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Scopus2-s2.0-84904304162Sustainability of the South African livestock sector towards 2050 Part 1: Worth and impact of the sectorMeissner H.H., Scholtz M.M., Palmer A.R.2013South African Journal of Animal Sciences433None1189 van Riebeeck Avenue, Lyttelton Manor, Centurion 0157, South Africa; ARC-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa; University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; ARC-Animal Production Institute, PO Box 101, Grahamstown 6140, South AfricaMeissner, H.H., 1189 van Riebeeck Avenue, Lyttelton Manor, Centurion 0157, South Africa; Scholtz, M.M., ARC-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; Palmer, A.R., ARC-Animal Production Institute, PO Box 101, Grahamstown 6140, South AfricaLivestock production in South Africa contributes substantially to food security. It is also a topic of public debate because of lack of knowledge and wrong information. This article aims to provide information on the worth and impact of the livestock sect or information and statistics providing a baseline to guiding sustainability towards 2050. Seventy percent of agricultural land in South Africa can be utilized only by livestock and game and species are found in all provinces with high concentrations in the eastern higher rainfall regions. Statistics in 2010 indicate 13.6 million beef cattle, 1.4 million dairy cattle, 24.6 million sheep, 7.0 million goats, 3 million game species (farmed), 1.1 million pigs, 113 million broilers, 31.8 million layers and 1.6 million ostriches. The gross value of livestock products increased by 185% from 1995/2000 to 2006/2010. In relation to field crops and horticulture, livestock products increased their position from 42% to 47% of gross agricultural value. The main reason was a rise in the value and demand for livestock foods, particularly meat. Livestock foods contribute 27% of the consumer food basket on a weight basis. Consumption of livestock foods resembles that of developing countries with meat consumption being 50 - 90 g/capita/day, milk and dairy products 120 - 130 g /capita/day and eggs 15 - 20 g/capita/day. Since this is the average for the country with consumption by the rich and poor often differing tenfold, consumption of livestock foods by the poor is of concern, given the many health attributes of livestock foods. The livestock sector in South Africa is a major role player in the conservation of biodiversity through a variety of well-adapted indigenous and non-indigenous breeds and rare game species. It has also shown commitment to rangeland/ecosystem conservation through conservative stocking rates, with several studies and observations reporting improvement in the condition of the natural resource. The sector has always been a major employer, but employment rate has declined steadily since 2000 because of increased minimum wages, fewer commercial farmers and increased property size. Some 245 000 employees with 1.45 million dependants, in addition to dependants on communal land and emerging farms, are employed on 38 500 commercial farms and intensive units with wages amounting to R 6 100 million (South African rand). Livestock farming is the backbone of the socio-economy and provides the sustenance of most non-metropolitan towns and rural communities. © Copyright resides with the authors.Biodiversity; Livestock foods; Livestock numbers; Production; Socio-economic impactNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-65949116588Evaluating the impact of a Special Library and Information ServiceBotha E., Erasmus R., Van Deventer M.2009Journal of Librarianship and Information Science41210.1177/096100060910283325 Annettehof Veld Street, Glen Marais 1619, South AfricaBotha, E., 25 Annettehof Veld Street, Glen Marais 1619, South Africa; Erasmus, R., 25 Annettehof Veld Street, Glen Marais 1619, South Africa; Van Deventer, M., 25 Annettehof Veld Street, Glen Marais 1619, South AfricaThe mere fact that a library service is being used does not mean that the service makes a difference or has a positive impact on the user. This has significant implications for Special Library and Information Services (SL&IS) that have to constantly prove that they add value. Because of the difficulty of measuring impact effectively, the majority of libraries still appear to measure performance quantitatively (how many books do we have, how many are used etc.) instead of looking at the difference the service actually makes. This paper discusses specifically the impact an information service has on the ability of natural science researchers to perform their research effectively and efficiently. A focus group, short survey and 15 interviews were conducted with researchers that use SL&IS in their research at the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) ĝ€" the largest research Council in Africa. The results showed that researchers felt that Library and Information Services have a positive impact on the research process. The two most important indicators of impact chosen by the researchers were firstly, time saved in information retrieval and delivery and secondly, higher success rate in research. In contrast with Poll's (2005) view, researchers felt that Library and Information Services do not necessarily impact on growing their skills and competencies or their attitude and behaviour as researchers. The relationship between the librarian and the researcher also came to light as very important in the research process. The study also identified further important indicators of impact which will serve as the foundation for a more in-depth research study.Customer satisfaction; Evaluating impact; Impact on research output; Importance of librarian; Indicators of impact; Library and Information Services; Measurement of performanceNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-76349122758Performance measurement: Does education impact productivity?Larbi-Apau J.A., Sarpong D.B.2010Performance Improvement Quarterly22410.1002/piq.20069384 College of Education, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, United States; Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, College of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra, GhanaLarbi-Apau, J.A., 384 College of Education, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, United States; Sarpong, D.B., Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, College of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra, GhanaThis study investigated the impact of managers' educational levels on productivity in the commercial poultry industry in Ghana. The level of education of 33 production managers of the poultry farms were factored into a Cobb-Douglas production function with other explanatory variables. The computed percentage change in productivity due to higher education relative to secondary education was 10%. The interaction terms of basic education, experience, and extension visits were positive and not statistically significant. Targeting management education could increase productivity in the commercial poultry industry. Educated managers have a higher propensity to adopt technology and alternative production mix for effectiveness and efficiency. This study concludes that higher educational level had a positive impact on productivity in the commercial poultry industry and should be harnessed for improved performance in the domestic and global market. © 2010 International Society for Performance Improvement.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84908233859The impact of infrastructural change and regulation on entrepreneurial competitiveness in the South African telecommunications sectorOberholzer S.M., Cullen M., Adendorff C.2014South African Journal of Business Management453None5 Seaforth Road, Vincent, East London, South Africa; Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University Business School, Port Elizabeth, South AfricaOberholzer, S.M., 5 Seaforth Road, Vincent, East London, South Africa; Cullen, M., Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University Business School, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; Adendorff, C., Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University Business School, Port Elizabeth, South AfricaThe fast pace of technological advancements is regarded as one of the global drivers of change. In the telecommunications sector in South Africa, these technological advancements as well as sector transformation pose competitiveness challenges to entrepreneurs. This paper reports an empirical study performed to contribute to the promotion of entrepreneurial competitiveness within the telecommunications sector of the South African economy. From the empirical study, significant relationships proved to exist between the intervening- and independent variables and the dependent variable of this study, namely Perceived Entrepreneurial Competitiveness. The independent variable Infrastructural Change positively influenced both the intervening variable Entrepreneurial Orientation and dependent variable Perceived Entrepreneurial Competitiveness. In the same manner, the independent variables of Regulatory Alignment and Entrepreneurial Mindset did positively influenced Perceived Entrepreneurial Competitiveness within this study. The study found that entrepreneurs can position their businesses more competitively if the factors that impact directly or indirectly on Entrepreneurial Competitiveness in the South African Telecommunications sector are taken in consideration.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33749017033Milk yield and reproductive performances of lactating cows as affected by intakes of certain dietary macro minerals in EthiopiaTolla N., Vijchulata P.2006Livestock Research for Rural Development189NoneAdami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 35, Ziway, Ethiopia; Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, ThailandTolla, N., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 35, Ziway, Ethiopia; Vijchulata, P., Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, ThailandThis study was conducted to investigate the influences of dietary intakes of certain minerals on milk yield and reproductive performances of lactating cows fed on concentrate supplement with/without cottonseed cake and/or bole soil. Thirty-two pregnant Holstein Friesian cows with average body weight of 524±54 kg were blocked by their expected due date of calving as early (B1) and late (B2). Soon after calving animals were assigned in a randomized complete block design to one of the following four dietary treatments: concentrate alone (control) (C), 45% of the concentrate diet by weight substituted with cottonseed cake (C + CSC), concentrate plus 3% bole (lake soil) (C + Bole) and 45% of the concentrate substituted with cottonseed cake plus 3% bole (C + CSC + Bole) for 135 days of data collection. Statistically daily milk yield and FC milk yield were not ifferent among treatments. However, animals fed on the treatment diets of concentrate + CSC, concentrate + Bole and concentrate + CSC + Bole, produced 7.4, 16.3 and 18.2% respectively higher actual milk and 14.3, 24.2 and 25.7% respectively higher 4% fat corrected milk than the control group. Inclusion of bole soil alone as a mineral source or in combination with CSC supported higher daily actual and FC milk production than feeding concentrate diet with CSC alone. Days from calving to first estrus, days open and number of services per conception were not different among treatments. Nevertheless, Shorter intervals of days from calving to first estrus, days open and lowest number of services per conception were recorded for animals fed on concentrate diet with bole soil alone followed by those fed the control diet. Inclusion of 3% bole soil alone appeared to improve both milk yield and reproductive performances of dairy cattle.Bole soil; Cottonseed cake; Cows; Ethiopia; Milk yield; Minerals; ReproductionAnimalia; Bos taurus; Friesia; MicropusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79960494871Measuring the influence of a journal using impact and diffusion factorsSanni S.A., Zainab A.N.2011Malaysian Journal of Library and Information Science162None54, Lekan Salami Complex, Ibadan, Nigeria; Digital Library Research Group, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaSanni, S.A., 54, Lekan Salami Complex, Ibadan, Nigeria; Zainab, A.N., Digital Library Research Group, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaPresents the result of the calculated ISI equivalent Impact Factor, Relative Diffusion Factor (RDF), and Journal Diffusion Factor (JDF) for articles published in the Medical Journal of Malaysia (MJM) between the years 2004 and 2008 in both their synchronous and diachronous versions. The publication data are collected from MyAis (Malaysian Abstracting & Indexing system) while the citation data are collected from Google Scholar. The values of the synchronous JDF ranges from 0.057 - 0.14 while the diachronous JDF ranges from 0.46 - 1.98. The high diachronous JDF is explained by a relatively high number of different citing journals against the number of publications. This implies that the results of diachronous JDF is influenced by the numbers of publications and a good comparison may be one of which the subject of analysis have similar number of publications and citations period. The yearly values of the synchronous RDF vary in the range of 0.66 - 1.00 while diachronous RDF ranges from 0.62 - 0.88. The result shows that diachronous RDF is negatively correlated with the number of citations, resulting in a low RDF value for highly cited publication years. What this implies in practice is that the diffusion factors can be calculated for every additional year at any journal level of analysis. This study demonstrates that these indicators are valuable tools that help to show development of journals as it changes through time.Bibliometrics; Journal diffusion factor; Journal evaluation measures; Journal impact factor; Quality and influence assessment of journalsNoneNone
WoSWOS:000282735100003Impact of ALSO training on the management of prolonged labor and neonatal care at Kagera Regional Hospital, TanzaniaElsass, Peter,Massawe, Siriel,Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun,Nyakina, Juma,Rasch, Vibeke,Sorensen, Bjarke Lund2010INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GYNECOLOGY & OBSTETRICS111110.1016/j.ijgo.2010.04.031Aarhus University, University of Copenhagen, Kagera Reg Hosp, Muhimbili Univ Hlth & Allied Sci, Odense Univ Hosp"Elsass, Peter: University of Copenhagen","Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun: Aarhus University","Sorensen, Bjarke Lund: University of Copenhagen",Objective: To evaluate the management of prolonged labor and neonatal care before and after Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO) training. Methods: Staff involved in childbirth at Kagera Regional Hospital, Tanzania, attended a 2-day ALSO provider course. In this prospective intervention study conducted between July and November 2008, the management and outcomes of 558 deliveries before and 550 after the training were observed. Results: There was no significant difference in the rate of cesarean deliveries owing to prolonged labor, and vacuum delivery was not practiced after the intervention. During prolonged labor, action was delayed for more than 3 hours in half of the cases. The stillbirth rate. Apgar scores, and frequency of neonatal resuscitation did not change significantly. After the intervention, there was a significant increase in newborns given to their mothers within 10 minutes, from 5.6% to 71.5% (RR 12.71; 95% CI, 9.04-17.88). There was a significant decrease from 6 to 0 neonatal deaths before discharge among those born with an Apgar score after 1 minute of 4 or more (P=0.03). Conclusion: ALSO training had no effect on the management of prolonged labor. Early contact between newborn and mother was more frequently practiced after ALSO training and the immediate neonatal mortality decreased. (C) 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved."Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO)","clinical skills training","emergency obstetric and neonatal care","MATERNAL MORTALITY","NEONATAL CARE","PROLONGED LABOR",Tanzania,MORTALITYNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84891641090Reproductive performance of Abergelle goats and growth rate of their crosses with Boer goatsBelay S., Gebru G., Godifey G., Brhane M., Zenebe M., Hagos H., Teame T.2014Livestock Research for Rural Development261NoneAbergelle Agricultural Research Centre, PO Box 492, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia; Mekelle Agricultural Research Centre, Tigray, EthiopiaBelay, S., Abergelle Agricultural Research Centre, PO Box 492, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia; Gebru, G., Abergelle Agricultural Research Centre, PO Box 492, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia; Godifey, G., Mekelle Agricultural Research Centre, Tigray, Ethiopia; Brhane, M., Abergelle Agricultural Research Centre, PO Box 492, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia; Zenebe, M., Abergelle Agricultural Research Centre, PO Box 492, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia; Hagos, H., Abergelle Agricultural Research Centre, PO Box 492, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia; Teame, T., Abergelle Agricultural Research Centre, PO Box 492, Mekelle, Tigray, EthiopiaThis study was undertaken to evaluate the pre and post weaning growth of F1 crossbred Boer-Abergelle goat kids, and reproductive performance of pure Abergelle under a semi-intensive management system. The study was implemented in Abergelle Agricultural Research Centre goat farm in northern Ethiopia. Three independent variables: namely birth type, sex and parity number and seven dependent variables: body weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), six-month weight (SMW), yearling weight (YW) and weight gains to weaning, six months and one year were analyzed. A total of 166 F1 kids of which 90 were from the first parity, 53 from the second and 23 from the third parity were used to evaluate the growth rate of the crossbred kids. Yearling weights of the crossbred kids were higher for males than for females. The highest values for WWG, SMWG and YWG were observed in the first parity. Average kidding interval of the Abergelle goats was 11.3 months with a minimum and maximum of 9 and 17 months, respectively. Prolificacy rates were 1.06, 1.11 and 1.07 in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. Generally, Boer-Abergelle F1 kids had high growth rates (range 73 to 113 g/day) and had low mortality, especially pre-weaning. Purebred Abergelle goats had long kidding interval and most had single births.Crossbreeding; Growth; Mortality; Reproductive performanceNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-47049109656Evaluation of dynabeads and cytospheres compared with flow cytometry to enumerate CD4+ T cells in HIV-infected ugandans on antiretroviral therapyLutwama F., Serwadda R., Mayanja-Kizza H., Shihab H.M., Ronald A., Kamya M.R., Thomas D., Johnson E., Quinn T.C., Moore R.D., Spacek L.A.2008Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes48310.1097/QAI.0b013e31817bbc3aAcademic Alliance for AIDS Care and Prevention, Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda; Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, United States; University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States; Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 1830 East Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, United StatesLutwama, F., Academic Alliance for AIDS Care and Prevention, Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda; Serwadda, R., Academic Alliance for AIDS Care and Prevention, Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda; Mayanja-Kizza, H., Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Shihab, H.M., Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, United States; Ronald, A., Academic Alliance for AIDS Care and Prevention, Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada; Kamya, M.R., Academic Alliance for AIDS Care and Prevention, Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Thomas, D., Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, United States; Johnson, E., Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, United States; Quinn, T.C., Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, United States, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States; Moore, R.D., Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, United States; Spacek, L.A., Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, United States, Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 1830 East Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, United StatesBACKGROUND: Laboratory-based monitoring of antiretroviral therapy is essential but adds a significant cost to HIV care. The World Health Organization 2006 guidelines support the use of CD4 lymphocyte count (CD4) to define treatment failure in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We compared CD4 obtained on replicate samples from 497 HIV-positive Ugandans (before and during ART) followed for 18 months by 2 manual bead-based assays, Dynabeads (Dynal Biotech), and Cytospheres (Beckman Coulter) with those generated by flow cytometry at the Infectious Diseases Institute in Kampala, Uganda. RESULTS: We tested 1671 samples (123 before ART) with Dynabeads and 1444 samples (91 before ART) with Cytospheres. Mean CD4 was 231 cells/mm (SD, 139) and 239 cells/mm (SD, 140) by Dynabeads and flow cytometry, respectively. Mean CD4 was 186 cells/mm (SD, 101) and 242 cells/mm (SD, 136) by Cytospheres and flow cytometry, respectively. The mean difference in CD4 count by flow cytometry versus Dynabeads were 8.8 cells/mm (SD, 76.0) and versus Cytospheres were 56.8 cells/mm (SD, 85.8). The limits of agreement were -140.9 to 158.4 cells/mm for Dynabeads and -112.2 to 225.8 cells/mm for Cytospheres. Linear regression analysis showed higher correlation between flow cytometry and Dynabeads (r = 0.85, r = 0.73, slope = 0.85, intercept = 28) compared with the correlation between flow cytometry and Cytospheres (r = 0.78, r = 0.60, slope = 0.58, intercept = 45). Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve to predict CD4 <200 cells/mm was 0.928 for Dynabeads and 0.886 for Cytospheres. CONCLUSION: Although Dynabeads and Cytospheres both underestimated CD4 lymphocyte count compared with flow cytometry, in resource-limited settings with low daily throughput, manual bead-based assays may provide a less expensive alternative to flow cytometry. © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Antiretroviral therapy; CD4 lymphocyte counts; HIV-1 viral load, monitoring and evaluation; Resource-limited setting; Ugandaantiretrovirus agent; virus RNA; antiviral therapy; article; blood sampling; CD4 lymphocyte count; CD4+ T lymphocyte; controlled study; female; flow cytometry; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; human tissue; intermethod comparison; laboratory test; male; priority journal; Uganda; virus load; adult; CD4+ T lymphocyte; comparative study; evaluation; flow cytometry; highly active antiretroviral therapy; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; immunology; immunomagnetic separation; methodology; monitoring; Adult; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes; Female; Flow Cytometry; HIV Infections; Humans; Immunomagnetic Separation; Male; Monitoring, Physiologic; UgandaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33749415376Comparative performances of Holstein-Friesian cows under smallholder and large scale farmers' management in Central Rift Valley, EthiopiaTolla N., Vijchulata P., Chairatanayuth P., Swsdiphanich S.2006Kasetsart Journal - Natural Science401NoneAdami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 35, Ziway, Ethiopia; Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand; Departement of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, ThailandTolla, N., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 35, Ziway, Ethiopia; Vijchulata, P., Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand; Chairatanayuth, P., Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand; Swsdiphanich, S., Departement of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, ThailandA study was conducted in Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia to assess comparative productive and reproductive performances of graded Holstein Friesian cows under small and large scale farmers' management. A total of 28 animals from both small (14) and large scales farms (14) in different parity classes were used for data collection for a period of 28 weeks. Significant differences were observed in daily intakes of dry matter, crude protein and P (p<0.001) as well as metabolizable energy and Na (p<0.01) between the two farming scales. Daily milk yield and fat corrected (FC) milk yields were also significantly (p<0.001) different. The differences in the composition of milk and postpartum reproductive parameters measured were not statistically significant (p>0.05) between the farm scales. However, the longer days open (171) was observed for small scale farms than the large scale farms (148). Days from calving to the first sign of estrus (115d) and numbers of services per conception (2.1) were higher on large scale farms than on the small scale farms (96 and 1.6 respectively). Milk yield, milk composition and reproductive efficiencies did not significantly (p>0.05) differ between parity classes. Generally, the productive and reproductive performances of graded Holstein Friesian cows in this study were under their expected genetic potential, as compared to other parts of the tropics. This might be attributed mainly to poor nutritional qualities of the available feed resources, in terms of protein, energy and mineral balance which needed further investigation.Dairy cows; Ethiopia; Farm scales; Parity; ProductivityAnimalia; Bos taurus; FriesiaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84881247342An exploration of the impact of students' prior genre knowledge on their constructions of 'audience' in a Marketing course at postgraduate levelBangeni B.2013English for Specific Purposes32410.1016/j.esp.2013.05.001Academic Development Programme, University of Cape Town, Hoerikwaggo Building, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, South AfricaBangeni, B., Academic Development Programme, University of Cape Town, Hoerikwaggo Building, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, South AfricaThis article explores the development of audience awareness for two English additional language (EAL) graduate students making the transition from undergraduate Social Science disciplines into the professional discipline of Marketing at a South African university. The article examines the ways in which their conceptualisations of 'audience' shape their negotiation of the generic move structure informing a dominant genre within the discipline: the written case analysis. I argue that the students' struggle with realising the communicative purposes of the genre in their analyses has implications for how they engage with disciplinary theory within crucial moves. Data yielded by semi-structured interviews, reflection papers, as well as selected case analyses written by the students in the initial months of their postgraduate year illustrate how this struggle can be traced to a mismatch between their embodied understandings of the concept of 'audience' which are transported from undergraduate learning contexts, and 'audience' as prescribed by the communicative purpose of the written case analysis within a professional discipline. In making this argument, the article examines the ways in which an antecedent genre, the Social Science argumentative essay, contributes to this mismatch. The article concludes by outlining the pedagogical implications of the findings from an ESP perspective. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.Antecedent genre; Audience awareness; Disciplinarity; Prior genre knowledge; Transition; Written case analysisNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84943611559Impact of an educational intervention on breast cancer knowledge in western KenyaKisuya J., Wachira J., Busakhala N., Naanyu V., Chite A.F., Omenge O., Otieno G., Keter A., Mwangi A., Inui T.2014Health Education Research30510.1093/her/cyv043Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) Oncology Institute, P.O Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya; Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, Kenya; Department of Behavioral Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, Kenya; Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, Kenya; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Health Sciences, Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, Kenya; Department of Medicine, Regenstrief Institute, Inc., Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United StatesKisuya, J., Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) Oncology Institute, P.O Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya; Wachira, J., Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) Oncology Institute, P.O Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya; Busakhala, N., Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) Oncology Institute, P.O Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, Kenya; Naanyu, V., Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) Oncology Institute, P.O Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya, Department of Behavioral Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, Kenya; Chite, A.F., Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) Oncology Institute, P.O Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya, Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, Kenya; Omenge, O., Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) Oncology Institute, P.O Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Health Sciences, Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, Kenya; Otieno, G., Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) Oncology Institute, P.O Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya; Keter, A., Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) Oncology Institute, P.O Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya; Mwangi, A., Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) Oncology Institute, P.O Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya, Department of Behavioral Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, Kenya; Inui, T., Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) Oncology Institute, P.O Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya, Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, Kenya, Department of Medicine, Regenstrief Institute, Inc., Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United StatesOur objective was to assess the effectiveness of educational sessions that accompanied breast cancer screening events in three communities in western Kenya between October and November 2013. Five hundred and thirty-two women were recruited to complete a test of breast cancer-relevant knowledge and randomly allocated to 'pre-test' or 'post-test' groups that immediately preceded or followed participation in the educational sessions. The education was organized as a presentation by health professionals and focused mainly on causes of breast cancer, early and late cancer presentation signs, high-risk groups, screening methods to find early-stage breast cancer, self-breast exam procedures and treatment options for this disease. Participants were invited to ask questions and practice finding nodules in silicone breast models. The median age was 35 years (interquartile range: 28-45), and 86% had not undergone breast cancer screening previously. Many individual items in our test of knowledge showed statistically significant shifts to better-informed responses. When all items in the assessment questionnaire were scored as a 'test', on average there was a 2.80 point (95% CI: 2.38, 3.22) significant improvement in knowledge about breast cancer after the educational session. Our study provides evidence for the effectiveness of an educational strategy carefully tailored for women in these communities in Kenya. © 2015 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.Noneadult; attitude to health; Breast Neoplasms; early diagnosis; female; health education; human; Kenya; middle aged; questionnaire; Adult; Breast Neoplasms; Early Detection of Cancer; Female; Health Education; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Kenya; Middle Aged; Surveys and QuestionnairesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70249108871Performance evaluation of the INNOPAC library system in Southern Africa: Perspectives from systems librariansTaole Dr. N.2009Information Development25310.1177/0266666909340830Academy of Science of South Africa, PO Box 72135, Lynwood Ridge 0040, Pretoria, South AfricaTaole Dr., N., Academy of Science of South Africa, PO Box 72135, Lynwood Ridge 0040, Pretoria, South AfricaThere is a growing interest in the INNOPAC library automation system, which has been implemented by several libraries in the Southern African region over the past 10 years. The majority of these libraries have installed this library system through consortia membership, and others have done it individually. This article evaluates the performance of the INNOPAC library system in five libraries in the Southern African region using the performance criteria of Functionality, Usability, Support and Training, and Vendor. The article identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the system, and makes recommendations for implementation in other similar libraries in the region. It also outlines a proposal for an INNOPAC-based consortium for the Southern African region. Copyright © 2009 SAGE Publications.INNOPAC library system; Library automation systems; Performance evaluation; Southern AfricaNoneNone
