performance of diagnostic tools and host related risk factorsFikru R., Andualem Y., Getachew T., Menten J., Hasker E., Merga B., Goddeeris B.M., Büscher P.2015Veterinary Parasitology2114243310.1016/j.vetpar.2015.04.008College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 34, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia; Institute of Tropical Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nationalestraat 155, Antwerp, Belgium; KU Leuven, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department Biosystems, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, Leuven, Belgium; School of Veterinary Medicine, Wollo University, PO Box 1145, Dessie, Ethiopia; Institute of Tropical Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Nationalestraat 155, Antwerp, Belgium; Institute of Tropical Medicine, Department of Public Health, Nationalestraat 155, Antwerp, BelgiumFikru, R., College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 34, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nationalestraat 155, Antwerp, Belgium, KU Leuven, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department Biosystems, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, Leuven, Belgium; Andualem, Y., School of Veterinary Medicine, Wollo University, PO Box 1145, Dessie, Ethiopia; Getachew, T., College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 34, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia; Menten, J., Institute of Tropical Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Nationalestraat 155, Antwerp, Belgium; Hasker, E., Institute of Tropical Medicine, Department of Public Health, Nationalestraat 155, Antwerp, Belgium; Merga, B., College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 34, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia; Goddeeris, B.M., KU Leuven, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department Biosystems, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, Leuven, Belgium; Büscher, P., Institute of Tropical Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nationalestraat 155, Antwerp, BelgiumA cross-sectional study was conducted in Chifra and Dewe districts of Afar region, Eastern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence, agreement between diagnostic tests and host related risk factors of trypanosome infection in camel. An overall prevalence of 2%, 24.1%, 21.3%, 9.5% and 7.8% was recorded with respectively Giemsa stained thin blood smear, CATT/T. evansi, RoTat1.2 PCR, 18S PCR and ITS-1PCR in a cohort of 399 animals. Only one T. vivax infection was confirmed by TvPRAC PCR indicating T. evansi as the predominant species affecting camels in the study area. No single animal was positive when tested with T. evansi type B specific EVAB PCR. There was slight agreement between the CATT/T. evansi and the molecular tests. Among the PCR methods, RoTat 1.2 PCR yielded a significantly higher positivity rate compared to 18S PCR and ITS-1 PCR. There was no significant difference in the positivity rate observed in each gender of camels (p>0.05). The positivity rate was significantly higher in camels with poor body condition and in older animals when tested using the CATT/T.evansi or RoTat 1.2 PCR (p>0.05). Camels that tested positive with all tests had significantly lower PCV's (p<0.05). This study provides further evidence that T. evansi is endemic in the Afar region of Ethiopia. The latent class analysis indicated an estimate overall prevalence of 19% (95% CI: 13-28). Moreover, the model indicated low sensitivity of CATT/T. evansi (43%) and the PCR tests (39-53%) but higher specificity of the PCR tests (86-99%) and low specificity of CATT/T. evansi (80%). This study suggests that improved sensitivity and reliability of the tests would help diagnosis of trypanosomosis. Further studies are required to determine the prevalence of clinical disease and losses due to trypanosomosis. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.Dromedary camel; Ethiopia; Prevalence; Risk factor; Trypanosoma evansi; Trypanosoma vivax; Trypanosomosisanimal parasitosis; Article; blood smear; cohort analysis; controlled study; cross-sectional study; diagnostic accuracy; diagnostic test; diagnostic test accuracy study; diagnostic value; dromedary; Ethiopia; female; host parasite interaction; infection risk; male; nonhuman; parasite identification; parasite prevalence; polymerase chain reaction; risk assessment; risk factor; sensitivity and specificity; serology; Trypanosoma evansi; Trypanosoma vivax; trypanosomiasis; Animalia; Camelidae; Camelus dromedarius; Trypanosoma evansi; Trypanosoma vivaxNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78651314444Truck productivity, efficiency, energy use, and carbon dioxide output: Benchmarking of international performanceWoodrooffe J., Glaeser K.-P., Nordengen P.2010Transportation Research RecordNone216210.3141/2162-08Transportation Research Institute, University of Michigan, 2901 Baxter Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2150, United States; Bundesanstalt für Strassenwesen (BASt), Brüderstraße 53, Bergisch Gladbach, D-51427, Germany; CSIR, South Africa, Meiring Naudé Road, Pretoria, 0001, South AfricaWoodrooffe, J., Transportation Research Institute, University of Michigan, 2901 Baxter Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2150, United States; Glaeser, K.-P., Bundesanstalt für Strassenwesen (BASt), Brüderstraße 53, Bergisch Gladbach, D-51427, Germany; Nordengen, P., CSIR, South Africa, Meiring Naudé Road, Pretoria, 0001, South AfricaThe Joint Transport Research Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the International Transport Forum recently conducted a benchmarking study of the safety and productivity of typical highway transport trucks from various countries. This paper focuses on vehicle productivity and efficiency in regard to the movement of freight. Forty vehicles from 10 countries were examined. The vehicles were designed for longer-haul applications and were classified in three separate categories: workhorse vehicles, which are the most common and can travel on most roads; high-capacity vehicles, which may be restricted to a certain class of road; and very high-capacity vehicles, which may be restricted to specific highways or routes. The metrics used in the analysis include maximum cargo mass and volume capacity, optimum cargo density, fuel consumption, and carbon dioxide output as a function of the freight task. The study found that size and weight regulations have a significant effect on the productivity and efficiency of heavy vehicles, including fuel consumption and vehicle emissions per unit of cargo transported. Significant variations were found among the vehicles from participating countries as well as within vehicle classes. It was also apparent that, in general, higher-productivity vehicles are correlated more strongly with increased cargo volume than with increased cargo mass and that larger trucks are better suited to lower-density freight than are workhorse vehicles. The study also found that it is important to consider the freight task when evaluating vehicle fuel consumption and emissions.NoneCargo volume; Energy use; Heavy vehicle; High-capacity; International transport; Organisation for economic co-operation and development; Per unit; Transport research; Vehicle emission; Volume capacity; Automobiles; Benchmarking; Carbon dioxide; Fuels; International cooperation; Lead acid batteries; Productivity; Roads and streets; Steel metallurgy; Trucks; VehiclesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-45349092809Tropical vegetable (Amaranthus cruentus) leaf meal as alternative protein supplement in broiler starter diets: Bionutritional evaluationFasuyi A.O., Dairo F.A.S., Adeniji A.O.2008Journal of Central European Agriculture91NoneDepartment of Animal Production and Health Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, NigeriaFasuyi, A.O., Department of Animal Production and Health Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria; Dairo, F.A.S., Department of Animal Production and Health Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria; Adeniji, A.O., Department of Animal Production and Health Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, NigeriaAmaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM) were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%±0.55; crude fat, 5.4%±0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%±0.02; ash, 19.3%±0.01 and gross energy, 3.3±0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540). Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level) had the best average weight gain (WG) of 372.9±29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE) value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER) for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05) to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR) and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND) values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48±0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%±10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05). Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05). Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal; Antinutrients; Broiler chicken; Nitrogen utilizationAmaranthus; Amaranthus cruentus; AvesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77953120558Tropical cyclones in the SW Indian Ocean. Part 2: Structure and impacts at the event scaleChang-Seng D.S., Jury M.R.2010Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics1064243310.1007/s00703-010-0059-yInstitute for Environment and Human Security, United Nations University, Bonn, Germany; Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR, United States; University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South AfricaChang-Seng, D.S., Institute for Environment and Human Security, United Nations University, Bonn, Germany; Jury, M.R., Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR, United States, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South AfricaThe southwest Indian Ocean (5°-20°S, 45°-70°E) experiences frequent tropical cyclones (TC) in the December-March season. In this paper, TC composite and case-study structure and impacts are studied using daily oceanic and atmospheric fields from model-reanalyzed data, satellite remote sensing, and in situ station data. The TC environment is characterized according to mean track: W-, SW-, and S-moving. Case studies of TC are investigated, and impacts such as storm surge and rainfall are evaluated through comparison of 'real' and 'model' datasets in the period since 1998. The northern sub-tropical jet stream is found to influence the intensity and track of TC in the SWIO. The composite SW-moving TC maintains intensity compared to the other tracks, which decline in strength. Variability is found in TC rainfall distribution, with maximum intensity in a spiral band 1-2 days before peak intensity, based on satellite estimates. There is a re-establishment of equatorial rainfall in the case of southward moving TC after peak intensity. The W-moving TC lacks monsoon inflow compared to the recurving TC. Comparisons are made between low-resolution model-estimated rainfall, various satellite products, and station-observed rainfall. TC spiral rain-band intensity is found to be similar to that reported elsewhere in the tropics, based on a limited sample of TRMM PR data and station reports. The satellite-derived daily rainfall out-performs NCEP reanalysis due to low resolution and underestimated diabatic heating. Similarly, the circulation within a 300-km radius of the composite TC is poorly resolved by re-analysis; winds, swells, and storm surges are too low by a factor of two compared with QuikSCAT and in situ measurements. This work will offer ways to adjust operational forecasts of winds, rainfall, and swells around tropical cyclones, so that TC risk and impacts are better managed. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.Noneatmospheric structure; in situ measurement; jet stream; monsoon; precipitation intensity; QuikSCAT; seasonality; storm surge; storm track; tropical cyclone; Indian Ocean; Indian Ocean (Southwest)None
Scopus2-s2.0-84859938493Trophic status of Vondo and Albasini Dams; impacts on aquatic ecosystems and drinking waterOdiyo J.O., Chimuka L., Mamali M.A., Fatoki O.S.2012International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology9210.1007/s13762-012-0034-xSchool of Environmental Sciences, University of Venda, P/Bag X5050, Thohoyandou, South Africa; School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, WITS, Johannesburg, South Africa; Department of Water Affairs, Private Bag x 9506, Polokwane, 0700 Thohoyandou, South Africa; Faculty of Applied Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South AfricaOdiyo, J.O., School of Environmental Sciences, University of Venda, P/Bag X5050, Thohoyandou, South Africa; Chimuka, L., School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, WITS, Johannesburg, South Africa; Mamali, M.A., Department of Water Affairs, Private Bag x 9506, Polokwane, 0700 Thohoyandou, South Africa; Fatoki, O.S., Faculty of Applied Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South AfricaThe presence and levels of major nutrients in the water from Vondo and Albasini Dams and their water treatment plants have been assessed to determine trophic status of the dams and impacts on aquatic ecosystems and drinking water. Water quality parameters particularly phosphates and nitrates are critical in assessing the trophic status. Water quality parameters linked to eutrophication and agrochemicals were analyzed. Phosphate was undetectable in both dams. The nitrate levels in Albasini and Vondo Dams which were from 1.16 to 6.65 mg/L and 0.46 to 4.19 mg/L, respectively, were within and above the South African guideline for aquatic ecosystems of 2 mg/L. The raw water pH for Vondo and Albasini Dams were from 6.20 to 7.46 and 6.35 to 8.70, respectively, and were mostly within acceptable guidelines for aquatic ecosystems. The water transparency for Vondo and Albasini Dams were from 0.5 to 4.2 m and 0.4 to 0.9 m, respectively. The levels of all other water quality parameters investigated in both dams and their WTPs mostly indicate low, rarely high and no water quality problems in aquatic ecosystems and drinking water. The low levels of total suspended solids and water transparency, the pH range, low to high electrical conductivity, low to acceptable dissolved oxygen levels, acceptable to high biological oxygen demand and nitrate levels for both dams indicate oligotrophic to eutrophic states. Though oligotrophic state dominates, the mixture of trophic states has been attributed to increase in urbanization and intensive agriculture. © 2012 CEERS, IAU.Eutrophication; Oligotrophic and Eutrophic states; Physico-Chemical parameters; Water transparencyAquatic ecosystem; Biological oxygen demand; Dissolved oxygen levels; Eutrophic state; Low level; Low-to-high; Nitrate levels; pH range; Physicochemical parameters; Raw water; Total suspended solids; Trophic state; Trophic status; Water quality parameters; Water quality problems; Water transparency; Agricultural chemicals; Agriculture; Biochemical oxygen demand; Ecosystems; Electric conductivity; Eutrophication; Transparency; Water quality; DamsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84907953814Trophic level-based indicators to track fishing impacts across marine ecosystemsShannon L., Coll M., Bundy A., Gascuel D., Heymans J.J., Kleisner K., Lynam C.P., Piroddi C., Tam J., Travers-Trolet M., Shin Y.2014Marine Ecology Progress Series512None10.3354/meps10821Marine Research Institute, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, South Africa; Institut de Ciències del Mar (ICM-CSIC), Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta, 37-49, Barcelona, Spain; Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Ocean Ecosystem Science, PO Box 1006, Dartmouth, NS, Canada; Université Européenne de Bretagne, Agrocampus Ouest, UMR985 Écologie et Santé des Écosystèmes, 65 route de Saint Brieuc, CS 8421, Rennes cedex, France; Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, Argyll, United Kingdom; University of British Columbia, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada; National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Northeast Fisheries Science Center, 166 Water Street, Woods Hole, MA, United States; Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, United Kingdom; Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Via E. Fermi 2749, Ispra (VA), Italy; Instituto del Mar del Perú (IMARPE), Esquina Gamarra y Gral. Valle s/n, Apartado 22, Callao, Lima, Peru; IFREMER, Fisheries Laboratory, 150 quai Gambetta, BP699, Boulogne/mer, France; Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR EME 212, CRH, Avenue Jean Monnet, CS 30171, Sète cedex, FranceShannon, L., Marine Research Institute, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, South Africa; Coll, M., Institut de Ciències del Mar (ICM-CSIC), Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta, 37-49, Barcelona, Spain, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR EME 212, CRH, Avenue Jean Monnet, CS 30171, Sète cedex, France; Bundy, A., Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Ocean Ecosystem Science, PO Box 1006, Dartmouth, NS, Canada; Gascuel, D., Université Européenne de Bretagne, Agrocampus Ouest, UMR985 Écologie et Santé des Écosystèmes, 65 route de Saint Brieuc, CS 8421, Rennes cedex, France; Heymans, J.J., Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, Argyll, United Kingdom; Kleisner, K., University of British Columbia, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Northeast Fisheries Science Center, 166 Water Street, Woods Hole, MA, United States; Lynam, C.P., Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, United Kingdom; Piroddi, C., Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Via E. Fermi 2749, Ispra (VA), Italy; Tam, J., Instituto del Mar del Perú (IMARPE), Esquina Gamarra y Gral. Valle s/n, Apartado 22, Callao, Lima, Peru; Travers-Trolet, M., IFREMER, Fisheries Laboratory, 150 quai Gambetta, BP699, Boulogne/mer, France; Shin, Y., Marine Research Institute, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, South Africa, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR EME 212, CRH, Avenue Jean Monnet, CS 30171, Sète cedex, FranceTrophic level (TL)-based indicators have been widely used to examine fishing impacts in aquatic ecosystems and the induced biodiversity changes. However, much debate has ensued regarding discrepancies and challenges arising from the use of landings data from commercial fisheries to calculate TL indicators. Subsequent studies have started to examine survey-based and model-based indicators. In this paper, we undertake an extensive evaluation of a variety of TL indicators across 9 well-studied marine ecosystems by making use of model- as well as surveyand catch-based TL indicators. Using detailed regional information and data on fishing history, fishing intensity, and environmental conditions, we evaluate how well TL indicators are capturing fishing effects at the community level of marine ecosystems. Our results highlight that the differences observed between TL indicator values and trends is dependent on the data source and the TL cut-off point used in the calculations and is not attributable to an intrinsic problem with TLbased indicators. All 3 data sources provide useful information about the structural changes in the ecosystem as a result of fishing, but our results indicate that only model-based indicators represent fishing impacts at the whole ecosystem level. © Inter-Research and Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2014Catch; Convention on biological diversity; Ecosystem approach to fisheries; Ecosystem model; Food webs; Global comparison; Indicator; Survey; Trophic level; Trophic spectrabiodiversity; bioindicator; commercial species; data set; ecological modeling; ecosystem modeling; environmental conditions; fishery management; fishing; food web; marine ecosystem; survey; trophic levelM1228, Defra, Fisheries and Oceans Canada; DFO, Fisheries and Oceans Canada; DST, Fisheries and Oceans Canada; EC, Fisheries and Oceans Canada; NRF, Fisheries and Oceans Canada; PEW, Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Scopus2-s2.0-50349102618Trophallactic activities in the honeybee brood nest - Heaters get supplied with high performance fuelBasile R., Pirk C.W.W., Tautz J.2008Zoology111610.1016/j.zool.2007.11.002BEEgroup, Department of Zoology II, Behavioral Physiology and Sociobiology, Biocenter, Julius-Maximilians-University, D-97074 Würzburg, Germany; Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South AfricaBasile, R., BEEgroup, Department of Zoology II, Behavioral Physiology and Sociobiology, Biocenter, Julius-Maximilians-University, D-97074 Würzburg, Germany; Pirk, C.W.W., Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South Africa; Tautz, J., BEEgroup, Department of Zoology II, Behavioral Physiology and Sociobiology, Biocenter, Julius-Maximilians-University, D-97074 Würzburg, GermanyHoneybees actively regulate their brood temperature by heating between 33 and 36 °C if ambient temperatures are lower. Heat is generated by vibrating the flight muscles. Heating rapidly depletes the worker's internal energy; therefore heating performance is limited by the honey that is ingested before the heating process. Stored honey is the predefined fuel for flying and heating, but it is stored at a distance from the broodcomb, causing a potential logistic problem of efficient energy supply in the brood area. Our study focused on the behaviour and the thoracic temperature of the participants in trophallactic food exchanges on the broodcomb. We found that 85.5% of the recipients in a trophallactic food exchange have a higher thoracic temperature during feeding contacts than donors and after the feeding contact the former engage in brood heating more often. The donor bees have lower thoracic temperature and shuttle constantly between honey stores and the broodcomb where they transfer the stored honey to heating bees. Providing heat-emitting workers with small doses of high performance fuel contributes to an economic distribution of resources consistent with physiological conditions of the bees and the ecological requirements of the hive. The trophallaxis-based system is essential to provide the energy-intensive brood warming activity. The emerging independence from ambient temperatures is not only beneficial for brood rearing during times of sudden cold spells, but also enables the honeybees in temperate regions to raise brood in early spring and might be the decisive factor for the occurrence of honeybees in temperate climates in general. © 2008 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.Apis mellifera; Brood heating; Food exchange; Trophallaxisanimal; article; bee; body temperature; feeding behavior; heat; honey; nesting; physiology; social behavior; thermoregulation; Animals; Bees; Body Temperature; Body Temperature Regulation; Feeding Behavior; Honey; Hot Temperature; Nesting Behavior; Social Behavior; Apis mellifera; ApoideaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-75749140517Trombe wall redesign for a poultry chick brooding application in the equatorial region - analysis of the thermal performance of the system using the Galerkin finite elementsNwosu N.P.2010International Journal of Sustainable Energy29110.1080/14786450903295861National Center for Energy Research and Development (NCERD), Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, NigeriaNwosu, N.P., National Center for Energy Research and Development (NCERD), Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, NigeriaThe vertical Trombe wall configuration with a pole-facing orientation is a relatively inadequate design for the equatorial climatic belt. In this work, a hemispherical, passive design is proposed for a poultry brooding enterprise in the region. An analysis is undertaken of the heat transfer balance across the wall; it is found that improvement in the absorptive and storage capacity of the wall is enhanced with high absorptive coating quality, also, the thermal condition of the brooding space, which is fed by the stored heat, is enhanced by a low convection heat transfer coefficient. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.Galerkin finite elements; Poultry brooding; Solar; TrombeCoating quality; Convection heat transfer coefficients; Equatorial regions; Galerkin finite elements; Inadequate design; Passive design; Storage capacity; Thermal condition; Thermal Performance; Trombe wall; Galerkin methods; Heat convection; Heat exchangers; Finite element method; brood rearing; design; equipment; finite element method; Galerkin method; heat balance; heat transfer; poultry; solar power; solar radiationNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84928400347Triple return on investment: The cost and impact of 13 interventions that could prevent stillbirths and save the lives of mothers and babies in South AfricaMichalow J., Chola L., McGee S., Tugendhaft A., Pattinson R., Kerber K., Hofman K.2015BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth15110.1186/s12884-015-0456-9Priority Cost-Effective Lessons for Systems Strengthening-South Africa (PRICELESS SA), Medical Research Council/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transition Research Unit (Agincourt), Johannesburg, South Africa; School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 27 St Andrews Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa; Medical Research Council Maternal and Infant Health Care Strategies Research Unit, University of Pretoria, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pretoria, South Africa; Save the Children, Cape Town, South AfricaMichalow, J., Priority Cost-Effective Lessons for Systems Strengthening-South Africa (PRICELESS SA), Medical Research Council/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transition Research Unit (Agincourt), Johannesburg, South Africa, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 27 St Andrews Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa; Chola, L., Priority Cost-Effective Lessons for Systems Strengthening-South Africa (PRICELESS SA), Medical Research Council/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transition Research Unit (Agincourt), Johannesburg, South Africa, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 27 St Andrews Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa; McGee, S., Priority Cost-Effective Lessons for Systems Strengthening-South Africa (PRICELESS SA), Medical Research Council/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transition Research Unit (Agincourt), Johannesburg, South Africa, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 27 St Andrews Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa; Tugendhaft, A., Priority Cost-Effective Lessons for Systems Strengthening-South Africa (PRICELESS SA), Medical Research Council/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transition Research Unit (Agincourt), Johannesburg, South Africa, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 27 St Andrews Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa; Pattinson, R., Medical Research Council Maternal and Infant Health Care Strategies Research Unit, University of Pretoria, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pretoria, South Africa; Kerber, K., Save the Children, Cape Town, South Africa; Hofman, K., Priority Cost-Effective Lessons for Systems Strengthening-South Africa (PRICELESS SA), Medical Research Council/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transition Research Unit (Agincourt), Johannesburg, South Africa, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 27 St Andrews Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South AfricaBackground: The time of labor, birth and the first days of life are the most vulnerable period for mothers and children. Despite significant global advocacy, there is insufficient understanding of the investment required to save additional lives. In particular, stillbirths have been neglected. Over 20 000 stillbirths are recorded annually in South Africa, many of which could be averted. This analysis examines available South Africa specific stillbirth data and evaluates the impact and cost-effectiveness of 13 interventions acknowledged to prevent stillbirths and maternal and newborn mortality. Methods: Multiple data sources were reviewed to evaluate changes in stillbirth rates since 2000. The intervention analysis used the Lives Saved tool (LiST) and the Family Planning module (FamPlan) in Spectrum. LiST was used to determine the number of stillbirths and maternal and neonatal deaths that could be averted by scaling up the interventions to full coverage (99%) in 2030. The impact of family planning was assessed by increasing FamPlan's default 70% coverage of modern contraception to 75% and 80% coverage. Total and incremental costs were determined in the LiST costing module. Cost-effectiveness measured incremental cost effectiveness ratios per potential life years gained. Results: Significant variability exists in national stillbirth data. Using the international stillbirth definition, the SBR was 17.6 per 1 000 births in 2013. Full coverage of the 13 interventions in 2030 could reduce the SBR by 30% to 12.4 per 1 000 births, leading to an MMR of 132 per 100 000 and an NMR of 7 per 1 000 live births. Increased family planning coverage reduces the number of deaths significantly. The full intervention package, with 80% family planning coverage in 2030, would require US$420 million (US$7.8 per capita) annually, which is less than baseline costs of US$550 million (US$10.2 per capita). All interventions were highly cost-effective. Conclusion: This is the first analysis in South Africa to assess the impact of scaling up interventions to avert stillbirths. Improved coverage of 13 interventions that are already recommended could significantly impact the rates of stillbirth and maternal and neonatal mortality. Family planning should also be prioritized to reduce mortality and overall costs. © 2015 Michalow et al.; licensee BioMed Central.Child health; Cost analysis; Maternal health; South Africa; Stillbirthsmagnesium sulfate; tetanus toxoid; antibiotic therapy; Article; case management; child care; corticosteroid therapy; cost effectiveness analysis; delivery; early diagnosis; family planning; health care cost; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; immunization; intrauterine growth retardation; labor; maternal care; maternal diabetes mellitus; maternal hypertension; mortality; newborn; newborn death; obstetric procedure; preeclampsia; prematurity; prenatal care; resuscitation; South Africa; stillbirth; syphilis; third trimester pregnancyNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84924350478Trinuclear half-sandwich RuII, RhIII and IrIII polyester organometallic complexes: Synthesis and in vitro evaluation as antitumor agentsBurgoyne A.R., Makhubela B.C.E., Meyer M., Smith G.S.2015European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry2015810.1002/ejic.201403192Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Biotechnology, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town, South AfricaBurgoyne, A.R., Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa; Makhubela, B.C.E., Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa; Meyer, M., Department of Biotechnology, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa; Smith, G.S., Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South AfricaSchiff base ligands obtained from the condensation of 4-aminophenylmethanol and either 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde or salicylaldehyde were used to synthesise bidentate trimeric ester ligands. The trimeric ester ligands were used to prepare a new series of trinuclear polyester organometallic complexes by using the dimeric precursors, [Ru(η6-p-iPrC6H4Me)Cl2]2, [Rh(C5Me5)Cl2]2 or [Ir(C5Me5)Cl2]2. The Schiff base ligands act as bidentate donors to each metal. All compounds were characterised by NMR and IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and EI/ESI mass spectrometry. Model mononuclear analogues were prepared, and the molecular structures of selected compounds were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The mono- and trimeric ligands and the metal complexes were evaluated for inhibitory effects against the human ovarian cancer cell lines, A2780 (cisplatin-sensitive) and A2780cisR (cisplatin-resistant), and the model human skin fibroblast cell line, KMST-6. Polyester-containing trinuclear half-sandwich RuII, RhIII and IrIII complexes were prepared and characterised. The cytotoxicity was investigated for all compounds. Aqueous stability studies and interactions with model DNA 5′-GMP were performed for the most-active compounds. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.Antitumor agents; Bioorganometallic chemistry; Half-sandwich complexes; PolyestersNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-69549092745Trends in productivity of crops, fallow and rangelands in Southwest Niger: Impact of land use, management and variable rainfallHiernaux P., Ayantunde A., Kalilou A., Mougin E., Gérard B., Baup F., Grippa M., Djaby B.2009Journal of Hydrology3754237110.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.01.032CESBIO, 18 Avenue E. Belin b.p.i. 2801, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France; ILRI, ICRISAT Research Station, B.P. 320, Samanko, Bamako, Mali; ILRI, ICRISAT Sahelian Centre, B.P. 12404, Niamey, Niger; IRD, B.P. 2528, Hippodrome 238 Rue, 234 Bamako, Mali; ILRI, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Environment Sciences and Management Dpt., Univ. of Liège, Arlon, BelgiumHiernaux, P., CESBIO, 18 Avenue E. Belin b.p.i. 2801, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France; Ayantunde, A., ILRI, ICRISAT Research Station, B.P. 320, Samanko, Bamako, Mali; Kalilou, A., ILRI, ICRISAT Sahelian Centre, B.P. 12404, Niamey, Niger; Mougin, E., CESBIO, 18 Avenue E. Belin b.p.i. 2801, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France, IRD, B.P. 2528, Hippodrome 238 Rue, 234 Bamako, Mali; Gérard, B., ILRI, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Baup, F., CESBIO, 18 Avenue E. Belin b.p.i. 2801, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France; Grippa, M., CESBIO, 18 Avenue E. Belin b.p.i. 2801, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France; Djaby, B., Environment Sciences and Management Dpt., Univ. of Liège, Arlon, BelgiumTo document trends in land use and herbaceous production, 71 field sites sampled among cropped fields, fallow fields and rangelands in the Fakara region (Niger) were monitored from 1994 to 2006. The overall trend in land use confirmed the historical increase of the cropped areas since mid 20th century, at an annual rate of 2% from 1994 to 2006. This trend is the result of changes in the relative extent of fields permanently cropped and fields under shifting cultivation, and for the latter, the relative proportion of short (3 years) and long (10 years) duration fallows. Type of land use together with topography and soil type determine the herbaceous production and the resulting yield measured towards the end of the wet season. The variation in site yields between years is of the same order of magnitude as the variation in yields between sites within a year. There is an overall decreasing trend in site yields by 5% annually from 1994 to 2006 that is not explained by variations in rainfall. The decreasing trend is observed on fields under shifting cultivation, fallowed fields and rangelands, although not all sites are equally affected. Causes are likely to be multiple which might include changes in land use, decline of soil fertility and increased grazing pressure. Indeed, the remaining rangelands on marginal land and the fallows still accessible to livestock are subject to such a heavy grazing during the rainy season that the herbaceous standing mass measured at the end of the season reflects poorly the actual production. After the two first years of cropping, the herbaceous yield in fields under shifting cultivation with no fertilisation is negatively affected by the number of successive years of cropping. Moreover, clearing fallow after a decreasing number of years affects the mean herbaceous yield of fallowed fields by reducing the contribution of more productive old fallows. Changes in land use, grazing pressure and soil fertility also triggered changes in species composition with a strong reduction in diversity from rangelands to fallows, and again from fallows to cropland weeds. No correlations was found however between productivity and species composition. Cumulative rainfall does not explain between site or between year deviations in herbaceous yield even when sites are sorted by land use type or by soil type in the case of fallow and rangelands. Simulated production calculated with the STEP model does not explain herbaceous yields much better even when sites are grouped by land use and soil type. However, relative changes of herbaceous yields are reasonably predicted on sites that remained fallowed and were not heavily grazed for at least four consecutive years. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Fallows; Land use; Millet crops; Sahel; Vegetation dynamics; Vegetation growth modellingFallows; Millet crops; Sahel; Vegetation dynamics; Vegetation growth modelling; Crops; Fertilizers; Geologic models; Productivity; Rain; Soil surveys; Soils; Vegetation; Land use; crop production; crop yield; fallow; growth modeling; land management; land use; land use change; millet; rainfall; rangeland; shifting cultivation; soil fertility; topographic effect; vegetation dynamics; Africa; Fakara; Niger [West Africa]; Sub-Saharan Africa; Tillaberi; West AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84863422439Trends in consultation and public participation within environmental impact assessment in KenyaMwenda A.N., Bregt A.K., Ligtenberg A., Kibutu T.N.2012Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal30210.1080/14615517.2012.668075Laboratory of Geo-Information Science and Remote Sensing, Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO BOX 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen, Netherlands; Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, PO BOX 62157-00200, Nairobi, KenyaMwenda, A.N., Laboratory of Geo-Information Science and Remote Sensing, Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO BOX 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen, Netherlands; Bregt, A.K., Laboratory of Geo-Information Science and Remote Sensing, Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO BOX 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen, Netherlands; Ligtenberg, A., Laboratory of Geo-Information Science and Remote Sensing, Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO BOX 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen, Netherlands; Kibutu, T.N., Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, PO BOX 62157-00200, Nairobi, KenyaThe objective of this study was to document trends in public participation within environmental impact assessment (EIA) in Kenya, using a Consultation and Public Participation Index (CPPI) developed for the analysis of EIA Study Reports submitted to the Environment Authority between 2002 and 2010. Results indicated that public participation remained relatively low, with the highest score of 1.65 in 2010, out of a possible score of 5. Scores for individual dimensions within the index fluctuated during the study period, with participation methods and type of participants scoring the highest, following increased emphasis by the Environment Authority on the conducting and reporting of public participation. This was followed by venue, notification and language used, in that order, which were often not reported, and, when reported, choices per dimension were limited. This is the first time this index has been used, yet it serves as a good starting point to evaluate public participation within EIA. © 2012 Copyright IAIA.Consultation and Public Participation Index (CPPI); environmental impact assessment (EIA); Kenya; public participationenvironmental impact assessment; environmental planning; local participation; KenyaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84941646622Trend analysis in climatic variables and impacts on rice yield in NigeriaAkinbile C.O., Akinlade G.M., Abolude A.T.2015Journal of Water and Climate Change6310.2166/wcc.2015.044Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, NigeriaAkinbile, C.O., Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria; Akinlade, G.M., Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria; Abolude, A.T., Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, NigeriaThe effects of changes in meteorological parameters on rice yield variations were considered. Weather parameters, temperature (T), rainfall (R), relative humidity (RH) and solar radiation (SR), and rice yield variation for Ibadan were analyzed. Meteorological parameters were obtained from the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture while rice yield data were obtained from the Africa Rice Centre both in Nigeria for three decades (1980-2010). Trends analysis of past and recent variations using the weather parameters obtained showed trends of variability of each parameter with respect to rice yield. Mann-Kendall trend and Sen's slope tests were performed on the respective meteorological variables while correlation, multiple regression and variability index (VI) were also computed for these parameters. Results showed that T, RH and rice yield were negative and decreased significantly (P < 0.001) while R and SR showed statistically non-significant increasing trends in the last three decades. R and T decreased at the rate of 3% per year and 0.03% per decade, respectively. Results of annual VI showed that decreases observed in RH, SR and rice yield were rather recent. T, SR and R were found to have the most significant effect on rice yield of all the meteorological parameters considered. © IWA Publishing 2015.Nigeria; Rice yield; Trend analysis; Weather parametersClimate change; Meteorological parameters; Meteorological variables; Multiple regressions; Nigeria; Rice yield; Trend analysis; Tropical agriculture; Weather parameters; Balloons; climate change; climate effect; crop yield; multiple regression; rice; trend analysis; Ibadan; Nigeria; OyoNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84896697922Traumatic events and their relative PTSD burden in Northern Ireland: A consideration of the impact of the 'Troubles'Ferry F., Bunting B., Murphy S., O'Neill S., Stein D., Koenen K.2014Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology49310.1007/s00127-013-0757-0Bamford Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing, University of Ulster, Magee Campus, Northland Road, Londonderry BT48 7JL, United Kingdom; Bamford Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing, University of Ulster, Londonderry, United Kingdom; Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, United StatesFerry, F., Bamford Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing, University of Ulster, Magee Campus, Northland Road, Londonderry BT48 7JL, United Kingdom; Bunting, B., Bamford Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing, University of Ulster, Londonderry, United Kingdom; Murphy, S., Bamford Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing, University of Ulster, Londonderry, United Kingdom; O'Neill, S., Bamford Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing, University of Ulster, Londonderry, United Kingdom; Stein, D., Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Koenen, K., Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, United StatesPurpose: Over a 30-year period in its recent history, daily life in Northern Ireland (NI) was characterised by civil violence, colloquially termed as the 'Troubles'. The current report examines exposure to 29 traumatic event types and the associated conditional prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among the Northern Ireland population, with a focus on the impact of traumatic events that were characteristic of the NI 'Troubles'. Method: Results presented are based on analysis of data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress (NISHS). The NISHS is a representative epidemiological study of mental health among the NI adult population (N = 4,340) and part of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Results: Perpetration of violence, physical assault by a spouse or partner and private events were the event types associated with the highest conditional prevalence of PTSD. Despite this elevated risk, collectively these events accounted for just 16.8 % of the overall public burden of PTSD, given their low prevalence among the general population. Events that were characteristic of civil conflict, including unexpected death of a loved one, witnessing death or a dead body or someone seriously injured and being mugged or threatened with a weapon accounted for the highest proportion of the overall public health burden of PTSD (18.6, 9.4 and 7.8 %, respectively). These findings are a feature of the higher prevalence of these events among the general population coupled with their moderate to above average risk of PTSD. Conclusions: Despite the formal end to conflict in NI in 1999, a substantial proportion of the adult population continue to suffer the adverse mental health effects of chronic trauma exposure. Given rates of recovery of PTSD in the absence of evidence-based treatments, it is likely that the legacy of mental ill health associated with conflict, if not adequately addressed, will endure for many years. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Conflict; Mental health; Northern Ireland; PTSD; Traumaadult; aged; article; cost of illness; female; human; male; mental health; mental stress; middle aged; posttraumatic stress disorder; prevalence; psychological aspect; statistics; United Kingdom; violence; Adult; Aged; Cost of Illness; Female; Humans; Male; Mental Health; Middle Aged; Northern Ireland; Prevalence; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic; Stress, Psychological; ViolenceR01 MH070884, NIMH, National Institute of Mental Health; R01 MH093612-01, NIMH, National Institute of Mental Health; R03- TW006481, FIC, Fogarty International Center
NoneNoneTransmission Assessment Surveys (TAS) to Define Endpoints for Lymphatic Filariasis Mass Drug Administration: A Multicenter EvaluationChu B.K., Deming M., Biritwum N.-K., Bougma W.R., Dorkenoo A.M., El-Setouhy M., Fischer P.U., Gass K., Gonzalez de Peña M., Mercado-Hernandez L., Kyelem D., Lammie P.J., Flueckiger R.M., Mwingira U.J., Noordin R., Offei Owusu I., Ottesen E.A., Pavluck A.,2013PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases71210.1371/journal.pntd.0002584Neglected Tropical Diseases Support Center, Task Force for Global Health, Decatur, GA, United States; Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States; Department of Public Health, Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana; Programme National d'Élimination de la Filariose Lymphatique, Ministère de la Santé, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; Programme National d'Élimination de la Filariose Lymphatique, Ministère de la Santé, Lomé, Togo; Department of Community, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; Infectious Diseases Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States; Centro National de Control de Enfermedades Tropicales, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic; Infectious Disease Office, National Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Manila, Philippines; Neglected Tropical Diseases Control Programme, National institute for Medical Research, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; Epidemiology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Legon, Ghana; Department of Biological Sciences, Smith College, Northampton, MA, United States; Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States; Anti Filariasis Campaign, Ministry of Health, Colombo, Sri Lanka; Division of Community and Natural Resources, American Samoa Community College, Pago Pago, American Samoa; University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Parasitology, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia; Neglected Tropical Diseases Unit, Public Health Directorate, Port Vila, VanuatuChu, B.K., Neglected Tropical Diseases Support Center, Task Force for Global Health, Decatur, GA, United States; Deming, M., Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States; Biritwum, N.-K., Department of Public Health, Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana; Bougma, W.R., Programme National d'Élimination de la Filariose Lymphatique, Ministère de la Santé, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; Dorkenoo, A.M., Programme National d'Élimination de la Filariose Lymphatique, Ministère de la Santé, Lomé, Togo; El-Setouhy, M., Department of Community, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; Fischer, P.U., Infectious Diseases Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States; Gass, K., Neglected Tropical Diseases Support Center, Task Force for Global Health, Decatur, GA, United States; Gonzalez de Peña, M., Centro National de Control de Enfermedades Tropicales, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic; Mercado-Hernandez, L., Infectious Disease Office, National Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Manila, Philippines; Kyelem, D., Neglected Tropical Diseases Support Center, Task Force for Global Health, Decatur, GA, United States; Lammie, P.J., Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States; Flueckiger, R.M., Neglected Tropical Diseases Support Center, Task Force for Global Health, Decatur, GA, United States; Mwingira, U.J., Neglected Tropical Diseases Control Programme, National institute for Medical Research, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Noordin, R., Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; Offei Owusu, I., Epidemiology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Legon, Ghana; Ottesen, E.A., Neglected Tropical Diseases Support Center, Task Force for Global Health, Decatur, GA, United States; Pavluck, A., Neglected Tropical Diseases Support Center, Task Force for Global Health, Decatur, GA, United States; Pilotte, N., Department of Biological Sciences, Smith College, Northampton, MA, United States; Rao, R.U., Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States; Samarasekera, D., Anti Filariasis Campaign, Ministry of Health, Colombo, Sri Lanka; Schmaedick, M.A., Division of Community and Natural Resources, American Samoa Community College, Pago Pago, American Samoa; Settinayake, S., Anti Filariasis Campaign, Ministry of Health, Colombo, Sri Lanka; Simonsen, P.E., University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Supali, T., Department of Parasitology, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia; Taleo, F., Neglected Tropical Diseases Unit, Public Health Directorate, Port Vila, Vanuatu; Torres, M., Department of Biological Sciences, Smith College, Northampton, MA, United States; Weil, G.J., Infectious Diseases Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States; Won, K.Y., Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United StatesBackground:Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for global elimination through treatment of entire at-risk populations with repeated annual mass drug administration (MDA). Essential for program success is defining and confirming the appropriate endpoint for MDA when transmission is presumed to have reached a level low enough that it cannot be sustained even in the absence of drug intervention. Guidelines advanced by WHO call for a transmission assessment survey (TAS) to determine if MDA can be stopped within an LF evaluation unit (EU) after at least five effective rounds of annual treatment. To test the value and practicality of these guidelines, a multicenter operational research trial was undertaken in 11 countries covering various geographic and epidemiological settings.Methodology:The TAS was conducted twice in each EU with TAS-1 and TAS-2 approximately 24 months apart. Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) formed the basis of the TAS survey design but specific EU characteristics defined the survey site (school or community), eligible population (6-7 year olds or 1st-2nd graders), survey type (systematic or cluster-sampling), target sample size, and critical cutoff (a statistically powered threshold below which transmission is expected to be no longer sustainable). The primary diagnostic tools were the immunochromatographic (ICT) test for W. bancrofti EUs and the BmR1 test (Brugia Rapid or PanLF) for Brugia spp. EUs.Principal Findings/Conclusions:In 10 of 11 EUs, the number of TAS-1 positive cases was below the critical cutoff, indicating that MDA could be stopped. The same results were found in the follow-up TAS-2, therefore, confirming the previous decision outcome. Sample sizes were highly sex and age-representative and closely matched the target value after factoring in estimates of non-participation. The TAS was determined to be a practical and effective evaluation tool for stopping MDA although its validity for longer-term post-MDA surveillance requires further investigation.Nonealbendazole; diethylcarbamazine; article; Brugia; child; female; health survey; human; immunoaffinity chromatography; lymphatic filariasis; male; Microfilaria; multicenter study; polymerase chain reaction; quality control; school child; Transmission Assessment Survey; Wuchereria bancrofti; Animals; Brugia; Child; Disease Transmission, Infectious; Elephantiasis, Filarial; Epidemiological Monitoring; Female; Filaricides; Humans; Male; WolbachiaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84941550684Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation of yoruba version of the short-form 36 health surveyMbada C.E., Adeogun G.A., Ogunlana M.O., Adedoyin R.A., Akinsulore A., Awotidebe T.O., Idowu O.A., Olaoye O.A.2015Health and Quality of Life Outcomes13110.1186/s12955-015-0337-yObafemi Awolowo University, Department of Medical Rehabilitation, College of Health Sciences, Ile - Ife, Nigeria; African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi, Kenya; University of Ibadan, Department of Physiotherapy, College of Medicine, NigeriMbada, C.E., Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Medical Rehabilitation, College of Health Sciences, Ile - Ife, Nigeria, African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi, Kenya; Adeogun, G.A., Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Medical Rehabilitation, College of Health Sciences, Ile - Ife, Nigeria; Ogunlana, M.O., University of Ibadan, Department of Physiotherapy, College of Medicine, Nigeria, Nigeria; Adedoyin, R.A., Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Medical Rehabilitation, College of Health Sciences, Ile - Ife, Nigeria; Akinsulore, A., Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Mental Health, College of Health Sciences, Ile - Ife, Nigeria; Awotidebe, T.O., Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Medical Rehabilitation, College of Health Sciences, Ile - Ife, Nigeria; Idowu, O.A., Department of Physiotherapy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria; Olaoye, O.A., Obafemi Awolowo University, Department of Medical Rehabilitation, College of Health Sciences, Ile - Ife, NigeriaBackground and objective: The Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) is a valid quality of life tool often employed to determine the impact of medical intervention and the outcome of health care services. However, the SF-36 is culturally sensitive which necessitates its adaptation and translation into different languages. This study was conducted to cross-culturally adapt the SF-36 into Yoruba language and determine its reliability and validity. Methods: Based on the International Quality of Life Assessment project guidelines, a sequence of translation, test of item-scale correlation, and validation was implemented for the translation of the Yoruba version of the SF-36. Following pilot testing, the English and the Yoruba versions of the SF-36 were administered to a random sample of 1087 apparently healthy individuals to test validity and 249 respondents completed the Yoruba SF-36 again after two weeks to test reliability. Data was analyzed using Pearson's product moment correlation analysis, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance, multi trait scaling analysis and Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) at p < 0.05. Results: The concurrent validity scores for scales and domains ranges between 0.749 and 0.902 with the highest and lowest scores in the General Health (0.902) and Bodily Pain (0.749) scale. Scale-level descriptive result showed that all scale and domain scores had negative skewness ranging from -2.08 to -0.98. The mean scores for each scales ranges between 83.2 and 88.8. The domain scores for Physical Health Component and Mental Health Component were 85.6 ± 13.7 and 85.9 ± 15.4 respectively. The convergent validity was satisfactory, ranging from 0.421 to 0.907. Discriminant validity was also satisfactory except for item '1'. The ICC for the test-retest reliability of the Yoruba SF-36 ranges between 0.636 and 0.843 for scales; and 0.783 and 0.851 for domains. Conclusion: The data quality, concurrent and discriminant validity, reliability and internal consistency of the Yoruba version of the SF-36 are adequate and it is recommended for measuring health-related quality of life among Yoruba population. © 2015 Mbada et al.Cultural adaptation; Health-related quality of life; Psychometric properties; Translation; Yoruba SF-36adult; Article; concurrent validity; convergent validity; correlation coefficient; cultural factor; cultural psychiatry; discriminant validity; female; General Health Questionnaire; health status; human; internal consistency; major clinical study; male; mental health; middle aged; practice guideline; psychometry; quality of life; scoring system; Short Form 36; social adaptation; test retest reliability; translational research; validation study; Yoruba (people); aged; cultural factor; health status; health status indicator; Nigeria; outcome assessment; pain; psychometry; publication; questionnaire; reproducibility; standards; young adult; Adult; Aged; Cross-Cultural Comparison; Female; Health Status; Health Status Indicators; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Nigeria; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Pain; Psychometrics; Quality of Life; Reproducibility of Results; Surveys and Questionnaires; Translations; Young AdultNone