NoneNonePerformance of the ALICE VZERO systemAbbas E., Abelev B., Adam J., Adamová D., Adare A.M., Aggarwal M.M., Aglieri Rinella G., Agnello M., Agocs A.G., Agostinelli A., Ahammed Z., Ahmad N., Ahmad Masoodi A., Ahmed I., Ahn S.A., Ahn S.U., Aimo I., Ajaz M., Akindinov A., Aleksandrov D., Alessand2013Journal of Instrumentation81010.1088/1748-0221/8/10/P10016Academy of Scientific Research and Technology (ASRT), Cairo, Egypt; A. I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute) Foundation, Yerevan, Armenia; Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla, Mexico; Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev, Ukraine; Bose Institute, Department of Physics, Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science (CAPSS), Kolkata, India; Budker Institute for Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation; California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, United States; Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China; Centre de Calcul de lIN2P3, Villeurbanne, France; Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Havana, Cuba; Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid, Spain; Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Mexico City and Mérida, Mexico; Centro Fermi - Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Rome, Italy; Chicago State University, Chicago, United States; Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, IRFU, Saclay, France; COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad, Pakistan; Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, IGFAE, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India; Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States; Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul, South Korea; Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Trieste, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Cagliari, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica, Università La Sapienza and Sezione INFN, Rome, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università and Sezione INFN, Catania, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università and Sezione INFN, Bologna, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università and Sezione INFN, Padova, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università and Gruppo Collegato INFN, Salerno, Italy; Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Gruppo Collegato INFN, Alessandria, Italy; Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica M. Merlin, Sezione INFN, Bari, Italy; Division of Experimental High Energy Physics, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden; European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Fachhochschule Köln, Köln, Germany; Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway; Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia; Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Košice, Slovakia; Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, South Korea; Gauhati University, Department of Physics, Guwahati, India; Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP), University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland; Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT), Mumbai, India; Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore, (IITI), India; Institut de Physique Nucléaire d'Orsay (IPNO), Université Paris-Sud, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay, France; Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Russian Federation; Institute for Nuclear Research, Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation; Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow, Russian Federation; Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, KoŠice, Slovakia; Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India; Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic; Institute of Space Sciences (ISS), Bucharest, Romania; Institut für Informatik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Institut für Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany; Institut für Kernphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany; Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), Université de Strasbourg, CNRS-IN2P3, Strasbourg, France; Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna, Russian Federation; Kirchhoff-Institut für Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Daejeon, South Korea; KTO Karatay University, Konya, Turkey; Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire (LPC), Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, France; Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie (LPSC), Université Joseph Fourier, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Grenoble, France; Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati, Italy; Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Legnaro, Italy; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, United States; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, United States; Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow, Russian Federation; National Centre for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw, Poland; National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania; National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar, India; Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Řež u Prahy, Czech Republic; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, United States; Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russian Federation; Physics Department, Creighton University, Omaha, NE, United States; Physics Department, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India; Physics Department, University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Physics Department, University of Cape Town, National Research Foundation, Somerset West, South Africa; Physics Department, University of Jammu, Jammu, India; Physics Department, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India; Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy; Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States; Pusan National University, Pusan, South Korea; Research Division, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Rudjer BoŠković Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; Russian Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF), Sarov, Russian Federation; Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russian Federation; Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, India; School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom; Sección Fisica, Departamento de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perü, Lima, Peru; Sezione INFN, Catania, Italy; Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Sezione INFN, Padova, Italy; Sezione INFN, Bologna, Italy; Sezione INFN, Cagliari, Italy; Sezione INFN, Trieste, Italy; Sezione INFN, Bari, Italy; Sezione INFN, Rome, Italy; Nuclear Physics Group, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, United Kingdom; SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France; Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand; Technical University of Split FESB, Split, Croatia; Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany; Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, Poland; University of Texas at Austin, Physics Department, Austin, TX, United States; Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacán, Mexico; Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brazil; Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil; Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, IPN-Lyon, Villeurbanne, France; University of Houston, Houston, TX, United States; University of Technology, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria; University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, United States; University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan; Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, India; Vestfold University College, Tonsberg, Norway; V. Fock Institute for Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation; Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland; Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States; Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States; Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey; Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea; Zentrum für Technologietransfer und Telekommunikation (ZTT), Fachhochschule Worms, Worms, Germany; M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, D.V.Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow, Russian Federation; University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia; Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, PolandAbbas, E., Academy of Scientific Research and Technology (ASRT), Cairo, Egypt; Abelev, B., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, United States; Adam, J., Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; Adamová, D., Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Řež u Prahy, Czech Republic; Adare, A.M., Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States; Aggarwal, M.M., Physics Department, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India; Aglieri Rinella, G., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland, Fachhochschule Köln, Köln, Germany; Agnello, M., Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy, Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Agocs, A.G., Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; Agostinelli, A., Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università and Sezione INFN, Bologna, Italy; Ahammed, Z., Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, India; Ahmad, N., Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India; Ahmad Masoodi, A., Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India; Ahmed, I., COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad, Pakistan; Ahn, S.A., Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Daejeon, South Korea; Ahn, S.U., Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Daejeon, South Korea; Aimo, I., Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy, Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy, Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Ajaz, M., COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad, Pakistan; Akindinov, A., Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow, Russian Federation; Aleksandrov, D., Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russian Federation; Alessandro, B., Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Alexandre, D., School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom; Alfaro Molina, R., Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Alici, A., Centro Fermi - Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Rome, Italy, Sezione INFN, Bologna, Italy; Alkin, A., Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev, Ukraine; Almaráz Aviña, E., Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Alme, J., Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway; Alt, T., Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Altini, V., Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica M. Merlin, Sezione INFN, Bari, Italy; Altinpinar, S., Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Altsybeev, I., V. Fock Institute for Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation; Andrei, C., National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania; Andronic, A., Research Division, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Anguelov, V., Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Anielski, J., Institut für Kernphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany; Anson, C., Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States; Antičic, T., Rudjer BoŠković Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; Antinori, F., Sezione INFN, Padova, Italy; Antonioli, P., Sezione INFN, Bologna, Italy; Aphecetche, L., SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France; Appelshauser, H., Institut für Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Arbor, N., Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie (LPSC), Université Joseph Fourier, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Grenoble, France; Arcelli, S., Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università and Sezione INFN, Bologna, Italy; Arend, A., Institut für Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Armesto, N., Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, IGFAE, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Arnaldi, R., Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Aronsson, T., Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States; Arsene, I.C., Research Division, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Arslandok, M., Institut für Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Asryan, A., V. Fock Institute for Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation; Augustinus, A., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Averbeck, R., Research Division, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Awes, T.C., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, United States; Äystö, J., Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP), University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland; Azmi, M.D., Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India, Physics Department, University of Cape Town, National Research Foundation, Somerset West, South Africa; Bach, M., Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Badalà, A., Sezione INFN, Catania, Italy; Baek, Y.W., Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung, South Korea, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire (LPC), Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, France; Bailhache, R., Institut für Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Bala, R., Physics Department, University of Jammu, Jammu, India, Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Baldisseri, A., Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, IRFU, Saclay, France; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Bán, J., Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, KoŠice, Slovakia; Baral, R.C., Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India; Barbera, R., Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università and Sezione INFN, Catania, Italy; Barile, F., Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica M. Merlin, Sezione INFN, Bari, Italy; Barnaföldi, G.G., Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; Barnby, L.S., School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom; Barret, V., Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire (LPC), Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, France; Bartke, J., Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, Poland; Basile, M., Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università and Sezione INFN, Bologna, Italy; Bastid, N., Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire (LPC), Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, France; Basu, S., Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, India; Bathen, B., Institut für Kernphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany; Batigne, G., SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France; Batyunya, B., Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna, Russian Federation; Batzing, P.C., Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Baumann, C., Institut für Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Bearden, I.G., Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Beck, H., Institut für Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Behera, N.K., Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT), Mumbai, India; Belikov, I., Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), Université de Strasbourg, CNRS-IN2P3, Strasbourg, France; Bellini, F., Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università and Sezione INFN, Bologna, Italy; Bellwied, R., University of Houston, Houston, TX, United States; Belmont-Moreno, E., Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Bencedi, G., Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; Beole, S., Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Berceanu, I., National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania; Bercuci, A., National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania; Berdnikov, Y., Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russian Federation; Berenyi, D., Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; Bergognon, A.A.E., SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France; Bertens, R.A., Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Berzano, D., Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy, Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Betev, L., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Bhasin, A., Physics Department, University of Jammu, Jammu, India; Bhati, A.K., Physics Department, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India; Bhom, J., University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan; Bianchi, L., Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Bianchi, N., Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati, Italy; Bianchin, C., Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Bielčík, J., Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; Bielčíková, J., Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Řež u Prahy, Czech Republic; Bilandzic, A., Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Bjelogrlic, S., Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Blanco, F., Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid, Spain; Blanco, F., University of Houston, Houston, TX, United States; Blau, D., Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russian Federation; Blume, C., Institut für Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Boccioli, M., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Böttger, S., Institut für Informatik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Bogdanov, A., Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow, Russian Federation; Bøggild, H., Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Bogolyubsky, M., Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Russian Federation; Boldizsár, L., Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; Bombara, M., Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Košice, Slovakia; Book, J., Institut für Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Borel, H., Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, IRFU, Saclay, France; Borissov, A., Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States; Bossu, F., Physics Department, University of Cape Town, National Research Foundation, Somerset West, South Africa; Botje, M., Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Botta, E., Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Braidot, E., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, United States; Braun-Munzinger, P., Research Division, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Bregant, M., SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France; Breitner, T., Institut für Informatik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Broker, T.A., Institut für Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Browning, T.A., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States; Broz, M., Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia; Brun, R., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Bruna, E., Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy, Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Bruno, G.E., Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica M. Merlin, Sezione INFN, Bari, Italy; Budnikov, D., Russian Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF), Sarov, Russian Federation; Buesching, H., Institut für Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Bufalino, S., Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy, Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Buncic, P., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Busch, O., Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Buthelezi, Z., Physics Department, University of Cape Town, National Research Foundation, Somerset West, South Africa; Caffarri, D., Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università and Sezione INFN, Padova, Italy, Sezione INFN, Padova, Italy; Cai, X., Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China; Caines, H., Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States; Calvo Villar, E., Sección Fisica, Departamento de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perü, Lima, Peru; Camerini, P., Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Trieste, Italy; Canoa Roman, V., Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Mexico City and Mérida, Mexico; Cara Romeo, G., Sezione INFN, Bologna, Italy; Carena, W., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Carena, F., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Carlin Filho, N., Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brazil; Carminati, F., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Casanova Díaz, A., Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati, Italy; Castillo Castellanos, J., Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, IRFU, Saclay, France; Castillo Hernandez, J.F., Research Division, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Casula, E.A.R., Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Cagliari, Italy; Catanescu, V., National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania; Cavicchioli, C., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Ceballos Sanchez, C., Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Havana, Cuba; Cepila, J., Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; Cerello, P., Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Chang, B., Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP), University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland, Sezione INFN, Bologna, Italy; Chapeland, S., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Charvet, J.L., Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, IRFU, Saclay, France; Chattopadhyay, S., Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, India; Chattopadhyay, S., Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, India; Cherney, M., Physics Department, Creighton University, Omaha, NE, United States; Cheshkov, C., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, IPN-Lyon, Villeurbanne, France; Cheynis, B., Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, IPN-Lyon, Villeurbanne, France; Chibante Barroso, V., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Chinellato, D.D., University of Houston, Houston, TX, United States; Chochula, P., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Chojnacki, M., Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Choudhury, S., Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, India; Christakoglou, P., Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Christensen, C.H., Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Christiansen, P., Division of Experimental High Energy Physics, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden; Chujo, T., University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan; Chung, S.U., Pusan National University, Pusan, South Korea; Cicalo, C., Sezione INFN, Cagliari, Italy; Cifarelli, L., Centro Fermi - Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Rome, Italy, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università and Sezione INFN, Bologna, Italy; Cindolo, F., Sezione INFN, Bologna, Italy; Cleymans, J., Physics Department, University of Cape Town, National Research Foundation, Somerset West, South Africa; Colamaria, F., Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica M. Merlin, Sezione INFN, Bari, Italy; Colella, D., Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica M. Merlin, Sezione INFN, Bari, Italy; Collu, A., Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Cagliari, Italy; Conesa Balbastre, G., Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie (LPSC), Université Joseph Fourier, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Grenoble, France; Conesa Del Valle, Z., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland, Institut de Physique Nucléaire d'Orsay (IPNO), Université Paris-Sud, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay, France; Connors, M.E., Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States; Contin, G., Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Trieste, Italy; Contreras, J.G., Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Mexico City and Mérida, Mexico; Cormier, T.M., Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States; Corrales Morales, Y., Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Cortese, P., Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Gruppo Collegato INFN, Alessandria, Italy; Cortés Maldonado, I., Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla, Mexico; Cosentino, M.R., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, United States; Costa, F., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Cotallo, M.E., Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid, Spain; Crescio, E., Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Mexico City and Mérida, Mexico; Crochet, P., Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire (LPC), Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, France; Cruz Alaniz, E., Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Cruz Albino, R., Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Mexico City and Mérida, Mexico; Cuautle, E., Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Cunqueiro, L., Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati, Italy; Dainese, A., Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università and Sezione INFN, Padova, Italy, Sezione INFN, Padova, Italy; Dang, R., Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China; Danu, A., Institute of Space Sciences (ISS), Bucharest, Romania; Das, K., Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, India; Das, I., Institut de Physique Nucléaire d'Orsay (IPNO), Université Paris-Sud, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay, France; Das, S., Bose Institute, Department of Physics, Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science (CAPSS), Kolkata, India; Das, D., Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, India; Dash, S., Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT), Mumbai, India; Dash, A., Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil; De, S., Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, India; De Barros, G.O.V., Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brazil; De Caro, A., Centro Fermi - Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Rome, Italy, Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università and Gruppo Collegato INFN, Salerno, Italy; De Cataldo, G., Sezione INFN, Bari, Italy; De Cuveland, J., Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; De Falco, A., Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Cagliari, Italy; De Gruttola, D., Centro Fermi - Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Rome, Italy, Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università and Gruppo Collegato INFN, Salerno, Italy; Delagrange, H., SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France; Deloff, A., National Centre for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw, Poland; De Marco, N., Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Dénes, E., Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; De Pasquale, S., Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università and Gruppo Collegato INFN, Salerno, Italy; Deppman, A., Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brazil; D Erasmo, G., Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica M. Merlin, Sezione INFN, Bari, Italy; De Rooij, R., Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Diaz Corchero, M.A., Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid, Spain; Di Bari, D., Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica M. Merlin, Sezione INFN, Bari, Italy; Dietel, T., Institut für Kernphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany; Di Giglio, C., Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica M. Merlin, Sezione INFN, Bari, Italy; Di Liberto, S., Sezione INFN, Rome, Italy; Di Mauro, A., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Di Nezza, P., Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati, Italy; Divià, R., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Djuvsland, Ø., Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Dobrin, A., Division of Experimental High Energy Physics, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden, Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States; Dobrowolski, T., National Centre for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw, Poland; Dönigus, B., Institut für Kernphysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany, Research Division, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Dordic, O., Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Dubey, A.K., Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, India; Dubla, A., Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Ducroux, L., Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, IPN-Lyon, Villeurbanne, France; Dupieux, P., Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire (LPC), Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, France; Dutta Majumdar, A.K., Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, India; Elia, D., Sezione INFN, Bari, Italy; Emschermann, D., Institut für Kernphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany; Engel, H., Institut für Informatik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Erazmus, B., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland, SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France; Erdal, H.A., Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway; Eschweiler, D., Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Espagnon, B., Institut de Physique Nucléaire d'Orsay (IPNO), Université Paris-Sud, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay, France; Estienne, M., SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France; Esumi, S., University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan; Evans, D., School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom; Evdokimov, S., Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Russian Federation; Eyyubova, G., Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Fabris, D., Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università and Sezione INFN, Padova, Italy, Sezione INFN, Padova, Italy; Faivre, J., Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie (LPSC), Université Joseph Fourier, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Grenoble, France; Falchieri, D., Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università and Sezione INFN, Bologna, Italy; Fantoni, A., Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati, Italy; Fasel, M., Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Fehlker, D., Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Feldkamp, L., Institut für Kernphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany; Felea, D., Institute of Space Sciences (ISS), Bucharest, Romania; Feliciello, A., Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Fenton-Olsen, B., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, United States; Feofilov, G., V. Fock Institute for Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation; Fernández Téllez, A., Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla, Mexico; Ferretti, A., Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Festanti, A., Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università and Sezione INFN, Padova, Italy; Figiel, J., Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, Poland; Figueredo, M.A.S., Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brazil; Filchagin, S., Russian Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF), Sarov, Russian Federation; Finogeev, D., Institute for Nuclear Research, Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation; Fionda, F.M., Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica M. Merlin, Sezione INFN, Bari, Italy; Fiore, E.M., Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica M. Merlin, Sezione INFN, Bari, Italy; Floratos, E., Physics Department, University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Floris, M., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Foertsch, S., Physics Department, University of Cape Town, National Research Foundation, Somerset West, South Africa; Foka, P., Research Division, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Fokin, S., Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russian Federation; Fragiacomo, E., Sezione INFN, Trieste, Italy; Francescon, A., Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università and Sezione INFN, Padova, Italy, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Frankenfeld, U., Research Division, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Fuchs, U., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Furget, C., Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie (LPSC), Université Joseph Fourier, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Grenoble, France; Fusco Girard, M., Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università and Gruppo Collegato INFN, Salerno, Italy; Gaardhøje, J.J., Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Gagliardi, M., Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Gago, A., Sección Fisica, Departamento de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perü, Lima, Peru; Gallio, M., Dipartimento di Fisica, Università and Sezione INFN, Turin, Italy; Gangadharan, D.R., Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States; Ganoti, P., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, United States; Garabatos, C., Research Division, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Garcia-Solis, E., Chicago State University, Chicago, United States; Gargiulo, C., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Garishvili, I., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, United States; Gerhard, J., Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Germain, M., SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France; Geuna, C., Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, IRFU, Saclay, France; Gheata, M., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland, Institute of Space Sciences (ISS), Bucharest, Romania; Gheata, A., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Ghidini, B., Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica M. Merlin, Sezione INFN, Bari, Italy; Ghosh, P., Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, India; Gianotti, P., Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati, Italy; Giubellino, P., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Gladysz-Dziadus, E., Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, Poland; Glassel, P., Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Gomez, R., Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Mexico City and Mérida, Mexico, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacán, Mexico; Ferreiro, E.G., Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, IGFAE, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; González-Trueba, L.H., Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; González-Zamora, P., Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid, Spain; Gorbunov, S., Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Goswami, A., Physics Department, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India; Gotovac, S., Technical University of Split FESB, Split, Croatia; Grabski, V., Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Graczykowski, L.K., Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland; Grajcarek, R., Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Grelli, A., Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Grigoras, C., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Grigoras, A., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Grigoriev, V., Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow, Russian Federation; Grigoryan, A., A. I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute) Foundation, Yerevan, Armenia; Grigoryan, S., Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna, Russian Federation; Grinyov, B., Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev, Ukraine; Grion, N., Sezione INFN, Trieste, Italy; Gros, P., Division of Experimental High Energy Physics, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J.F., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Grossiord, J.-Y., Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, IPN-Lyon, Villeurbanne, France; Grosso, R., European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland; Guber, F., Institute for Nuclear Research, Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation; Guernane, R., Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie (LPSC), Université Joseph Fourier, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Grenoble, France; Guerzoni, B., Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università and Sezione INFN, Bologna, Italy; Guilbaud, M., Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, IPN-Lyon, Villeurbanne, France; Gulbrandsen, K., Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Gulkanyan, H., A. I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute) Foundation, Yerevan, Armenia; Gunji, T., University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Gupta, A., Physics Department, University of Jammu, Jammu, India; Gupta, R., Physics Department, University of Jammu, Jammu, India; Haake, R., Institut für Kernphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany; Haaland, Ø., Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Hadjidakis, C., Institut de Physique Nucléaire d'Orsay (IPNO), Université Paris-Sud, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay, France; Haiduc, M., Institute of Space Sciences (ISS), Bucharest, Romania; Hamagaki, H., University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Hamar, G., Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; Han, B.H., Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul, South Korea; Hanratty, L.D., School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom; Hansen, A., Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Harmanová-Tothová, Z., Faculty of Science, P.J. ŠafárikNoneNoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70349634151The challenge of integrating sustainability into talent and organization strategies: Investing in the knowledge, skills and attitudes to achieve high performanceArnott J., Lacy P., Lowitt E.2009Corporate Governance9410.1108/14720700910985025Accenture, Kelvin, South Africa; Accenture, London, United Kingdom; Accenture, Boston, MA, United StatesArnott, J., Accenture, Kelvin, South Africa; Lacy, P., Accenture, London, United Kingdom; Lowitt, E., Accenture, Boston, MA, United StatesPurpose - This paper aims to address the importance of a framework for developing employees' sustainability knowledge, skills, and behaviors. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws on in-depth interviews with executives from five Fortune 1000 companies that are viewed as market leaders in addressing sustainability. Findings - This paper provides a series of initiatives to equip their employees' talent - from top executives to employees throughout the organization - with the much needed, but often sorely lacking knowledge, skills and attitudes to spearhead efforts to attend to sustainability both today and tomorrow. Practical implications - The usefulness of demonstrating a company's suite of ongoing initiatives to address sustainability to potential employees during the recruiting process is highlighted by each company. Originality/value - The framework covered by this paper can help companies enhance their talent management skills. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Employees; Leadership development; Management developmentNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84944789912Effect of educational outreach timing and duration on facility performance for infectious disease care in Uganda: A trial with pre-post and cluster randomized controlled componentsBurnett S.M., Mbonye M.K., Naikoba S., Stella Z.-M., Kinoti S.N., Ronald A., Rubashembusya T., Willis K.S., Colebunders R., Manabe Y.C., Weaver M.R.2015PLoS ONE10910.1371/journal.pone.0136966Accordia Global Health Foundation, Washington, DC, United States; Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; Center for Human Services, University Research Co. LLC, Bethesda, MD, United States; Department of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States; International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States; PATH, Seattle, WA, United States; Save the Children, Kampala, Uganda; International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Uganda Country Office, Wandegeya, Uganda; Fio Corporation, Toronto, ON, Canada; University of Manchester, Institute for Development Policy and Management, Manchester, United Kingdom; U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville, MD, United StatesBurnett, S.M., Accordia Global Health Foundation, Washington, DC, United States, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, PATH, Seattle, WA, United States; Mbonye, M.K., Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; Naikoba, S., Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, Save the Children, Kampala, Uganda; Stella, Z.-M., Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Uganda Country Office, Wandegeya, Uganda; Kinoti, S.N., Center for Human Services, University Research Co. LLC, Bethesda, MD, United States, Fio Corporation, Toronto, ON, Canada; Ronald, A., Department of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; Rubashembusya, T., Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, University of Manchester, Institute for Development Policy and Management, Manchester, United Kingdom; Willis, K.S., Accordia Global Health Foundation, Washington, DC, United States, U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville, MD, United States; Colebunders, R., Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Manabe, Y.C., Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States; Weaver, M.R., International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United StatesBackground: Classroom-based learning is often insufficient to ensure high quality care and application of health care guidelines. Educational outreach is garnering attention as a supplemental method to enhance health care worker capacity, yet there is little information about the timing and duration required to improve facility performance. We sought to evaluate the effects of an infectious disease training program followed by either immediate or delayed on-site support (OSS), an educational outreach approach, on nine facility performance indicators for emergency triage, assessment, and treatment; malaria; and pneumonia. We also compared the effects of nine monthly OSS visits to extended OSS, with three additional visits over six months. Methods: This study was conducted at 36 health facilities in Uganda, covering 1,275,960 outpatient visits over 23 months. From April 2010 to December 2010, 36 sites received infectious disease training; 18 randomly selected sites in arm A received nine monthly OSS visits (immediate OSS) and 18 sites in arm B did not. From March 2011 to September 2011, arm A sites received three additional visits every two months (extended OSS), while the arm B sites received eight monthly OSS visits (delayed OSS). We compared the combined effect of training and delayed OSS to training followed by immediate OSS to determine the effect of delaying OSS implementation by nine months. We also compared facility performance in arm A during the extended OSS to immediate OSS to examine the effect of additional, less frequent OSS. Results: Delayed OSS, when combined with training, was associated with significant pre/post improvements in four indicators: outpatients triaged (44% vs. 87%, aRR = 1.54, 99% CI = 1.11, 2.15); emergency and priority patients admitted, detained, or referred (16% vs. 31%, aRR = 1.74, 99% CI = 1.10, 2.75); patients with a negative malaria test result prescribed an antimalarial (53% vs. 34%, aRR = 0.67, 99% CI = 0.55, 0.82); and pneumonia suspects assessed for pneumonia (6% vs. 27%, aRR = 2.97, 99% CI = 1.44, 6.17). Differences between the delayed OSS and immediate OSS arms were not statistically significant for any of the nine indicators (all adjusted relative RR (aRRR) between 0.76-1.44, all p>0.06). Extended OSS was associated with significant improvement in two indicators (outpatients triaged: aRR = 1.09, 99% CI = 1.01; emergency and priority patients admitted, detained, or referred: aRR = 1.22, 99% CI = 1.01, 1.38) and decline in one (pneumonia suspects assessed for pneumonia: aRR: 0.93; 99% CI = 0.88, 0.98). Conclusions: Educational outreach held up to nine months after training had similar effects on facility performance as educational outreach started within one month post-training. Six months of bimonthly educational outreach maintained facility performance gains, but incremental improvements were heterogeneous. Copyright: © 2015 Burnett et al.NoneArticle; case management; clinical assessment; controlled study; emergency health service; fever; health care facility; health care quality; human; infection control; malaria; medical education; outcome assessment; pneumonia; randomized controlled trial; UgandaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84927554751Associations between CAMCOG-R subscale performance and formal education attainment in South African older adultsJames K.A., Grace L.K., Thomas K.G.F., Combrinck M.I.2015International Psychogeriatrics27210.1017/S1041610214002233ACSENT Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Clinical Neurosciences Research Unit, Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South AfricaJames, K.A., ACSENT Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, Clinical Neurosciences Research Unit, Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Grace, L.K., Clinical Neurosciences Research Unit, Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Thomas, K.G.F., ACSENT Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Combrinck, M.I., Clinical Neurosciences Research Unit, Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South AfricaBackground: The Cambridge Cognitive Examination-Revised (CAMCOG-R) is a sensitive screening tool for the early diagnosis of dementia in older adults. Overall performance on the CAMCOG-R is influenced by educational attainment. Few studies have, however, examined the association between educational attainment and performance on the individual CAMCOG subscales. We aimed to address this question in a sample from a low-and middle-income country (LAMIC), where resource constraints may have compromised access to, and quality of, education for many older adults. Methods: Participants, all over 60 years of age, were 51 cognitively healthy community-dwelling volunteers and 47 individuals diagnosed with mild-moderate stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most participants had some high school education. They were administered the CAMCOG-R under standardized conditions. Results: Within both the control and AD patient groups, there were significant associations between years of completed education and CAMCOG-R total score, MMSE score, and CAMCOG-R Language subscale score. In both groups, level of education was not associated with scores on these subscales: in controls, recent memory, R 2 =.21, p =.055, learning memory, R 2 =.16, p =.398, attention/calculation, R 2 =.19, p =.467, and perception, R 2 =.18, p =.984; in AD patients, recent memory, R 2 =.14, p =.340, learning memory, R 2 =.03, p =.680, perception, R 2 =.09, p =.723, and attention/calculation, R 2 =.19, p =.097. Conclusions: Some CAMCOG-R subscale scores were more strongly associated with educational attainment than others. Importantly, however, performance on the recent memory and learning memory subscales was not affected by education. These subscales are sensitive indicators of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early AD. These subscales may therefore remain valid for use as an AD screening tool in resource-poor healthcare settings. Copyright © International Psychogeriatric Association 2014.Alzheimer's disease; cognitive impairment; education; neuropsychological testingaged; Alzheimer disease; Article; attention; Cambridge Cognitive Examination Revised; clinical article; cognitive defect; community sample; controlled study; educational status; female; human; learning; male; memory; psychologic test; South African; volunteerNone
Scopus2-s2.0-57449101699On-farm performance of Arsi-Bale goats in Ethiopia receiving different concentrate supplementsGuru M., Abebe G., Goetsch A., Hundessa F., Ebro A., Shelima B.2008Livestock Research for Rural Development2012NoneAdami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box 35, Zeway, Ethiopia; Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program, P. O. Box 15566, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; American Institute for Goat Research, Langston University, P. O. Box 730, Langston, OK 73050, United StatesGuru, M., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box 35, Zeway, Ethiopia; Abebe, G., Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program, P. O. Box 15566, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Goetsch, A., American Institute for Goat Research, Langston University, P. O. Box 730, Langston, OK 73050, United States; Hundessa, F., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box 35, Zeway, Ethiopia; Ebro, A., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box 35, Zeway, Ethiopia; Shelima, B., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box 35, Zeway, EthiopiaAn experiment was conducted to compare effects of supplements based on different byproduct feedstuffs on on-farm performance of yearling Arsi-Bale goats in the Adami Tulu district of Ethiopia. The study was conducted during the main growing season (wet season) at the time when most grazing land is cultivated. A farmer research group (FRG) was formed in each of three villages. Each FRG consisted of nine farm households, with eight contributing three animals and one providing six. A barn with three pens was constructed at one farm in each village. One or two animals from each farm were allocated to three supplementation treatments. Animals received supplements and resided at night in the barn pens. Supplements, offered at 2.5% of body weight, consisted of 50% wheat bran, 1% salt, and 49% noug cake (N), formaldehyde-treated noug cake (F-N), or linseed meal (L). Initial body weight was 14.5 (SE = 0.18 kg). Average daily gain was greater for L than for N (P < 0.05) and F-N (P < 0.08) (100, 113, and 134 g/day for N, F-N, and L, respectively; SE = 6.6). The difference between the increase in estimated animal value due to supplementation and supplement cost was 51.87, 61.1, and 79.75 Ethiopian birr per animal for N, F-N, and L, respectively. In conclusion, based on average daily gain and the greater concentration of metabolizable energy in linseed meal vs. noug cake, energy appeared relatively more limiting to performance than protein. Supplementation of goats with available byproduct feedstuffs offers a means of achieving marketable body weight and profit with suboptimal grazing conditions.Daily gain; Formaldehyde; Linseed meal; Noug cake; Wet seasonAnimalia; Capra hircus; Triticum aestivumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-48249098482Non-genetic factors influencing post-weaning growth and reproductive performances of Arsi-Bale goatsDadi H., Duguma G., Shelima B., Fayera T., Tadesse M., Woldu T., Tucho T.A.2008Livestock Research for Rural Development207NoneAdami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box: 35, Ziway, Ethiopia; Bako Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box: 3, Bako, EthiopiaDadi, H., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box: 35, Ziway, Ethiopia; Duguma, G., Bako Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box: 3, Bako, Ethiopia; Shelima, B., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box: 35, Ziway, Ethiopia; Fayera, T., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box: 35, Ziway, Ethiopia; Tadesse, M., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box: 35, Ziway, Ethiopia; Woldu, T., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box: 35, Ziway, Ethiopia; Tucho, T.A., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box: 35, Ziway, EthiopiaA study was conducted to investigate the effects of non-genetic factors on post weaning growth and reproductive performances of Arsi-Bale goats maintained at Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center in the mid Rift Valley of Ethiopia. The fixed effects of year, season, dam parity, sex of kids and litter sizes on post weaning growth traits were investigated while dam age in addition to the above factors, was used in investigating the reproductive performances of does. Year significantly affected (P <0.05 and P <0.001) all traits considered in the study, except for the 18-month live weights of kids. Season did affect only weaning weight (3MW) of kids while parity significantly affected 3MW, 6 months weight (6MW), 6- to 12-months daily weight gain of kids (ADG2) and litter sizes. Its effect increased with increasing parity with heaviest 3MW (8.7kg) and 6MW (10.6kg) and largest litter sizes of 2.1±0.10 being achieved in sixth parity. Sex of kids significantly influenced (P <0.001) all growth traits considered in the current study, except for the 3-to 6-months growth rate of kids (ADG1). Males were heavier and grew faster than females. However, the effect of litter size was only on 3MW, 6MW and yearling weight (12MW). Single born kids were heavier at 3-, 6- and 12-months of age and the litter size effect disappeared thereafter. Dam age significantly affected age at first kidding. The effects of non-genetic factors on both growth and reproductive traits considered were significant and hence will need to be considered in goat breed improvement program.Age at first kidding; Arsi Bale goat; Ethiopia; Kidding interval; Litter size; Parity; Season; Sex; YearCapra hircusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-49249101708Comparison of body weight gain performance and carcass characteristics of the two Ethiopian cattle breeds under natural pasture grazing managementNegash M., Lemma T., Dadi H., Feyera T., Woldu T., Alemu T., Shilima B.2008Livestock Research for Rural Development208NoneAdami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box 35, Ziway, EthiopiaNegash, M., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box 35, Ziway, Ethiopia; Lemma, T., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box 35, Ziway, Ethiopia; Dadi, H., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box 35, Ziway, Ethiopia; Feyera, T., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box 35, Ziway, Ethiopia; Woldu, T., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box 35, Ziway, Ethiopia; Alemu, T., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box 35, Ziway, Ethiopia; Shilima, B., Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box 35, Ziway, EthiopiaThe study was conducted to see the effect of breed and age on the body weight gain and carcass traits of Borana and Kereyu breed kept under natural pasture grazing management at Adami Tulu Agricultural research center. A total of 32 Borana and 32 Kereyu breed bulls of four age categories from each breed were used for the experiment. The parameters showed an increasing trend across age groups for Borana breed. The highest average daily weight gain were registered at the older age (4, 6, 8 years) respectively and the lowest at younger age (2 years). Fat thickness and dressing percentage of Borana breed was high, however statistically it is not significant (p>0.05). Borana breed managed under similar condition deposited significantly higher (p<0.05) internal fat. Similarly hot carcass and rib eye area were also recorded significantly higher (p<0.05) in Borana breed. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) observed between the two breeds among different age groups of bulls with regard to average total body weight gain (ATG) and average daily body weight gain (ADG). Leg total and accumulation of muscle on it was significantly higher (p<0.05) in Borana than Kereyu breed, but leg bone and fat did not significantly (p>0.05) vary. Loin total and accumulation of muscle on it was significantly higher (p<0.05) in Borana breed, but Loin bone and fat did not significantly (p>0.05) vary. Rack total, bone and accumulation of muscle on it was significantly higher (p<0.05) in Borana breed, but fat did not significantly (p>0.05) vary. Breast and Shank total, bone and accumulation of fat on it was significantly higher (p<0.05) in Borana breed, but muscle did not significantly (p>0.05) vary. Shoulder and neck total, muscle and accumulation of fat on it was significantly higher (p<0.05) in Borana breed, but bone did not significantly (p>0.05) vary. Primal cut proportions, total fat and muscle did not significantly (p>0.05) vary between the two breeds but the total bone was different between the two breeds. Generally Borana breed was preferred for good carcass yield than Kereyu breed in natural grazing management.Age; Borana; Carcass trait; Kereyu; Range performance; TypeBosNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34247123989Rangeland evaluation in the middle Awash valley of Ethiopia: I. Herbaceous vegetation coverAbule E., Snyman H.A., Smit G.N.2007Journal of Arid Environments70210.1016/j.jaridenv.2006.12.008Adami Tulu Research Center, P. O. Box 35, Zeway, Ethiopia; Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South AfricaAbule, E., Adami Tulu Research Center, P. O. Box 35, Zeway, Ethiopia; Snyman, H.A., Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa; Smit, G.N., Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South AfricaThe objective of this study was to determine the condition and grazing capacity of commonly grazed rangeland of pastoralists living in the Kereyu-Fantale and Awash-Fantale districts of Ethiopia. In each of the districts, data on grass species composition, basal cover, bare ground, soil erosion and dry matter (DM) yield were collected. The most dominant grass species in the study districts was Chrysopogon plumulosus, followed by different species of Sporobolus. The percentage bare ground varied from 0.3% to 10.8%, with a mean value of 5.3%. The basal cover in both districts was low, averaging 3.4%. The DM yield of the grass ranged between 168.5 and 832 kg ha-1. The grazing capacity varied from as low as 54.1 to as high as 7.1 ha LSU-1. The general conclusion that can be made is that the condition of the rangeland in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia is poor, requiring careful and participatory management. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Basal cover; Grass DM yield; Grass species composition; Grazing capacity; Percentage bare ground; Rangeland conditionbare soil; community composition; dry matter; environmental assessment; environmental conditions; grass; grazing pressure; rangeland; soil erosion; valley; vegetation cover; Africa; Awash Valley; East Africa; Ethiopia; Fantale; Sub-Saharan Africa; Chrysopogon plumulosus; SporobolusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34147118966Rangeland evaluation in the Middle Awash valley of Ethiopia: III. Relationships among soil and vegetation variablesAbule E., Snyman H.A., Smit G.N.2007Journal of Arid Environments70210.1016/j.jaridenv.2007.01.006Adami Tulu Research Center, P.O. Box 35, Zeway, Ethiopia; Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South AfricaAbule, E., Adami Tulu Research Center, P.O. Box 35, Zeway, Ethiopia; Snyman, H.A., Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa; Smit, G.N., Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South AfricaTwo neighboring districts inhabited by pastoralists of different ethnic groups in the Middle Awash valley of Ethiopia were studied to make a preliminary investigation of the soil nutrient status and identifying the environmental factors most critical to grass production. Data were collected on soil nutrient status, grass yield (dry matter), percentage bare and covered ground, estimated soil erosion, evapotranspiration tree equivalent (ETTE), and altitude. Sites with saline soil showed high electrical conductance and high pH and low total nitrogen and organic carbon. The results of the correlation matrix and the stepwise multiple regression indicated that grass yield was affected by ETTE ha-1, percentage of bare and covered ground, C:N ratio, pH and available K. Future studies need to include stocking rate as one parameter to determine better relationships among the measured parameters more accurately. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Evapotranspiration tree equivalent; Grass biomass; Organic carbon; Salinity; Soil nutrient status; Total nitrogenbiomass; grass; organic carbon; pH; rangeland; salinity; soil nitrogen; soil nutrient; valley; vegetation dynamics; Africa; Awash Valley; East Africa; Ethiopia; Sub-Saharan AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34147158367Rangeland evaluation in the middle Awash valley of Ethiopia: II. Woody vegetationAbule E., Snyman H.A., Smit G.N.2007Journal of Arid Environments70210.1016/j.jaridenv.2007.01.007Adami Tulu Research Center, P.O. Box 35, Zeway, Ethiopia; Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South AfricaAbule, E., Adami Tulu Research Center, P.O. Box 35, Zeway, Ethiopia; Snyman, H.A., Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa; Smit, G.N., Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South AfricaAlthough a few studies have reported an increase of woody plants in the rangelands of Ethiopia during the last few decades, most studies related to the importance of tree canopies have been conducted in lightly grazed areas that have suffered little disturbance. The woody vegetation composition, density, evapotranspiration tree equivalent (ETTE), browse production, browsing capacity and bush encroachment were therefore studied in a part of the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia with the objective of determining the condition and contribution of woody vegetation as a source of feed to animals. Accordingly, 7 and 8 rangeland sites in Kereyu-Fantale and Awash-Fantale districts, respectively, were identified. The data collected was analyzed using the Biomass Estimates from Canopy Volume model. The dominant sources of browse and the encroacher woody plants in the study districts were species of Acacia (A. senegal and A. nubica). In both districts, the browse production ranged from as low as 194-3 311 kg ha-1, with most of the leaf dry mass found above the height of 1.5 m. Some of the possible factors contributing to bush encroachment in the study area are heavy grazing pressure, expansion of cultivation and reduced mobility of animals due to many factors. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Browse production; Bush encroachment; Density; Evapotranspiration tree equivalent; Woody species compositionbrowsing; community composition; population density; rangeland; shrub; valley; woody plant; Africa; Awash Valley; East Africa; Ethiopia; Sub-Saharan Africa; Acacia; Acacia nubica; Acacia senegal; AnimaliaNone
WoSWOS:000272445000006The Developmental Impact of Asian Drivers on Ethiopia with Emphasis on Small-scale Footwear ProducersGebre-Egziabher, Tegegne2009WORLD ECONOMY321110.1111/j.1467-9701.2009.01252.xAddis Ababa UniversityNone(1252) Tegegne Gebre-Egziabher This paper examines the developmental impact of China and India on Ethiopia by examining macro-level trade, investment and aid relation, and micro-level impacts on local micro and small-scale footwear producers. Both secondary and primary data were used. At macro level there are clear evidences of an increase in trade between Ethiopia on the one hand and China and India on the other, though the trade balance disfavours Ethiopia. China has displaced other countries as export destinations for Ethiopia. Similarly, the presence of China and India is also felt in the areas of investment and aid. At local level, Chinese imports of footwear have forced local enterprises to downsize their activity and lose assets and money. At the same time, however, firms have followed both the high road of competition (design and quality improvement, investment in machinery, product specialisation) and the low road of competition (lowering price and profit, reducing raw materials and inputs, and joining the informal sector) to withstand the impact of Chinese imports. The long-term effect of Chinese imports is to crowd out local efforts of using the sector as the basis for industrialisation. Government, non-government organisations and local producers should work together in order to withstand the negative impacts of footwear imports by raising the competitiveness of the local producers.NoneNoneNone
WoSWOS:000292102000011How has Government policy post-Global Strategy for Plant Conservation impacted on science? The Ethiopian perspectiveDemissew, Sebsebe2011BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY166310.1111/j.1095-8339.2011.01154.xAddis Ababa UniversityNoneIn this paper, existing relevant Ethiopian government biodiversity-related policies and strategies, and mandates of various institutions prior to GSPC targets, are reviewed. Response to whether or not institutions responded to GSPC targets as the result of new policies or rebranded their work to fit within the context of existing policies and adjust their outcomes to fit into the GSPC targets is provided. The Ethiopian national report of 2009 submitted to the Convention of Biological Diversity Secretariat is reviewed and gaps analysed. The policies of the Federal government (and implementing institutions) post-GSPC so far have had only a limited impact on science, but research institutions have aligned their outputs to fit with the GSPC targets. Suggestions, conclusions and recommendations are made in order to work effectively towards the realization of the GSPC targets beyond 2010 in Ethiopia. (C) 2011 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2011, 166, 310-325.ETHIOPIA,"government biodiversity policies","GSPC targets"NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84912023130Performance improvement by scheduling techniques: A case of leather industry development instituteHabib A., Jilcha K., Berhan E.2015Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing334None10.1007/978-3-319-13572-4_21Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaHabib, A., Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Jilcha, K., Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Berhan, E., Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaThe model leather products manufacturing factory of leather industry development institute (LIDI) suffers from poor performances due to various problems. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to improve the performance of the case company using scheduling techniques. Proper scheduling technique can result in dramatic improvements in layout, utilization, idle time, make span and tardiness reduction. The existing company performance and various another scenarios were analyzed by using different sequencing rules plus Johnson’s and Campbell’s algorithms. The analysis and discussion showed that the feasible scheduling was of flow shop and while product layout was seen most preferable that result in reduction of machine idle time &amp; make span by 3.00 &amp; 4.33 hours respectively. Total flow time was reduced by 82.9% and machine utilization was improved by 16.15% when compared with existing layout. Through production lines 1 or 2 of scenario-2 with the sequence of J1, J2, J3, J4 and J5, the company should make possible arrangements for such improvements. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.Leather industry; Make-span; Manufacturing; Performance; SchedulingLeather; Manufacture; Company performance; Leather industries; Machine utilization; Make-span; Manufacturing factories; Performance; Poor performance; Scheduling techniques; SchedulingNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79951882580Impacts of land certification on tenure security, investment, and land market participation: Evidence from EthiopiaDeininger K., Ali D.A., Alemu T.2011Land Economics872NoneAddis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaDeininger, K., Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Ali, D.A., Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Alemu, T., Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaWhile early attempts at land titling in Africa were often unsuccessful, factors such as new legislation, low-cost methods, and increasing demand for land have generated renewed interest. A four-period panel allows use of a pipeline and difference-indifferences approach to assess impacts of land registration in Ethiopia. We find that the program increased tenure security, land-related investment, and rental market participation and yielded benefits significantly above the cost of implementation. © 2011 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.Nonecertification; implementation process; land market; land registration; land tenure; rental sector; tenure system; EthiopiaNone
WoSWOS:000301996000017Impact of perinatal somatic and common mental disorder symptoms on functioning in Ethiopian women: The P-MaMiE population-based cohort studyAlem, Atalay,Araya, Mesfin,Dewey, Michael,Hanlon, Charlotte,Medhin, Girmay,Prince, Martin,Senturk, Vesile,Stewart, Robert2012JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS136310.1016/j.jad.2011.11.028Addis Ababa University, Ankara University, Kings College London, University of London"Alem, Atalay: Addis Ababa University","Araya, Mesfin: Addis Ababa University","Dewey, Michael: Kings College London","Dewey, Michael: University of London","Medhin, Girmay: Addis Ababa University","Prince, Martin: Kings College London","Prince, Martin: University of London","Stewart, Robert: Kings College London","Stewart, Robert: University of London",Background: Little is known of the relationship between perinatal somatic and common mental disorder (CMD) symptoms and impaired functioning in women from settings where the burden of undernutrition and infectious disease morbidity is high. Methods: A population-based sample of 1065 women from Butajira, Ethiopia, was recruited in pregnancy (86.4% of those eligible) and reassessed two months postnatal (954 with singleton, live infants). At both time-points, women were administered a modified version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (locally-validated) to assess somatic and CMD symptoms, respectively. Negative binomial regression was used to investigate associations of CMD and somatic symptoms with functional impairment (World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Scale, version-II), after adjusting for maternal anthropometric measures, physical ill-health and sociodemographic factors. Results: In pregnancy, somatic and CMD symptoms were independently associated with worse maternal functional impairment after adjustment for confounders (WHODAS-II score multiplied by 1.09 (95%CI 1.06, 1.13) and 1.11 (95%CI 1.08, 1.14) respectively for each additional symptom). In the postnatal period, the size of association between somatic symptoms and functional impairment was diminished, but the association with CMD symptoms was virtually unchanged (multiplier value 1.04 (95%CI 1.00, 1.09) and 1.11 (95%CI 1.07, 1.16) respectively). Limitations: Use of largely self-report measures. Conclusions: Somatic and CMD symptoms were independently associated with functional impairment in both pregnancy and the postnatal period, with CMD symptoms showing a stronger and more consistent association. This emphasises the public health relevance of both CMD and somatic symptoms in the perinatal period. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.DEPRESSION,DISABILITY,POSTNATAL,PREGNANCY,"SOMATIC SYMPTOMS","SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA",CHILDBIRTH,COMPLAINTS,"GENERAL HEALTH QUESTIONNAIRE",GOA,INDIA,"MATERNAL DEPRESSION",POSTNATAL-DEPRESSION-SCALE,POSTPARTUM,RISK-FACTORS,VALIDATIONNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84891818187Major causes of organ condemnation for cattle and its financial impact at Wolaita Soddo municipality abattoir, southern EthiopiaAbunna F., Hordofa D.2013Global Veterinaria11610.5829/idosi.gv.2013.11.6.8142Addis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Departement of Clinical Studies, P.O. Box, 34, Bishoftu, Ethiopia; Hawassa University, School of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box, 05, Hawassa, EthiopiaAbunna, F., Addis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Departement of Clinical Studies, P.O. Box, 34, Bishoftu, Ethiopia; Hordofa, D., Hawassa University, School of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box, 05, Hawassa, EthiopiaAbattoirs provide information on the epidemiology of the diseases in livestock, in order to know the extent of the exposure of the public to certain zoonotic diseases and to estimate the financial losses incurred through condemnation of affected organs. Tracing the records of the slaughter houses from November 2010 to February 2011 was done at Wolaita Soddo Municipal abattoir to determine the causes of organ condemnation and associated financial loss. Out of 953 cattle examined 378 (39.68%) livers, 244 (25.61%) lungs, 39 (4.09%) hearts, 30 (3.15%) kidneys and 14 (1.47%) spleens were condemned. The major causes of condemnation were fasciolosis (61.1%) and hydatidosis (12.17%) for liver; hydatid diseases (62.3%) and emphysema (8.61%) for lungs; unknown causes (33.33%), pericarditis (23.08%) and hydatid cyst (23.08%) for heart; unknown causes (26.67%) and calcification (23.33%) for kidneys and hydatidosis (64.29%) for spleen. Rate of condemnations due to parasitic causes was higher in the liver (29.07%) than in the lungs (15.95%). Parasitic diseases particularly fasciolosis and hydatidosis were the major causes of economic loss through condemnation of affected organs. The total annual economic loss incurred due to organs condemnation at the study area was estimated to be 24,340 ETB (24323.49 USD). The current result suggests that a thorough investigation that leads to disease control strategy is required to reduce the economic and public health consequences. © IDOSI Publications, 2013.Abattoir; Cattle; Ethiopia; Organ condemnation; Wolaita soddoNoneNone
WoSWOS:000269490000010The Impact of Agricultural Extension and Roads on Poverty and Consumption Growth in Fifteen Ethiopian VillagesDercon, Stefan,Gilligan, Daniel O.,Hoddinott, John,Woldehanna, Tassew2009AMERICAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS91410.1111/j.1467-8276.2009.01325.xAddis Ababa University, International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Oxford"Dercon, Stefan: University of Oxford","Hoddinott, John: International Food Policy Research Institute","Woldehanna, Tassew: Addis Ababa University"This article investigates whether public investments that led to improvements in road quality and increased access to agricultural extension services led to faster consumption growth and lower rates of poverty in rural Ethiopia. Estimating an Instrumental Variables model using Generalized Methods of Moments and controlling for household fixed effects, we find evidence of positive impacts with meaningful magnitudes. Receiving at least one extension visit reduces headcount poverty by 9.8 percentage points and increases consumption growth by 7.1 percentage points. Access to all-weather roads reduces poverty by 6.9 percentage points and increases consumption growth by 16.3 percentage points. These results are robust to changes in model specification and estimation methods.ETHIOPIA,EXTENSION,GROWTH,POVERTY,ROADS,PROGRAMS,"RURAL ETHIOPIA",SHOCKSNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84887043992Reproductive performance of dairy cows under artificial insemination in south and northwest part of EthiopiaAli T., Lemma A., Yilma T.2013Livestock Research for Rural Development2511NoneAddis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, P.O.Box 34, Debrezeit, EthiopiaAli, T., Addis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, P.O.Box 34, Debrezeit, Ethiopia; Lemma, A., Addis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, P.O.Box 34, Debrezeit, Ethiopia; Yilma, T., Addis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, P.O.Box 34, Debrezeit, EthiopiaA cross sectional study and retrospective data analysis were conducted to examine and characterize the reproductive practices and outcomes by location (district) and to identify cow factors that influence reproductive efficiency of dairy cows under artificial insemination (AI). Data were collected on reproductive events from 428 dairy farms in four districts from two regional states of Ethiopia. The overall mean age at first calving (AFC) was 34.8 (n=386) months, where it was significantly different across locations (districts). Mean days for calving to first service interval (CFSI) and calving to conception interval (CCI) were 222 (n=320) and 257(n=234), respectively. Even if breed and location differences had no effect on CFSI; CCI was significantly affected by location. Number of service per conception (NSC) for pregnant cows were 1.55 (n=234) and there was statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in the NSC between districts and between breeds. First service conception rate (FSCR) was 40.9% with significant difference (P<0.05) between location (districts) and breeds. Days after last calving (DALC) were 260.8 (n=331) and had significant difference between breeds. All the traits studied did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between parities. In Ethiopia, location and breed differences are still the major determinants of reproductive performance of dairy cows.Breed; Calving to conception interval; Number of service per conception; Parity; RegionNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84928138418Land suitability evaluation to optimize land management of small-scale farms in the Gerado catchment, North-Eastern EthiopiaBahir A.L., Ahmed M.A., Antille D.L.2015Tropical Agriculture921NoneAddis Ababa University, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; University of Southern Queensland, National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture, Toowoomba, QLD, AustraliaBahir, A.L., Addis Ababa University, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Ahmed, M.A., Addis Ababa University, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Antille, D.L., University of Southern Queensland, National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture, Toowoomba, QLD, AustraliaBiophysical and socio-economic constraints and sub-optimal utilization of soil and water resources have resulted in progressive reduction of land productivity in Ethiopia. This study investigated the suitability of land mapping units of the Gerado catchment for subsistence rainfed cultivation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and teff (Eragrostis tef Zucc.). A land resource survey was conducted and it identified nine different land mapping units (LMU). The FAO maximum limitation method was used to assess LMU and determine land suitability subclasses. The study indicated that soil erosion, soil wetness, soil fertility status, and soil workability were the main limiting factors affecting land quality within the catchment. We suggest that drainage using traditional ditches may be a cost-effective method to reduce the incidence of waterlogging conditions. Long-term fertility management requires the implementation of suitable fertilization programs that consider the use of organic materials such as manure and compost. Such programs need to account for nutrient budgets over the entire crop rotation to maximize use efficiency and minimize environmental losses. Soil erosion may be mitigated through stone terracing, soil bunding and by adopting a more conservative approach to agriculture, that is, by matching land use with land capability based on the correct assessment of land suitability. Implementation of the proposed approach to optimizing land management in the Gerado catchment will deliver a range of socio-economic and agri-environmental benefits to the local communities. © 2015 Trop. Agric.Environmental quality; Land capability; Land-use optimization; Small-scale farming; Sustainable soil management; Tropical rainfed subsistence-agricultureEragrostis tef; Triticum aestivum; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70049096250Study on reproductive activity and evaluation of breeding soundness of jacks (Equus asinus) in and around Debre Zeit, EthiopiaLemma A., Deressa B.2009Livestock Research for Rural Development218NoneAddis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Clinical Studies, P. O. Box 34, Debre Zeit, EthiopiaLemma, A., Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Clinical Studies, P. O. Box 34, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia; Deressa, B., Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Clinical Studies, P. O. Box 34, Debre Zeit, EthiopiaAn evaluation of the reproductive performance and breeding soundness of jacks was carried out through a study on phenotypic traits (n=107), castrated jacks (n=22) and semen evaluation (n=3). Measurements including age, body condition score (BCS), body weight and testicular parameters were taken. Semen was collected using artificial vagina and was subjected to both gross and microscopic evaluation. The overall mean (±SD) BCS, age, and body weight for the jacks in the phenotypic study were 3.32±0.8, 11.1±4.7years, and 126 ±14.6kg, respectively. There was a significant difference (p&lt;0.05) in the mean scrotal circumference between the different BCS categories. A highly significant (p&lt;0.001) difference was observed in scrotal circumference among the different age groups with adult animals having the largest scrotal circumference. The mean (±SD) testis weight of the castrates was 276±33g while the ratio of testis weight to body weight was 1:2.1. A significant correlation was found between testis weight and scrotal circumference (r=0.43, p&lt;0.05), testis weight and BCS (r=0.47, p&lt; 0.05), and testis weight and body weight (r=0.81, p&lt;0.001). The mean (±SD) semen volume was 39.9±14.5ml. The mean (±SD) jell-free volume, motility and sperm concentration were 28.8±10.7ml, 85.4±8.6%, and 533 ± 33.1 x 106/ml, respectively. BCS, scrotal circumference and testis weight were significantly correlated to sperm concentration (p&lt;0.05; r=0.69; r=0.85 and 0.80, respectively). The mean time to erection was 3.3 minutes while length to semen collection was 5.4 minutes. The present study shows critical evaluation of the phenotypic traits to be important for stud selection and breeding soundness evaluation of jacks such as in artificial insemination.Ethiopia; Jacks; Reproductive performance; Semen analysis; Testicular parametersAnimalia; Carangidae; Equus asinusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-22444447492Breeding efficiency, lifetime lactation and calving performance of Friesian-Boran crossbred cows at Cheffa farm, EthiopiaGoshu G.2005Livestock Research for Rural Development177NoneAddis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P. O. Box 34, Debre Zeit, EthiopiaGoshu, G., Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P. O. Box 34, Debre Zeit, EthiopiaRecords of 602 cows maintained at Cheffa farm from 1976 to 1997 were used to analyze the variables breeding efficiency, herd life, and effective productive herd life, number of parity completed, number of calves produced and lifetime milk yield. The fixed factors considered were four levels of Friesian inheritance, three levels of season of birth or calving, nine levels of parity and 21 levels of year. General Linear Model was used to estimate the effect of independent factors. The overall mean for breeding efficiency was 66.3±0.49 and affected significantly (P&lt;0.001) by all factors. The overall mean for herd life and effective productive herd life were 2858±57.3 and 1301±47.6 days, respectively. Level of Friesian inheritance and year of birth effected significantly (P&lt;0.001) both traits. The overall mean for initiated parity and number of calves produced were 4.23±0.12 and 3.58±0.13, respectively and affected (P&lt;0.001) by level of inheritance and birth year of the cow but not by season of birth. Lifetime milk yield was 12749±483kg and significantly affected (P&lt;0.001) by level of inheritance and year of birth. Season of birth did not affect the trait significantly. The study showed that the F1 and 3/4Friesian inheritance cows had performed better than 15/16 groups. Breeding efficiency and lifetime productivity can be improved by placing efficient reproduction, feeding and health management at the farm.Breeding efficiency; Cattle; Crossbreeds; Herd life; SeasonBos taurusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34447278543Effect of parity, season and year on reproductive performance and herd life of Friesian cows at Stella private dairy farm, EthiopiaGebeyehu G., Belihu K., Berihun A.2007Livestock Research for Rural Development197NoneAddis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 34, Debre Ziet, EthiopiaGebeyehu, G., Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 34, Debre Ziet, Ethiopia; Belihu, K., Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 34, Debre Ziet, Ethiopia; Berihun, A., Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 34, Debre Ziet, EthiopiaA retrospective study was carried out at Stella Dairy Farm, Ethiopia, using 13 years data (1993 to 2006) to estimate number of services per conception (NSC), days open (DO), calving interval (CI), herd life (HL), number of lactations (NL) and productive age (PA). Fixed factors considered were parity (8+), season (3) and year (13). Data were analysed using the General Linear Model of SAS. Cumulative frequency (%) was used to study the distributions of DO and CI. The overall mean for NSC, DO and CI were 1.720±0.056 (n=619), 177±5.4 (n=448) days and 456±5.4 (n= 423) days, respectively. Parity had significant effect on NSC (P<0.05) DO and CI (P<0.001). Seasons of conception had no effect on the parameters studied. The overall means (n=105) for HL, NL, and PA were 3048±107days, 3.88±0.23 and 1753±106 days, respectively. Birth year significantly affected the variables. About a third of the heats inseminated required two or more services. About 47% of the DO and 58% of the CI had a length of 130 and 450 days or more, respectively. To improve the efficiency of reproductive performances and herd life, it is recommended to give attention in heat detection, timely insemination, adequate feeding, proper management of postpartum reproductive problems and early growth management of heifers.Ethiopia; Fixed factors; Friesian; Herd life; Reproductive performance; Stella farmFriesiaNone