NoneNoneTransition of Shifting Cultivation and its Impact on People's Livelihoods in the Miombo Woodlands of Northern Zambia and South-Western TanzaniaGrogan K., Birch-Thomsen T., Lyimo J.2013Human Ecology41110.1007/s10745-012-9537-9Department of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Resources Assessment, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaGrogan, K., Department of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Birch-Thomsen, T., Department of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Lyimo, J., Institute of Resources Assessment, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaShifting cultivation has long been a major livelihood for people in the miombo woodlands of southern, central and eastern Africa. However, increasing deforestation and forest degradation throughout the region are resulting in growing pressure on traditional shifting agricultural systems. Indeed, agricultural intensification and expansion itself is considered the primary cause of miombo deterioration, which is driven by both endogenous and exogenous variables operating at various scales. On the basis of data collected in the 1990s and 2010 from two villages in Northern Province, Zambia and two in the Rukwa Region, Tanzania, the paper will document the transition of shifting cultivation towards more intensive land use practices. It is argued that the main drivers influencing miombo degradation, and thereby the transition process of traditional shifting cultivation practices, have been a growing population, government policies, and an increasing commercialization/market integration. Questionnaires, focus group meetings, and in-depth interviews reveal that despite the breakdown of the traditional shifting cultivation practices, a general improvement of livelihoods has taken place. This has happened through adaptation and diversification in both agricultural practices and livelihood activities. However, it is also seen that because of the often rapidly changing external factors (market conditions and policies), life in the shifting cultivation communities involves a continual shift of emphasis among a variety of livelihood strategies. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.Diversification; Livelihoods; Miombo woodland; Shifting cultivation; Tanzania; Transition; Zambiaagricultural intensification; agricultural practice; deforestation; land use; shifting cultivation; traditional agriculture; woodland; Northern Province [Zambia]; Rukwa; Tanzania; ZambiaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84863743000Transient analysis and performance prediction of nocturnal radiative cooling of a building in Owerri, NigeriaNwaigwe K.N., Okoronkwo C.A., Ogueke N.V., Ugwuoke P.E., Anyanwu E.E.2012Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology415NoneSchool of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State, Nigeria; National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, NigeriaNwaigwe, K.N., School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State, Nigeria; Okoronkwo, C.A., School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State, Nigeria; Ogueke, N.V., School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State, Nigeria; Ugwuoke, P.E., National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; Anyanwu, E.E., School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State, NigeriaA study aimed at a Transient analysis and performance prediction of passive cooling of a building using long wave nocturnal radiation in Owerri, Nigeria are presented. The system modeled consists of the room of a building with a radiator panel attached to its roof, water storage tank located inside the room, pump to circulate water through the radiator panel at night and through a heat exchanger in the room during the day. The mathematical model is based on the thermal radiation properties of the local atmosphere, the heat exchange equations of the radiator panel with the sky during the night and the equations incorporating the relevant heat transfers within the space to be cooled during the day. The resulting equations were transformed into explicit finite difference forms for easy implementation on a personal computer in MATLAB language. This numerical model permits the evaluation of the rate of heat removal from the water storage tank through the radiator panel surface area, Q wt, out, temperature depression between the ambient and room temperatures (T amb-T rm) and total heat gained by water in the storage tank from the space to be cooled through the action of the convector during the day, Q wt, in. The resulting rate of heat removal from the radiator gave a value of 57.6 W/m 2, temperature depression was predicted to within 1-1.5°C and the rate of heat gain by the storage water was 60 W/m 2. A sensitivity analysis of the system parameters to ±25% of the base case input values was carried out and the results given as a percentage variation of the above system performance parameters showed consistency to the base case results. An optimal scheme for the modeled 3.0×3.0×2.5 m 3 room showed a radiator area of 18.2 m 2, a convector area of 28.62 m 2 and a tank volume of 1.57 m 3. These results show that passive nocturnal cooling technique is a promising solution to the cooling needs for preservation of food and other agricultural produce. It is also useful in small office space cooling. Thus the model developed is undoubtedly a useful design tool for the development of passive cooling systems that can reduce considerably the huge cooling cost requirements of mechanical air conditioning systems. © Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2012.Finite difference; Nocturnal cooling; Radiative; Temperature; TransientAirconditioning systems; Cost requirements; Design tool; Finite difference; Heat exchange; Heat gains; Heat removal; Input values; Long waves; Matlab languages; Nigeria; Nocturnal cooling; Office space; Optimal scheme; Passive cooling; Performance prediction; Radiative; Radiative cooling; Radiator panel; Room temperature; Storage tank; System performance parameters; Temperature depression; Thermal radiation properties; Water storage tanks; Cooling; Food storage; Mathematical models; Office buildings; Personal computers; Radiators; Tanks (containers); Temperature; Transient analysis; Transients; Cooling systemsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84913530785Transforming south african libraries through leadership education: A programme evaluationHart G.C., Hart M.2014Libri64410.1515/libri-2014-0030Department of Library and Information Science, Faculty of Arts, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Information Systems, Faculty of Commerce, Cape Town, South AfricaHart, G.C., Department of Library and Information Science, Faculty of Arts, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa; Hart, M., Department of Information Systems, Faculty of Commerce, Cape Town, South AfricaThis article emanates from the independent evaluation of a South African library leadership education programme, run by the Centre for African Library Leadership (CALL). The programme's rationale lies in the drive to transform South African librarianship in the face of a range of challenges-some of them inherited from the apartheid past, others shared with libraries throughout the world. The Carnegie Corporation-sponsored programme aimed at developing leadership insights and qualities in current and potential future library managers. The article reports on the evaluative methodology, which comprised a questionnaire survey of all course alumni, interviews of CALL managers, and five sets of focus group interviews with course alumni and alumni of the followup Train-the-Trainer courses. The very positive results of the questionnaire survey are described and analysed, and key themes and comments emerging from several openended questions are discussed. Triangulation is provided by in-depth comments from the five focus groups, and in the process important themes are uncovered. The distinctive strengths of the programme were found to be its sensitivity to the South African context and its "inside-out" approach to leadership training. In most aspects the programme was found to be very successful, although there was uncertainty about its further continuance and the roles of the Train-the-Trainer alumni. The evaluation suggests that the CALL programme should serve as a model for transformative leadership education in South Africa and beyond. Recommendations include continuation of such projects to a wider set of libraries and their staff, with further use of the experiential approach to training, theory grounded in hands-on practice, and emphasis on self-development and self-awareness. However, the full potential of such programmes can only be realised if senior library management buys in to the values of the programme, and is engaged in implementation plans. © 2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston 2014.Education; Evaluation; Leadership; South Africa; TransformationNoneCarnegie Corporation of New York
Scopus2-s2.0-84912561321Transforming conflicts with information: Impacts of UN peace radio programmes in the Democratic Republic of CongoJacob J.U.-U.2014War and Society33410.1179/0729247314Z.00000000043American University of Nigeria, NigeriaJacob, J.U.-U., American University of Nigeria, NigeriaThis paper examines the nature and impacts of two intervention radio programmes broadcast on Radio Okapi - the radio service of the UN mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) managed by the Swiss-based Hirondelle Foundation. A matched randomized rechnique was used to assign Rwandan Hutus and Congolese autochthons in South Kivu province to listen to one of the two programmes within their naturalistic contexts for thirteen months. Autochthon control groups listened to Gutahuka, while Hutu control groups listened to Dialogue Entre Congolais. At the end of the treatment, participants' perceptions of barriers to peace, descriptive and prescriptive interventions; victimhood and villainy; opportunities for personal development and civic engagement were assessed in sixteen focus groups across four towns. Two critical findings have emerged from the study: first, hate contents are not only ones that are overtly hateful - messages targeted at specific groups for the purpose of achieving behavioural change can lead to alienation and hostility towards the target group by non-target groups exposed to the messages; second, contextually associated individuals or social groups do not always have homogenous interpretation of media messages. At the core of audience engagement and interpretation is the idealogical orientation of messages that audiences are exposed to and how such messages interact with local epistemes including historical and subjective realities. The paper concludes that media intervention contents that purvey a narrative without first understanding how it interacts with other epistemic narratives and metaphors on ground, run the risk of deepening rifts between groups and escalating the conflict. © 2014 School of Humanities & Social Sciences, The University of New South WalesDemobilisation; Dialogue entre congolais; Disarmament; Gutahuka; Information intervention; RepatriationNoneBIEA, British Institute in Eastern Africa
Scopus2-s2.0-65149083096Transferability of management innovation to Africa: A study of two multinational companies' performance management system in NigeriaMamman A., Baydoun N., Adeoye B.2009Global Business Review10110.1177/097215090801000101International and Comparative Management, Institute for Development Policy and Management, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom; School of E-Business and Quality Management, ETQM College, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; KPMG ProfessioMamman, A., International and Comparative Management, Institute for Development Policy and Management, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom; Baydoun, N., School of E-Business and Quality Management, ETQM College, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Adeoye, B., KPMG Professional Services, 18A Temple Road, Ikoyi, Lagos, NigeriaHorwitz et al. (2006: 807) have argued that the debate regarding convergence/divergence perspectives in the cross-cultural diffusion of human resource management (HRM) practices is a somewhat simplistic one.™ The authors are of the view that because convergent similarity of HRM practice exists at a nominal level, the notions of hybridization and crossvergence are better in explaining HRM practices and their diffusion across countries. While the authors focused on exploring explanations of the differences in HRM practices, the article provocatively challenges researchers and experts to explore the question of whether Multinational Companies (MNCs) should adapt Human Resource Management Innovation (HRMI) and if so, why? And how? The main aim of this article is to investigate the following questions: (a) Given that MNCs transfer HRMI to developing countries, which policy should guide the transfer (polycentric or ethnocentric?); and (b) Given that host-country nationals (HCNs) are not passive recipients of HRMI, what are the implications of the policy (polycentric or ethnocentric) for MNCs? The result of our investigation and the review of literature suggest that the MNCs™ performance management (PM) policies are partially ethnocentric, but the practice, as perceived by some HCNs (employees), is polycentric. For example, some HCNs perceive some degree of nepotism and patronage in the system. Also, many felt that their line managers were biased against them. Similarly, a significant number of HCNs felt that their views are not taken into account during PM review and they do not receive feedback from their managers. The implications of the findings are then discussed.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-68049142415Transcutaneous ultrasonographic evaluation of the air-filled equine stomach and duodenum following gastroscopyKihurani D.O.G., Carstens A., Saulez M.N., Donnellan C.M.B.2009Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound50410.1111/j.1740-8261.2009.01561.xClinical Studies Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, PO Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South AfricaKihurani, D.O.G., Clinical Studies Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, PO Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenya, Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; Carstens, A., Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; Saulez, M.N., Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; Donnellan, C.M.B., Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South AfricaGastroscopy with air insufflation was performed in 10 ponies, after which a transcutaneous ultrasound examination of the stomach and duodenum was performed immediately and at 1, 2, and 4 h postgastroscopy, and 24 h after feeding. Stomach measurements included the dorsoventral and craniocaudal dimensions, as well as the stomach depth from the skin surface and stomach wall thickness at the different time periods. Gastric wall folding was observed in one pony, becoming most distinct 2-4 h postgastroscopy. An undulating stomach wall was noted in eight other ponies postgastroscopy. These observations appeared to be a response to the deflation of the stomach as the insufflated air was released gradually. Gas was detected in the duodenum after the gastroscopy. The parameters measured were noted to be useful to evaluate the extent of stomach distension due to air or feed. The ultrasonographic appearance of the stomach can, therefore, be altered by gastroscopy and this should be borne in mind when examining horses with suspected gastric disease. © Copyright 2009 by the American College of Veterinary Radiology.Equine; Gastric wall folding; Stomach measurements; Ultrasonographyaeration; air; animal; animal disease; article; duodenum; echography; gastroscopy; histology; horse; stomach; Air; Animals; Duodenum; Gastroscopy; Horses; Insufflation; Stomach; EquidaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84876468432Transbronchial fine needle aspiration biopsy and rapid on-site evaluation in the setting of superior vena cava syndromeBrundyn K., Koegelenberg C.F.N., Diacon A.H., Louw M., Schubert P., Bolliger C.T., Van Den Heuvel M.M., Wright C.A.2013Diagnostic Cytopathology41410.1002/dc.21857Division of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Stellenbosch University, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg, 7505, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Medicine, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South AfricaBrundyn, K., Division of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Stellenbosch University, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg, 7505, Cape Town, South Africa; Koegelenberg, C.F.N., Department of Medicine, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Diacon, A.H., Department of Medicine, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Louw, M., Division of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Stellenbosch University, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg, 7505, Cape Town, South Africa; Schubert, P., Division of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Stellenbosch University, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg, 7505, Cape Town, South Africa; Bolliger, C.T., Department of Medicine, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Van Den Heuvel, M.M., Department of Medicine, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Wright, C.A., Division of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Stellenbosch University, P O Box 19063, Tygerberg, 7505, Cape Town, South AfricaThere is a paucity of prospective data on flexible bronchoscopy with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) in the setting of superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome. The aims of this prospective study were to assess the diagnostic yield and safety of these investigations and specifically to evaluate the role of ROSE in limiting the need for tissue biopsies. Over a 5-year period 48 patients (57.4 ± 9.7 years) with SVC syndrome secondary to intrathoracic tumors underwent flexible bronchoscopy with TBNA and ROSE. Endobronchial Forceps biopsy was reserved for visible endobronchial tumors with no on-site confirmation of diagnostic material. ROSE confirmed diagnostic material in 41 cases (85.4%), and in only one of the remaining cases did the addition of a forceps biopsy increase the diagnostic yield (overall diagnostic yield of 87.5%). No serious complications were noted. The final diagnoses made included nonsmall lung cancer (n = 27), small cell lung cancer (n = 16), and metastatic carcinoma (n = 3). Two undiagnosed cases died of suspected advanced neoplasms (unknown primary tumors). We conclude that TBNA has a high diagnostic yield and is safe in the setting of SVC syndrome. With the addition of ROSE, tissue biopsy is required in the minority of cases. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.bronchogenic carcinoma; rapid on-site evaluation; superior vena cava syndrome; transbronchial fine needle aspiration biopsyadult; advanced cancer; aged; article; breast carcinoma; bronchoscopy; clinical article; clinical evaluation; diagnostic value; female; fine needle aspiration biopsy; human; lung non small cell cancer; lung small cell cancer; male; metastasis; priority journal; prospective study; prostate carcinoma; rapid on site evaluation; superior cava vein syndrome; thorax tumor; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; cell nucleus; evaluation study; fine needle aspiration biopsy; middle aged; Neoplasm Metastasis; nuclear shape; procedures; sensitivity and specificity; Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Superior Vena Cava Syndrome; Aged; Biopsy, Fine-Needle; Bronchoscopy; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Cell Nucleus; Cell Nucleus Shape; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Neoplasm Metastasis; Prospective Studies; Sensitivity and Specificity; Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Superior Vena Cava SyndromeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84902280481Trajectory of motor performance over twelve months in nigerian stroke survivorsVincent-Onabajo G.O., Hamzat T.K., Owolabi M.O.2014Brain Impairment15110.1017/BrImp.2014.3Department of Medical Rehabilitation, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria; Department of Physiotherapy, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Department of Medicine, Neurology Unit, UniversitVincent-Onabajo, G.O., Department of Medical Rehabilitation, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria; Hamzat, T.K., Department of Physiotherapy, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Owolabi, M.O., Department of Medicine, Neurology Unit, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, NigeriaObjective: Submissions on recovery of post-stroke motor performance vary, especially in relation to increasing time after stroke. This study examined the trajectory of motor performance over the first 12 months after stroke. Methods: Consecutive first-incidence stroke survivors (N = 83) were recruited within 1 month of onset from a tertiary health institution in Nigeria. Simplified Fugl Meyer scale (S-FM) was used to assess motor performance at monthly intervals. Changes in overall motor performance, and differences between the affected upper and lower extremities, were examined using Friedman's ANOVA and paired t-tests, respectively. Results: Significant improvement in motor performance was observed across 12 months (p <.001), with the proportion of stroke survivors with severe impairment at onset (53.3%) decreasing to 20% by 12 months. Lower extremity motor performance scores were significantly higher than for the upper extremity from 1 to 12 months (p <.01 at 3, 4, 5, 6 and 12 months; and p <.05 at the remaining months). Conclusions: The potential for long-term improvement in motor performance after stroke was observed, suggesting that this can be harnessed by long-term rehabilitation efforts. The comparatively poorer outcome in the upper extremity indicates the need for extra rehabilitation strategies to enhance upper-extremity motor recovery in the first year of stroke. Copyright © Australasian Society for the Study of Brain Impairment 2014.Keywords: motor performance; lower extremity; Nigeria; stroke; upper extremityadult; aged; arm; article; cerebrovascular accident; convalescence; female; functional status; human; leg; male; motor performance; Nigeria; rehabilitation care; Simplified Fugl Meyer scale; survivor; tertiary health careNone
WoSWOS:000279725600004TRAINING NEEDS ASSESSMENT IN RESEARCH ETHICS EVALUATION AMONG RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEE MEMBERS IN THREE AFRICAN COUNTRIES: CAMEROON, MALI AND TANZANIAAteudjieu, Jerome,Baume, Cedric,Hirtle, Marie,Ikingura, Joyce,Niare, Alassane,Sprumont, Dominique,Williams, John2010DEVELOPING WORLD BIOETHICS10210.1111/j.1471-8847.2009.00266.xUniversity of Fribourg, University of Geneva, University of Neuchatel, University of Ottawa, University of Yaounde I, Malaria Res & Training Ctr"Ateudjieu, Jerome: University of Yaounde I","Sprumont, Dominique: University of Neuchatel","Williams, John: University of Ottawa",Background: As actors with the key responsibility for the protection of human research participants, Research Ethics Committees (RECs) need to be competent and well-resourced in order to fulfil their roles. Despite recent programs designed to strengthen RECs in Africa, much more needs to be accomplished before these committees can function optimally. Objective: To assess training needs for biomedical research ethics evaluation among targeted countries. Methods: Members of RECs operating in three targeted African countries were surveyed between August and November 2007. Before implementing the survey, ethical approvals were obtained from RECs in Switzerland, Cameroon, Mali and Tanzania. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire in English and in French. Results: A total of 74 respondents participated in the study. The participation rate was 68%. Seventy one percent of respondents reported having received some training in research ethics evaluation. This training was given by national institutions (31%) and international institutions (69%). Researchers and REC members were ranked as the top target audiences to be trained. Of 32 topics, the top five training priorities were: basic ethical principles, coverage of applicable laws and regulations, how to conduct ethics review, evaluating informed consent processes and the role of the REC. Conclusion: Although the majority of REC members in the targeted African countries had received training in ethics, they expressed a need for additional training. The results of this survey have been used to design a training program in research ethics evaluation that meets this need.Africa,CURRICULUM,"ETHICS COMMITTEES",RESEARCH,"TRAINING PROGRAM"NoneNone
WoSWOS:000312264200025Training hospital providers in basic CPR skills in Botswana: Acquisition, retention and impact of novel training techniquesBoulet, John R.,Church, Kasey K.,Davis, Amanda,Irving, Sharon Y.,Kestler, Andrew M.,Mazhani, Loeto,Meaney, Peter A.,Nadkarni, Vinay M.,Niles, Dana E.,Shilkofski, Nicole,Steenhoff, Andrew P.,Sutton, Robert M.,Tsima, Billy2012RESUSCITATION831210.1016/j.resuscitation.2012.04.014Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Thomas Jefferson University, University of Botswana, University of Pennsylvania, Botswana Univ Pennsylvania Partnership, Fdn Adv Int Med Educ & Res, Perdana Univ"Church, Kasey K.: Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia","Church, Kasey K.: University of Pennsylvania","Davis, Amanda: Thomas Jefferson University","Kestler, Andrew M.: University of Botswana","Mazhani, Loeto: University of Botswana","Meaney, Peter A.: Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia","Meaney, Peter A.: University of Pennsylvania","Tsima, Billy: University of Botswana",Objective: Globally, one third of deaths each year are from cardiovascular diseases, yet no strong evidence supports any specific method of CPR instruction in a resource-limited setting. We hypothesized that both existing and novel CPR training programs significantly impact skills of hospital-based healthcare providers (HCP) in Botswana. Methods: HCP were prospectively randomized to 3 training groups: instructor led, limited instructor with manikin feedback, or self-directed learning. Data was collected prior to training, immediately after and at 3 and 6 months. Excellent CPR was prospectively defined as having at least 4 of 5 characteristics: depth, rate, release, no flow fraction, and no excessive ventilation. GEE was performed to account for within subject correlation. Results: Of 214 HCP trained, 40% resuscitate &gt;= 1/month, 28% had previous formal CPR training, and 65% required additional skills remediation to pass using AHA criteria. Excellent CPR skill acquisition was significant (infant: 32% vs. 71%, p &lt; 0.01; adult 28% vs. 48%, p &lt; 0.01). Infant CPR skill retention was significant at 3 (39% vs. 70%, p &lt; 0.01) and 6 months (38% vs. 67%, p &lt; 0.01), and adult CPR skills were retained to 3 months (34% vs. 51%, p = 0.02). On multivariable analysis, low cognitive score and need for skill remediation, but not instruction method, impacted CPR skill performance. Conclusions: HCP in resource-limited settings resuscitate frequently, with little CPR training. Using existing training, HCP acquire and retain skills, yet often require remediation. Novel techniques with increased student: instructor ratio and feedback manikins were not different compared to traditional instruction. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved."BASIC LIFE SUPPORT","CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION","CHEST COMPRESSION",COMPETENCE,CPR,"DEVELOPING COUNTRIES","emergency training",manikin,"resource-limited setting","RESUSCITATION EDUCATION","BLS SKILLS",CARDIOPULMONARY-RESUSCITATION,DEVELOPING-COUNTRIENoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-53749092440Training, development and employee performance in the oil and gas industry in NigeriaHamilton D.I., Oparanma A.O.2008European Journal of Scientific Research193NoneDepartment of Management, University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 18, UST Port Harcourt, NigeriaHamilton, D.I., Department of Management, University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 18, UST Port Harcourt, Nigeria; Oparanma, A.O., Department of Management, University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 18, UST Port Harcourt, NigeriaThis study was designed to ascertain how training and development affects employee performance. Using a nomothetic research design in which data were collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed through frequency distribution and simple percentage. We found that employee performance level is not necessarily determined by the level of training and development nor by the training technique but by the type of training and development employees are exposed to, and by the competence employees develop as a result of training and development. We recommend that training and development programmes be focused on competence building in employees. © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2008.Competence; Development; Performance; TrainingNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84893704374Training and Farmers' Organizations' PerformanceMiiro R.F., Matsiko F.B., Mazur R.E.2014Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension20110.1080/1389224X.2013.803987Department of Extension and Innovations Studies, College of Agricultural and Environmental, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Sociology Department, Iowa State University, Iowa, United StatesMiiro, R.F., Department of Extension and Innovations Studies, College of Agricultural and Environmental, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Matsiko, F.B., Department of Extension and Innovations Studies, College of Agricultural and Environmental, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Mazur, R.E., Sociology Department, Iowa State University, Iowa, United StatesPurpose: This study sought to determine the influence of training transfer factors and actual application of training on organization level outcomes among farmer owned produce marketing organizations in Uganda. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews based on the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (LTSI) were conducted with 120 PMO leaders trained in partnership management skills by a four year extension project. Data were collected on training transfer factors, transferred training, and training related organization level outcomes. Data were analyzed by OLS hierarchical regression analysis. Findings: The performance of the producer marketing organizations in terms of 'improved inter-organization relations' and 'improved services' was found to be significantly predicted by 'personal capacity to transfer,' 'receiving feedback,' and 'resource availability.' Practical implications: Rural service providers who build capacity of local organizations can use this knowledge to pursue certain strategic human level organizational outcomes by manipulating transfer system factors such as providing feedback and supportive resources to help trainees.Originality/value: The LTSI model has been tested for its role in explaining human level organizational outcomes in a developing country setting. We have also seen that specific training transfer system factors will be responsible for certain elements of the multidimensional outcomes of training. © 2013 Wageningen University.Farmers' marketing organizations; Non-financial organizational outcomes; Transfer of training; UgandaNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84951090072TrailMaking Test performance contributes to subjective judgment of visual efficiency in older adultsSetti A., Loughman J., Savva G.M., Kenny R.2015PeerJ20151210.7717/peerj.1407The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; School of Applied Psychology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Optometry Department, College of Sciences and Health, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland; African Vision Research Institute, Faculty of Sciences and Health, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa; Mercer's Institute for Successful Ageing, St. James Hospital, Dublin, IrelandSetti, A., The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland, School of Applied Psychology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Loughman, J., Optometry Department, College of Sciences and Health, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland, African Vision Research Institute, Faculty of Sciences and Health, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa; Savva, G.M., The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; Kenny, R., The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland, Mercer's Institute for Successful Ageing, St. James Hospital, Dublin, IrelandIntroduction. The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors. Materials & Methods. Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; TrailMaking Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate andmultivariate associations. Results and Discussion. Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision. Conclusions. TrailMaking Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health. © 2015 Setti et al.Ocular pathology; Self-report; Trail making test; Visual acuity; Visual searchadult; Article; cognition; cognitive function test; contrast sensitivity; depression; female; human; interview; major clinical study; male; photopic vision; psychophysiology; quality of life; response time; trail making test; vision test; visual acuity; visual efficiency; visual fieldNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79955709861Traffic impacts on PM2.5 air quality in Nairobi, KenyaKinney P.L., Gichuru M.G., Volavka-Close N., Ngo N., Ndiba P.K., Law A., Gachanja A., Gaita S.M., Chillrud S.N., Sclar E.2011Environmental Science and Policy14410.1016/j.envsci.2011.02.005Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 West 168th St., New York, NY 10032, United States; Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, College of Architecture and Engineering, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, G.P.O., Nairobi, Kenya; Center for Sustainable Urban Development, Earth Institute, Columbia University, 475 Riverside Drive, Suite 520, New York, NY 10115, United States; Columbia University, Sustainable Development in the College of Arts and Sciences, School of International and Public Affairs, 420 West 118th Street, New York, NY 10027, United States; Department of Civil Engineering, College of Architecture and Engineering, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, G.P.O.. Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62000-00200, Nairobi, Kenya; Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, 61 Rt 9W, Palisades, NY 10964, United StatesKinney, P.L., Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 West 168th St., New York, NY 10032, United States; Gichuru, M.G., Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, College of Architecture and Engineering, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, G.P.O., Nairobi, Kenya; Volavka-Close, N., Center for Sustainable Urban Development, Earth Institute, Columbia University, 475 Riverside Drive, Suite 520, New York, NY 10115, United States; Ngo, N., Columbia University, Sustainable Development in the College of Arts and Sciences, School of International and Public Affairs, 420 West 118th Street, New York, NY 10027, United States; Ndiba, P.K., Department of Civil Engineering, College of Architecture and Engineering, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, G.P.O.. Nairobi, Kenya; Law, A., Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 West 168th St., New York, NY 10032, United States; Gachanja, A., Department of Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62000-00200, Nairobi, Kenya; Gaita, S.M., Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, College of Architecture and Engineering, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, G.P.O., Nairobi, Kenya; Chillrud, S.N., Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, 61 Rt 9W, Palisades, NY 10964, United States; Sclar, E., Center for Sustainable Urban Development, Earth Institute, Columbia University, 475 Riverside Drive, Suite 520, New York, NY 10115, United States, Columbia University, Sustainable Development in the College of Arts and Sciences, School of International and Public Affairs, 420 West 118th Street, New York, NY 10027, United StatesMotor vehicle traffic is an important source of particulate pollution in cities of the developing world, where rapid growth, coupled with a lack of effective transport and land use planning, may result in harmful levels of fine particles (PM2.5) in the air. However, a lack of air monitoring data hinders health impact assessments and the development of transportation and land use policies that could reduce health burdens due to outdoor air pollution. To address this important need, a study of traffic-related PM2.5 was carried out in the city of Nairobi, Kenya, a model city for sub-Saharan Africa, in July 2009. Sampling was carried out using portable filter-based air samplers carried in backpacks by technicians on weekdays over two weeks at several sites in and around Nairobi ranging from high-traffic roadways to rural background. Mean daytime concentrations of PM2.5 ranged from 10.7 at the rural background site to 98.1μg/m3 on a sidewalk in the central business district. Horizontal dispersion measurements demonstrated a decrease in PM2.5 concentration from 128.7 to 18.7μg/m3 over 100m downwind of a major intersection in Nairobi. A vertical dispersion experiment revealed a decrease from 119.5μg/m3 at street level to 42.8μg/m3 on a third-floor rooftop in the central business district. Though not directly comparable to air quality guidelines, which are based on 24-h or annual averages, the urban concentrations we observed raise concern with regard to public health and related policy. Taken together with survey data on commuting patterns within Nairobi, these results suggest that many Nairobi residents are exposed on a regular basis to elevated concentrations of fine particle air pollution, with potentially serious long-term implications for health. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.Health; Nairobi; Outdoor air quality; Sub-Saharan Africa; Transport; Urbanair monitoring; air particle control; air pollution; air quality; air sampling; airborne particle; article; atmospheric dispersion; controlled study; human; Kenya; priority journal; trafficNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84857293258Traffic congestion: Modelling its economic impact on petroleum products distribution in a metropolisNwalozie G.K., Oni S.I., Ege E.E., Onuoha D.I., Oke S.A., Asenime C.2011International Journal of Applied Management Science3210.1504/IJAMS.2011.040233Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria; Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Federal University of Technology, C/o Head of Department's Office, Ihiagwa, Owerri PMB 1526, Owerri, ImoNwalozie, G.K., Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria; Oni, S.I., Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria; Ege, E.E., Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria; Onuoha, D.I., Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Federal University of Technology, C/o Head of Department's Office, Ihiagwa, Owerri PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Oke, S.A., Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Lagos, Room 10, Mezzanine Complex, Lagos, Nigeria; Asenime, C., Department of Transport Policy and Planning, School of Transport, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, NigeriaThis paper considers the financial implications of the traffic congestion problem in the distribution of petroleum products in a Nigerian metropolis. Data relating to truck movements, their servicing costs and other parameters that are connected with traffic congestion are collected and analysed using SPSS. The regression models that describe the differences in expenditure and variation in incomes from the use of the trucks are established. In terms of monetary losses, about $99.7 per truck per year were lost owing to traffic congestion as part of the fleet maintenance cost, which was not budgeted for and about $1,559.1 in deficit of the budgeted income per truck per year (deficit in income). Thus, the transportation haulage industry loses substantial money due to traffic congestion on an annual basis. Information in this work could be utilised for performance improvement purpose when performance targets/reward schemes are set and monitored for cost saving activities due to traffic congestion. © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.Delays; Lagos; Tanker drivers; TAT; Traffic congestion; Trucks; Turn around timeNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33744929627Traditional healers, treatment delay, performance status and death from TB in rural South AfricaBarker R.D., Millard F.J.C., Malatsi J., Mkoana L., Ngoatwana T., Agarawal S., De Valliere S.2006International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease106NoneDepartment of Respiratory Medicine, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom; Jane Furse Memorial Hospital, Jane Furse, Limpopo Province, South Africa; Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis University Hospital, St. Louis, MI, United States; Department of Respiratory Medicine, King's College Hospital, Bessemer Rd, London SE5 9PJ, United KingdomBarker, R.D., Department of Respiratory Medicine, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom, Department of Respiratory Medicine, King's College Hospital, Bessemer Rd, London SE5 9PJ, United Kingdom; Millard, F.J.C., Department of Respiratory Medicine, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom; Malatsi, J., Jane Furse Memorial Hospital, Jane Furse, Limpopo Province, South Africa; Mkoana, L., Jane Furse Memorial Hospital, Jane Furse, Limpopo Province, South Africa; Ngoatwana, T., Jane Furse Memorial Hospital, Jane Furse, Limpopo Province, South Africa; Agarawal, S., Department of Respiratory Medicine, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom; De Valliere, S., Department of Respiratory Medicine, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom, Jane Furse Memorial Hospital, Jane Furse, Limpopo Province, South Africa, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis University Hospital, St. Louis, MI, United States, Department of Respiratory Medicine, King's College Hospital, Bessemer Rd, London SE5 9PJ, United KingdomBACKGROUND: People in sub-Saharan Africa frequently consult traditional healers before reaching the government health services (GHS). This can lead to delays in starting effective anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. To our knowledge, no studies have shown a direct relationship between visiting traditional healers, increased morbidity and death from TB. METHODS: All patients starting on anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy at a rural hospital in South Africa in 2003 were included in the study. TB nurses interviewed the patients and established how long they had had symptoms before treatment was started, whether they had visited traditional healers before coming to the hospital, their performance status and, later, whether they had died. RESULTS: Of 133 patients, those who attended a traditional healer took longer to access anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy (median 90 days, range 0-210) than those who went directly to the GHS (median 21, range 0-120). Patients who visited a traditional healer had worse performance status (P < 0.001), and were more likely to die (24/77 [31%] vs. 4/33 [12%], P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Treatment delay due to visiting traditional healers can have dire consequences for patients with TB. Efforts are required to engage with health care practitioners outside the government sector to improve the prospects for patients with TB. © 2006 The Union.Death; Karnofsky performance status; Sub-Saharan Africa; TB; Traditional medicine; Treatmentadolescent; adult; aged; article; female; health service; health status; human; major clinical study; male; priority journal; therapy delay; traditional medicine; tuberculosis; Humans; Medicine, Traditional; Rural Health; South Africa; Time Factors; Tuberculosis, PulmonaryNone
Scopus2-s2.0-32144457214Traditional healers for HIV/AIDS prevention and family planning, Kiboga district, Uganda: Evaluation of a program to improve practicesSsali A., Butler L.M., Kabatesi D., King R., Namugenyi A., Kamya M.R., Mandel J., Chen S.Y., McFarland W.2005AIDS and Behavior9410.1007/s10461-005-9019-9Traditional and Modern Health Practitioners Together Against AIDS (THETA), Kampala, Uganda; Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States; District Health Team, Kiboga District, Uganda; Department of Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, CA, United States; San Francisco Department of Public Health, 25 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94102-6033, United StatesSsali, A., Traditional and Modern Health Practitioners Together Against AIDS (THETA), Kampala, Uganda; Butler, L.M., Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States; Kabatesi, D., Traditional and Modern Health Practitioners Together Against AIDS (THETA), Kampala, Uganda; King, R., Traditional and Modern Health Practitioners Together Against AIDS (THETA), Kampala, Uganda; Namugenyi, A., District Health Team, Kiboga District, Uganda; Kamya, M.R., Department of Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Mandel, J., Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States; Chen, S.Y., San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, CA, United States; McFarland, W., Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States, San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, CA, United States, San Francisco Department of Public Health, 25 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94102-6033, United StatesIn the face of ongoing epidemics of HIV/AIDS and STI, high demand for family planning, and limited resources, traditional healers may be under-utilized providers of reproductive health education in rural sub-Saharan Africa. We implemented a training program in HIV prevention and family planning methods for healers in the Kiboga district of Uganda and evaluated the program's impact on healers' clinical practice and the diffusion of information to their female clients. Of 46 healers recruited, 30 (65%) completed a pre- and post- training interview. Following training, traditional healers increased discussions of family planning with their clients. Of 84 female clients recruited, 44 (52%) completed the interview before and after the training for healers. Female clients corroborated that they increased discussions of family planning with their healers, as well as discussions about HIV/AIDS. Both healers and their female clients were more likely to make a connection between family planning, condom use, and HIV prevention after the training compared to before the training. Findings provide evidence that traditional healers in a rural area of Uganda can successfully adapt HIV prevention messages and family planning information into their clinical practices. © 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.Family planning; HIV prevention; Traditional healers; Ugandaacquired immune deficiency syndrome; adolescent; adult; article; clinical practice; condom; controlled study; counseling; evaluation; family planning; female; gender; health program; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; infection prevention; interview; male; medical information; normal human; traditional medicine; training; Uganda; Adult; Family Planning Services; Female; Health Education; HIV Infections; Humans; Interviews; Male; Medicine, African Traditional; Middle Aged; Program Evaluation; Rural Population; UgandaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-40149106819Traditional circumcision during manhood initiation rituals in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: A pre-post intervention evaluationPeltzer K., Nqeketo A., Petros G., Kanta X.2008BMC Public Health8None10.1186/1471-2458-8-64Health Systems Research Unit, Social Aspect of HIV/AIDS and Health, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa; Impilo Ya Bantu Health, Lusikisiki, South AfricaPeltzer, K., Health Systems Research Unit, Social Aspect of HIV/AIDS and Health, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa, Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa; Nqeketo, A., Health Systems Research Unit, Social Aspect of HIV/AIDS and Health, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa; Petros, G., Health Systems Research Unit, Social Aspect of HIV/AIDS and Health, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa; Kanta, X., Impilo Ya Bantu Health, Lusikisiki, South AfricaBackground. Circumcisions undertaken in non-clinical settings can have significant risks of serious adverse events, including death. The aim of this study was to test an intervention for safe traditional circumcision in the context of initiation into manhood among the Xhosa, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Methods. Traditional surgeons and nurses registered with the health department were trained over five days on ten modules including safe circumcision, infection control, anatomy, post-operative care, detection and early management of complications and sexual health education. Initiates from initiation schools of the trained surgeons and nurses were examined and interviewed on 2 nd, 4th, 7th and 14th day after circumcision. Results. From 192 initiates physically examined at the 14th day after circumcision by a trained clinical nurse high rates of complications were found: 40 (20.8%) had mild delayed wound healing, 31 (16.2%) had a mild wound infection, 22 (10.5%) mild pain and 20 (10.4%) had insufficient skin removed. Most traditional surgeons and nurses wore gloves during operation and care but did not use the recommended circumcision instrument. Only 12% of the initiates were circumcised before their sexual debut and they reported a great deal of sexual risk behaviour. Conclusion. Findings show weak support for scaling up traditional male circumcision. © 2008 Peltzer et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Noneadolescent; adult; article; circumcision; controlled study; demography; health behavior; health program; health service; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; infection control; infection risk; male; patient assessment; patient care; postoperative care; postoperative complication; postoperative hemorrhage; postoperative infection; postoperative period; risk assessment; sexual behavior; sexual education; South Africa; surgeon; surgical technique; African medicine; circumcision; community health nursing; cultural anthropology; education; ethnology; evaluation; instrumentation; postoperative complication; safety; South Africa; surgery; Adolescent; Circumcision, Male; Culture; Humans; Infection Control; Male; Medicine, African Traditional; Postoperative Complications; Public Health Nursing; Safety; South Africa; SurgeryNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33846109799Traditional birth attendants, HIV/AIDS and safe delivery in the Eastern Cape, South Africa - Evaluation of a training programmePeltzer K., Henda N.2006South African Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology123NoneHuman Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa; University of Limpopo, Turfloop, Limpopo, South Africa; Human Sciences Research Council, Cape Town, South AfricaPeltzer, K., Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa, University of Limpopo, Turfloop, Limpopo, South Africa; Henda, N., Human Sciences Research Council, Cape Town, South AfricaIntroduction. Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are still frequently utilised in rural areas in South Africa, even when mothers have access to formal health care facilities. Studies reveal that utilisation of TBAs can be beneficial in some contexts, with support and supervision from the Western health sector. Aim. To evaluate a training programme for TBAs on HIV/AIDS and safe delivery. Method. The study used a pre-post training evaluation design of 50 TBAs in two primary health care clinic areas in rural South Africa. Results. Most TBAs had some knowledge of risk signs during pregnancy. At follow-up assessment HIV/AIDS knowledge had significantly increased and HIV risk practices when assisting during a delivery had significantly decreased. Most TBAs were involved in HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) management such as risk assessment, risk reduction counselling, distribution of condoms, community education and home-based care. After the training significantly more TBAs conducted prenatal check-ups, assessed the baby's position in the uterus and took the mother's and baby's pulse, and fewer TBAS conducted abnormal or complicated deliveries. Conclusion. Training of TBAs can increase their knowledge, improve their attitudes and reduce risk practices. TBAs need skilled and equipped available support to carry out basic preventive measures in the obstetric patient, anticipate and identify obstetric complications, administer nevirapine prophylaxis, and make appropriate and timely referrals backed up with efficient referral mechanisms to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.Nonenevirapine; acquired immune deficiency syndrome; adult; African medicine; aged; article; delivery; female; health behavior; health education; health personnel attitude; health practitioner; HIV education; home care; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; infection risk; maternal morbidity; maternal mortality; obstetric patient; patient counseling; patient referral; patient safety; pregnancy; prenatal care; prenatal screening; primary health care; risk assessment; risk reduction; rural health care; safe sex; sexually transmitted disease; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84897417085Trade reforms, macroeconomic performance and welfare in MalawiNgalawa H.2014Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences5310.5901/mjss.2014.v5n3p307School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban 4000, South AfricaNgalawa, H., School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban 4000, South AfricaThis paper sets out to show efficiency gains and/or losses of trade reforms in Malawi using simulation experiments in a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. Among others, the study shows that a 50 percent tariff cut coupled with fixed government savings has the same impact on selected macroeconomic variables when capital is mobile as when it is activity specific. When capital is activity-specific, the tariff cut has a positive impact on labour income in the non-agricultural sector and a similar impact on capital income in commercial agriculture. Overall labour income in the agricultural sector is unaffected while the impact on capital income in small scale agriculture and non-agriculture sectors is negative. When capital is mobile, the tariff cut leads to a fall in the capital income in small scale agriculture. The study further shows that doubling foreign aid to Malawi increases consumption and adversely affects the production side of the economy.Computable general equilibrium; Trade reforms; WelfareNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84946708220Trade policy, consumer preference and the performance of textile industry: A case study of Ilorin, North Central NigeriaA. Kilishi A., Adetunji Babatunde M., S. Bankole A.2014International Journal of Commerce and Management24310.1108/IJCoMA-05-2012-0031Department of Economics, Trade Policy Research and Training Programme, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Economics, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, NigeriaA. Kilishi, A., Department of Economics, Trade Policy Research and Training Programme, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Adetunji Babatunde, M., Department of Economics, Trade Policy Research and Training Programme, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; S. Bankole, A., Department of Economics, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, NigeriaPurpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of consumers preferences on textile materials and the impact of consumer preference on performance of textile industry. This is because as consumers have access to a variety of textile products, they strongly developed and shifted preference to foreign sources, which could lead to the eventual demise of many of the textile factories. Design/methodology/approach – The logit model is adopted to describe the behaviour of consumers when faced with a variety of mutually exclusive choices. The model also describes the consumers’ choice of differentiated goods with common consumption objectives but with different characteristics. Findings – Findings revealed that consumers in Nigeria prefer foreign textile to locally made textile. In addition, differences in quality and availability are factors that drive consumer’s preference towards foreign textile. Also, the inefficient performance of the Nigerian textile industry is influenced by limited demand from the domestic market, poor infrastructure and smuggling. Hence, there is a need for innovative entrepreneurship, concentration on quality improvement and alleviating supply constraints. Originality/value – To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that examines consumer preferences in the Nigerian textile industry. © 2014, Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Consumer; Textile; Trade policyNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84906077340Trade density for external market evaluationKvasha S., Ryabchenko O., Zhemoyda O.2014Actual Problems of Economics1566NoneNational Scientific Centre Institute of Agrarian Economics, Kyiv, Ukraine; Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; Department Economy of Enterprise, National University of Life and Environmental Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, UkraineKvasha, S., National Scientific Centre Institute of Agrarian Economics, Kyiv, Ukraine; Ryabchenko, O., Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; Zhemoyda, O., Department Economy of Enterprise, National University of Life and Environmental Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, UkraineThe article shows that both Ukraine's accession to the WTO in 2008 and the processes of the EU enlargement have created additional challenges for trade development at the continent. Special attention is paid to historical and geographical aspects of trade development in Europe. Prospects of free trade areas, beneficial both for Ukraine and the EU, are studied in detail. Trade density in the EU is analyzed using the mathematical methods. Such aspects as tariff policy, non-tariff barriers import duties are considered separately. Agricultural markets were taken for this analysis due to their high importance for Ukraine. © Sergii Kvasha, Oksana Ryabchenko, Oleksandr Zhemoyda, 2014.European Union; Free trade area; Trade density; UkraineNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84873738800Trade credit and performance of firms in NigeriaOjenike J.O., Asaolu T.O., Olowoniyi A.O.2013European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative SciencesNone56NoneObafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaOjenike, J.O., Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria; Asaolu, T.O., Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria; Olowoniyi, A.O., Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaThis study analyzed the effect of trade credit on firm's performance. Panel data framework was fitted to the secondary data obtained from 70 sampled firms for the period 2000-2009. Data collected were analyzed using panel econometric approach of fixed effect, random effect and Hausman test. The result indicates that trade credit positively influenced Net Profit Margin (NPM), return on investment (ROI) and return on capital employed (ROCE) by firms. The finding implied that trade credit financing is an integral part of doing business for firms especially those that find raising funds from the credit market difficult and could not generate adequate internal funds for their working capital requirements. © EuroJournals, Inc. 2012.NPM; ROA; ROCE; ROI; Trade creditNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84873714820Tracking the impact of Pliocene/Pleistocene sea level and climatic oscillations on the cladogenesis of the Cape legless skink, Acontias meleagris species complex, in South AfricaEngelbrecht H.M., van Niekerk A., Heideman N.J., Daniels S.R.2013Journal of Biogeography40310.1111/jbi.12024Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South Africa; Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South Africa; Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South AfricaEngelbrecht, H.M., Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South Africa; van Niekerk, A., Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South Africa; Heideman, N.J., Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa; Daniels, S.R., Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South AfricaAim: To determine the geographical boundaries among cryptic lineages and examine the evolutionary drivers of cladogenesis within the Cape legless skink, Acontias meleagris species complex. Location: Coastal plains and adjacent interior of the Eastern, Northern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa. Methods: A total of 231 specimens from 55 localities were collected from the entire known distribution range of the A. meleagris complex. Partial sequence data were collected from two mitochondrial DNA loci, 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and one protein-coding nuclear DNA locus, exophilin 5 (EXPH5). Phylogenetic, phylogeographical and population genetic analyses, together with divergence time estimation, were conducted on the DNA sequence data to examine evolutionary history and diversification within the species complex. Results: Marked genetic structure was observed within the A. meleagris complex, and five clades were retrieved, most of which were statistically well supported. These five clades were also evident within the haplotypic analyses and were characterized by demographic stability. Cladogenesis was induced during the Pliocene/Pleistocene epochs, most likely as a result of oscillations in climate and sea level, and Neogene geomorphic phenomena. The Breede River Valley is an area of high genetic diversity and is likely to have served as a refugium. Main conclusions: Lineage diversification and the current biogeographical patterning reflect the impact of sea level oscillations on historical coastal habitat availability. Fine-scale differences between co-distributed subterranean and supraterranean herpetofaunal taxa can be attributed to differences in life-history traits amongst different habitat types. Historical evolutionary drivers within this subterranean species complex are inferred and discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Acontiinae; Biogeography; Cape region; Cladogenesis; Herpetofauna; Pleistocene; Pliocene; Subterranean; Supraterraneanclimate oscillation; coastal plain; cytochrome; divergence; evolutionary biology; genetic structure; genetic variation; geographical distribution; geomorphology; habitat availability; habitat type; herpetofauna; life history trait; lizard; mitochondrial DNA; paleobiogeography; phylogenetics; phylogeography; Pleistocene; Pliocene; refugium; sea level; species complex; subterranean environment; tracking; Breede River; Eastern Cape; South Africa; Western Cape; Acontias meleagris; AcontiinaeNone
WoSWOS:000343399700007Tracking progress of African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation methodAfful-Dadzie, Anthony,Afful-Dadzie, Eric,Nabareseh, Stephen,Oplatkova, Zuzana Kominkova2014KYBERNETES43810.1108/K-03-2014-0049Tomas Bata University Zlin, University of Ghana"Afful-Dadzie, Anthony: University of Ghana","Afful-Dadzie, Eric: Tomas Bata University Zlin","Nabareseh, Stephen: Tomas Bata University Zlin","Oplatkova, Zuzana Kominkova: Tomas Bata University Zlin"Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to propose a new assessment methodology for the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method (FCEM) and the Delphi technique. The proposed approach by its design simplifies the review processes and also quantifies the outcome of the assessment result for easier interpretation and benchmarking among member countries. The proposed hybrid method demonstrates how the subjective APRM thematic areas and their objectives can be efficiently tracked country by country while addressing the key identified challenges. Design/methodology/approach - Using a numerical example, a demonstration of how the APRM assessment could be carried is shown using the FCEM and the Delphi method. The APRM's own thematic areas are used as the evaluation factors and the weights are assigned using Delphi technique. A novel remark set is constructed to linguistically describe the performance of a country against each or all of the thematic areas. Then in line with the maximum membership degree principle, the position of the maximum number would correspond to its respective remark element to indicate the level of performance. Findings - The result shows a hybrid method of FCEM and Delphi used to determine whether a member country has "achieved", "on track", "very likely to be achieved", "possible if some changes are made" or "off-track" on the four focus areas of the APRM. The method provides a well-organized way of tracking progress of member countries. It is also an ideal method of tracking progress of individual thematic areas and objectives. Moreover, the simplicity of the proposed method, the preciseness of the final result it generates and the clear interpretation of the result makes it a stronger alternative to the current approach for assessing member countries. Practical implications - The APRM is a respected body with the backing of the heads of state in Africa. As most African countries become conscious of the pressure to meet international standards as far as governance performance is concerned, this proposed assessment methodology if adopted would go a long way in improving performance evaluation on the continent. Originality/value - The proposed methodology is unique in its simplicity and its ability to evaluate any of the APRM thematic areas independent of the others. This means an overall performance can be tracked as well as that of individual evaluation factors."African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM)","Delphi method","fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method (FCEM)","FUZZY LOGIC","DELPHI METHOD"NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77951782350Tracking a sample of patients lost to follow-up has a major impact on understanding determinants of survival in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in AfricaGeng E.H., Glidden D.V., Emenyonu N., Musinguzi N., Bwana M.B., Neilands T.B., Muyindike W., Yiannoutsos C.T., Deeks S.G., Bangsberg D.R., Martin J.N.2010Tropical Medicine and International Health15SUPPL. 110.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02507.xDivision of HIV/AIDS, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital, 995 Potrero Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94110, United States; East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium, University of California, San Francisco, United States; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, United States; Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda; Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California, San Francisco, United States; Division of Biostatistics, Department of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis IN, United States; Massachusetts General Hospital, Center for Global Health, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United StatesGeng, E.H., Division of HIV/AIDS, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital, 995 Potrero Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94110, United States, East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium, University of California, San Francisco, United States; Glidden, D.V., East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium, University of California, San Francisco, United States, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, United States; Emenyonu, N., East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium, University of California, San Francisco, United States, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda; Musinguzi, N., East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium, University of California, San Francisco, United States, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda; Bwana, M.B., East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium, University of California, San Francisco, United States, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda; Neilands, T.B., East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium, University of California, San Francisco, United States, Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California, San Francisco, United States; Muyindike, W., East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium, University of California, San Francisco, United States, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda; Yiannoutsos, C.T., East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium, University of California, San Francisco, United States, Division of Biostatistics, Department of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis IN, United States; Deeks, S.G., Division of HIV/AIDS, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital, 995 Potrero Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94110, United States, East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium, University of California, San Francisco, United States; Bangsberg, D.R., East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium, University of California, San Francisco, United States, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda, Massachusetts General Hospital, Center for Global Health, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States; Martin, J.N., Division of HIV/AIDS, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital, 995 Potrero Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94110, United States, East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium, University of California, San Francisco, United States, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, United StatesObjective To date, data regarding the determinants of mortality in HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa have been primarily derived from routine clinical care settings practicing the public health approach. Losses to follow-up, however, are high in these settings and may lead to bias in understanding the determinants of mortality. Methods We evaluated HIV-infected adults initiating ART between January 1, 2004 and September 30th, 2007 in an ART clinic in southwestern Uganda. Clinical and demographic characteristics were obtained through routine clinical care. In evaluating determinants of mortality, a 'naïve' analysis used only deaths known through routine processes. A 'sample-corrected' approach incorporated, through probability weights, outcomes from a representative sample of patients lost to follow-up whose vital status was ascertained through tracking in the community. Results In 3,628 patients followed for up to 3.75 years after ART initiation, the 'naïve' approach identified male sex and lower pre-ART CD4 count as independent determinants of mortality. The 'sample-corrected' approach found lower pre-ART CD4 count, older age, lower weight and calendar year of ART initiation, but not male sex, to be independent determinants of mortality. Conclusions Analyses to identify determinants of mortality in HIV-infected patients on ART in Africa that do not account for losses to follow-up can identify spurious associations and miss actual relationships - both with the potential to mislead public health efforts. A sampling-based approach to account for losses to follow-up represents a feasible and potentially scalable method to strengthen the evidence available for implementation of ART delivery in Africa. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Africa; Antiretroviral scale-up strategies; Determinants of mortality on antiretroviral therapy; Losses to follow-up; Monitoring and evaluation; Sampling studiesantiretrovirus agent; acquired immune deficiency syndrome; disease treatment; drug prescribing; health risk; hospital sector; human immunodeficiency virus; medicine; monitoring; mortality risk; public health; sampling; tracking; adult; Africa; age; article; body weight; CD4 lymphocyte count; controlled study; disease surveillance; female; follow up; health care delivery; highly active antiretroviral therapy; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; major clinical study; male; mortality; patient care; patient compliance; patient monitoring; public health service; sex difference; survival rate; treatment duration; Adult; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; Female; Follow-Up Studies; HIV Infections; Humans; Lost to Follow-Up; Male; Medication Adherence; Patient Dropouts; Sex Factors; Treatment Outcome; Uganda; UgandaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84928940092Tracing shadows: How gendered power relations shape the impacts of maternal death on living children in sub Saharan AfricaYamin A.E., Bazile J., Knight L., Molla M., Maistrellis E., Leaning J.2015Social Science and Medicine135None10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.04.033Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States; Francois-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights, Harvard University, Boston, MA, United States; Partners In Health-Abwenzi Pa Za Umoyo, Neno, Malawi; HIV/AIDS, STI and TB Unit, Human Sciences Research Council, Durban, South Africa; Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Division of General Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United StatesYamin, A.E., Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States, Francois-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights, Harvard University, Boston, MA, United States; Bazile, J., Partners In Health-Abwenzi Pa Za Umoyo, Neno, Malawi; Knight, L., HIV/AIDS, STI and TB Unit, Human Sciences Research Council, Durban, South Africa; Molla, M., Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Maistrellis, E., Francois-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights, Harvard University, Boston, MA, United States, Division of General Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Leaning, J., Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States, Francois-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights, Harvard University, Boston, MA, United StatesDriven by the need to better understand the full and intergenerational toll of maternal mortality (MM), a mixed-methods study was conducted in four countries in sub-Saharan Africa to investigate the impacts of maternal death on families and children. The present analysis identifies gender as a fundamental driver not only of maternal, but also child health, through manifestations of gender inequity in household decision making, labor and caregiving, and social norms dictating the status of women. Focus group discussions were conducted with community members, and in depth qualitative interviews with key-informants and stakeholders, in Tanzania, Ethiopia, Malawi, and South Africa between April 2012 and October 2013. Findings highlight that socially constructed gender roles, which define mothers as caregivers and fathers as wage earners, and which limit women's agency regarding childcare decisions, among other things, create considerable gaps when it comes to meeting child nutrition, education, and health care needs following a maternal death. Additionally, our findings show that maternal deaths have differential effects on boy and girl children, and exacerbate specific risks for girl children, including early marriage, early pregnancy, and school drop-out. To combat both MM, and to mitigate impacts on children, investment in health services interventions should be complemented by broader interventions regarding social protection, as well as aimed at shifting social norms and opportunity structures regarding gendered divisions of labor and power at household, community, and society levels. © 2015 .Child health; Ethiopia; Gender roles; Malawi; Masculinities; Maternal mortality; South Africa; Tanzaniachild care; child health; gender relations; gender role; health services; maternal mortality; womens status; adult; Africa south of the Sahara; Article; attitude to death; child; child health care; child nutrition; education; Ethiopia; father; female; health care access; human; Malawi; male; masculinity; maternal mortality; mother; orphaned child; sex difference; sex role; sexism; social norm; social status; socioeconomics; South Africa; Tanzania; wellbeing; Africa south of the Sahara; child health; developing country; gender identity; health service; information processing; maternal mortality; orphaned child; pregnancy; qualitative research; social norm; supply and distribution; Ethiopia; Malawi; South Africa; Tanzania; Adult; Africa South of the Sahara; Child; Child Health; Child, Orphaned; Developing Countries; Fathers; Female; Focus Groups; Gender Identity; Health Services; Humans; Male; Maternal Death; Maternal Mortality; Pregnancy; Qualitative Research; Social Norms; Socioeconomic FactorsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78649712599Trace elements and major minerals evaluation of Spondias mombin, Vernonia amygdalina and Momordica charantia leavesAyoola P.B., Adeyeye A., Onawumi O.O.2010Pakistan Journal of Nutrition98NoneDepartment of Science Laboratory Technology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria; Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaAyoola, P.B., Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria; Adeyeye, A., Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria; Onawumi, O.O., Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaSamples of the plants were collected in Oyo state at Igbo-agbonin in the Ogbomoso North Local Government Area, Sabo road, Ogbomoso and were analyzed for the presence of trace elements such as; Fe, Zn, Mn, Cr, Cu, Cd, and Pb using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The results showed that trace element concentrations in Spondias mombin (Hog plum) were as follow: Fe, 574.00mg/kg, Zn, 59.60mg/kg, Mn, 23.00mg/kg, Cr, 66.00mg/kg Cu, 13.00mg/kg, Cd 50.00mg/kg. The mineral composition results showed that the leaves contained K 1.20%, Ca 1.05% and P, 0.32% Na 1.80%. Results of trace elements concentration in Vernonia amygdalina leaves were as follow: Fe, 277.30mg/kg, Zn, 74.50 mg/kg, Mn, 227.00mg/kg, Cr, 89.00mg/kg Cu, 11.00mg/kg and Cd, 4.30mg/kg. The mineral analysis revealed in the plant leaves, K 0.51%, Na 0.57%, Ca 0.45%, P 0.23%. Result of trace elements concentration in Momordica charantia were as follow: Fe, 8.125mg/kg, Zn, 354.8mg/kg, Mn, 37.00mg/kg, Cr, 162.00mg/kg, Cu, 21.00mg/kg, Cd, 51.40mg/kg and Pb 48.00mg/kg. the mineral analysis revealed in the plant, K 0.81%, Na 0.93%, Ca 0.90%, P 0.81%. The results obtained from the study show that the three plants are medicinal, Spondias mombin and Vernonia amygdalina are good antianaemic and antidiabetics agents, because of the high contents of Iron and chromium present in them. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.Momordica charantia; Prophylactic; Spondias mombin; Therapeutic; Vernonia amygdalinacadmium; chromium; iron; lead; manganese; trace element; zinc; article; atomic absorption spectrometry; bone metabolism; chemical analysis; concentration response; controlled study; herbal medicine; medicinal plant; Momordica charantia; nonhuman; physical chemistry; phytochemistry; plant leaf; spondias mombin; Vernonia; vernonia amygdalina; Momordica charantia; Prunus umbellata; Spondias mombin; Vernonia amygdalinaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84903780995Toxicopathological evaluation of Picralima nitida seed aqueous extract in Wistar rats [Wistar si{dotless}çanlari{dotless}nda Picralima nitida tohumu si{dotless}vi{dotless} ekstresinin toksikopatolojik deǧerlendirilmesi]Sunmonu T.O., Oloyede O.B., Owolarafe T.A., Yakubu M.T., Dosumu O.O.2014Turkish Journal of Biochemistry39210.5505/tjb.2014.83997Departments of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; Departments of Chemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, NigeriaSunmonu, T.O., Departments of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; Oloyede, O.B., Departments of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; Owolarafe, T.A., Departments of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; Yakubu, M.T., Departments of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; Dosumu, O.O., Departments of Chemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, NigeriaObjective: Picralima nitida is a widely used medicinal plant in West Africa for treating malaria, diarrhea and inflammation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicological effect of aqueous seed extract of the plant in Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty-four apparently healthy animals were randomized into 4 groups comprising 6 rats each and orally administered with aqueous extract of P. nitida seeds at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight with distilled water as control for 14 days. Specific liver and kidney function indices were assayed alongside haematological and histopathological analyses to monitor toxicity according to standard methods. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, steroids and tannins. The extract had no significant effect on all kidney function indices assayed but caused a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the activities of liver enzymes accompanied by significant decrease in liver to body weight ratio, serum total protein and globulin concentrations. No significant alteration was observed in the serum levels of albumin and conjugated bilirubin whereas the extract brought about significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum total bilirubin concentration. Haematological analysis revealed no significant effect on erythrocyte indices in contrast to white blood cell count and its differentials which were significantly elevated (P < 0.05) following extract administration. Histopathological studies further showed no distortion of cell structures in the studied organs. Conclusion: The available evidences in this study suggest that aqueous extract of P. nitida seeds exhibits mild and selective toxicity with liver as the target organ. Therefore, the herb may not be completely 'safe' as an oral remedy; and long term administration should be avoided. © TurkJBiochem.com.Haematology; Histopathology; Phytochemical screening; Picralima nitida; Toxicologyalanine aminotransferase; albumin; alkaline phosphatase; alkaloid; aspartate aminotransferase; bilirubin; creatinine; electrolyte; globulin; glycoside; Picralima nitida extract; plant extract; saponin; steroid; tannin; unclassified drug; urea; uric acid; animal experiment; animal tissue; article; body weight; chemical analysis; controlled study; erythrocyte; hematocrit; histopathology; kidney function test; leukocyte count; liver function test; male; medicinal plant; nonhuman; phytochemistry; picralima nitida; plant seed; rat; toxicity testingNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84942195174Toxicopathological Evaluation of Hydroethanol Extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar RatsAshafa A.O.T., Kazeem M.I.2015Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine2015None10.1155/2015/348519Phytomedicine and Phytopharmacology Research Group, Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Phuthaditjhaba, South AfricaAshafa, A.O.T., Phytomedicine and Phytopharmacology Research Group, Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Phuthaditjhaba, South Africa; Kazeem, M.I., Phytomedicine and Phytopharmacology Research Group, Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Phuthaditjhaba, South AfricaBackground. Dianthus basuticus is a commonly used medicinal plant in Basotho traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes, but there is no report on its safety or toxicity. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity profile of the hydroethanol whole plant extract of Dianthus basuticus in Wistar rats. Methods. Acute toxicity test was performed with single oral administration of 100-3200 mg/kg body weight of D. basuticus extract to rats and the animals were observed for 14 days for signs of toxicity. The subacute toxicity experiment was conducted by oral administration of graded doses (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) of D. basuticus extract daily for 28 days. Behavioural changes as well as haematological, biochemical, and histological parameters were then evaluated. Results. There was no observable sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity test. There were significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the feed and water intake as well as total cholesterol and triglycerides of the D. basuticus extract-treated rats in subacute toxicity study. There were no treatment related differences in the haematological, biochemical, and histopathological evaluations. Conclusions. Administration of hydroethanol extract of D. basuticus may be safe at the dosages tested in this study but its continuous usage can cause anorexia. © 2015 Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa and Mutiu Idowu Kazeem.Nonealanine aminotransferase; albumin; alcohol; alkaline phosphatase; aspartate aminotransferase; bilirubin; calcium; chloride; creatinine; Dianthus basuticus extract; electrolyte; gamma glutamyltransferase; high density lipoprotein cholesterol; low density lipoprotein cholesterol; plant extract; potassium; protein; sodium; triacylglycerol; unclassified drug; urea; uric acid; acute toxicity; animal cell; animal experiment; Article; behavior change; cholesterol blood level; controlled study; Dianthus; Dianthus basuticus; drug safety; eosinophil; female; hematological parameters; lymphocyte; male; mean corpuscular hemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume; monocyte; neutrophil; nonhuman; practice guideline; priority journal; rat; toxicity testing; triacylglycerol blood levelNRF, National Research Foundation
Scopus2-s2.0-84930622585Toxicological evaluations of Stigma maydis (corn silk) aqueous extract on hematological and lipid parameters in Wistar ratsSaheed S., Oladipipo A.E., Abdulazeez A.A., Olarewaju S.A., Ismaila N.O., Emmanuel I.A., Fatimah Q.D., Aisha A.Y.2015Toxicology Reports2None10.1016/j.toxrep.2015.04.001Phytomedicine, Food Factors and Toxicology Research Laboratory, Biochemistry Unit, Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Kwara State University, P.M.B. 1530, Ilorin, Nigeria; Medical Laboratory Sciences Unit, Department of Biosciences and BiotechnoSaheed, S., Phytomedicine, Food Factors and Toxicology Research Laboratory, Biochemistry Unit, Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Kwara State University, P.M.B. 1530, Ilorin, Nigeria, Phytomedicine and Phytopharmacology Research Group, Department of Biochemical, Microbial and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa; Oladipipo, A.E., Phytomedicine, Food Factors and Toxicology Research Laboratory, Biochemistry Unit, Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Kwara State University, P.M.B. 1530, Ilorin, Nigeria; Abdulazeez, A.A., Medical Laboratory Sciences Unit, Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Kwara State University, P.M.B. 1530, Ilorin, Nigeria; Olarewaju, S.A., Phytomedicine, Food Factors and Toxicology Research Laboratory, Biochemistry Unit, Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Kwara State University, P.M.B. 1530, Ilorin, Nigeria; Ismaila, N.O., Phytomedicine, Food Factors and Toxicology Research Laboratory, Biochemistry Unit, Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Kwara State University, P.M.B. 1530, Ilorin, Nigeria; Emmanuel, I.A., Phytomedicine, Food Factors and Toxicology Research Laboratory, Biochemistry Unit, Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Kwara State University, P.M.B. 1530, Ilorin, Nigeria; Fatimah, Q.D., Phytomedicine, Food Factors and Toxicology Research Laboratory, Biochemistry Unit, Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Kwara State University, P.M.B. 1530, Ilorin, Nigeria; Aisha, A.Y., Phytomedicine, Food Factors and Toxicology Research Laboratory, Biochemistry Unit, Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Kwara State University, P.M.B. 1530, Ilorin, NigeriaDespite the acclaimed phytotherapeutic attributes of Stigma maydis in folkloric medicine, there is paucity of information on its toxicity profile on hematological and lipid parameters. The toxicological effect of aqueous extract of corn silk at 100, 200 and 400. mg/kg body weight on hematological indices in Wistar rats were evaluated progressively at 24. h after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Lipid parameters were also analyzed at the end of the experimental period. We observed that the extract did not exhibit any significant (p>. 0.05) effect on red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and mean platelet volume at all the tested doses. The study however showed a significant increase in the serum levels of white blood cell, platelet, lymphocytes, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; as well as feeding pattern in the animals, while the concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and artherogenic index value were significantly lowered. These findings are suggestive of non-hematotoxic potential of the extract. Overall, the effect exhibited by corn silk extract in this study proved that, it is unlikely to be hematotoxic and could be a good candidature in the management of coronary heart diseases if consumed at the doses investigated. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Anti-lipidemic; Hematotoxic; Lymphocyte; Metabolic; Phytotherapeutic; Thrombopoiesislow density lipoprotein cholesterol; plant extract; Stigma maydis extract; unclassified drug; animal experiment; Article; biochemical analysis; cholesterol blood level; controlled study; drug isolation; erythropoiesis; fluid intake; hematological parameters; lipid blood level; lymphocyte; nonhuman; rat; thrombocyte count; toxicologyNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84898641669Toxicological evaluations of methanolic extract of moringa oleifera leaves in liver and kidney of male wistar ratsOyagbemi A.A., Omobowale T.O., Azeez I.O., Abiola J.O., Adedokun R.A.M., Nottidge H.O.2013Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology24410.1515/jbcpp-2012-0061Department of Veterinary Physiology,Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, NigeriaOyagbemi, A.A., Department of Veterinary Physiology,Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Omobowale, T.O., Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Azeez, I.O., Department of Veterinary Physiology,Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Abiola, J.O., Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Adedokun, R.A.M., Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Nottidge, H.O., Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, NigeriaBackground: This study was conducted to investigate toxicological effects associated with prolonged consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves as a beverage. Methods: Thirty rats were used in this study. They were grouped into five groups of six rats. Rats in group I received 2 mL/kg body weight (b.w.) of corn oil (vehicle). Animals in groups II, III, IV and V received 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. of methanolic extract of M. oleifera (MEMO) for 8 weeks. Serum collected was analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin, globulin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. Results: There was a significant (p <0.05) increase in serum total protein and globulin in a dose-dependent manner. Rats that received MEMO at 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in serum ALT, AST, BUN and creatinine which pointed to hepatic and kidney damage. All experimental animals that received MEMO had a significant (p <0.05) increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: This study therefore confirms for the first time that chronic administration of M. oleifera leaves might predispose to hepatic and kidney damage.Kidney; Liver; Moringa oleifera; Toxicity assessmentalanine aminotransferase; albumin; aspartate aminotransferase; corn oil; creatinine; globulin; methanol; Moringa oleifera extract; protein; adult; alanine aminotransferase blood level; albumin blood level; animal experiment; animal model; article; aspartate aminotransferase blood level; beverage; body weight; chronic drug administration; controlled study; creatinine blood level; enzyme activity; food intake; liver toxicity; long term exposure; male; Moringa oleifera; nephrotoxicity; nonhuman; plant leaf; protein blood level; protein determination; rat; toxicity testing; urea blood level; urea nitrogen blood level; weight gain; Wistar rat; Animals; Kidney; Kidney Function Tests; Liver; Liver Function Tests; Male; Methanol; Moringa oleifera; Plant Extracts; Plant Leaves; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Toxicity Tests, SubchronicNone