WoSWOS:000263496700006Impact of antenatal common mental disorders upon perinatal outcomes in Ethiopia: the P-MaMiE population-based cohort studyAbdulahi, Abdulreshid,Alem, Atalay,Araya, Mesfin,Dewey, Michael,Hanlon, Charlotte,Hughes, Marcus,Lakew, Zufan,Medhin, Girmay,Patel, Vikram,Prince, Martin,Tesfaye, Fikru,Tomlinson, Mark,Worku, Bogale2009TROPICAL MEDICINE &amp; INTERNATIONAL HEALTH14210.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02198.xAddis Ababa University, Kings College London, University of London, MRC, UK & Sangath Ctr"Abdulahi, Abdulreshid: Addis Ababa University","Alem, Atalay: Addis Ababa University","Araya, Mesfin: Addis Ababa University","Dewey, Michael: Kings College London","Dewey, Michael: University of London","Hughes, Marcus: Kings College London","Hughes, Marcus: University of London","Lakew, Zufan: Addis Ababa University","Medhin, Girmay: Kings College London","Medhin, Girmay: University of London","Prince, Martin: Kings College London","Prince, Martin: University of London","Tesfaye, Fikru: Addis Ababa University","Worku, Bogale: Addis Ababa University",To examine the impact of antenatal psychosocial stressors, including maternal common mental disorders (CMD), upon low birth weight, stillbirth and neonatal mortality, and other perinatal outcomes in rural Ethiopia. A population-based sample of 1065 pregnant women was assessed for symptoms of antenatal CMD (Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20: SRQ-20), stressful life events during pregnancy (List of Threatening Experiences: LTE) and worry about the forthcoming delivery. In a sub-sample of 654 women from six rural sub-districts, neonatal birth weight was measured on 521 (79.7%) singleton babies within 48 h of delivery. Information about other perinatal outcomes was obtained shortly after birth from the mother's verbal report and via the Demographic Surveillance System. After adjusting for potential confounders, none of the psychosocial stressors were associated with lower mean birth weight, stillbirth or neonatal mortality. Increasing levels of antenatal CMD symptoms were associated both with prolonged labour (&gt; 24 h) (SRQ 1-5: RR 1.4; 95% CI 1.0-1.9, SRQ &gt;= 6: RR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0-2.6) and delaying initiation of breast-feeding more than eight hours (SRQ 1-5: RR 1.4; 95% CI 0.8 to 2.4, SRQ &gt;= 6: RR 2.8; 95% CI 1.3-6.1). Worry about delivery was also associated with labour longer than 24 h (RR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.1). This study provides preliminary evidence of important public health consequences of poor maternal mental health in low-income countries but does not replicate the strong association with low birth weight found in South Asia."birth weight","BREAST FEEDING","MENTAL DISORDER","obstetric labour complications",PREGNANCY,"SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA",ANXIETY,ASSOCIATION,INDIA,"INFANT GROWTH",INITIATION,LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT,"MATERNAL DEPRESSION",MORBIDITY,NUTRITIONAL-STATUS,PREGNANCYNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-28944434103Reproductive performances of Fogera cattle and their Friesian crosses in Andassa ranch, Northwestern EthiopiaGebeyehu G., Asmare A., Asseged B.2005Livestock Research for Rural Development1712NoneAddis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, PO Box 34, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia; Mekelle University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, PO Box 231, Mekelle, EthiopiaGebeyehu, G., Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, PO Box 34, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia; Asmare, A., Mekelle University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, PO Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Asseged, B., Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, PO Box 34, Debre Zeit, EthiopiaA study was conducted in Andassa Cattle Breeding and Improvement Ranch (ACBIR), northwestern Ethiopia, with the aims of assessing the reproductive performance of Fogera cattle and their Friesian crosses. The study involved the use of data compiled on record books and individual animal cards, and monitoring. General Linear Model (GLM) was used to analyze the data. The overall mean age at first service (AFS), number of services per-conception (NSC) and days open (DO) were 40.6±8 months, 1.62±0.1 and 305±10 days respectively. AFS was significantly affected by breed group; NSC and DO were significantly affected by parity of the cows; whereas season of birth/calving does not seem to have a significant effect on any of the traits measured. Although wide variations were recorded among study subjects, the performance of the breed (and the crosses) was low indicating that poor management prevails in the center. The wide ranges of values recorded, however, create an avenue to improve the performance of the breed or its crosses through rigorous selection procedures.Crossbred; Fogera; Friesian; Parity; SeasonAnimalia; Bos taurusNone
WoSWOS:000273194900009Health professionals' attitudes and misconceptions regarding podoconiosis: potential impact on integration of care in southern EthiopiaDavey, Gail,Deribe, Kebede,Yakob, Bereket2010TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE104110.1016/j.trstmh.2009.07.021Addis Ababa University, Fayyaa Integrated Dev Assoc"Davey, Gail: Addis Ababa University","Yakob, Bereket: Addis Ababa University",Offering long-term community care for patients with podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) is challenging, and requires co-operation between patients and their families, the community and health care professionals. Health professionals who harbour misconceptions about podoconiosis or stigmatize patients are likely to deliver substandard services and propagate such attitudes within the community. In January 2007, we used a structured self-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards podoconiosis among 275 health professionals in public and private health institutions in southern Ethiopia. Nearly all (97.8%) health professionals held at least one significant misconception about the cause of podoconiosis, and 97.1% responded incorrectly to one or more questions about signs and symptoms of podoconiosis. Around half (53.9%) incorrectly considered podoconiosis to be an infectious disease and were afraid of acquiring podoconiosis while providing care. All (100%) held one or more stigmatizing attitudes towards people with podoconiosis. These high levels of misconceptions and stigmatizing attitudes suggest negative effects of health professionals, seriously undermining integration between themselves, patients and community partners. We recommend pre- and in-service training of health professionals to overcome these misconceptions, to diminish stigma and to improve integration among those offering community care of patients with podoconiosis. (c) 2009 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.ATTITUDE,"chronic care model",elephantiasis,ETHIOPIA,PODOCONIOSIS,STIGMA,ASSOCIATION,DISEASE,"ENDEMIC ELEPHANTIASIS","NON-FILARIAL ELEPHANTIASIS"NoneNone
WoSWOS:000332072800013School-based intervention: evaluating the role of water, latrines and hygiene education on trachoma and intestinal parasitic infections in EthiopiaAboset, Nigusu,Berhane, Yemane,Gelaye, Bizu,Kumie, Abera,Williams, Michelle A.2014JOURNAL OF WATER SANITATION AND HYGIENE FOR DEVELOPMENT4110.2166/washdev.2013.060Addis Ababa University, Harvard University, University of Washington, University of Washington Seattle, Addis Continental Inst Publ Hlth, Family Hlth Int"Williams, Michelle A.: Harvard University",We sought to evaluate the impact of a hygiene and sanitation intervention program among school-children to control active trachoma and intestinal parasitic infections. This longitudinal epidemiologic study was conducted among 630 students in rural Ethiopia. Baseline and follow-up surveys were conducted to evaluate the impact of a three-pronged intervention program: (i) construction of ventilated improved pit latrines; (ii) provision of clean drinking water; and (iii) hygiene education. Socio-demographic information was collected using a structured questionnaire. Presence of trachoma and intestinal parasitic infections were evaluated using standard procedures. At baseline, 15% of students had active trachoma, while 6.7% of them were found to have active trachoma post-intervention (p &lt; 0.001). Similar improvements were noted for parasitic infections. At baseline, 7% of students were reported to have helminthic infections and 30.2% protozoa infections. However, only 4% of students had any helminthic infection and 13.4% (p &lt; 0.001) of them were found to have any protozoa infection during follow-up surveys. Improvements were also noted in students' knowledge and attitudes towards hygiene and sanitation. In summary, the results of our study demonstrated that provision of a comprehensive and targeted sanitation intervention program was successful in reducing the burden of trachoma and intestinal parasitic infection among schoolchildren.ETHIOPIA,INTERVENTION,"PARASITIC INFECTION",SANITATION,SCHOOL,TRACHOMA,"ACTIVE TRACHOMA",ALBENDAZOLE,CHILDREN,DISTRICT,EFFICACY,PREVALENCE,PROMOTION,RISK-FACTORS,"SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS",TANZANIANoneNone
WoSWOS:000282333200023Interim report: Review of evidence of the health impact of famine in EthiopiaMariam, D. Haile,Murray, V.,Taye, A.2010PERSPECTIVES IN PUBLIC HEALTH130510.1177/1757913910379197Addis Ababa University, Hlth Protect Agcy"Mariam, D. Haile: Addis Ababa University",Historical accounts of famines in Ethiopia go as far back as the 9th century, however, evidence on its impact on health only started to emerge from the 15th century onwards. Unfortunately, famine has been endemic in Ethiopia in the last few decades. The 1973 famine is reported to have claimed over 300,000 lives. In 1985 approximately 10 million people were reported to be starving, with approximately 300,000 already dead and about 1,000 dying daily. In the following years, droughts leading to food shortage have had local and national adverse health effects, in particular in 1999/2000. This paper describes the initial findings of a literature review of evidence on the health impact of droughts leading to famine in Ethiopia and highlights gaps in knowledge. The key finding, thus far, is the marked paucity of health impact data. This review also highlights the fact that adverse health impacts of famines are probably complex and long lasting. Interpretation of any health impact data is difficult as there are few baseline data to compare. Health effects also impact livelihoods. Livelihood disruption following famine does not just affect one generation but also subsequent generations. Surveillance systems are needed so that records of the health impacts of a drought that leads to famine can inform action. With climate change bringing increased likelihood of drought and famine in some parts of the world, the findings of this review could be beneficial not just for Ethiopia but also elsewhere.DROUGHT,ETHIOPIA,FAMINE,"health impacts",SURVEILLANCE,CRISIS,DROUGHT,MORTALITY,NUTRITION,PROVINCE,SUDANNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34548414867Cape Town and the two oceans marathon: The impact of sport tourismKotze N.2006Urban Forum17310.1007/s12132-006-0013-8Department of Geography, University of Johannesburg, South AfricaKotze, N., Department of Geography, University of Johannesburg, South Africa[No abstract available]NoneNoneNone
WoSWOS:000295110800006Long-Term Impact of Residual Symptoms in Treatment-Resistant DepressionCleare, Anthony J.,Fekadu, Abebaw,Markopoulou, Kalypso,Poon, Lucia,Rane, Lena J.,Wooderson, Sarah C.2011CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY-REVUE CANADIENNE DE PSYCHIATRIE569NoneAddis Ababa University, Kings College London, University of London, S London & Maudsley Natl Hlth Serv Trust, South London & Maudsley NHS TrustNoneObjective: Although commonly encountered, little work has defined the longitudinal course of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and the influence of residual posttreatment symptoms on longer-term outcome. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of posttreatment clinical states on longer-term outcome. Method: Patients (n = 118) with TRD received specialist inpatient treatment and were followed-up for a median of 3 years. Longitudinal outcome dichotomized into good and poor outcome was used as the primary outcome and functional measures were used as secondary outcomes. Results: Among 118 treated patients, 40 (34%) entered clinical remission, 36 (31%) entered partial remission, and 42 (37%) remained in episode at discharge. At follow-up, 35% had longitudinally defined poor outcome. Posttreatment clinical status was the main predictor of both poor and good outcome. Nearly 50% of patients achieved postdischarge recovery, and subsequently had longer-term outcome, comparable with patients discharged in remission. Patients who remained in episode posttreatment were more symptomatically and functionally impaired. Conclusion: Posttreatment clinical states are a useful guide to clinicians for projecting the longer-term outcome of patients with TRD. The persistence of residual or syndromal symptoms predicts a poorer longer-term outcome, whereas treatment to remission is associated with better outcomes.COURSE,"FOLLOW-UP STUDY",OUTCOME,"treatment-refractory depression","treatment-resistant depression",FOLLOW-UP,IMIPRAMINE,ISSUES,"MAJOR DEPRESSION",OUTCOMES,"PARTIAL REMISSION",RATING-SCALE,RECURRENCE,RELAPSE,STAR-ASTERISK-DNoneNone
WoSWOS:000258977600014The economic impact of HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality on households in Addis Ababa, EthiopiaAraya, T.,Davey, G.,Mariam, D. Haile,Reniers, G.,Tekola, F.2008AIDS CARE-PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-MEDICAL ASPECTS OF AIDS/HIV20810.1080/09540120701777256Addis Ababa University, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Colorado System, University of Witwatersrand"Araya, T.: Addis Ababa University","Davey, G.: Addis Ababa University","Mariam, D. Haile: Addis Ababa University","Tekola, F.: Addis Ababa University",The present study investigates whether the household-level economic impact of an adult AIDS death is different from that of death from another cause. The data come from cross-sectional post-mortem interviews (verbal autopsies) with relatives or primary caregivers of deceased adults randomly selected from deaths recorded in an ongoing burial surveillance in Addis Ababa. Our analyses consist of three parts. First, we assess the sociodemographic risk factors for AIDS mortality. Subsequently, we reverse the causal order of this relationship and carry out an analysis of the effect of AIDS mortality on the subjective experience of change in the household's financial situation following the death of a household member. Finally, we quantify the direct and indirect costs of illness and death on the household. Results indicate that households experiencing an HIV/AIDS death are poorer than those experiencing a non-HIV/AIDS death. In addition, poorer households experience a greater decline in socioeconomic status following death of a household member. AIDS mortality has more detrimental effects on the household economic status than deaths due to other causes. While the difference between AIDS and non-AIDS mortality in terms of direct costs is minimal, the indirect cost of an AIDS death per household exceeds that of non-AIDS death by 58%. In conclusion, poor households are more likely to experience an AIDS death and in turn are more vulnerable to the socioeconomic impact of death. Therefore, it is justifiable to target HIV-impact mitigation programs on poorer households."Addis Ababa",ETHIOPIA,HIV/AIDS,MORBIDITY,MORTALITY,"socioeconomic impact",AFRICA,AIDS,EXPENDITURE,HIV-INFECTION,RISK,SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUSNoneNone
WoSWOS:000345469000029The impact of introducing new vaccines on the health system: Case studies from six low- and middle-income countriesBurchett, Helen E. D.,Chavez, Enrique,Edengue, Jean-Marie,Gelmon, Lawrence,Griffiths, Ulla K.,Kitaw, Yayehirad,Konate, Mamadou,Lagarde, Mylene,Mills, Anne,Molla, Mitike,Mounier-Jack, Sandra,Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre,Onyango-Ouma, Washington,Rulisa, Stephen,Torr2014VACCINE334910.1016/j.vaccine.2014.09.032Addis Ababa University, University of London, University of Manitoba, University of Nairobi, University of Rwanda, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Minist Hlth, Yaounde Cent Hosp"Burchett, Helen E. D.: University of London","Griffiths, Ulla K.: University of London","Lagarde, Mylene: University of London","Mills, Anne: University of London","Molla, Mitike: Addis Ababa University","Mounier-Jack, Sandra: University of London","Onyango-Ouma, Washington: University of Nairobi","Rulisa, Stephen: University of Rwanda","Torres-Rueda, Sergio: University of London",Objective: We aimed to explore the impacts of new vaccine introductions on immunization programmes and health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We conducted case studies of seven vaccine introductions in six countries (Cameroon, PCV; Ethiopia, PCV; Guatemala, rotavirus; Kenya, PCV; Mali, Meningitis A; Mali, PCV; Rwanda, HPV). Interviews were conducted with 261 national, regional and district key informants and questionnaires were completed with staff from 196 health facilities. Routine data from districts and health facilities were gathered on vaccination and antenatal service use. Data collection and analysis were structured around the World Health Organisation health system building blocks. Findings: The new vaccines were viewed positively and seemed to integrate well into existing health systems. The introductions were found to have had no impact on many elements within the building blocks framework. Despite many key informants and facility respondents perceiving that the new vaccine introductions had increased coverage of other vaccines, the routine data showed no change. Positive effects perceived included enhanced credibility of the immunisation programme and strengthened health workers' skills through training. Negative effects reported included an increase in workload and stock outs of the new vaccine, which created a perception in the community that all vaccines were out of stock in a facility. Most effects were found within the vaccination programmes; very few were reported on the broader health systems. Effects were primarily reported to be temporary, around the time of introduction only. Conclusion: Although the new vaccine introductions were viewed as intrinsically positive, on the whole there was no evidence that they had any major impact, positive or negative, on the broader health systems. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/)."HEALTH SYSTEMS","immunisation programmes",INTRODUCTIONS,"new vaccines",AFRICA,"ELIMINATION ACTIVITIES",IMMUNIZATION,MEASLES,"POLIO ERADICATION",PROGRAMNoneNone
WoSWOS:000343734600001Learning from developing countries in strengthening health systems: an evaluation of personal and professional impact among global health volunteers at Addis Ababa University's Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (Ethiopia)Aboneh, Ephrem A.,Busse, Heidi,Tefera, Girma2014GLOBALIZATION AND HEALTH10None10.1186/s12992-014-0064-xAddis Ababa University, University of Wisconsin Madison, University of Wisconsin System"Aboneh, Ephrem A.: Addis Ababa University","Busse, Heidi: University of Wisconsin Madison","Busse, Heidi: University of Wisconsin System","Tefera, Girma: University of Wisconsin Madison","Tefera, Girma: University of Wisconsin System"Background: The positive impact of global health activities by volunteers from the United States in low-and middle-income countries has been recognized. Most existing global health partnerships evaluate what knowledge, ideas, and activities the US institution transferred to the low-or middle-income country. However, what this fails to capture are what kinds of change happen to US-based partners due to engagement in global health partnerships, both at the individual and institutional levels. "Reverse innovation" is the term that is used in global health literature to describe this type of impact. The objectives of this study were to identify what kinds of impact global partnerships have on health volunteers from developed countries, advance this emerging body of knowledge, and improve understanding of methods and indicators for assessing reverse innovation. Methods: The study population consisted of 80 US, Canada, and South Africa-based health care professionals who volunteered at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Ethiopia. Surveys were web-based and included multiple choice and open-ended questions to assess global health competencies. The data were analyzed using IBRM SPSS (R) version 21 for quantitative analysis; the open-ended responses were coded using constant comparative analysis to identify themes. Results: Of the 80 volunteers, 63 responded (79 percent response rate). Fifty-two percent of the respondents were male, and over 60 percent were 40 years of age and older. Eighty-three percent reported they accomplished their trip objectives, 95 percent would participate in future activities and 96 percent would recommend participation to other colleagues. Eighty-nine percent reported personal impact and 73 percent reported change on their professional development. Previous global health experience, multiple prior trips, and the desire for career advancement were associated with positive impact on professional development. Conclusion: Professionally and personally meaningful learning happens often during global health outreach. Understanding this impact has important policy, economic, and programmatic implications. With the aid of improved monitoring and evaluation frameworks, the simple act of attempting to measure "reverse innovation" may represent a shift in how global health partnerships are perceived, drawing attention to the two-way learning and benefits that occur and improving effectiveness in global health partnership spending.Africa,COLLABORATION,"global health","Health systems partnership","reverse innovation","Twinning partnership",PARTNERSHIPSNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84879830246Evaluation of the prevalence, progression and severity of common adverse reactions (Lipodystrophy, CNS, peripheral neuropathy, and hypersensitivity reactions) associated with Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) and anti-tuberculosis treatment in outpatients inNemaura T., Dhoro M., Nhachi C., Kadzirange G., Chonzi P., Masimirembwa C.2013Journal of AIDS and Clinical Research4410.4172/2155-6113.1000203African Institute of Biomedical Science and Technology, P.O. Box 2294, Harare, Zimbabwe; College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe; Department of Health, Harare City Council, ZimbabweNemaura, T., African Institute of Biomedical Science and Technology, P.O. Box 2294, Harare, Zimbabwe, College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe; Dhoro, M., African Institute of Biomedical Science and Technology, P.O. Box 2294, Harare, Zimbabwe; Nhachi, C., College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe; Kadzirange, G., College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe; Chonzi, P., Department of Health, Harare City Council, Zimbabwe; Masimirembwa, C., African Institute of Biomedical Science and Technology, P.O. Box 2294, Harare, ZimbabweIntroduction: The use of many anti-retroviral drugs has been associated with a myriad of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) which could limit successful treatment outcome with respect to patient compliance and quality of life. An additional consideration is the high incidence of HIV infection with tuberculosis (TB) in Southern Africa, including Zimbabwe, and the use of co-treatment regimens. Methods: The study is a cross sectional, case-control study of 433 out-patients conducted at two hospitals in Zimbabwe. The patients were profiled for adverse reactions namely central nervous system side-effects (CNS), lipodystrophy (LD), skin hypersensitivity (SH), and peripheral neuropathy (PN). Assignment of the case and the control status of a patient was done based on occurrence of these adverse drug reactions in each of the HIV/AIDS only, TB only and HIV/TB co-infection patient groups. Results: Among the HIV/AIDS only treatment group (n= 240), the incidences of major ADRs were PN (63%), LD (38%), CNS (29%) and SH (21%). In the TB only treatment group (n=92), the major ADRs were PN (49%), CNS (29%), and SH (14%). In the HIV-TB co-treatment group (n=98), the major ADRs were PN (64%), CNS (39%), LD (6%) and SH (18%). A significant number of females were on alternate first line treatment that has no stavudine as compared to males (OR=1.98, CI (1.1, 3.59); p=0.03). Occurrence of CNS adverse drug reactions were more associated with patients on efavirenz than other HIV-drug combinations (43% vs. 17%, p<0.00001). Conclusion: The use of anti-retroviral drugs and anti-TB drugs is associated with very high incidences of adverse drug reactions. There is therefore need to understand the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms of these ADRs so as to identify patients at risk and to provide guidelines for the choice of drug and dosage to ensure safe and efficacious treatment outcomes. © 2013 Nemaura T, et al.