Scopus2-s2.0-68149131986Toxicological evaluation of the essential oil from mentha longifolia l. subsp. capensis leaves in ratsOdeyemi O.O., Yakubu M.T., Masika P.J., Afolayan A.J.2009Journal of Medicinal Food12310.1089/jmf.2008.0136Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa; Agricultural and Rural Development Research Institute, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa; Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, P/Bag X 1314, Alice 5700, South AfricaOdeyemi, O.O., Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa; Yakubu, M.T., Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa; Masika, P.J., Agricultural and Rural Development Research Institute, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa; Afolayan, A.J., Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, P/Bag X 1314, Alice 5700, South AfricaThe effects of the essential oil from the leaves of Mentha longifolia L. subsp. capensis on some biochemical parameters of Wistar rats were studied. The oil at 125, 250, 375, and 500μL/kg of body weight reduced (P&lt;.05) the red blood cells and lymphocytes with no definite pattern on the white blood cells and mean cell volume. The doses significantly increased the neutrophils, monocytes, large unstained cells, liver-body weight ratio, and serum concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, and inorganic phosphate but had no effect on the heart body weight ratio and serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, Na+, Ca 2+, Cl-, K+, creatinine, and uric acid. The oil at 500f body weight also increased the kidney-body weight ratio. In contrast, the oil reduced the serum urea and atherogenic index. The total and conjugated bilirubin, together with the total protein and albumin, in the serum increased only with oil at 125μL/kg of body weight. The serum alkaline phosphatase activity also increased with no significant change in those of γ-glutamyl transferase and alanine and aspartate aminotransferase. The results indicate dose- and parameter-specific effect of the essential oil. Although the essential oil from M. longifolia leaves may not predispose to atherosclerosis, it may increase the functional activity of the rat liver at the lowest dose investigated. Therefore, the essential oil from M. longifolia may not be completely "safe" at the doses investigated. © Copyright 2009, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.Essential oil; Functional activity; Hematological parameters; Mentha longifolia; Selective toxicity; Serum lipidsalanine aminotransferase; albumin; alkaline phosphatase; aspartate aminotransferase; bilirubin; calcium; chlorine; creatinine; essential oil; gamma glutamyltransferase; high density lipoprotein cholesterol; low density lipoprotein cholesterol; Mentha longifolia extract; phosphate; potassium; protein; sodium; unclassified drug; uric acid; angiosperm; animal experiment; animal tissue; article; atherogenesis; atherosclerosis; body weight; cholesterol blood level; controlled study; erythrocyte count; female; heart weight; leukocyte count; liver weight; lymphocyte count; male; Mentha longifolia; neutrophil count; nonhuman; plant leaf; priority journal; rat; toxicity testing; triacylglycerol blood level; urea blood level; Alkaline Phosphatase; Animals; Atherosclerosis; Bilirubin; Blood Cell Count; Blood Cells; Blood Proteins; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Female; Kidney; Lipids; Liver; Male; Mentha; Oils, Volatile; Organ Size; Phosphates; Plant Extracts; Plant Leaves; Random Allocation; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Serum Albumin; Urea; Mentha longifolia; Rattus; Rattus norvegicusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-60849126953Toxicological evaluation of the effect of water contaminated with lead, phenol and benzene on liver, kidney and colon of Albino ratsAdeyemi O., Ajayi J.O., Olajuyin A.M., Oloyede O.B., Oladiji A.T., Oluba O.M., Adeyemi O., Ololade I.A., Adebayo E.A.2009Food and Chemical Toxicology47410.1016/j.fct.2009.01.023Department of Environmental Sciences, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, Nigeria; Department of Biochemistry, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria; Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; DepartmenAdeyemi, O., Department of Environmental Sciences, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, Nigeria; Ajayi, J.O., Department of Biochemistry, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria; Olajuyin, A.M., Department of Biochemistry, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria; Oloyede, O.B., Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; Oladiji, A.T., Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; Oluba, O.M., Department of Biochemistry, University of Benin, Benin-City, Nigeria; Adeyemi, O., Department of Biochemistry, University of Benin, Benin-City, Nigeria; Ololade, I.A., Department of Chemistry/Industrial Chemistry, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria; Adebayo, E.A., Department of Chemistry/Industrial Chemistry, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, NigeriaThe effect of water contaminated with phenol, benzene and lead on rats cellular system was investigated. Selected enzyme activity of the kidney and colon of rats was carried out. Standard enzyme assays were also conducted for selected liver enzymes such as alkaline and acid phosphatases, alanine and aspartate transaminases, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. Serum indices of liver and kidney function were also determined. The direct bilirubin of test rats were observed to be 3.2 ± 0.2 U/mol/l while that of control rat was 1.2 ± 0.003 U/mol/l. The total bilirubin of test rats was found to be 8.4 ± 0.8 U/mol/l while that of the control was 5.6 ± 0.5 U/mol/l. Generally, enzymes activity in the tissues of test rats were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) lower relative to control, while the enzyme activity of the serum of test rats was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than control. It could be inferred that experimental data suggest possible damage to the tissues and that consumption of polluted water may account for increasing cases of renal and hepatic failure among people in developing countries. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Bilirubin; Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase; Phosphatases; Transaminases; Wateracid phosphatase; alanine aminotransferase; alkaline phosphatase; aspartate aminotransferase; benzene; bilirubin glucuronide; gamma glutamyltransferase; lead; phenol; water; animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; article; colon; controlled study; enzyme activity; enzyme assay; experimental rat; gastrointestinal toxicity; kidney function; liver function; liver toxicity; male; nephrotoxicity; nonhuman; rat; tissue injury; water contamination; Alanine Transaminase; Alkaline Phosphatase; Animals; Aspartate Aminotransferases; Benzene; Bilirubin; Colon; Creatinine; Drinking; gamma-Glutamyltransferase; Kidney; Kidney Diseases; Kidney Function Tests; L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; Lead; Liver; Liver Diseases; Liver Function Tests; Male; Phenol; Rats; Urea; Water Pollutants, Chemical; RattusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84962547587Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea (Euphorbiaceae) in rodentsAwodele O., Amagon K.I., Agbo J., Prasad M.N.V.2015Interdisciplinary Toxicology8210.1515/intox-2015-0014Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Surulere, Lagos State, Nigeria; Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria; Department of Plant Sciences, UnAwodele, O., Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Surulere, Lagos State, Nigeria; Amagon, K.I., Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Surulere, Lagos State, Nigeria, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria; Agbo, J., Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Surulere, Lagos State, Nigeria; Prasad, M.N.V., Department of Plant Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Telangana, IndiaBridelia ferruginea is a woody shrub that grows in the Savannah or rain forests of Africa and has traditionally been used to treat diabetes, arthritis and boils. Despite all these uses, extensive toxicological evaluation has not been carried out. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicological effects of the stem bark aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea in rats. The lethal dose (LD50) was determined using probit analysis and graded doses of the extract (250-4 000 mg/kg) were administered to the animals via oral and intraperitoneal routes and observed for mortality, behavioral changes and signs of toxicity. Sub-chronic toxicity study was carried out at doses of 1 000, 2 000 and 4 000 mg/kg administered daily for 60 days. The animals were sacrificed after 60 days. Blood was collected for biochemical (renal and hepatic), hematological, oxidative stress, sperm and histopathological examinations, using standard methods. LD50 of the extract was estimated as &gt;4 000 mg/kg orally; neither significant visible signs of toxicity nor mortality were observed. There were no significant differences in the animals and organ weights, hematological and biochemical parameters in the treated groups compared to the control group. However, a significant increase (p&lt;0.05) in the level of lipid peroxidation and a significant (p&lt;0.05) decrease in sperm count were observed in the treated animals compared with the control group. The stem-bark aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea was found to be relatively safe, though it has the potential to cause lipid peroxidation and damage sperm quality and should thus be used with caution. © 2015 Interdisciplinary Toxicology.biochemistry; Bridelia ferruginea; hematology; oxidative stress; sperm countNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84855990038Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae)Awodele O., Oreagba I.A., Odoma S., Teixeira Da Silva J.A., Osunkalu V.O.2012Journal of Ethnopharmacology139210.1016/j.jep.2011.10.008Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria; Faculty of Agriculture, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki cho, Kita gun, Ikenobe 761-0795, Japan; Department of Haematology, College of Medicine, UniversiAwodele, O., Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria; Oreagba, I.A., Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria; Odoma, S., Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria; Teixeira Da Silva, J.A., Faculty of Agriculture, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki cho, Kita gun, Ikenobe 761-0795, Japan; Osunkalu, V.O., Department of Haematology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, NigeriaEthnopharmacological relevance: The rapid increase in consumption of herbal remedies worldwide has been stimulated by several factors, including the notion that all herbal products are safe and effective. However, over the past decade, several news-catching episodes in developed communities indicated adverse effects, sometimes life-threatening, allegedly arising as a consequence to taking herbal products or traditional medicines from various ethnic groups. Despite the popular use of Moringa oleifera for treating various disorders, there is limited or no scientific data available regarding safety aspects of this remedy, nor are there any documented toxicological studies that can be used to ascertain the safety index of its herbal preparation. Therefore, this present study aimed to carry out extensive toxicological evaluation of the aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera. Materials and Methods: In an acute toxicity test, male Wistar albino mice were orally administered an aqueous extract up to 6400 mg/kg and intraperitoneally up to 2000 mg/kg. A sub-chronic toxicity test was performed by daily administration with the extract at 250, 500 and 1500 mg/kg orally for 60 days. Control rats received distilled water. Sperm quality was analyzed, haematological and biochemical (liver enzymes, urea and creatinine) parameters were determined and a histopathological examination was carried out. Results: The LD 50 was estimated to be 1585 mg/kg. The extract did not elicit any significant difference (P ≥ 0.05) in sperm quality, haematological and biochemical parameters in the treated rats compared to the control. Moreover, there was no significant difference in weight gain of the control and treated animals although there was a dose-dependent reduction in food consumption of the animals treated with 250 to 1500 mg/kg extract. Conclusions: Results obtained in this study suggest that the aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera is relatively safe when administered orally. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Haematology; Liver and renal function; Moringa oleifera; Sub-chronic toxicitycreatinine; liver enzyme; Moringa oleifera extract; urea; animal experiment; animal tissue; article; brain; controlled study; creatinine blood level; erythrocyte count; food intake; heart; hemoglobin blood level; histopathology; kidney; LD 50; leukocyte count; liver; male; mean corpuscular hemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume; Moringa oleifera; nonhuman; plant leaf; rat; sperm; spermatozoon count; spermatozoon motility; testis; thrombocyte count; weight gain; Administration, Oral; Animals; Biological Markers; Blood Cell Count; Body Weight; Creatinine; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Eating; Enzymes; Glutathione; Injections, Intraperitoneal; Kidney; Lethal Dose 50; Liver; Male; Malondialdehyde; Mice; Moringa oleifera; Plant Extracts; Plant Leaves; Plants, Medicinal; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Sperm Count; Sperm Motility; Spermatozoa; Time Factors; Toxicity Tests; Urea; Animalia; Moringa oleifera; Moringaceae; Mus; RattusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84922625230Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of Acalypha wilkesiana in Wistar albino ratsOlukunle J.O., Jacobs E.B., Ajayi O.L., Biobaku K.T., Abatan M.O.2015Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine12110.1515/jcim-2013-0066Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria; Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, AbeokutOlukunle, J.O.; Jacobs, E.B., Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria; Ajayi, O.L., Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria; Biobaku, K.T., Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, PMB 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria; Abatan, M.O., Department of Veterinary Physiology Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of IbadanOyo State, NigeriaBackground: Acalypha wilkesiana (Euphorbiaceae) is highly accepted for traditional treatment of human plasmodiasis in Africa. Methods: The toxicological effects of the aqueous leaf extract of A. wilkesiana were studied in 45 male and female Wistar albino rats. An acute toxicity testing was done using 21 rats divided into seven groups and LD50 determined. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, the extract was administered orally over a period of 28 days to rats in three groups with doses of 400mg kg-1, 800mg kg-1 and 1,600 mg kg-1, respectively, and the fourth group administered with water served as control. Blood samples were collected for hematological and serum biochemical analysis; organs of the animals were harvested for histopathological examination. Results: The acute toxicity testing showed that the extract was non-toxic at doses up to 3,000mg kg-1 and the LD50 was calculated to be 2,828.34mg kg-1. The study showed that at 1,600mg kg-1 dose, the extract caused a decrease in the level of neutrophils (NEUT) while lymphocytes (LYMP) were statistically significantly increased. The administration of the extract also resulted in varying significant dose dependent increase in the levels of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). There were also significant increases in the level of total protein (TP), urea (URN) and albumin (GLB) especially at 1,600mg kg-1 dosage. Histopathology showed that the extract caused mild to severe significant lesions that are dose dependent in the liver and kidney when compared with the control group. Conclusions: Prolonged administration of high dose of A. wilkesiana extract has tendency to cause organ toxicity. © 2015, walter de gruyter gmbh. All rights reserved.Acalypha wilkesiana; Hematology; Histopathology; Serum biochemistry; ToxicityAcalypha wilkesiana extract; alanine aminotransferase; albumin; alkaline phosphatase; aspartate aminotransferase; plant extract; protein; unclassified drug; urea; alanine aminotransferase; alkaline phosphatase; aspartate aminotransferase; plant extract; urea; Acalypha wilkesiana; alanine aminotransferase blood level; albumin blood level; alkaline phosphatase blood level; animal experiment; animal model; Article; aspartate aminotransferase blood level; controlled study; disease severity; dose response; histopathology; LD 50; liver toxicity; lymphocyte; nephrotoxicity; neutrophil; nonhuman; plant leaf; protein blood level; rat; urea blood level; Wistar rat; Acalypha; adverse effects; animal; blood; drug effects; enzymology; female; kidney; liver; male; metabolism; toxicity testing; Acalypha; Alanine Transaminase; Alkaline Phosphatase; Animals; Aspartate Aminotransferases; Female; Kidney; Liver; Male; Plant Extracts; Rats, Wistar; Toxicity Tests, Acute; UreaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-45749147106Toxicological evaluation of the anti-malarial herb Cryptolepis sanguinolenta in rodentsAnsah C., Mfoafo E.A., Woode E., Opoku-Okrah C., Owiredu W.K.B.A., Duwiejua M.2008Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology3510.3923/jpt.2008.335.343Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; Department of Laboratory Technology, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, GhanaAnsah, C., Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; Mfoafo, E.A., Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; Woode, E., Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; Opoku-Okrah, C., Department of Laboratory Technology, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; Owiredu, W.K.B.A., Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; Duwiejua, M., Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, GhanaIn this study, we evaluated the aqueous extract of the roots of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Periplocaceae), an anti-malarial herb in the West African sub-region for possible toxicity in rodents. Administration of cryptolepis (10-1000 mg kg-1) daily for two weeks did not cause significant changes in most of the haematological parameters assessed. However, the MCV reduced from a vehicle-treated value of 63.1±0.6 to 58.1±09 g dL-1 at a dose of 10 zng kr-1, which reflected in an increased MCHC (27.8±0.3 to 30.5±0.3 g dL-1), since the Hb concentration remained unchanged. Serum transaminase levels did not change significantly suggesting a limited effect on the liver. Administration of the extract (50-1000 mg kg-1, p.o.) 30 min before pentobarbitone (50 mg kg-1, i.p.) caused a dose-dependent prolongation of the rat sleeping time from 66.6±8.1 min (vehicle-treated control) to 266.5±7. 0 min (1000 mg kg-1). Similarly, daily treatment with the extract (50-1000 mg kg-1) for 2 weeks prolonged the sleeping time from 155±28.4 to 292.8:±28.7 min. This effect appeared to be CNS-related rather than an enzymatic as reflected in a decreased locomotor activity (1 9.4±1.5 to 1.84.8 min-1) at a dose of 500 mg kg-1 body weight. All together, our results suggest that Cryptolepis could synergize with hypno-sedatives or other CNS depressants and therefore caution needs to be taken in the concomitant administration of Cryptolepis and other CNS depressants. © 2008 Academic Journals Inc.Antimalarial; CNS depressant; Cryptolepis sanguinolenta; Haematological parameters; Rodents; Sleeping timealanine aminotransferase; albumin; alkaline phosphatase; aminotransferase; antimalarial agent; aspartate aminotransferase; bilirubin; carbon monoxide; central depressant agent; Cryptolepis sanguinolenta extract; cytochrome P450; gamma glutamyltransferase; globulin; hemoglobin; hypnotic sedative agent; ketoconazole; pentobarbital; plant extract; alanine aminotransferase blood level; albumin blood level; alkaline phosphatase blood level; animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; aqueous solution; article; aspartate aminotransferase blood level; bilirubin blood level; binding assay; central nervous system; controlled study; Cryptolepis; cryptolepis sanguinolenta; dose response; drug dose comparison; drug potentiation; drug solution; gamma glutamyl transferase blood level; hematological parameters; herbal medicine; kidney mass; liver toxicity; liver weight; locomotion; mean corpuscular hemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume; mouse; nonhuman; organ weight; plant root; protein blood level; rat; sleep time; spleen weight; stomach; toxicity testingNone
Scopus2-s2.0-76749165704Toxicological evaluation of Tetracarpidium conophorum nut oil-based diet in ratsOladiji A.T., Abodunrin T.P., Yakubu M.T.2010Food and Chemical Toxicology48310.1016/j.fct.2009.12.030Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, NigeriaOladiji, A.T., Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria; Abodunrin, T.P., Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria; Yakubu, M.T., Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515, Ilorin, NigeriaThe effects of Tetracarpidium conophorum nut oil-based diet on the growth performance and some biochemical constituents of rat tissues was investigated following a feeding period of 6 weeks. The results revealed that the volume of water taken, the amount of feed consumed and the weight gained by the animals maintained on the nut oil-based diet were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from those fed on soybean oil-based diet. The reduction in the activities of ALP, GOT and GPT in the liver and heart of animals fed on the nut oil-based diet was accompanied by increase in the serum enzymes. The nut oil-based diet significantly reduced (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of total cholesterol and HDL-C whereas triglycerides and atherogenic index increased. The serum LDL-C level of the nut oil-based diet fed animals compared well with those of soybean oil-based diet. These alterations suggested that adverse effects have occurred, possibly by altered membrane permeability of the hepatocytes and cardiac cells. Similar alterations in the serum lipids of animals maintained on nut oil-based diet also portends cardiovascular risk. Although, T. conophorum nut oil did not adversely affect growth performance and the feeding appetite of the animals, it is not completely 'safe' for consumption. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.'Marker' enzymes; Cardiovascular risk; Growth performance; Serum lipids; Soybean oil; Tetracarpidium conophorumalanine aminotransferase; alkaline phosphatase; aspartate aminotransferase; cholesterol; edible oil; high density lipoprotein; low density lipoprotein; soybean oil; triacylglycerol; animal experiment; animal tissue; article; atherogenic diet; biochemical composition; cell membrane permeability; cholesterol blood level; concentration (parameters); controlled study; diet supplementation; enzyme activity; enzyme blood level; feeding; female; fluid intake; food analysis; food safety; heart; lipid blood level; liver; male; nonhuman; nut; rat; Tetracarpidium conophorum; tissue growth; toxicity testing; weight gain; Alanine Transaminase; Alkaline Phosphatase; Animals; Aspartate Aminotransferases; Cholesterol, HDL; Cholesterol, LDL; Diet; Eating; Euphorbiaceae; Female; Indicators and Reagents; Male; Nigeria; Nuts; Plant Oils; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Soybeans; Triglycerides; Animalia; Glycine max; Rattus; Tetracarpidium conophorumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84921669039Toxicological evaluation of methanol leaves extract of Vernonia Bipontini Vatke in blood, liver and kidney tissues of miceAlebachew M., Kinfu Y., Makonnen E., Bekuretsion Y., Urga K., Afework M.2014African Health Sciences14410.4314/ahs.v14i4.33Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Department of Drug Research, Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaAlebachew, M., Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Kinfu, Y., Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Makonnen, E., Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Bekuretsion, Y., Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Urga, K., Department of Drug Research, Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Afework, M., Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Various medicinal plants have been studied using modern scientific approaches. These plants have a variety of properties and various biological components that can be used to treat various diseases. However, harmful effects of plants are common clinical occurrence.Objective:This study was designed to investigate toxicological assessment of acute and chronic methanol leaf extract of Vernonia bipontini Vatke (V.bipontini V) on blood, liver and kidney tissues of mice.Methods: Lethal dose (LD) at which 50% of experimental mice died and long term toxicity of methanolic leaf extract of V. bipontini V were determined. Some hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Then, liver and kidney tissues of each animal were taken and processed for light microscopy.Results: Almost all mice treated with 800mg/kg methanol leaf extract of V. bipontini V showed swellings on the left part of abdominal region related to location of spleen, mild diarrhea and enlargement of spleen. The LD50 of the methanol leaf extract of V. bipontini V was 2130.6±1.5mg/kg. Treatment with 800mg/kg body weight of methanol leaf extract significantly decreased body, liver and kidney weights, red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin (Hgb), mean cell haemoglobin (Mch), Mchc, platelet and significantly increased serum aspartate transferance (AST), vatanine tranferance(ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP) levels while 400mg/kg dose had no effect on these parameters. The reduced organ weights did not correlate with loss of body weight at 800mg/kg of methanol leaf extract of the plant. Light microscope observations of liver tissue of mice treated with 800mg/kg of the methanol leaf extract revealed dilated sinusoids, nuclear enlargement, lots of bi-nucleation of hepatocytes, peripheral cramped chromatin, shrinkages (single cell death) of hepatocytes, fragmentation of hepatocytes while no histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney of mice treated at 400mg/kg. Kidney tissue sections of mice did not show significant histopathological changes at 400mg/kg. However, at 800mg/kg kidney sections showed increased cellularity of glomerulus, urinary space obliteration and enlarged macula densa.Conclusion: This study suggests that the methanol leaf extract may have been phytotoxic to liver that resulted in a rise in serum AST, ALT and ALP levels. © 2014 Makerere University, Medical School. All rights reserved.Hematological and biochemical; Kidney; Liver; Methanol; Swiss Albino mice; V. Bipontini Vatkealkaline phosphatase; hemoglobin; herbaceous agent; plant extract; unclassified drug; vernonia bipontini vatke extract; abdominal swelling; adult; animal experiment; animal tissue; Article; body weight; controlled study; diarrhea; disease severity; drug blood level; drug liver level; drug tissue level; enzyme blood level; erythrocyte count; female; hematological parameters; hemoglobin blood level; kidney; kidney injury; kidney mass; LD 50; liver cell damage; liver sinusoid; liver weight; male; medicinal plant; microscopy; mouse; nonhuman; plant leaf; splenomegaly; thrombocyte count; toxicokinetics; Vernonia bipontini Vatke; weight reductionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84897383318Toxicological evaluation of Melocia corchorifolia leaves (L.) fed to albino ratUmar K.J., Hassan L.G., Dangoggo S.M., Maigandi S.A., Sani N.A., Dogonyaro A.I.2014International Journal of Biological Chemistry8110.3923/ijbc.2014.48.57Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; College of Science and Technology, Department of Science, Sokoto StUmar, K.J., Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; Hassan, L.G., Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; Dangoggo, S.M., Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; Maigandi, S.A., Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; Sani, N.A., Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; Dogonyaro, A.I., College of Science and Technology, Department of Science, Sokoto State Polytechnic, Sokoto, NigeriaWild leafy vegetables are widely eaten in developing countries and serves as nutrient supplements. The present study examined the effect of feeding albino rats with 75% Melocia corchorifolia leaves with respect to their body weight, liver and kidney biochemical, haematological and histological response. Results showed that the rats fed with M. corchorifolia leaves experience decrease in body weight compared to the control group. The Packed Cell Volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and Red Blood Cells (RBC), White Blood Cells (WBC), platelets, Mean Carpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Carpuseular Haemoglobin (MCH), Mean Carpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and leukocyte (lymphocyte, neutophils, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils) differential counts were not significantly (p>0.05) different between control and treatment. Similarly, serum total protein, globulin and bilirubin were not significantly different, but that of albumin was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the treatment than control group. The serum enzyme activities, i.e., aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly (p<0.05) elevated in sample treatment than the control; which is an indication of organ toxicity by cellular destruction induced by the phyto-toxin present in the fed. Renal function indices-serum creatinine, urea, uric acid and electrolytes were not significantly different (p>0.05) between control and treatment. The results of this study showed that Melocia corchorifolia leaves have a relatively low or no toxicity profile. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc.Albino rat; Haematology; Histology; Melocia corchorifolia; Serum biochemistry; Toxicity; VegetablesNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84876027786Toxicological evaluation of five herbal drugs hawked in minna, niger stateOkunji K.E., Galadima M., Jigam A.A.2012Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science21210.7324/JAPS.2012.21229Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria; Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology Minna, NigeriaOkunji, K.E., Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria; Galadima, M., Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria; Jigam, A.A., Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology Minna, NigeriaThe medicinal and cultural acceptance of herbal drugs has been established since ancient time but often without any toxicological assessment. In the present study the toxicological assessment of five herbal medicinal concoctions sold in Minna, Nigeria was carried out in mice. Parameters determined included weight variations, packed cell volume (PCV), total serum protein, glucose and triacylglycerides which were compared to control groups that were administered 20ml/kg body weight of normal saline. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides and flavonoids in most of the drugs. Safe doses of the drugs in the rodents were determined to range between 150 - 800mg/Kg body weight while LD50 were in the range of 800 - 2500mg/Kg body weight. Serum glucose, total proteins and triglycerides were each significantly (p<0.05) elevated in at least three of the five drug treatments at the end of the five weeks study period. There were however consistent decline in total body weights and packed cell volumes of the experimental animal during the same period. These results constitute early indices to the potential adverse physiological effects of repeated usage of the concoctions analysed.Adverse effects; Concoctions; Herbal; ToxicNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84949445102Toxicological evaluation of drinking water sources in some rural communities in southern nigeria after mycofiltration treatmentOlorunfemi D., Efechuku U., Esuana J.2015Polish Journal of Environmental Studies24310.15244/pjoes/34672Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria; Environmental Science Unit, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria; Department of Science Laboratory Technology, University of Benin, Benin City, NigeriaOlorunfemi, D., Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria; Efechuku, U., Environmental Science Unit, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria; Esuana, J., Department of Science Laboratory Technology, University of Benin, Benin City, NigeriaAvailable domestic water in many communities in Nigeria is increasingly polluted on a daily basis. A major issue of national interest is how these polluted drinking water sources could be fully assessed and mitigated. In this study, mycofiltrated domestic water samples obtained from hand-dug wells and boreholes in six rural communities in Ughelli South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria were evaluated for potential cyto-genotoxicity using the Allium cepa bioassay. Data obtained from physicochemical analysis after a 24- hour mycofiltration treatment of the water samples revealed significant (p < 0.05) reduction/total elimination of heavy metals and microbial load in the samples. Results obtained from the 96-hour macroscopic evaluation of A. cepa showed that compared to onions grown in untreated samples, significant (p < 0.05) reduction in root growth inhibition occurred in bulbs cultivated in mycofiltrated samples. Root tips of A. cepa processed for cytological studies by the aceto-orcein squash technique after exposure to the water samples for 48 hours also showed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in chromosomal aberrations in onion bulbs grown in mycofiltrated samples. These findings show that mycofiltration technique is an efficient and affordable technology for toxicity reduction in drinking water sources available for rural dwellers in developing countries. © 2015, Pol. J. Environ. Stud. All Rights Reserved.Allium cepa assay; Domestic water; Microbial Load; Mycofiltration; Physicochemical analysisNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-71749119345Toxicological evaluation of dietary fumonisin B1 on serum biochemistry of growing pigsGbore F.A., Egbunike G.N.2009Journal of Central European Agriculture103NoneDepartment of Environmental Biology and Fisheries, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba - Akoko, Nigeria; Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaGbore, F.A., Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba - Akoko, Nigeria; Egbunike, G.N., Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaTwenty-four male Large White weanling pigs of 8-9 weeks of age averaging 6.94±0.26 kg were used to evaluate the effect of dietary fumonisin B1 (FB1) on serum biochemical parameters. The animals were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments containing 0.2, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 mg FB1/kg constituting the control, diets 1, 2 and 3 respectively, in a 6-month feeding trial. Blood sample was collected from the ear vein of each animal at the end of the feeding trial for biochemical analyses. Animals fed the control diet and diet 1 had significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations as well as the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and serum cholesterol concentrations than those on diets 2 and 3, while the serum triglyceride concentrations of the animals fed diets 1 and 2 were significantly (P&lt;0.05) lower than those fed diet 3 but significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher than those fed the control diet. The study revealed that chronic ingestion of dietary FB1 ≥10.0 mg kg-1 may result in significant alterations of serum biochemical parameters in growing pigs suggesting chronic gastrointestinal or hepatic disease.Fumonisin B1; Growing pigs; Serum biochemistryAnimalia; Pieris brassicae; SuidaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84891775574Toxicological evaluation of aqueous leaf extract of chromolaena odorata in male wistar albino ratsAsomugha R.N., Okafor P.N., Ijeh I.I., Orisakwe O.E., Asomugha A.L., Ndefo J.C.2013Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science31210.7324/JAPS.2013.31216Toxicology Unit, Dept. of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria; Det. of Biochemistry, Federal University of Agriculture Umudike, Nigeria; Toxicology Unit, Dept. of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria;Asomugha, R.N., Toxicology Unit, Dept. of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria; Okafor, P.N., Det. of Biochemistry, Federal University of Agriculture Umudike, Nigeria; Ijeh, I.I., Det. of Biochemistry, Federal University of Agriculture Umudike, Nigeria; Orisakwe, O.E., Toxicology Unit, Dept. of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria; Asomugha, A.L., Dept. of Anatomy, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Medical School, Nnewi, Nigeria; Ndefo, J.C., Laboratory Unit, Medical Center, University of Nigeria, NigeriaTo evaluate the toxicological implications of the administration of aqueous leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata. The aqueous leaf extract was administered three times per week, for 90 days at doses of 161.5mg/kg, 32 3mg/kg, 538,5mg/kg and 1077mg/kg body weight, respectively. The control animals received 0.5ml of deionised water alone. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 90days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis, and the heart, testes and kidney harvested for histological analysis. Histopathological examination of the heart, lungs, testis and the kidneys did not show any observable morphological alterations. The biochemical parameters; amylase, albumin and total serum protein, and Na+ were found to be decreased at doses of 538.5mg/kg and 1077mg/kg, while the serum levels of creatine kinase, AST, K+, glucose, uric acid, urea and creatinine were increased at the same dose levels. The absence of exhibition of observable toxicity below 538.5mg/kg body weight suggests that the extract may be safe and non-toxic only at very low doses. © 2013 Asomugha RN et al.Chromolaena odorata; Histopathology; Leaf extract; Toxicity studyNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77953535639Toxicological evaluation of aqueous leaf and berry extracts of Phytolacca dioica L. in male Wistar ratsAshafa A.O.T., Sunmonu T.O., Afolayan A.J.2010Food and Chemical Toxicology48710.1016/j.fct.2010.04.029Centre for Phytomedicine Research, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South AfricaAshafa, A.O.T., Centre for Phytomedicine Research, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa; Sunmonu, T.O., Centre for Phytomedicine Research, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa; Afolayan, A.J., Centre for Phytomedicine Research, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South AfricaDespite the widespread use of Phytolacca dioica L. in folklore medicine of South Africa, there is dearth of information on its safety/toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicological effect of aqueous leaf and berry extracts of the plant at different dosages for 14. days on the liver and kidney function indices in male Wistar rats. Phytochemical screening indicated that the extracts are rich in phytonutrients including alkaloid, tannin, saponins, phenolics, lectins and flavonoids; while triterpenoids and phlobatanins were absent. The extracts significantly reduced the body and absolute organ weights of the animals at all the dosages investigated. Whereas, significant increase was observed in the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), bilirubin, calcium, creatinine, urea and uric acid; the serum concentration of total protein, albumin and globulin were reduced in the serum following treatment with the extracts. Generally, the effect of the herb appeared to be dosage dependent. This investigation clearly showed that P. dioica can impair normal hepatic and renal functions. This is an indication that the extracts may not be completely safe in male rats when continuously administered for 14. days. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.Body weight; Function indices; Haematological parameters; Marker enzymes; Phytolacca dioicaalanine aminotransferase; albumin; alkaline phosphatase; alkaloid; aspartate aminotransferase; bilirubin; calcium; creatinine; flavonoid; globulin; herbaceous agent; phenol derivative; Phytolacca dioica extract; plant lectin; saponin; tannin; triterpenoid; unclassified drug; urea; uric acid; alanine aminotransferase blood level; albumin blood level; alkaline phosphatase blood level; animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; article; aspartate aminotransferase blood level; berry; calcium blood level; controlled study; creatinine blood level; dose response; drug safety; hyperbilirubinemia; liver toxicity; male; nephrotoxicity; nonhuman; phytochemistry; Phytolacca dioica; Phytolaccaceae; plant leaf; rat; toxicity testing; urea blood level; uric acid blood level; weight reduction; Animals; Fruit; Kidney Function Tests; Liver Function Tests; Male; Phytolacca; Plant Extracts; Plant Leaves; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Animalia; Phytolacca dioica; Rattus; Rattus norvegicusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79955690695Toxicological evaluation of aqueous extract of Aloe ferox Mill. in loperamide-induced constipated ratsWintola O.A., Sunmonu T.O., Afolayan A.J.2011Human and Experimental Toxicology30510.1177/0960327110372647Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South AfricaWintola, O.A., Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa; Sunmonu, T.O., Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa; Afolayan, A.J., Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South AfricaAloe ferox Mill. is a widely used medicinal plant in South Africa for the treatment of many ailments including constipation. The present study evaluated the toxicological effect of aqueous leaf extract of the herb at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 7 days on the haematological parameters as well as liver and kidney function indices in loperamide-induced constipated rats. The extract did not cause any significant (p > 0.05) effect on the kidney and liver-body weight ratio as well as the kidney function indices including serum levels of creatinine, uric acid, urea, calcium and potassium ions at all the dosages investigated. Whereas the serum levels of total protein, albumin, bilirubin and gamma glutamyl trasferase (GGT) were not affected, the elevated activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in the untreated constipated animals were normalized following treatment with extract. The data obtained with respect to the haematological analysis indicated that the extracts had no significant (p > 0.05) effect on the haematological parameters with the exception of lymphocyte count which was increased in the untreated constipated rats. This was however attenuated after administering the herb. The available evidence in this study suggests that A. ferox may be safe as an oral remedy for constipation. Generally, the effect of the extract compared favourably well with senokot, a recommended drug for the treatment of constipation. © The Author(s) 2010.Aloe ferox; function indices; haematological parameters; marker enzymesalanine aminotransferase; albumin; alkaline phosphatase; Aloe ferox extract; aspartate aminotransferase; bilirubin; calcium ion; creatinine; gamma glutamyltransferase; loperamide; plant extract; potassium ion; senokot; unclassified drug; urea; uric acid; alanine aminotransferase blood level; albumin blood level; alkaline phosphatase blood level; Aloe; Aloe ferox; animal experiment; animal model; aqueous solution; article; aspartate aminotransferase blood level; body weight; calcium blood level; constipation; controlled study; creatinine blood level; drug safety; enzyme activity; gamma glutamyl transferase blood level; hematological parameters; kidney function; kidney mass; liver function; liver weight; lymphocyte count; male; nonhuman; plant leaf; potassium blood level; priority journal; protein blood level; rat; toxicity testing; urea blood level; uric acid blood level; Aloe; Animals; Body Weight; Constipation; Disease Models, Animal; Kidney; Kidney Function Tests; Liver; Liver Function Tests; Loperamide; Lymphocyte Count; Male; Organ Size; Plant Extracts; Plant Leaves; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Toxicity Tests; Aloe ferox; Animalia; RattusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84859295158Toxicological evaluation and usefulness of lipid peroxidation as biomarker of exposure to crude oil and petroleum products tested against african catfish, clarias gariepinus and hermit crab, clibanarius africanusKing M.A., Sogbanmu T.O., Osibona A.O., Doherty F., Otitoloju A.A.2012Nature Environment and Pollution Technology111NoneDepartment of Zoology, Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Management Unit, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria; Department of Marine Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria; Department of Biological Sciences, YaKing, M.A., Department of Zoology, Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Management Unit, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria; Sogbanmu, T.O., Department of Zoology, Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Management Unit, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria; Osibona, A.O., Department of Marine Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria; Doherty, F., Department of Biological Sciences, Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria; Otitoloju, A.A., Department of Zoology, Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Management Unit, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, NigeriaThe toxicological evaluations of crude oil, petrol, kerosene and diesel were carried out against the African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings and Hermit crab (Clibanarius africanus). On the basis of 96hr LC 50 value, petrol (LC 50 = 2.449 mL/L) was found to be the most toxic followed by diesel (LC50 = 7.839 mL/L), kerosene (LC 50 = 8.095 mL/L), and crude oil (LC 50= 9.355 mL/L) to Clarias gariepinus. For Clibanarius africanus also, petrol (LC 50 = 4.569mL/L) was the most toxic followed by kerosene (LC 50 = 8.705 mL/L), diesel (LC 50 = 13.852 mL/L) and (LC 50 = 35.955 mL/L). On the basis of the computed susceptibility factor, hermit crab was found to be 2x, 2x, 6.1x and slightly more tolerant than catfish when exposed to petrol, diesel, crude oil and kerosene respectively. The results of the lipid peroxidation assay against juveniles of C. gariepinus showed that the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver of fish exposed to sublethal concentrations of all the test chemicals increased significantly when compared to control animals. The observed increase in MDA levels in the liver tissues of test animals exposed to crude oil and refined petroleum products was recommended as a good biomarker for early detection of oil related pollution during biomonitoring programmes.African catfish; Biomarker; Hermit crab; Lipid peroxidation; Petroleum products; Toxicological evaluationAfrican catfish; Biomonitoring; Clarias gariepinus; Hermit crab; Lipid peroxidation; Liver tissue; Malondialdehyde; Toxicological evaluation; Aldehydes; Biomarkers; Computer system firewalls; Fish; Gasoline; Kerosene; Oxidative stress; Petroleum products; Petroleum refining; Pollution detection; Shellfish; Tissue; Crude oil; biomarker; biomonitoring; crab; crude oil; lipid; pollution exposure; sublethal effect; teleost; toxicology; Animalia; Clarias gariepinus; Clibanarius; Decapoda (Crustacea)None
Scopus2-s2.0-84865180945Toxicity study and evaluation of biochemical markers towards the identification of the causative agent for an outbreak of liver disease in Tahtay Koraro Woreda, TigrayDebella A., Abebe D., Tekabe F., Mamo H., Abebe A., Tsegaye B., Ayana G., Degefa A., Negussie P., Yimer E., Challa F., Lemma E., Tefera A., Mekonnen Y., Afework N., Mudie K., Tadele A., Kidanemariam T., Muchie B., Dadi N.2012Ethiopian Medical Journal50NoneNoneEthiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P. O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Drug Administration and Control Authority, Quality Control and Toxicology Laboratory, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaDebella, A., Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P. O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Abebe, D., Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P. O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Tekabe, F., Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P. O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Mamo, H., Drug Administration and Control Authority, Quality Control and Toxicology Laboratory, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Abebe, A., Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P. O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Tsegaye, B., Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P. O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Ayana, G., Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P. O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Degefa, A., Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P. O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Negussie, P., Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P. O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Yimer, E., Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P. O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Challa, F., Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P. O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Lemma, E., Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P. O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Tefera, A., Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P. O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Mekonnen, Y., Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P. O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Afework, N., Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P. O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Mudie, K., Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P. O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Tadele, A., Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P. O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Kidanemariam, T., Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P. O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Muchie, B., Drug Administration and Control Authority, Quality Control and Toxicology Laboratory, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Dadi, N., Drug Administration and Control Authority, Quality Control and Toxicology Laboratory, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: A team of experts of the Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University reported the emergence of unidentified fatal liver disease in Tahtay Koraro Woreda, Tigray in the mid of December 2005. The EHNRI has been then instructed to investigate the possible etiological agent that are likely to be responsible in triggering the health problem and a field survey team consisting of experts were went to the affected area to investigate the situations surrounding the disease. Objectives: This investigation was conducted to determine the possible etiological agent(s) for the stated health problem in the affected village. Method: Acute toxicity study was performed on animal model for the various samples used in human consumption, which was followed by histopathological examination of the liver of the sacrificed laboratory animals. In order to facilitate the elucidation of the causative agent for the alleged health problem further tests for clinical markers and antigens were also performed on the serum collected from affected persons. Result: Neither death nor toxic symptoms manifestations were observed on laboratory animals when feeding the consumable samples for a period of two weeks, however histopathological examination of the liver of the sacrificed animals that were given the unprotected pond water and Tela samples from the affected village as a drink revealed severe hepatoic necrosis. Biochemical test results of the serum samples revealed raised level of some clinical markers that are highly significant for detecting liver abnormality of toxic origin. Serological test for surface antigen ruled out the possible causes of infectious origin such as viral hepatitis. Conclusion: The overall results confirmed that the causative agent for the outbreak of the liver disease was of toxic origin rather than due to infectious agent and this was found to be associated with consumption of contaminated water as well as Tela.Acute toxicity; Clinical markers; Etiological agent; Histopathogy; Liver diseasebiological marker; animal; animal model; article; epidemic; Ethiopia; evaluation; female; human; liver disease; male; statistics; water pollution; Animals; Biological Markers; Disease Outbreaks; Ethiopia; Female; Humans; Liver Diseases; Male; Models, Animal; Water PollutionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-72149109283Toxicity evaluation of the aqueous extract of the rhizome of Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Skeels. (Fabaceae), in ratsMaphosa V., Masika P.J., Moyo B.2010Food and Chemical Toxicology48110.1016/j.fct.2009.09.040Department of Livestock and Pasture Sciences, University of Fort Hare, Alice, 5700, South Africa; Agricultural and Rural Development Research Institute (ARDRI), University of Fort Hare, Alice, 5700, South AfricaMaphosa, V., Department of Livestock and Pasture Sciences, University of Fort Hare, Alice, 5700, South Africa; Masika, P.J., Agricultural and Rural Development Research Institute (ARDRI), University of Fort Hare, Alice, 5700, South Africa; Moyo, B., Department of Livestock and Pasture Sciences, University of Fort Hare, Alice, 5700, South AfricaElephantorrhiza elephantina root extract has been used as a traditional remedy for a wide range of ailments both in humans and livestock. As part of the safety assessment of the extract, acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted by the oral route in rats. Male and female rats were divided into four groups consisting of five rats each and given doses of 200-1600 mg/kg bwt, 200-800 mg/kg bwt and 50-400 mg/kg bwt in acute (1 day), sub-acute (14 days) and chronic toxicity (35 days), respectively. During the experiment, no deaths were observed in any groups and there were no remarkable changes in general appearance, as well as in food and water consumption. Significant (P < 0.05) changes were however noted in body weights, haematological and serum biochemical parameters between the control and treated groups. Histopathological changes were also noted in kidneys, lungs, liver and spleen of rats receiving high doses. Based on these findings, it can be inferred that the plant has some potential toxicity at certain dose levels; therefore caution has to be taken when using E. elephantina for medicinal purposes. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Elephantorrhiza elephantina toxicity; Haematology; Histopathology; Serum biochemistryElephantorrhiza elephantina extract; herbaceous agent; unclassified drug; animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; article; controlled study; death; dose response; drug dose comparison; drug megadose; drug safety; Elephantorrhiza elephantina; female; fluid intake; food intake; histopathology; legume; liver toxicity; lung toxicity; male; nephrotoxicity; nonhuman; rat; rhizome; spleen; toxicity testing; weight change; Animals; Blood Cell Count; Blood Chemical Analysis; Body Weight; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Fabaceae; Female; Kidney; Liver; Lung; Male; Organ Size; Plant Extracts; Plant Roots; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Elephantorrhiza elephantina; Fabaceae; RattusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84867597555Toxicity evaluation of crankcase oil in ratsArise R.O., Tella A.C., Akintola A.A., Akiode S.O., Malomo S.O.2012EXCLI Journal11NoneNoneDepartment of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria; Department of Chemistry, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, NigeriaArise, R.O., Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria; Tella, A.C., Department of Chemistry, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria; Akintola, A.A., Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria; Akiode, S.O., Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria; Malomo, S.O., Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, NigeriaThe aim of this study was to investigate the effect of crankcase oil on the cellular and functional integrity of rat skin. Thirty (30) rats were randomly grouped into six viz groups A-F. Group A (base-line control) received 2 ml of distilled water. 2.5 %, 5.0 %, 7.5 %, and 10.0 % v/v of the crankcase oil were prepared using unused oil as solvent and 2 ml of the concentrations were topically administered to groups C-F respectively for seven consecutive days. Group B served as positive control and received 2 ml of the unused oil. The rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last administration, and blood and part of the skin were collected. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde level in the blood and skin samples collected were evaluated. Elemental analysis of the crankcase oil was also carried out. The result revealed high lead, iron and chromium levels. Blood lead concentration of rats was significantly (P<0.05) high after seven days of administration. ALP level in skin and serum increased significantly (P<0.05) with the concentration of crankcase oil. There was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in skin ACP activity while it increased significantly (P<0.05) in the serum. Similar results were observed in the SOD levels of the serum and the skin. The level increased significantly (P<0.05) in groups D-F when compared with controls. The MDA concentration of both serum and skin were significantly (P<0.05) elevated. This suggests toxic potential of used lubricating oil and its potential predisposition to cancer.Cancer; Crankcase oil; Malondialdehyde; Superoxide dismutaseacid phosphatase; alkaline phosphatase; chromium; crankase oil; fuel oil; iron; lead; malonaldehyde; superoxide dismutase; unclassified drug; animal experiment; animal tissue; article; blood sampling; concentration (parameters); controlled study; cytotoxicity; enzyme activity; enzyme assay; enzyme blood level; female; molecular dynamics; nonhuman; rat; skin examination; skin toxicity; toxicity testingNone
Scopus2-s2.0-35548972877To what extent are nurses using recognised IMCI protocols to identify and manage children with HIV: An evaluation of IMCI trained nurses in Kwazulu Natal in the use of the HIV portion of the IMCI algorithmHaskins J.L.M.2006Africa Journal of Nursing and Midwifery82NoneDurban University of Technology, Dept. of Postgraduate Nursing Studies, P.O. Box 1334, Durban 4000, South AfricaHaskins, J.L.M., Durban University of Technology, Dept. of Postgraduate Nursing Studies, P.O. Box 1334, Durban 4000, South AfricaIn South Africa HIV infection is an increasing problem. The Department of Health (2004) estimated that by the end of 2003, 5.6 million people had acquired the HIV infection. Given the mother to child transmission of the disease, a paediatric HIV epidemic is expected. These children can be identified and managed using the HIV portion of the IMCI algorithm. This evaluation study sought to assess the accuracy of the use of the HIV portion of the algorithm by IMCI trained nurses in the public sector clinics in KwaZulu Natal province. Quantitative and qualitative procedures were utilized to conduct the survey. Eight nurses were selected through a two phase sampling strategy. The selected nurses were observed and assessed for a total of 72 consultations using a checklist. In addition, a questionnaire was developed and administered to the eight nurses in the original sample as well as 5 others who were conveniently selected. The findings indicate a poor level of accuracy with which IMCI trained nurses' use the algorithm and therefore suggest a poor level of management of HIV infection in children at clinic level in KwaZulu Natal. The findings indicated a reluctance of some IMCI trained nurses to discuss HIV infection with mothers who bring their children to the clinics. Support for IMCI nurses to accurately and effectively use the HIV portion of the IMCI algorithm needs to be introduced in order to provide a better service to children with HIV infection.Algorithm; Assessment; HIV; IMCI; IMCI trained nurseNoneNone
WoSWOS:000345430400001Toward utilization of data for program management and evaluation: quality assessment of five years of health management information system data in RwandaAmoroso, Cheryl,Basinga, Paulin,Binagwaho, Agnes,Gaju, Eric,Gashayija, Modeste,Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany,Hirschhorn, Lisa R.,Iyer, Hari S.,Muhire, Andrew,Nisingizwe, Marie Paul,Rubyutsa, Eric,Wilson, Randy2014GLOBAL HEALTH ACTION7None10.3402/gha.v7.25829Dartmouth College, Gates Foundation, Harvard University, University of Rwanda, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Minist Hlth, Partners In Hlth, Partners In Hlth Inshuti Mu Buzima"Basinga, Paulin: Gates Foundation",Background: Health data can be useful for effective service delivery, decision making, and evaluating existing programs in order to maintain high quality of healthcare. Studies have shown variability in data quality from national health management information systems (HMISs) in sub-Saharan Africa which threatens utility of these data as a tool to improve health systems. The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of Rwanda's HMIS data over a 5-year period. Methods: The World Health Organization (WHO) data quality report card framework was used to assess the quality of HMIS data captured from 2008 to 2012 and is a census of all 495 publicly funded health facilities in Rwanda. Factors assessed included completeness and internal consistency of 10 indicators selected based on WHO recommendations and priority areas for the Rwanda national health sector. Completeness was measured as percentage of non-missing reports. Consistency was measured as the absence of extreme outliers, internal consistency between related indicators, and consistency of indicators over time. These assessments were done at the district and national level. Results: Nationally, the average monthly district reporting completeness rate was 98% across 10 key indicators from 2008 to 2012. Completeness of indicator data increased over time: 2008, 88%; 2009, 91%; 2010, 89%; 2011, 90%; and 2012, 95% (p&lt;B0.0001). Comparing 2011 and 2012 health events to the mean of the three preceding years, service output increased from 3% (2011) to 9% (2012). Eighty-three percent of districts reported ratios between related indicators (ANC/DTP1, DTP1/DTP3) consistent with HMIS national ratios. Conclusion and policy implications: Our findings suggest that HMIS data quality in Rwanda has been improving over time. We recommend maintaining these assessments to identify remaining gaps in data quality and that results are shared publicly to support increased use of HMIS data."DATA QUALITY","data use","global health","health management information system","QUALITY IMPROVEMENT",RWANDA,CHALLENGES,DISTRICT,"IMMUNIZATION DATA",IMPLEMENTATION,INNOVATIONS,MALAWI,MOZAMBIQUE,SOUTH-AFRICANoneNone