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84864538166School types, facilities and academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Ondo State, NigeriaAlimi O.S., Ehinola G.B., Alabi F.O.2012International Education Studies5310.5539/ies.v5n3p44Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, NigeriaAlimi, O.S., Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria; Ehinola, G.B., Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria; Alabi, F.O., Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, NigeriaThe study investigated the influence of school types and facilities on students' academic performance in Ondo State. It was designed to find out whether facilities and students' academic performance are related in private and public secondary schools respectively. Descriptive survey design was used. Proportionate random sampling technique was used to select 50 schools in Ondo state. Two set of research instruments named School Facility Descriptive and Students Academic Performance Questionnaire (SFDAPQ) for principals; and School Facility Descriptive Questionnaire (SFDQ) for the teachers were used for the study. T- test was used to analyze the data. All hypotheses were tested at a significant level of 0.05. The study revealed a significant difference in facilities available in public and private schools in Ondo State. It however revealed no significant difference in academic performance of students in the two types of secondary schools. Suggestions for the procurement of more facilities in public secondary schools were made in order to enhance students' academic performance.Measure of effectiveness; Physical facilities; School types; Social wastage; Students performanceNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84892548336External debt management techniques: An evaluation of the debt conversion programme on Nigeria economyHenry O.A.2013Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences41010.5901/mjss.2013.v4n10p216Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Department of Economics, School of Arts and Social Sciences, NigeriaHenry, O.A., Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Department of Economics, School of Arts and Social Sciences, NigeriaThe study evaluated the various debt conversion programme used by the Federal Government of Nigeria to manage the nation's external debt. It examines the problems and prospects of management techniques with a view to improving on them or possibly suggests new techniques which might be helpful in solving the external debt problem. Therefore, the research is focused on the external debt management techniques in Nigeria, with emphasis on the efforts of the central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and the federal ministry of finance (FMF). Generally, the indebtedness of the country becomes a problem when the burden of servicing the debt becomes so heavy and unbearable that it imposes intolerable constraints on the economy and on the development efforts of the authorities. Managing the debt stock without stultifying growth has always has always been the headache of economic planners in Nigeria and other developing countries The pupation of this study constitutes the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and the Federal Ministry of Finance (FMF) records and personnel, the sample used is the representative sample. This is because the sample reflects the conditions existing in the population. A total of 20 top management personnel of both the CBN and FMF including 5 top management personnel of the Debt Conversion Committee (DCC) were sampled. In this study, two types of data were collected that is, the secondary data and the primary data. In designing the instrument, care has been taken to ensure its effectiveness, the validity of the research questions were established found reliable at r = 0.82. The result showed that the management of Nigeria's external debt via debt conversion programme is effective(χ2cal 6.545 &gt; χ2tab value of 1.635;df=4; =0.05).Also, the Nigeria's debt conversion programme is realistic. (χ2cal 4.655 &gt; χ2tab 1.635;df=4; =0.05). However, the study revealed that the debt conversion programme is not the final solution to Nigeria's external debt problems. (χ2cal 4.655 &gt; χ2tab 1.635; df=4; =0.05). On the basis of the findings, it is therefore recommended that the debt management should be part of the macroeconomic policies of the month. The nation need not wait until there is a debt crisis before embarking on debt management. Also, accurate information on external debts should be sourced as this aids its efficient management on a day-to-day basis and external borrowing strategies in the planning framework.Closed system; Commercial debt; Debt conversion; Debt management; Jumbo loanNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78651456579Psychological Constructs and Academic Performance at the National Open University of Nigeria: Counseling and Planning ImplicationsNelson Adewole I., Olajide Olawole A., Maruff Akinwale O., Akinola Gbadebo A.2010European Journal of Social Sciences181NoneAdeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Lagos, Nigeria; Federal College of Education (Special), Oyo, NigeriaNelson Adewole, I., Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Lagos, Nigeria; Olajide Olawole, A., Federal College of Education (Special), Oyo, Nigeria; Maruff Akinwale, O., Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Lagos, Nigeria; Akinola Gbadebo, A., Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Lagos, NigeriaThe recognition of the importance of distance education in providing students with the best and most up-to-date educational resources available in addition to the traditional teaching methods that they receive has led to rapid transformation of several traditional Universities from single mode to dual mode ones. With the growth and acceptance of distance education, it is important to ensure the success of students in the programme. This study therefore aimed at providing a causal explanation of distance learners' academic performance through the analysis of some students' psychological variables.The descriptive research design of the 'ex-post facto' type was adopted for the study. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 1500 participants while purposive sampling technique was adopted to select the National Open University of Nigeria. Data were collected through three validated and reliable questionnaires. Two research questions were raised and answered with the aid of multiple regression analysis. The three psychological variables had joint contribution of 15.6% to academic performance. The order of importance of these variables to the prediction of academic performance is self-regulation, self-efficacy and self-concept respectively. Only self-regulations made significant contribution to academic performance. Students should endeavour to inculcate good selfregulations skills.Academic performance; Distance learning; Psychological variablesNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-23744470700Bread making quality evaluation of Ethiopian wheat cultivars using direct and indirect measures of quality traitsDessalegn T., Labuschagne M.T., Van Deventer C.S.2005Cereal Research Communications3342403NoneAdet Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 08, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O.Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South AfricaDessalegn, T., Adet Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 08, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Labuschagne, M.T., Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O.Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; Van Deventer, C.S., Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O.Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South AfricaThe bread making quality of Ethiopian cultivars was studied using 18 quality traits at low and high protein environments. Significant variation was observed between genotypes with a broad range of milling, rheological and baking traits. Three different quality prediction models were constructed explaining 48% to 73% of the variation of mixing time and loaf volume, respectively. SDS-sedimentation alone accounted for 56% of the variation in loaf volume at the high protein environment. The variation of mixing time due to protein content alone was 37% at the low protein environment. SDS-sedimentation and mixograph mixing time were common in the three models. SDS-sedimentation, protein content and mixing time can be used as selection criteria in breeding programs where resources are limited. Hectoliter weight and grain weight also contributed to the variation of loaf volume and mixing time.Loaf volume; Quality; WheatTriticum aestivum; Triticum aethiopicumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84871357624Ground-based in situ measurements of near-surface aerosol mass concentration over Anantapur: Heterogeneity in source impactsReddy B.S.K., Kumar K.R., Balakrishnaiah G., Gopal K.R., Reddy R.R., Sivakumar V., Arafath S.M., Lingaswamy A.P., Pavankumari S., Umadevi K., Ahammed Y.N.2013Advances in Atmospheric Sciences30110.1007/s00376-012-1234-5Aerosol and Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, 515003 Andhra Pradesh, India; Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan; Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkoido University, Sapporo, 0600819, Japan; School of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4000, South Africa; Department of Physics, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa, 516003, IndiaReddy, B.S.K., Aerosol and Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, 515003 Andhra Pradesh, India, Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkoido University, Sapporo, 0600819, Japan; Kumar, K.R., Aerosol and Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, 515003 Andhra Pradesh, India, School of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4000, South Africa; Balakrishnaiah, G., Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan; Gopal, K.R., Aerosol and Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, 515003 Andhra Pradesh, India; Reddy, R.R., Aerosol and Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, 515003 Andhra Pradesh, India; Sivakumar, V., School of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4000, South Africa; Arafath, S.M., Aerosol and Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, 515003 Andhra Pradesh, India; Lingaswamy, A.P., Aerosol and Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, 515003 Andhra Pradesh, India; Pavankumari, S., Aerosol and Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, 515003 Andhra Pradesh, India; Umadevi, K., Aerosol and Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, 515003 Andhra Pradesh, India; Ahammed, Y.N., Department of Physics, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa, 516003, IndiaSurface measurements of aerosol physical properties were made at Anantapur (14.62°N, 77.65°E, 331 m a. s. l), a semiarid rural site in India, during August 2008-July 2009. Measurements included the segregated sizes of aerosolsas as well as total mass concentration and size distributions of aerosols measured at low relative humidity (RH&lt;75%) using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) in the 25-0.05 μm aerodynamic diameter range. The hourly average total surface aerosol mass concentration in a day varied from 15 to 70 μg m-3, with a mean value of 34.02±9.05 μg m-3 for the entire study period. A clear diurnal pattern appeared in coarse, accumulation and nucleation-mode particle concentrations, with two local maxima occurring in early morning and late evening hours. The concentration of coarse-mode particles was high during the summer season, with a maximum concentration of 11.81±0.98 μg m-3 in the month of April, whereas accumulationmode concentration was observed to be high in the winter period contributed &gt;68% to the total aerosol mass concentration. Accumulation aerosol mass fraction, Af (= Ma/Mt) was highest during winter (mean value of Af ~ 0.80) and lowest (Af ~ 0.64) during the monsoon season. The regression analysis shows that both Reff and Rm are dependent on coarse-mode aerosols. The relationship between the simultaneous measurements of daily mean aerosol optical depth at 500 nm (AOD500) and PM2.5 mass concentration ([PM2.5]) shows that surface-level aerosol mass concentration increases with the increase in columnar aerosol optical depth over the observation period. © 2012 Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.aerosols mass concentration; backward trajectories; effective radius; size distributionNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-58149459606Biotribological evaluation of artificial disc arthroplasty devices: Influence of loading and kinematic patterns during in vitro wear simulationGrupp T.M., Yue J.J., Garcia Jr. R., Basson J., Schwiesau J., Fritz B., Blömer W.2009European Spine Journal18110.1007/s00586-008-0840-5Aesculap AG Research and Development, Tuttlingen, Germany; Ludwig Maximilian University, Clinic for Orthopaedic Surgery, Grosshadern Medical Center, Munich, Germany; Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States; Orthopedic Care Center, Aventura, FL, United States; 6o of Freedom, Cape Town, South Africa; Biomechanical Research Laboratory, Aesculap AG Research and Development, Am Aesculap-Platz, 78532 Tuttlingen, GermanyGrupp, T.M., Aesculap AG Research and Development, Tuttlingen, Germany, Ludwig Maximilian University, Clinic for Orthopaedic Surgery, Grosshadern Medical Center, Munich, Germany, Biomechanical Research Laboratory, Aesculap AG Research and Development, Am Aesculap-Platz, 78532 Tuttlingen, Germany; Yue, J.J., Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States; Garcia Jr., R., Orthopedic Care Center, Aventura, FL, United States; Basson, J., 6o of Freedom, Cape Town, South Africa; Schwiesau, J., Aesculap AG Research and Development, Tuttlingen, Germany; Fritz, B., Aesculap AG Research and Development, Tuttlingen, Germany; Blömer, W., Aesculap AG Research and Development, Tuttlingen, GermanyWear simulation is an essential pre-clinical method to predict the mid- and long-term clinical wear behavior of newly introduced devices for total disc arthroplasty. The main requirement of a suitable method for spinal wear simulation has to be the ability to distinguish between design concepts and allow for a direct comparison of predicate devices. The objective of our study was to investigate the influence of loading and kinematic patterns based on two different protocols for spinal wear simulation (ISO/FDIS 18192-1 (2006) and ASTM F2423-05). In vitro wear simulation was performed with six activ ® L lumbar artificial disc devices (Aesculap Tuttlingen, Germany). The applied kinematic pattern of movement was multidirectional for ISO (elliptic track) and unidirectional with a curvilinear shape for ASTM. Testing was done for 10 million cycles in the ISO loading mode and afterwards with the same specimens for 5 million cycles according to the ASTM protocol with a customized six-station servohydraulic spinal wear simulator (EndoLab Thansau, Germany). Gravimetrical and geometrical wear assessment, a slide track analysis correlated to an optical surface characterization, and an estimation of particle size and morphology were performed. The gravimetric wear rate for the first 10 million cycles was ISOinitial = 2.7 ± 0.3 mg/million cycles. During the ASTM test period (10-15 million cycles) a gravimetric wear rate of 0.14 ± 0.06 mg/million cycles was estimated. The wear rates between the ISO and ASTM driven simulations differ substantially (approximately 20-fold) and statistical analysis demonstrates a significant difference (p &lt; 0.001) between the test groups. The main explanation of divergency between ISO and ASTM driven wear simulations is the multidirectional pattern of movement described in the ISO document resulting in a cross-shear stress on the polyethylene material. Due to previous retrieval observations, it seems to be very unlikely that a lumbar artificial disc is loaded with a linear wear path.Testing according to ASTM F2423-05 with pure unidirectional motion does not reflect the kinematics of TDA patients' daily activities. Based on our findings it seems to be more reliable to predict the clinical wear behavior of an artificial disc replacement using the ISO/FDIS 18192-1 method. © 2008 Springer-Verlag.Lumbar total disc arthroplasty; Particle analysis; Pattern of movement; Wear simulationpolyethylene; arthroplasty; article; daily life activity; device; geometry; gravimetry; kinematics; lumbar spine; mechanical stress; methodology; morphology; particle size; priority journal; shear stress; simulation; Arthroplasty, Replacement; Biomechanics; Compressive Strength; Intervertebral Disk; Joint Prosthesis; Materials Testing; Polyethylene; Stress, Mechanical; Weight-BearingNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84880115352Effect of feeding Prosopis juliflora pods and leaves on performance and carcass characteristics of Afar sheepAli A.S., Tudsri S., Rungmekarat S., Kaewtrakulpong K.2012Kasetsart Journal - Natural Science466NoneAfar Pastoral and Agro-pastoral Research Institute, Afar Region, Samara 16, Ethiopia; Department of Agronomy, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand; Department of Farm Mechanics, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, ThailandAli, A.S., Afar Pastoral and Agro-pastoral Research Institute, Afar Region, Samara 16, Ethiopia; Tudsri, S., Department of Agronomy, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand; Rungmekarat, S., Department of Agronomy, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand; Kaewtrakulpong, K., Department of Farm Mechanics, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, ThailandTwenty Afar male sheep with initial mean body weight ± SD of 17.87 ± 1.19 kg were used to evaluate the effect of replacing commercial feed with Prosopis juliflora pods and leaves on growth performance, carcass and meat quality characteristics. Animals were equally divided into four dietary treatment groups for 120 d (Rhode grass hay (RGH), RGH + 300 g ground P. juliflora pods (PJP), RGH + 150 g each ground P. juliflora pods and leaves mix (PJPLM) and RGH + 300 g commercial concentrate mix (CCM) per head per day). Total dry matter and crude protein intakes increased (P < 0.05) in treatments supplemented with ground PJP and CCM. The average weight gain and meat quality parameters obtained by supplementing with 300 g ground PJP were significantly higher than the RGH and PJPLM treatment groups, but were comparable with that of CCM. The present study demonstrated the potential of using PJP for Afar lambs without adverse effects on growth and carcass characteristics. However, the intake of PJP reduced when mixed with leaves and this indicates the leaves are unpalatable.Afar sheep; Carcass characteristics; Feed intake; Growth; Prosopis julifloraNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-19144362045The impact of adult mortality on the living arrangements of older people in rural South AfricaHosegood V., Timæus I.M.2005Ageing and Society25310.1017/S0144686X0500365XAfrica Centre for Health and Population Studies, Mtubatuba, South Africa; Centre for Population Studies, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United KingdomHosegood, V., Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, Mtubatuba, South Africa, Centre for Population Studies, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom; Timæus, I.M., Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, Mtubatuba, South Africa, Centre for Population Studies, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United KingdomThis paper examines changes in households with older people in a northern rural area of KwaZulu Natal province, South Africa, between January 2000 and January 2002. The focus is the impact of adult deaths, especially those from AIDS, on the living arrangements of older people. The longitudinal data are from the Africa Centre Demographic Information System. In 2000, 3,657 older people (women aged 60 years or older, men 65 years or older) were resident in the area, and 3,124 households had at least one older member. The majority (87%) of older people lived in three-generation households. Households with older people were significantly poorer, more likely to be headed by a woman, and in homesteads with poorer quality infrastructure than households without older members. By January 2002, 316 (8%) of the older people in the sample had died. Of all the households with an older person, 12 per cent experienced at least one adult death from AIDS. The paper shows that older people, particularly those living alone or with children in the absence of other adults, were living in the poorest households. They were also coping with an increasing burden of young adult deaths, the majority of which were attributable to AIDS. © 2005 Cambridge University Press.Adult children; AIDS; Children; HIV; Household composition; Mortality; Older people; South Africaelderly population; household structure; mortality; rural area; Africa; Eastern Hemisphere; KwaZulu-Natal; South Africa; Southern Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; WorldNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77957238662Gender differentials in the impact of parental death: Adolescent's sexual behaviour and risk of HIV infection in rural South AfricaNyirenda M., McGrath N., Newell M.-L.2010Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies5310.1080/17450128.2010.507804Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu Natal, PO Box 198, Mtubatuba 3935, South Africa; Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United Kingdom; Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, United KingdomNyirenda, M., Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu Natal, PO Box 198, Mtubatuba 3935, South Africa; McGrath, N., Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu Natal, PO Box 198, Mtubatuba 3935, South Africa, Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United Kingdom; Newell, M.-L., Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu Natal, PO Box 198, Mtubatuba 3935, South Africa, Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, United KingdomUsing data from a longitudinal surveillance study from rural South Africa, we investigated the odds of sexual debut, pregnancy and HIV infection of 15- to 19-year-old adolescents by parental survival. Using descriptive statistics and logistic regressions, we examine the relative risk of orphans compared with non-orphans to have ever had sex, being pregnant and being HIV infected, adjusting for age, sex, socio-economic status, education, being employed and residency. Of 8274 adolescents, 42% were orphaned (one or both parents died). Over 80% of adolescents remained in school, but orphans were significantly more likely to lag behind in grade for age. Female adolescent maternal (aOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.07-1.62), paternal (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.06-1.49) and dual (aOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.05-1.78) orphans were significantly more likely than non-orphaned females to have ever had sex; among males it was only paternal (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05 1.53) orphans. Maternal (aOR 1.49, 95% CI 1.03-2.15) and dual (aOR 1.74, 95% CI 1.11-2.73) female orphans relative to non-orphaned females were significantly more likely to be HIV infected; male paternal (aOR 3.41, 95% CI 1.37-8.46) and dual (aOR 3.54, 95% CI 1.06-11.86) orphans had over three-fold the odds of being infected. There was strong evidence that death of mother for girls was associated with increased vulnerability to earlier sexual debut and HIV infection, while fathers appeared to play a significant role in both their son's and daughter's lives. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.Adolescent; HIV/AIDS; Maternal; Orphanhood; Paternal; Sexual behaviour; VulnerabilityNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84856060931Making music, making money: Informal musical production and performance in venda, South AfricaMcNeill F.G.2012Africa82110.1017/S000197201100074XDepartment of Anthropology and Archaeology, University of Pretoria, South AfricaMcNeill, F.G., Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, University of Pretoria, South AfricaThis article presents an ethnographic analysis of the popular economy of informal musical production in the Venda region of South Africa. It focuses on the activities surrounding the Burnin' Shak Studio, a recording house that specializes in reggae music. Reliant on second-hand computers, pirated software, borrowed instruments, networks of trust and cycles of debt, musicians and producers in the Burnin' Shak occupy a distinctly peripheral position in South Africa's music industry. Unlike artists in the formal sphere of musical production, who sign deals with specific record labels, musicians in the informal sector seek out sponsors usually young local businessmen to fund their recordings with local producers. Marketing and distribution is the sole responsibility of the artist and the sponsor, who often develop a patronclient relationship. And yet whilst the artists' entrepreneurial activity often earns them significant airplay on local radio stations, and associated cultural capital, the financial benefits are slim. In order to convert their cultural capital into cash, musicians in the informal sector must compete in the market for performances at government-sponsored shows. These shows are well funded by lucrative tenders, but they present musicians with a double-edged sword. To secure a contract with tender holders or to entertain hopes of regular paid performances musicians must ensure that these performances do not express critical political sentiment. As purveyors of a genre renowned for its critical social commentary, reggae musicians are particularly affected by this expectation of self-censorship. Informal musical production in the post-apartheid era thus affords musicians little artistic freedom. Rather, whilst the products of this culture industry may appear to be part of a secondary economy, removed from the spheres of formalized production and control, they are in fact regulated and standardized through the process of tender allocation. © International African Institute 2012.Noneinformal sector; music; Limpopo; South Africa; VendaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84856401418Quality control and performance of HIV rapid tests in a microbicide clinical trial in rural KwaZulu-Natalvon Knorring N., Gafos M., Ramokonupi M., Jentsch U.2012PLoS ONE7110.1371/journal.pone.0030728Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Mtubatuba, South Africa; Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Johannesburg, South Africa; Contract Laboratory Services, University of the Witwatersrand Health Consortium, Johannesburg, South Africavon Knorring, N., Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Mtubatuba, South Africa, Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Johannesburg, South Africa; Gafos, M., Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Mtubatuba, South Africa; Ramokonupi, M., Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Mtubatuba, South Africa; Jentsch, U., Contract Laboratory Services, University of the Witwatersrand Health Consortium, Johannesburg, South AfricaBackground: Quality control (QC) and evaluation of HIV rapid test procedures are an important aspect of HIV prevention trials. We describe QC and performance of two rapid tests, Determine™ and Uni-Gold™ used in a microbicide clinical trial in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods/Results: Internal QC of both HIV rapid tests was conducted at the trial site using a Uni-Gold control kit (Uni-Gold™Recombigen® HIV). Both assays produced the expected results for a total of 4637 QC tests. Study participants were tested for HIV at screening and, if enrolled, at regular time points throughout the study. Positive or discordant results were confirmed by a double HIV immunoassay testing strategy at a local laboratory. Overall, 15292 HIV rapid test were performed. Sensitivity and specificity of Determine was 98.95% (95% CI: 97.72-99.61) and 99.83% (95% CI: 99.70-99.91) respectively [positive predictive value (PPV) 97.91% (95% CI: 96.38-98.92)], for Uni-Gold it was 99.30% (95% CI: 98.21-99.81) and 99.96% (95% CI: 99.88-99.99) respectively [PPV 99.47% (95% CI: 98.46-99.89)]. Conclusions: The results suggest that a Uni-Gold control kit can be used for internal QC of both Uni-Gold and the HIV-1 component of the Determine rapid tests. Both rapid tests performed proficiently in the trial population. © 2012 von Knorring et al.Nonemicrobicide; anti human immunodeficiency virus agent; antiinfective agent; adult; article; controlled study; female; HIV test; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; immunoassay; major clinical study; male; predictive value; quality control; rural area; sensitivity and specificity; South Africa; analytical equipment; clinical trial (topic); diagnostic procedure; drug effect; Human immunodeficiency virus 1; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; isolation and purification; methodology; microbiological examination; quality control; rural population; standard; virology; Human immunodeficiency virus 1; Adult; Anti-HIV Agents; Anti-Infective Agents; Clinical Trials as Topic; Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures; Female; HIV Infections; HIV-1; Humans; Immunoassay; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Quality Control; Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; Rural Population; South Africa; Young AdultNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77649260008Decline in early life mortality in a high HIV prevalence rural area of South Africa: Evidence of HIV prevention or treatment impact?Ndirangu J., Newell M.-L., Tanser F., Herbst A.J., Bland R.2010AIDS24410.1097/QAD.0b013e328335cff5Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, PO Box 198, Mtubatuba, KwaZulu-Natal 3935, South Africa; Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University College London, Institute of Child Health, United States; Division of Developmental Medicine, University of Glasgow Medical Faculty, United KingdomNdirangu, J., Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, PO Box 198, Mtubatuba, KwaZulu-Natal 3935, South Africa; Newell, M.