WoSWOS:000305583300126Towards Universal Health Coverage: An Evaluation of Rwanda Mutuelles in Its First Eight YearsBasinga, Paulin,Binagwaho, Agnes,Chin, Brian,Hill, Kenneth,Hirschhorn, Lisa R.,Lewandowski, Jiwon Lee,Lu, Chunling,Murray, Megan2012PLOS ONE7610.1371/journal.pone.0039282Asian Development Bank, Harvard University, University of Rwanda"Basinga, Paulin: University of Rwanda","Chin, Brian: Asian Development Bank","Hill, Kenneth: Harvard University","Hirschhorn, Lisa R.: Harvard University","Lewandowski, Jiwon Lee: Harvard University","Lu, Chunling: Harvard University","Murray, Megan: Harvard University",Background: Mutuelles is a community-based health insurance program, established since 1999 by the Government of Rwanda as a key component of the national health strategy on providing universal health care. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of Mutuelles on achieving universal coverage of medical services and financial risk protection in its first eight years of implementation. Methods and Findings: We conducted a quantitative impact evaluation of Mutuelles between 2000 and 2008 using nationally-representative surveys. At the national and provincial levels, we traced the evolution of Mutuelles coverage and its impact on child and maternal care coverage from 2000 to 2008, as well as household catastrophic health payments from 2000 to 2006. At the individual level, we investigated the impact of Mutuelles' coverage on enrollees' medical care utilization using logistic regression. We focused on three target populations: the general population, under-five children, and women with delivery. At the household level, we used logistic regression to study the relationship between Mutuelles coverage and the probability of incurring catastrophic health spending. The main limitation was that due to insufficient data, we are not able to study the impact of Mutuelles on health outcomes, such as child and maternal mortalities, directly. The findings show that Mutuelles improved medical care utilization and protected households from catastrophic health spending. Among Mutuelles enrollees, those in the poorest expenditure quintile had a significantly lower rate of utilization and higher rate of catastrophic health spending. The findings are robust to various estimation methods and datasets. Conclusions: Rwanda's experience suggests that community-based health insurance schemes can be effective tools for achieving universal health coverage even in the poorest settings. We suggest a future study on how eliminating Mutuelles copayments for the poorest will improve their healthcare utilization, lower their catastrophic health spending, and affect the finances of health care providers.,ASIA,CARE,CHINA,COUNTRIES,IMPACT,INSURANCE,OUT-OF-POCKET,PAYMENTS,SERVICESNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84925459930Towards the solution of abysmal performance in mathematics in junior high schools: Comparing the pedagogical potential Of twoSarfo F.K., Eshun G., Elen J., Adentwi K.I.2014Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology12310.14204/ejrep.34.14028Department of Educational Leadership, University of Education, Kumasi campus, Winneba, Kumasi, Ghana; Department of Mathematics, Baidoo Bonsoe Senior High School, Agona Ahanta, Ghana; Center for Instructional Psychology and Technology, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Department of Interdiscilinary Studies, University of Education, Kumasi Campus, Winneba, Kumasi, GhanaSarfo, F.K., Department of Educational Leadership, University of Education, Kumasi campus, Winneba, Kumasi, Ghana; Eshun, G., Department of Mathematics, Baidoo Bonsoe Senior High School, Agona Ahanta, Ghana; Elen, J., Center for Instructional Psychology and Technology, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Adentwi, K.I., Department of Interdiscilinary Studies, University of Education, Kumasi Campus, Winneba, Kumasi, GhanaIntroduction: In this study, the effectiveness of two different interventions was investigated. The effects of a concrete abstract intervention and a regular method of teaching intervention were compared. Both interventions were designed in line with the specifications of classical principles of instructional design for learning mathematics in the traditional classroom of junior high school (JHS) in Ghana. The purpose was to contribute to the solution of abysmal performance of mathematics in the JHS. Method: Eighty students randomly selected from JHS, were randomly assigned to the two treatments. The content for the treatments were selected from the JHS syllabus. A teacher was trained to implement the treatments. The main study, consisting of six sessions, was conducted in a regular classroom of the school. Descriptive statistics, paired-samples t test, and t independent test were used to analyze the data. Results: Generally, the general performance of students in both groups improved significantly after they had experienced the designed treatments. Comparatively, t independent test revealed that the designed concrete representational abstract intervention (DCRAI) is more effective for improving students' general performance in geometry and algebra than the designed regular method of teaching intervention (DRMTI). Discussion and conclusion: The results of the study imply that instructional design principles are relevant, effective and needed in the design of classroom teaching, to address the poor performance in mathematics in JHSs (in Ghana). © Education & Psychology I+D+i and Ilustre Colegio Oficial de la Psicología de Andalucía Oriental.Instructional intervention; Junior high school; Mathematics; Regular method of teaching; Representational abstractNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80054840574Towards optimum chest compression performance during constant peak displacement cardiopulmonary resuscitationDellimore K.H.J., Cloete G., Scheffer C.2011Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing49910.1007/s11517-011-0812-5Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1 Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, Western Cape, South AfricaDellimore, K.H.J., Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1 Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, Western Cape, South Africa; Cloete, G., Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1 Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, Western Cape, South Africa; Scheffer, C., Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1 Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, Western Cape, South AfricaThe aim of this study is to determine the conditions necessary to achieve optimum chest compression (CC) performance during constant peak displacement cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This was accomplished by first performing a sensitivity analysis on a theoretical constant peak displacement CPR CC model to identify the parameters with the highest sensitivity. Next, the most sensitive parameters were then optimized for net sternumto-spine compression depth, using a two-variable non-linear least squares method. The theoretical CC model was found to be most sensitive to: thoracic stiffness, maximum sternal displacement, CC rate, and back support stiffness. Based on a two-variable, non-linear least squares analysis to optimize the model for the net sternum-to-spine compression depth during constant peak displacement CPR, it was found that the optimum ranges for the CC rate and back support stiffness are between 40-120 cpm and 241.0-1198.5 Ncm-1, respectively. Clinically, this suggests that current ERC guidelines for the CC rate during peak displacement CPR are appropriate; however, practitioners should be aware that the stiffness of the back support surfaces found in many hospitals may be sub-optimal and should consider using a backboard or a concrete floor to enhance CPR effectiveness. © International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering 2011.Chest compression; Constant peak displacement; CPR; Non-linear least squares; OptimizationBack supports; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; Chest compressions; Concrete floor; CPR; Non-linear least squares; Peak displacement; Sensitive parameter; Optimization; Stiffness; Surface reconstruction; Resuscitation; article; biological model; human; mechanical stress; methodology; pathophysiology; pressure; resuscitation; sternum; Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; Humans; Models, Cardiovascular; Pressure; Sternum; Stress, MechanicalNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84927912291Towards malaria microscopy at the point-of-contact: An assessment of the diagnostic performance of the Newton Nm1 microscope in UgandaStothard J.R., Nabatte B., Sousa-Figueiredo J.C., Kabatereine N.B.2014Parasitology1411410.1017/S0031182014000833Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Vector Control Division, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 1661, Kampala, Uganda; Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United KingdomStothard, J.R., Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Nabatte, B., Vector Control Division, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 1661, Kampala, Uganda; Sousa-Figueiredo, J.C., Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United Kingdom; Kabatereine, N.B., Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United KingdomMalaria microscopy in sub-Saharan Africa is often restricted by access to light microscopes. To address this gap, a novel portable inverted monocular microscope, the Newton Nm1, was designed and is now commercially available. Its diagnostic performance was assessed in a blinded-slide trial at ×1000 (oil) of Giemsa-stained thick blood films against a conventional microscope as undertaken by four Ugandan Ministry of Health technicians. With the Newton Nm1, diagnostic performance was: sensitivity 93·5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 78·6-99·2%), specificity 100·0% (95% CI 82·4-100·0%), positive predictive value 100·0% (95% CI 88·1-100·0%) and negative predictive value 90·5% (95% CI 69·6-98·8%). Discordance was due to a systematic error underestimating parasitaemia by ∼45%; when counting Plasmodium parasites against 200 white blood cells, blood films with low parasitaemia (i.e. <100 μL-1 of blood) could be overlooked and misclassified. By contrast, specificity was excellent with no false positives encountered. Whilst proven useful, especially in resource-poor environments, it is still unclear how we can ensure the uptake of the Newton Nm1 within sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2014 Cambridge University Press.Bland-Altman; diagnosis; evaluation; malaria; McArthur microscope; microscopyadult; Article; child; diagnostic test accuracy study; female; film; Giemsa stain; human; infant; laboratory diagnosis; leukocyte; malaria; malaria microscopy; microscope; microscopy; nonhuman; parasitemia; Plasmodium; point of contact; portable inverted monocular microscope; predictive value; priority journal; schistosomiasis; sensitivity and specificity; systematic error; Uganda; Plasmodium parasitesWellcome Trust
Scopus2-s2.0-84872354866Towards elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: The impact of a rapid results initiative in nyanza province, KenyaDillabaugh L.L., Lewis Kulzer J., Owuor K., Ndege V., Oyanga A., Ngugi E., Shade S.B., Bukusi E., Cohen C.R.2012AIDS Research and Treatment2012None10.1155/2012/602120Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States; Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES), Research, Care and Training Program, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Nairobi, Kenya; Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United StatesDillabaugh, L.L., Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES), Research, Care and Training Program, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Lewis Kulzer, J., Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES), Research, Care and Training Program, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Owuor, K., Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES), Research, Care and Training Program, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Ndege, V., Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES), Research, Care and Training Program, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Oyanga, A., Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES), Research, Care and Training Program, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Ngugi, E., U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Nairobi, Kenya; Shade, S.B., Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES), Research, Care and Training Program, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; Bukusi, E., Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES), Research, Care and Training Program, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya, Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States; Cohen, C.R., Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES), Research, Care and Training Program, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya, Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United StatesMany HIV-positive pregnant women and infants are still not receiving optimal services, preventing the goal of eliminating mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and improving maternal child health overall. A Rapid Results Initiative (RRI) approach was utilized to address key challenges in delivery of prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) services including highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) uptake for women and infants. The RRI was conducted between April and June 2011 at 119 health facilities in five districts in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Aggregated site-level data were compared at baseline before the RRI (Oct 2010-Jan 2011), during the RRI, and post-RRI (Jul-Sep 2011) using pre-post cohort analysis. HAART uptake amongst all HIV-positive pregnant women increased by 40% (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7) and continued to improve post-RRI (RR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4-1.8). HAART uptake in HIV-positive infants remained stable (RR 1.1, 95% CI 0.9-1.4) during the RRI and improved by 30% (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6) post-RRI. Significant improvement in PMTCT services can be achieved through introduction of an RRI, which appears to lead to sustained benefits for pregnant HIV-infected women and their infants. © 2012 Lisa L. Dillabaugh et al.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84917698943Towards contestation of perceptions, Distortions and misrepresentations of meanings, Functions and performance contexts in south african indigenous cultural practicesMugovhani N.G., Mapaya M.G.2014Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences52710.5901/mjss.2014.v5n27p1201Department of Performing Arts Department of Music, Tshwane University of Technology University of Venda, South AfricaMugovhani, N.G., Department of Performing Arts Department of Music, Tshwane University of Technology University of Venda, South Africa; Mapaya, M.G., Department of Performing Arts Department of Music, Tshwane University of Technology University of Venda, South AfricaThis article aims to contest the distortions and misrepresentations in the earlier writings of western scholars on the indigenous cultural practices of indigenous African language groups. The focus area will be Vhavenda communities around the Vhembe district of the Limpopo province of South Africa. This is the territory which was encroached by the various western missionary societies from as early as 1863. By 1940, most notable missionaries were almost well established in Venda. By the beginning of the 20th century, schools and hospitals also began to mushroom around Venda due to this missionary enterprise. Through interrogation of the various available sources; previous literature, our findings from participatory observations and the openended (sometimes-convergent) interviews and discussions, this article explores a number of the nomenclature and clichés that arose out of this missionary and ethnographic enterprise. The primary objective is to redress the resultant distortions of the information; with the objective of repositioning the distorted facts. © 2014, Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research. All right reserved.Indigenous african music; Indigenous knowledge systems; Malende; Malombo; Tshigombela; Tshikona; Venda cultural practicesNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84920437223Towards collective circum-antarctic passive acoustic monitoring: The southern ocean hydrophone network (SOHN)Van Opzeeland I., Samaran F., Stafford K.M., Findlay K., Gedamke J., Harris D., Miller B.S.2014Polarforschung832NoneAlfred-Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany; PELAGIS Observatory CNRS-UMS 3462, University of la Rochelle, France; Applied Physics Lab University of Washington SeattleWA, United States; Mammal Research Institute Whale Unit, University of Pretoria, South Africa; National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Ocean Acoustics Program, Office of Science and Technology, United States; Centre for Research into Ecological and Environmental Modelling, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom; Australian Marine Mammal Centre, Australian Antarctic Division, Hobart, AustraliaVan Opzeeland, I., Alfred-Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany; Samaran, F., PELAGIS Observatory CNRS-UMS 3462, University of la Rochelle, France; Stafford, K.M., Applied Physics Lab University of Washington SeattleWA, United States; Findlay, K., Mammal Research Institute Whale Unit, University of Pretoria, South Africa; Gedamke, J., National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Ocean Acoustics Program, Office of Science and Technology, United States; Harris, D., Centre for Research into Ecological and Environmental Modelling, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom; Miller, B.S., Australian Marine Mammal Centre, Australian Antarctic Division, Hobart, AustraliaThe Southern Ocean Research Partnership (SORP) is an international research program initiated within the International Whaling Commission (IWC) in 2009 to promote collaborative cetacean research, develop nov el research techniques, and conduct non-lethal research on whales in the Southern Ocean (CHILDERHOUSE 2009). One of the original research projects of the SORP is the Blue and Fin Whale Acoustic Trends Project, which aims to implement a long term passive acoustic research program to examine trends in Antarctic blue (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) and fin whale (B. physalus) abundance, distribution, and seasonal presence in the Southern Ocean through the use of a network of passive acoustic recorders: the Southern Ocean Hydrophone Network (SOHN). Networks of widely spaced passive acoustic recorders can provide insights in spatio-temporal patterns of the presence and properties of whale calls as well as the potential to monitor trends in Antarctic blue and fin whale abundance. The SOHN will consist of a network of autonomous underwater acoustic re cording stations surrounding the Antarctic continent with each site remaining active throughout the 10-year duration of the project. In addition to circum polar coverage, high priority will be given towards achieving simultaneous temporal coverage, especially in the early years of the project. While logis tical constraints may prevent uniform distribution of SOHN recording sites around the continent, the Acoustic Trends Working group (ATW) aims to have at least one recording site in each of the six IWC management areas (i.e., one per 60° longitudinal wedge). International collaboration and coordination are imperative to achieve the project goals due to the high cost of Antarctic research as well as the broad spatial and temporal scales over which the SOHN will span. Furthermore, standardization of data is paramount for accurate and efficient analysis and interpretation of SOHN data. To facilitate international participation in the SOHN, this document provides practical recommendations to guide and support passive acoustic data of project as well as technical and logistic information and recommendations regarding standardization of recording locations is provided here for a diverse collection in Antarctic waters. This whitepaper addresses a wide audience, ranging from scientists from different disciplines with access to instrumenttation and/or infrastructure to collect passive acoustic data in the Southern Ocean, to ship operators or other parties that can provide logistic support to make the SOHN a reality. Background information and an outline of the sci entific aims of project as well as technical and logistic information and re commendations regarding standardization of recording locations is provided here for a diverse audience coming from different backgrounds with widely differing levels of experience with the applications and use of passive acoustic instrumentation. By providing the information relevant for SOHN from the ground up, we aim that this document contributes to increase aware ness and participation by a broad range of partner nations and organizations in the SOHN and Acoustic Trends Projects.Noneabundance; autonomous underwater vehicle; bioacoustics; biomonitoring; cetacean; hydrophone; population distribution; spatiotemporal analysis; standardization; Southern Ocean; Balaenoptera musculus intermedia; Balaenoptera physalus; CetaceaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84945270040Towards Breaking the Conspiracy of Silence in Reproductive Health Information Access Among In-School Adolescent Girls: Impact on Policy and PracticeAnasi S.N.2015Journal of Hospital Librarianship15410.1080/15323269.2015.1079691Technical Processing Division, University of Lagos, Lagos, NigeriaAnasi, S.N., Technical Processing Division, University of Lagos, Lagos, NigeriaAll young people have the right to access comprehensive sexual and reproductive health information. However, most adolescent girls in developing countries face sexuality without adequate information. This is due to the unwritten but active traditional norm against the discussion of sex and sexuality issues with young people. This article reports a descriptive study that investigated the adolescent girls’ degree of access to reproductive health information and the barriers to accessing reproductive health information. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 18 schools, three from each of the six Local Education Districts (LEDs) in Lagos State. The study sample consisted of 1800 girls in the selected schools. Data were collected with a questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. The result of the study revealed that in-school adolescent girls had limited access to reproductive health information. The findings also showed that lack of time to seek relevant information and unwillingness of parents to discuss reproductive health issues with the adolescents were major obstacles to reproductive health information access. The test of significance of relationship between access to reproductive health information and attitude towards reproductive health issues indicated significant positive relationship between access to reproductive health information and attitude towards reproductive health issues. The study concluded that access to reproductive health information exerts great influence on attitude towards reproductive health issues. The article recommends the adoption of multimedia approach for the dissemination of reproductive health information in public schools in Lagos State. © , Published with license by Taylor & Francis.adolescent girls; Lagos State; reproductive health information; reproductive health issuesNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77952508849Towards assessing the social sustainability performance of the petroleum industry in the Niger Delta region of NigeriaBubou G.M., Brent A.C., Tredoux C.2009South African Journal of Industrial Engineering201NoneGraduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria, South Africa; Resource Based Sustainable Development, NRE, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), South AfricaBubou, G.M., Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria, South Africa; Brent, A.C., Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria, South Africa, Resource Based Sustainable Development, NRE, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), South Africa; Tredoux, C., Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria, South AfricaUnresolved social issues between the local community and the petroleum industry plague the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. These concerns are addressed by introducing a social sustainability assessment framework for the petroleum industry. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are identified, through a stakeholders' engagement process, for social performance measurement purposes. A five-year time-frame is proposed for the periodic assessment of the state of social sustainability. It is recommended that the petroleum industry make the accounting of social sustainability performance measures a priority before beginning projects, especially greenfield projects, since this can assist in resolving the volatility in the region.NoneGreenfield project; Key performance indicators; Local community; Niger Delta; Periodic assessment; Social issues; Social performance; Social sustainability; Benchmarking; Sustainable developmentNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78851470158Towards a performance-oriented management for large- scale irrigation systems: Case study, Rahad scheme, SudanHamid S.H., Mohamed A.A., Mohamed Y.A.2011Irrigation and Drainage60110.1002/ird.546Hydraulic Research Station, Wad Medani, Sudan; Institute of Water Management and Irrigation, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan; International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; UNESCO-IHE, Delft, NetherlandsHamid, S.H., Hydraulic Research Station, Wad Medani, Sudan; Mohamed, A.A., Institute of Water Management and Irrigation, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan; Mohamed, Y.A., International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, NetherlandsThe underperformance problem of large-scale irrigation systems particularly in developing countries, has adversely affected levels of production of those systems. The fact that these irrigation systems are not managed in response to their performance has been identified as the main reason behind their malfunctioning. A performance-oriented management approach is demonstrated here to help irrigation system managers take the right decisions, through continuous in-season performance assessment. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer satellite images of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-AVHRR) for the year 2000, complemented by water release data, were used to assess the performance of the Rahad irrigation scheme, Sudan (126 000ha), on a 10-day time step. The Surface Energy Balance Algorithm (SEBAL) was used to process the NOAA-AVHRR images. The decisions on irrigation water allocation are guided by maps of the relative water supply and soil moisture content generated for the last time step. Further decision support could be realized using the performance indicators of the system and the soil water balance for the given time step. A semiautomatic computer program was developed which can be easily used by field staff to support their management decisions. It is anticipated that the application of such an approach will improve the performance of large-scale irrigation systems, and support development of a performance-oriented management culture among the staff of these irrigation systems. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Irrigation systems management; Performance; Remote sensingNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84856119401Towards an Understanding, Through Action Research, of the Socio-Organizational Issues Impacting on Mobile Technology Adoption and Diffusion Within a Small-to-Medium South African Construction CompanyAbrahamse J., Lotriet H.2012Systemic Practice and Action Research25110.1007/s11213-011-9202-zDepartment of Informatics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; School of Computing, University of South Africa, P.O. Box 392, UNISA, Pretoria 0003, South AfricaAbrahamse, J., Department of Informatics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Lotriet, H., School of Computing, University of South Africa, P.O. Box 392, UNISA, Pretoria 0003, South AfricaWe investigated, through an action research approach, social issues that impact on mobile technology adoption and diffusion in a professional construction management team of a small-to-medium sized South African construction company. The outcome of the study resulted in a framework of thinking that integrates social factors at individual and organisational levels that impacted on the adoption of mobile technologies in the organisation. At the methodological level the study is part of a limited collection of papers that used AR in the study of technology adoption and diffusion and it presents an example of the capability of AR as a method to allow for the integration of the social contexts of users into adoption frameworks. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.Action research; Adoption; Construction; Mobile technology; Socio-organisational issues; South AfricaNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84880287523Towards an OPNET modeler based performance comparison of routing protocols in mobile Ad-hoc networks using voice over IP trafficMbougni M., Polite Ncube Z., Oukouomi Noutchie S.C.2013Life Science Journal103NoneDepartment of Computer Science, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa; Department of Mathematics, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, South AfricaMbougni, M., Department of Computer Science, North West Universi