-L., Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, PO Box 198, Mtubatuba, KwaZulu-Natal 3935, South Africa, Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University College London, Institute of Child Health, United States; Tanser, F., Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, PO Box 198, Mtubatuba, KwaZulu-Natal 3935, South Africa; Herbst, A.J., Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, PO Box 198, Mtubatuba, KwaZulu-Natal 3935, South Africa; Bland, R., Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, PO Box 198, Mtubatuba, KwaZulu-Natal 3935, South Africa, Division of Developmental Medicine, University of Glasgow Medical Faculty, United KingdomOBJECTIVE: We present early life mortality rates in a largely rural population with high antenatal HIV prevalence, and investigate temporal and spatial associations with a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme, an HIV treatment programme, and maternal HIV. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort analysis. METHODS: All births from January 2000 to January 2007 to women in the Africa Centre demographic surveillance were included. Under-two child mortality rates (U2MR) computed as deaths per 1000 live-births per year; factors associated with mortality risk assessed with Weibull regression. Availability of PMTCT (single-dose nevirapine; sdNVP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a programme included in multivariable analysis. Results: Eight hundred and forty-eight (6.2%) of 13 583 children under 2 years died. Deaths in under twos declined by 49% between 2001 and 2006, from 86.3 to 44.1 deaths per thousand live-births. Mortality was independently associated with birth season (adjusted hazard ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.33), maternal education (1.21, 1.02-1.43), maternal HIV (4.34, 3.11-6.04) and ART availability (0.46, 0.33-0.65). Children born at home (unlikely to have received sdNVP) had a 35% higher risk of dying than children born in a facility where sdNVP was available (1.35, 1.04-1.74). For 2005 births the availability of PMTCT and ART in public health programmes would have explained 8 and 31% of the decline in U2MR since 2000. Conclusion: These findings confirm the importance of maternal survival, and highlight the importance of the PMTCT and especially maternal HIV treatment with direct benefits of improved survival of their young children. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Africa; ART; HIV; Mortality; PMTCT; Ruralanti human immunodeficiency virus agent; nevirapine; adult; article; child; childhood mortality; controlled study; female; health program; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence; infant feeding; major clinical study; male; newborn period; priority journal; risk assessment; risk factor; rural area; single drug dose; South Africa; vertical transmission; Adult; Anti-HIV Agents; Child, Preschool; Cohort Studies; Female; HIV Infections; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical; Male; Nevirapine; Post-Exposure Prophylaxis; Pregnancy; Prenatal Care; Prevalence; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Rural Health; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70350025082Levels of childhood vaccination coverage and the impact of maternal HIV status on child vaccination status in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaNdirangu J., Bärnighausen T., Tanser F., Tint K., Newell M.-L.2009Tropical Medicine and International Health141110.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02382.xAfrica Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, PO Box 198, Mtubatuba, KwaZulu-Natal, 3935, South Africa; Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu Natal, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Witwatersrand, South Africa; Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University College London, Institute of Child Health, London, United KingdomNdirangu, J., Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, PO Box 198, Mtubatuba, KwaZulu-Natal, 3935, South Africa, Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu Natal, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; Bärnighausen, T., Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu Natal, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; Tanser, F., Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu Natal, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; Tint, K., School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Witwatersrand, South Africa; Newell, M.-L., Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu Natal, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University College London, Institute of Child Health, London, United KingdomObjectives To analyse coverage of childhood vaccinations in a rural South African population and investigate whether maternal HIV status is associated with children's vaccination status. Methods 2 431 children with complete information, 12-23 months of age at some point during the period January 2005 through December 2006 and resident in the Africa Centre Demographic Surveillance Area at the time of their birth were investigated. We examined the relationship between maternal HIV status and child vaccination status for five vaccinations [Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3), poliomyelitis (polio3), hepatitis B (HepB3), and measles] in multiple logistic regressions, controlling for household wealth, maternal age, maternal education and distances to roads, fixed and mobile clinics. Results Coverage of the five vaccinations ranged from 89.3% (95% CI 81.7-93.9) for BCG to 77.3% (67.1-83.6) for measles. Multivariably, maternal HIV-positive status was significantly associated with lower adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of child vaccination for all vaccines [(AOR) 0.60-0.74, all P ≤ 0.036] except measles (0.75, P = 0.073), distance to mobile clinic was negatively associated with vaccination status (all P ≤ 0.029), household wealth was positively (all P ≤ 0.013) and distance to nearest road negatively (all P ≤ 0.004) associated with vaccination status. Conclusion Positive maternal HIV status independently reduces children's probability to receive child vaccinations, which likely contributes to the morbidity and mortality differential between children of HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers. As a means of increasing vaccination coverage, policy makers should consider increasing the number of mobile clinics in this and similar communities in rural Africa. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Maternal HIV status; Rural Africa; Vaccination coverageBCG vaccine; diphtheria pertussis tetanus vaccine; hepatitis B vaccine; measles vaccine; poliomyelitis vaccine; child; child mortality; demographic survey; disease treatment; health education; health services; health status; hepatitis; human immunodeficiency virus; logistics; maternal health; measles; morbidity; policy making; poliomyelitis; rural population; spatial analysis; temporal analysis; vaccination; adolescent; adult; article; child; child health; female; human; Human immunodeficiency virus; major clinical study; male; maternal welfare; preschool child; questionnaire; school child; South Africa; vaccination; Adolescent; Adult; BCG Vaccine; Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine; Female; Health Care Surveys; Hepatitis B Vaccines; HIV Seropositivity; Humans; Immunization Programs; Infant; Logistic Models; Male; Measles Vaccine; Middle Aged; Mothers; Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral; Rural Population; South Africa; Vaccination; Young Adult; Africa; KwaZulu-Natal; South Africa; Southern Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; Mycobacterium bovis BCGNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84876694087Large herbivores favour species diversity but have mixed impacts on phylogenetic community structure in an African savanna ecosystemYessoufou K., Davies T.J., Maurin O., Kuzmina M., Schaefer H., van der Bank M., Savolainen V.2013Journal of Ecology101310.1111/1365-2745.12059African Centre for DNA Barcoding, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, APK Campus 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa; Department of Biology, McGill University, 1205 Avenue Docteur Penfield, Montreal, QC, Canada; Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada; Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Biodiversitaet der Pflanzen, Maximus-von-Imhof Forum 2, Freising, 85354, Germany; Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, SL5 7PY, United Kingdom; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, TW9 3DS, United KingdomYessoufou, K., African Centre for DNA Barcoding, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, APK Campus 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa; Davies, T.J., Department of Biology, McGill University, 1205 Avenue Docteur Penfield, Montreal, QC, Canada; Maurin, O., African Centre for DNA Barcoding, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, APK Campus 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa; Kuzmina, M., Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada; Schaefer, H., Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Biodiversitaet der Pflanzen, Maximus-von-Imhof Forum 2, Freising, 85354, Germany; van der Bank, M., African Centre for DNA Barcoding, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, APK Campus 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa; Savolainen, V., Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot, SL5 7PY, United Kingdom, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, TW9 3DS, United KingdomThere has been much debate on the impact of large herbivores on biodiversity, especially given that large mammals are becoming locally extinct in many places. The use of evolutionary information on community structure has typically been limited to evaluating assembly processes, for example, competition or habitat filtering, whereas a lack of long-term experiments has precluded the test of predictions considering more complex biotic interactions. Reconstructing the complete phylogeny of the trees and shrubs of the Kruger National Park from DNA data, we tested for phylogenetic signal in antiherbivory traits and compared the phylogenetic structure of communities under various degrees of herbivore pressure using experimental plots spanning several decades. We show that all antiherbivory traits examined demonstrated weak but significant phylogenetic signal, and that exclusion of large herbivores results in impoverished species diversity in restructured communities. Surprisingly, we also show that reduction in species diversity coupled with community reorganization does not necessarily result in a decrease in phylogenetic diversity, and that community responses to herbivore exclusion depend on initial structure. Synthesis. Extinction of large mammal herbivores will have cascading effects on plant diversity; however, impacts on plant community structure are contingent on initial conditions. This research has implications for best practice when managing large herbivores and natural habitats. Extinction of large mammal herbivores will have cascading effects on plant diversity; however, impacts on plant community structure are contingent on initial conditions. This research has implications for best practice when managing large herbivores and natural habitats. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.Determinants of plant community diversity and structure; Extinction; Functional diversity; Kruger National Park; Phylogeneticsbiodiversity; community structure; evolutionary biology; extinction; herbivory; interspecific competition; mammal; phylogenetics; phylogeny; plant community; plant-herbivore interaction; savanna; shrub; species diversity; Kruger National Park; South Africa; MammaliaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33748902038Managing the impact of gold panning activities within the context of integrated water resources management planning in the Lower Manyame Sub-Catchment, Zambezi Basin, ZimbabweZwane N., Love D., Hoko Z., Shoko D.2006Physics and Chemistry of the Earth31None10.1016/j.pce.2006.08.024Africa Management and Development Institute, P.O. Box 6146, Mbabane, Swaziland; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mt . Pleasant Harare,, Zimbabwe; Department of Geology, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mt . Pleasant Harare,, Zimbabwe; WaterNet, P.O. Box MP600, Mt . Pleasant Harare,, Zimbabwe; United Nations Industrial Development Organization, P.O. Box 4775, Harare, ZimbabweZwane, N., Africa Management and Development Institute, P.O. Box 6146, Mbabane, Swaziland, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mt . Pleasant Harare,, Zimbabwe; Love, D., Department of Geology, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mt . Pleasant Harare,, Zimbabwe, WaterNet, P.O. Box MP600, Mt . Pleasant Harare,, Zimbabwe; Hoko, Z., Department of Civil Engineering, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mt . Pleasant Harare,, Zimbabwe; Shoko, D., Department of Geology, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mt . Pleasant Harare,, Zimbabwe, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, P.O. Box 4775, Harare, ZimbabweRiverbed alluvial gold panning activities are a cause for degradation of river channels and banks as well as water resources, particularly through accelerated erosion and siltation, in many areas of Zimbabwe. The lower Manyame sub-catchment located in the Northern part of the country is one such area. This study analysed the implications of cross-sectoral coordination of the management of panning and its impacts. This is within the context of conflicts of interests and responsibilities. A situational analysis of different stakeholders from sectors that included mining, environment, water, local government and water users who were located next to identified panning sites, as well as panners was carried out. Selected sites along the Dande River were observed to assess the environmental effects. The study determined that all stakeholder groups perceived siltation and river bank degradation as the most severe effect of panning on water resources, yet there were divergent views with regards to coordination of panning management. The Water Act of 1998 does not give enough power to management institutions including the Lower Manyame Sub-catchment Council to protect water resources from the impacts of panning, despite the fact that the activities affect the water resource base. The Mines and Minerals Act of 1996 remains the most powerful legislation, while mining sector activities adversely affect environmental resources. Furthermore, complexities were caused by differences in the definition of water resources management boundaries as compared to the overall environmental resources management boundaries according to the Environmental Management Act (EMA) of 2000, and by separate yet parallel water and environmental planning processes. Environmental sector institutions according to the EMA are well linked to local government functions and resource management is administrative, enhancing efficient coordination. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Conflict resolution; Consensus building; Environment; Gold panning; Integrated water resources management; Small-scale miningDegradation; Environmental impact; Erosion; Management; Rivers; Concensus building; Conflict resolution; Gold panning; Integrated water resources management; Small-scale mining; Water resources; catchment; environmental effect; gold mine; river channel; water management; water resource; Africa; Southern Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; Zambezi Belt; ZimbabweNone
NoneNoneWeed management in upland rice in sub-Saharan Africa: Impact on labor and crop productivityOgwuike P., Rodenburg J., Diagne A., Agboh-Noameshie A.R., Amovin-Assagba E.2014Food Security6310.1007/s12571-014-0351-7Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2031 Cotonou, Benin; Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice)-East and Southern Africa, P.O. Box 33581, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaOgwuike, P., Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2031 Cotonou, Benin; Rodenburg, J., Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice)-East and Southern Africa, P.O. Box 33581, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Diagne, A., Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2031 Cotonou, Benin; Agboh-Noameshie, A.R., Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2031 Cotonou, Benin; Amovin-Assagba, E., Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2031 Cotonou, BeninRice is one of the most important crops for food security in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). There exists, however, a widening gap between its regional demand and supply. Competition from weeds is typically one of the major biophysical constraints in upland rice, frequently leading to significant yield losses and sometimes to complete crop failure, thereby threatening the food security of subsistence farmers. However, weed management practices that are currently employed to avoid such losses are associated with high weeding labor demands. This study examined the relationships between weeding times per farm, average time per hectare per weeding and rice yields of upland rice farmers in SSA, with the objective of estimating the impact of weeds on rural households' economies in SSA reliant on upland rice production systems. To this end, we analyzed survey data collected from 992 farmers in four countries (Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Togo and Uganda). The counterfactual outcomes framework of modern evaluation theory was used to estimate the Average Treatment Effect (ATE) of the number of times a farm is weeded on weeding labor efficiency, as measured by the average number of hours spent per hectare at each weeding, and on crop productivity expressed as rice grain yield per hectare. A single weeding required 173 h per hectare, while weeding twice required 130 h per hectare per weeding (259 h per hectare in total) and weeding three times required 125 h per hectare per weeding (376 h per hectare in total). Correspondingly, a single weeding was associated with an average rice yield of 1.2 t ha-1, weeding twice yielded 1.7 t ha-1 and weeding three times yielded 2.2 t ha-1. Compared to the situation where the farm is weeded only once and controlling for other factors, the model estimated yield gains of a second weeding to be 0.33 t ha-1 and a third weeding to result in a gain of 0.51 t ha-1. The estimated labor gains were respectively 64.2 and 68.1 h per hectare per weeding for a second and a third weeding. We conclude that weeding an upland rice crop more than once in SSA increases weeding labor efficiency by about 37 % and rice productivity by more than 27 %. Rather than motivating farmers to increase their labor inputs for manual weeding, however, we propose that more research and development funds should be devoted to developing, testing and promoting locally adapted strategies of labor-saving weed management in rice in sub-Saharan Africa. This will result in a significant contribution to regional food security and poverty alleviation. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and International Society for Plant Pathology.Average treatment effect; Hand weeding; Impact assessment; Rain fed rice; Structural economic method; Subsistence farmingcrop production; food security; labor; poverty alleviation; research and development; rice; subsistence; weed; weed control; yield; Cameroon; Democratic Republic Congo; Sub-Saharan Africa; Togo; UgandaNone
WoSWOS:000305234200008The impact of NERICA adoption on productivity and poverty of the small-scale rice farmers in the GambiaDiagne, Aliou,Dibba, Lamin,Fialor, Simon C.,Nimoh, Fred2012FOOD SECURITY4210.1007/s12571-012-0180-5Africa Rice Ctr AfricaRice, KNUST, Kwame Nkrumah University Science & Technology, NARINoneThe study assessed the causal effects of NERICA adoption on rice yields and income, using country-wide data of 600 rice farmers in The Gambia. To control for differences in socio-demographic and environmental characteristics of adopters and non-adopters and enable a causal interpretation of NERICA adoption on the variables of interest, the study used the counterfactual outcome framework to control for such differences. The results, based on observed sample estimates, showed significant differences in rice yields and income between the NERICA adopters and non-adopters. Further, the results of the framework, based on the Local Average Treatment Effect (LATE) estimates, which allowed a causal interpretation, showed that NERICA adoption significantly increased average rice yields and annual income of small-scale rice farmers by 157 kg per hectare and $148, respectively."causal effects",HETEROGENEITY,IMPACT,NERICA,"potential outcomes","THE GAMBIA","AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY",MODELS,PROPENSITY-SCORE,WEST-AFRICANoneNone
WoSWOS:000344612400016An Evaluation of Community Perspectives and Contributing Factors to Missed Children During an Oral Polio Vaccination Campaign - Katsina State, NigeriaAchari, Panchanan,Ashenafi, Samra,Biya, Oladayo,Bwaka, Ado,Corkum, Melissa,Mackay, Susan,Mahoney, Frank,Michael, Charles A.,Newberry, David,Nguku, Patrick,Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U.,Ohuabunwo, Chima,OPV Campaign Missed Children Study,Storms, Aaron D.,Sule, Ada2014JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES210None10.1093/infdis/jiu288African Field Epidemiol Network AFENET, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention - USA, United Nations Children Fund UNICEF, US Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, WHONoneBackground. Unvaccinated children contribute to accumulation of susceptible persons and the continued transmission of wild poliovirus in Nigeria. In September 2012, the Expert Review Committee (ERC) on Polio Eradication and Routine Immunization in Nigeria recommended that social research be conducted to better understand why children are missed during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), also known as "immunization plus days (IPDs)" in Nigeria. Methods.aEuro integral Immediately following the SIA in October 2012, polio eradication partners and the government of Nigeria conducted a study to assess why children are missed. We used semistructured questionnaires and focus group discussions in 1 rural and 1 urban local government area (LGA) of Katsina State. Results.aEuro integral Participants reported that 61% of the children were not vaccinated because of poor vaccination team performance: either the teams did not visit the homes (25%) or the children were reported absent and not revisited (36%). This lack of access to vaccine was more frequently reported by respondents from scattered/nomadic communities (85%). In 1 out of 4 respondents (25%), refusal was the main reason their child was not vaccinated. The majority of respondents reported they would have consented to their children being vaccinated if the vaccine had been offered. Conclusions.aEuro integral Poor vaccination team performance is a major contributor to missed children during IPD campaigns. Addressing such operational deficiencies will help close the polio immunity gap and eradicate polio from Nigeria."missed children",non-compliance,OPV,"ORAL POLIO VACCINE","vaccine coverage"NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84940329574Prevalence, determinants and impact of unawareness about the health consequences of tobacco use among 17 929 school personnel in 29 African countriesAgaku I.T., Filippidis F.T.2014BMJ Open4810.1136/bmjopen-2014-005837Africa Tobacco Control Regional Initiative, Ogba-Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria; School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United KingdomAgaku, I.T., Africa Tobacco Control Regional Initiative, Ogba-Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria; Filippidis, F.T., School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United KingdomObjectives: To assess prevalence, determinants and impact of unawareness about the health consequences of tobacco use among school personnel in Africa. Design: Cross-sectional surveys. Setting: Twenty-nine African countries. Participants: Representative samples of school personnel from 29 African countries (n=17 929), using data from the 2006-2011 Global School Personnel Surveys. Outcome: We assessed if school personnel were aware of the following five facts about tobacco use: (1) tobacco use is addictive; (2) secondhand smoke exposure is harmful; (3) smoking causes lung cancer; (4) smoking causes heart disease and (5) smoking does not cause malaria. Using multivariate logistic regression, we measured the impact of unawareness of the health consequences of tobacco use on behaviour and attitudes towards tobacco control. Results: A median of 62.6% of school personnel were unaware of at least one health consequence of tobacco use. School personnel in countries with mandatory cigarette health warning labels had lower odds of being unaware of any health consequence of tobacco use than countries where health warning labels were not mandatory (adjusted OR [aOR]=0.51; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.71). A significant dose-response relationship was seen between being ignorant of 1; 2; or ≥3 tobacco use health consequences respectively (compared with not being ignorant of any), and the odds of the following outcomes: non-support of bans on tobacco industry sponsorship of school or extracurricular activities (aOR=1.47; 1.91; and 2.98); non-support of bans on all tobacco advertisements (aOR=1.24; 1.78; and 2.68) and non-support of policies prohibiting tobacco use by school personnel on campus (aOR=1.79; 4.45; and 4.56). Conclusions: Unawareness of the health consequences of tobacco use was associated with poor support for tobacco control policies. Intensified efforts are needed in African countries to warn about the dangers of tobacco use.Noneadministrative personnel; adult; advertizing; article; attitude to health; awareness; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; controlled study; cross-sectional study; Djibouti; Eritrea; female; Ghana; Guinea-Bissau; health care policy; health care survey; health impact assessment; heart disease; human; human experiment; Lesotho; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; lung cancer; malaria; Malawi; male; Mauritania; Mauritius; Morocco; Namibia; Niger; normal human; passive smoking; Rwanda; school; school personnel; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; smoking; Somalia; South Africa; Sudan; Swaziland; tobacco; tobacco industry; tobacco use; Togo; Tunisia; Uganda; Zimbabwe; adolescent; adverse effects; Africa; awareness; health; middle aged; prevalence; school; Tobacco Use Disorder; university; passive smoking; Adolescent; Adult; Africa; Awareness; Cross-Sectional Studies; Faculty; Female; Health; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Prevalence; Schools; Smoking; Tobacco Smoke Pollution; Tobacco Use DisorderNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84883821631Evaluation of open pollinated varieties of maize for resistance to the maize weevil in a controlled temperature and humidity laboratory in ZimbabweMasasa R.T., Setimela P.S., Chiteka Z.A.2013Euphytica193310.1007/s10681-013-0900-8Africa University, P.O. Box 1320, Mutare, Zimbabwe; International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), Mt. Pleasant, P. O. Box MP. 163, Harare, ZimbabweMasasa, R.T., Africa University, P.O. Box 1320, Mutare, Zimbabwe; Setimela, P.S., International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), Mt. Pleasant, P. O. Box MP. 163, Harare, Zimbabwe; Chiteka, Z.A., Africa University, P.O. Box 1320, Mutare, ZimbabweMaize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is one of the major maize storage pests among smallholder farmers in eastern and southern Africa (ESA), thereby, reducing total on-farm maize harvests. Experiments were conducted in a controlled temperature and humidity (CTH) laboratory at CIMMYT-Zimbabwe to compare the resistance of new maize open pollinated varieties (OPVs) from regional trials undertaken in ESA to maize weevils. Twenty maize OPVs were shelled and cleaned before being placed in a deep freezer at -20 °C to kill any pests and eggs in the grain from the field. Fifty grams of grain from each OPV was measured after 3 weeks and placed in the CTH lab for conditioning. The samples were placed in 250-mL jars with brass-screened lids and then infested with 32 maize weevils aged between 10 and 14 days. Data were collected for kernel hardness prior to weevil infestation, as kernel hardness to confer resistance to weevils. The components of maize weevil resistance considered were: median development period, Dobie index of susceptibility, weevil emergence, weevil mortality, weevil fecundity, grain weight loss, kernel damage and germination. There were highly significant differences in maize kernel characteristics and median development period (P &lt; 0.001) among the maize OPVs. There were significant differences in the number of damaged kernels, grain weight loss (P &lt; 0.01), weevil mortality and germination (P &lt; 0.05) among the maize OPVs. There were no significant differences found for weevil progeny emergence (F1), Dobie index of susceptibility and weevil fecundity, the last of which was positively and significantly correlated with kernel damage (P &lt; 0.001). The DIS was positively and significantly correlated with weight loss and F1 (P &lt; 0.001). The maize OPVs 07WEEVIL, Chitedze6, Strigoff126, Strigoff128 and ZM625 were found to be resistant; on the other hand, Strigoff140, Strigoff125, Strigoff133, VP05199 and VP074 varieties were highly susceptible. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.Controlled temperature and humidity laboratory; Kernel hardness; Open pollinated varieties; Sitophilus zeamais; Zea mays (L.)Curculionidae; Sitophilus zeamais; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84873552609Evaluation of sorghum genotypes compatibility with Fusarium oxysporum under Striga infestationRebeka G., Shimelis H., Laing M.D., Tongoona P., Mandefro N.2013Crop Science53210.2135/cropsci2012.02.0101African Centre for Crop Improvement, Univ. of Kwazulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Debrebirhan Agricultural Research Centre, Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 112, Debrebirhan, Ethiopia; Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, P.O. Box 62158, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaRebeka, G., African Centre for Crop Improvement, Univ. of Kwazulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, Debrebirhan Agricultural Research Centre, Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 112, Debrebirhan, Ethiopia; Shimelis, H., African Centre for Crop Improvement, Univ. of Kwazulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Laing, M.D., African Centre for Crop Improvement, Univ. of Kwazulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Tongoona, P., African Centre for Crop Improvement, Univ. of Kwazulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Mandefro, N., Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, P.O. Box 62158, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaCombined use of host resistance and Fusarium oxysporum as a biocontrol agent may provide enhanced management of Striga hermonthica (Delile) Benth. in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The objective of this study was to identify sorghum genotypes compatible with F. oxysporum and to determine the potential of this biocontrol agent for controlling Striga. Fifty sorghum genotypes were evaluated in the greenhouse in Striga-infested soils with and without inoculation by F. oxysporum. A supplementary laboratory study was conducted to investigate the growth and proliferation of F. oxysporum in the soil and sorghum roots. Data were recorded on crop growth parameters, Striga incidence and colonization, and the persistence of F. oxysporum in the soil and on plant roots, using samples taken at 45 and 60 d after planting. Inoculation with F. oxysporum significantly shortened days to maturity compared to noninoculated plants. plant height, biomass, panicle length, and seed yield per plant were higher in F. oxysporum treated pots. Striga emergence was delayed and vigor and overall incidence of the parasite was significantly reduced in Fusarium-treated pots. The number of Fusarium colony forming units obtained from soil and plant samples were significantly different between genotypes. Three principal components (pCs) contributed to 67.31% of the total variation among the genotypes. principal component 1, pC2, and pC3 contributed 27, 23, and 18%, respectively, to the total variance. Days to Striga emergence and Striga count and height correlated with pC1 while sorghum panicle length and plant height with pC2 and days to sorghum flowering and maturity with pC3. Thus, 12 promising sorghum lines were identified with farmer-preferred agronomic traits and with F. oxysporum compatibility. This result is valuable in the development of Striga control in sorghum through integration of host resistance and F. oxysporum inoculation. © Crop Science Society of America.NoneFusarium; Fusarium oxysporum; Sorghum bicolor; Striga; Striga hermonthicaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84904332448Combining Ability Analysis of Storage Root Yield and Related Traits in Cassava at the Seedling Evaluation Stage of BreedingTumuhimbise R., Shanahan P., Melis R., Kawuki R.2014Journal of Crop Improvement28410.1080/15427528.2014.923798African Centre for Crop Improvement, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; National Crops Resources Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Organization, Kampala, UgandaTumuhimbise, R., African Centre for Crop Improvement, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, National Crops Resources Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Organization, Kampala, Uganda; Shanahan, P., African Centre for Crop Improvement, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Melis, R., African Centre for Crop Improvement, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Kawuki, R., National Crops Resources Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Organization, Kampala, UgandaSelection of genotypes at the seedling evaluation stage of cassava breeding for advancement is largely based on high heritability traits. Moreover, combining ability and family data at this stage are rarely analyzed, leading to a loss of potential genetic information. This study was conducted to estimate the general combining ability (GCA) of nine cassava parents and specific combining ability (SCA) of their crosses for storage root yield (SRY) and related traits, as well as to determine the gene action controlling these traits. Thirty-six full-sib cassava families were developed from a 9 x 9 half-diallel mating design and evaluated in a 6 x 6 triple lattice design. The family mean squares (MS) were significantly different for all traits assessed, suggesting significant differences among families for all traits. The GCA MS were significant for all traits, whereas SCA MS were significant for only storage root number (SRN). Percentage sum of squares attributable to GCA accounted for >50.0% of variability expressed by families in five of the seven traits studied, indicating predominance of additive gene effects in controlling expression of most traits. Parent CT4 was the best general combiner for SRY, SRN, and resistance to cassava brown streak and mosaic diseases, while crosses NASE3 x CT2, CT5 x CT3, and NASE3 x CT4 had desirable SCA effects for SRY. Correlation analysis indicated a possibility of selecting for SRY and quality traits simultaneously. Simultaneous selection of these traits at the seedling generational stage of cassava breeding could reduce the cassava breeding cycle. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.additive gene effects; crosses; Manihot esculenta Crantz; non-additive gene effects; parentsNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84901443859Social Impact Assessment: The lesser sibling in the South African EIA process?Hildebrandt L., Sandham L.A.2014Environmental Impact Assessment Review48None10.1016/j.eiar.2014.04.003African Centre for Disaster Studies, Research Focus Area: Social Transformation, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa; Environmental Assessment Research Group, School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South AfricaHildebrandt, L., African Centre for Disaster Studies, Research Focus Area: Social Transformation, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa; Sandham, L.A., Environmental Assessment Research Group, School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South AfricaSocial Impact Assessment has developed as an integral but neglected component of EIA in South Africa since it became mandatory in 1997, and has therefore been referred to as the "orphan" or "lesser sibling" of EIA, as has SIA in the UK and the US. The aim of this paper is to test this claim by reviewing the quality of a sample of SIA reports, and also to establish whether there has been any improvement in quality following the introduction of revised EIA regulations in 2006. The results confirm that SIA can be called "the lesser sibling" due to the weak grades achieved in the quality review, but also reveal that there has been a slight and consistent improvement in quality, most likely driven by best practice considerations in the absence of prescriptive regulations for SIA. Suggestions and recommendations for addressing observed weakness in SIA performance are advanced. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.Effectiveness; EIA; Lesser sibling; Report quality review; Social impact assessment; South africaEnvironmental impact assessments; Planning; Effectiveness; EIA; Lesser sibling; Quality reviews; Social impact assessments; South Africa; Economic and social effects; best management practice; environmental impact assessment; literature review; performance assessment; social change; South Africa; United Kingdom; United StatesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84903559734The lover and another: A consideration of the efficacy of utilizing a performance poetry competition as vehicle for HIV/AIDS education among young adultsWilson D., Suter K.2013Matatu431NoneUniversity of KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaWilson, D., University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; Suter, K., University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa[No abstract available]NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84869393996Measuring government performance in realising child rights and child wellbeing: The approach and indicatorsMekonen Y.2010Child Indicators Research3210.1007/s12187-009-9047-5African Child Policy Forum, PO Box 1179, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaMekonen, Y., African Child Policy Forum, PO Box 1179, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaMost governments have an impressive record in their formal accession to the relevant international child rights treaties. But the extent of their commitment to children varies widely and the gap between promises and reality remains wide. In response, we, at The African Child Policy Forum, developed an approach to measure government performance in realising children's rights and ensuring their wellbeing. The approach quantitatively measures how well governments are doing in meeting their national and international obligations to children through the Child-friendliness Index. This composite index is used to assess and rank the performance of all 52 African governments using a common set of indicators. It provides an indication of how prioritised children's issues are in African governments' policy agendas, and the extent to which those agendas are child-friendly. According to the Child-friendliness Index ranking, Mauritius and Namibia emerged as the first and second most child-friendly governments, respectvely, in Africa. In addition to these two, the "most child-friendly governments" group consists of both countries with high economic performance as well as those with a low status. The analysis also showed that national wealth and a high level of development are not guarantees of child wellbeing. The results further indicated that change and progress towards ensuring child wellbeing are possible and feasible even at very low levels of development and calls for: (a) adoption and implementation of effective laws and policies; and (b) a policy of child budgeting that prioritises the needs of children. © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009.Child wellbeing; Child-friendliness; Governance; Government; Index; Performance; PolicyNoneNone
WoSWOS:000208106500007The cost and impact of male circumcision on HIV/AIDS in BotswanaBollinger, Lori A.,Busang, Lesego,Fidzani, Boga,Moeti, Themba,Musuka, Godfrey,Stover, John2009JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL AIDS SOCIETY12None10.1186/1758-2652-12-7African Comprehens HIV AIDS Partnership, Futures Inst, Natl AIDS Coordinating AgcyNoneThe HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to be a major issue facing Botswana, with overall adult HIV prevalence estimated to be 25.7 percent in 2007. This paper estimates the cost and impact of the draft Ministry of Health male circumcision strategy using the UNAIDS/WHO Decision-Makers' Programme Planning Tool (DMPPT). Demographic data and HIV prevalence estimates from the recent National AIDS Coordinating Agency estimations are used as input to the DMPPT to estimate the impact of scaling-up male circumcision on the HIV/AIDS epidemic. These data are supplemented by programmatic information from the draft Botswana National Strategy for Safe Male Circumcision, including information on unit cost and program goals. Alternative scenarios were developed in consultation with stakeholders. Results suggest that scaling-up adult and neonatal circumcision to reach 80% coverage by 2012 would result in averting almost 70,000 new HIV infections through 2025, at a total net cost of US$47 million across that same period. This results in an average cost per HIV infection averted of US$689. Changing the target year to 2015 and the scale-up pattern to a linear pattern results in a more evenly-distributed number of MCs required, and averts approximately 60,000 new HIV infections through 2025. Other scenarios explored include the effect of risk compensation and the impact of increasing coverage of general prevention interventions. Scaling-up safe male circumcision has the potential to reduce the impact of HIV/AIDS in Botswana significantly; program design elements such as feasible patterns of scale-up and inclusion of counselling are important in evaluating the overall success of the program.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-59049093597The impact of abandoned pastoral settlements on plant and nutrient succession in an African savanna ecosystemMuchiru A.N., Western D., Reid R.S.2009Journal of Arid Environments73310.1016/j.jaridenv.2008.09.018African Conservation Centre, P.O. Box 62844, Nairobi, Kenya; International Livestock Research Institute, P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya; Center for Collaborative Conservation, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United StatesMuchiru, A.N., African Conservation Centre, P.O. Box 62844, Nairobi, Kenya, International Livestock Research Institute, P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya; Western, D., African Conservation Centre, P.O. Box 62844, Nairobi, Kenya; Reid, R.S., International Livestock Research Institute, P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya, Center for Collaborative Conservation, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United StatesWe detail the impact of abandoned traditional settlements (or bomas) on plant and nutrient succession in the Amboseli ecosystem, southern Kenya, over the course of a century. Plant and soil data were sampled on and around abandoned settlements. The term, 'onsite', refers to the area within the perimeter fence, 'offsite' to the area up to 200 m beyond the fence. Herbaceous standing biomass onsite increased in the course of succession to peak at twice offsite levels within two decades. Biomass remained elevated for six decades then dropped to the background levels at the limit of sampling distance. Plant species richness onsite increased rapidly in the course of succession, then stabilized on older bomas. Species composition changed throughout succession, with pioneer herbs and grasses giving way to boma-edge species and woody vegetation later in succession. Soil nutrients, including carbon, nitrogen, magnesium and phosphorus, were highly elevated on abandoned settlements. The various nutrients declined at different rates during the course of plant succession. Potassium, phosphorus and magnesium levels remained at twice offsite levels for over a century, creating islands of high fertility and high plant biomass in the savanna landscape. We conclude that the perturbation caused by shifting nomadic settlements creates localized nutrient and plant diversity hotspots in savanna ecosystems that remain distinct from the surrounding savanna for decades, possibly centuries. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Biomass; Nutrient hotspots; Pastoralism; Patch dynamics; Species richness; Wildlifeabandoned land; biomass; pastoralism; patch dynamics; plant; savanna; soil nutrient; species richness; succession; Africa; East Africa; Kenya; Sub-Saharan Africa; PoaceaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-53549093601The linkages between FDI and domestic investment: Unravelling the developmental impact of foreign investment in sub-Saharan AfricaNdikumana L., Verick S.2008Development Policy Review26610.1111/j.1467-7679.2008.00430.xAfrican Development Bank, Tunis, Tunisia; UN Economic Commission for Africa and IZA, P.O. Box 3005, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaNdikumana, L., African Development Bank, Tunis, Tunisia; Verick, S., UN Economic Commission for Africa and IZA, P.O. Box 3005, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaWhile the recent increase in foreign direct investment (FDI) to African countries is a welcome development, the impact of these resource inflows on economic development remains in doubt. This article argues that a key channel is its effects on domestic factor markets, especially domestic investment, and analyses the two-way linkages between FDI and domestic investment in sub-Saharan Africa. The results suggest, first, that FDI crowds in domestic investment and, secondly, that private investment is a driver of FDI, implying that African countries will gain much from improving the domestic climate. Moreover, there are alternatives to resource endowments as a means of attracting foreign investment to non-resource-rich countries. © 2008 Overseas Development Institute.FDI; Privatein vestment; Public investment; Sub-Saharan Africacapital flow; economic development; economic impact; foreign direct investment; private sector; Africa; Sub-Saharan AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-60949700706The impact of translation activities on the development of African languages in a multilingual society: Duramazwi reMimhanzi as a case-studyMheta G.2005Lexikos15NoneNoneAfrican Languages Research Institute, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, ZimbabweMheta, G., African Languages Research Institute, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, ZimbabweThe article examines the impact of translation activities on the development of African languages in the multilingual Zimbabwean society. It analyses Shona musical terms created through translation processes and strategies such as borrowing, coining, compounding and derivation. Focus is on the way this ongoing term-creation is contributing to improving or hindering the development of Shona. The importance of such processes and strategies are discussed in the broader context of empowering African languages. The article also offers recommendations on how best to produce systematized terminology in music and other specialized fields.Borrowing; Coining; Compounding; Derivation; Development of African languages; Multilingual societies; Terminography; Terminology; TranslationNoneNone
WoSWOS:000207805600007How Insecurity Impacts on School Attendance and School Dropout among Urban Slum Children in NairobiIzugbara, Chimaraoke,Mudege, Netsayi N.,Zulu, Eliya M.2008INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONFLICT AND VIOLENCE21NoneAfrican Populat & Hlth Res CtrNoneThis paper discusses how perceptions of personal security can impact on school enrolment and attendance. It mainly focuses on threats of physical harm, crime, and community and domestic violence. These security fears can include insecurity that children suffer from as they go to school, maybe through the use of unsafe routes; insecurity that children feel at school; and the insecurity they suffer from in their homes. Although poverty can be a source and/or an indicator of insecurity, this paper does not focus solely on poverty as it is well covered elsewhere in the literature. The paper relies on qualitative data collected in Korogocho and Viwandani slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya between October and November 2004. The paper analyses data from individual interviews and focus group interviews and focuses on the narrative of slum dwellers on how insecurity impacts on educational attainment. The conclusion in this paper is that insecure neighbourhoods may have a negative impact on schooling. As a result policies that address insecurity in slum neighbourhoods can also improve school attendance and performance.NoneNoneNone
WoSWOS:000263321100001The impact of female employment on fertility in Dakar (Senegal) and Lome (Togo)Beguy, Donatien2009DEMOGRAPHIC RESEARCH20None10.4054/DemRes.2009.20.7African Populat & Hlth Res CtrNoneThis paper investigates the impact of female employment on fertility in two urban contexts in sub-Saharan Africa: Dakar ( Senegal) and Lome ( Togo). The hypothesis that wage employment and maternal obligations are incompatible seems to be corroborated in Lome, where women are likely to consider work as a legitimate alternative to their role as a mother or spouse. Being involved in economic activity is a real option and can therefore impact upon their reproductive life. By contrast, in Dakar working does not seem to hinder family formation. Greater involvement of women in the labour force is not the main reason for fertility decline in Dakar. These findings illustrate how important it is to consider social gender-specific roles in order to accurately determine the influence of female employment on reproductive life.,MODELS,"WOMENS EMPLOYMENT",WORKNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33745454177The impact of cultural practices on the spread of HIV/AIDS: An anthropological study of selected countries in sub-Sarahan AfricaNkwi P.N.2005Discovery and Innovation17SPEC. ISS.NoneAfrican Population Advisory Council, Nairobi, KenyaNkwi, P.N., African Population Advisory Council, Nairobi, KenyaAfrica is a continent plagued by population problems. These problems have no common solution because they occur in such culturally diverse populations. What works under some cultural conditions simply may not work under others. Deeply entrenched cultural practices have serious implications for the spread of HIV/AIDS, as well as other communicable diseases. In Africa, HIV is spread largely through high-risk, heterosexual behaviours. People know the consequences of these behaviours, but changing them requires knowing their causes, both cultural and material. Community-based research by African Population Advisory Council (APAC) finds that cultural practices such as widow inheritance (the levirate), early marriage, polygamy, bodily scarifications, funeral sexual rites, concubinage, sexual initiation of girls, forced remarriage of widows, and various forms of genital cutting have enhanced, and continue to enhance, the spread of HIV/AIDS. Dealing with these practices must be part of an integrated policy on confronting the HIV/AIDS pandemic.NoneHuman immunodeficiency virusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84919644294Examining the impact of age on literacy achievement among grade 6 primary school pupils in KenyaHungi N., Ngware M., Abuya B.2014International Journal of Educational Development39None10.1016/j.ijedudev.2014.06.003African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), KenyaHungi, N., African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), Kenya; Ngware, M., African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), Kenya; Abuya, B., African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), KenyaThe main objective of this paper is to investigate the optimal age category at which primary school pupils from low income families perform their best in literacy at grade 6 level. Age is a potential learning barrier because of its link to cognitive development as well as its influence on interactions between pupils within classrooms. The sample consisted of 7041 grade 6 pupils, spread in 226 schools across six major urban slums in Kenya. Using descriptive statistics, we examine the distribution of grade 6 pupils' age. We then examine incidences of over-age pupils and incidences of grade repetition across various subgroups of pupils disaggregated by factors such as sex, wealth background, grade repetition, school type and geographical location. Finally, using multilevel techniques, we estimate the pupil age category that has greatest positive impact on literacy achievement at grade 6 after controlling selected pupil and school factors.Irrespective of pupil sex, grade repetition, wealth background, school type or geographical location the results indicate that grade 6 pupils perform their best in literacy when they are in the age category ranging from 10 years 6 months to 11 years 5 months. The results also indicate that, in general, younger pupils were likely to achieve better than older pupil in literacy regardless of the background under consideration. Implications of the findings for policy and practice as well as further research are outlined. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.Grade repetition; Kenya education; Literacy achievement; Over-age pupils; Pupil age; Underage pupilsNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84937637591Randomized impact evaluation of education interventions: experiences and lessons from a reading to learn intervention in East AfricaNgware M.W., Abuya B., Oketch M., Admassu K., Mutisya M., Musyoka P.2015International Journal of Research and Method in Education38410.1080/1743727X.2014.965252African Population and Health Research Center, APHRC Campus, 2nd Floor, Manga Close Off Kirawa Road, PO Box 10787-00100, Nairobi, KenyaNgware, M.W., African Population and Health Research Center, APHRC Campus, 2nd Floor, Manga Close Off Kirawa Road, PO Box 10787-00100, Nairobi, Kenya; Abuya, B., African Population and Health Research Center, APHRC Campus, 2nd Floor, Manga Close Off Kirawa Road, PO Box 10787-00100, Nairobi, Kenya; Oketch, M., African Population and Health Research Center, APHRC Campus, 2nd Floor, Manga Close Off Kirawa Road, PO Box 10787-00100, Nairobi, Kenya; Admassu, K., African Population and Health Research Center, APHRC Campus, 2nd Floor, Manga Close Off Kirawa Road, PO Box 10787-00100, Nairobi, Kenya; Mutisya, M., African Population and Health Research Center, APHRC Campus, 2nd Floor, Manga Close Off Kirawa Road, PO Box 10787-00100, Nairobi, Kenya; Musyoka, P., African Population and Health Research Center, APHRC Campus, 2nd Floor, Manga Close Off Kirawa Road, PO Box 10787-00100, Nairobi, KenyaThis paper presents the experiences and lessons learnt during the design and implementation of the randomized impact evaluation (IE) of a reading to learn (RtL) intervention in early primary grades. The study was to assess the impact of RtL on literacy and numeracy among pupils in low-performing districts in East Africa. The intervention was designed in a way that in each country one district implemented an intervention package that included teacher training, and teaching and learning materials; while the other district implemented this same package with an additional parental involvement component. Baseline data were collected in mid-2009 in Grades 1 and 2, and in 2010 for the incoming Grade 1. The endline data were collected in mid-2011. A total of 119 treatments and 110 control schools participated in the study. The randomized design provided an opportunity to attribute causality and also qualitatively establish pathways through which the intervention impacted on learning. The paper provides lessons learnt and demonstrates how the challenges faced during the evaluation were addressed. Additionally, the paper shows how IE was utilized to provide robust evidence of what works thus enabling policy-makers to make decisions on sustainability and scale-up of education interventions. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.early grades; impact evaluation; Kenya; learning; literacy; numeracy; reading; UgandaNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84927591622Temperature Variation and heat wave and cold spell impacts on years of life lost among the urban poor population of Nairobi, KenyaEgondi T., Kyobutungi C., Rocklöv J.2015International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health12310.3390/ijerph120302735African Population and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 10787-00100, Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, Umeå, SwedenEgondi, T., African Population and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 10787-00100, Nairobi, Kenya, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Kyobutungi, C., African Population and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 10787-00100, Nairobi, Kenya; Rocklöv, J., Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, Umeå, SwedenWeather extremes are associated with adverse health outcomes, including mortality. Studies have investigated the mortality risk of temperature in terms of excess mortality, however, this risk estimate may not be appealing to policy makers assessing the benefits expected for any interventions to be adopted. To provide further evidence of the burden of extreme temperatures, we analyzed the effect of temperature on years of life lost (YLL) due to all-cause mortality among the population in two urban informal settlements. YLL was generated based on the life expectancy of the population during the study period by applying a survival analysis approach. Association between daily maximum temperature and YLL was assessed using a distributed lag nonlinear model. In addition, cold spell and heat wave effects, as defined according to different percentiles, were investigated. The exposure-response curve between temperature and YLL was J-shaped, with the minimum mortality temperature (MMT) of 26 °C. An average temperature of 21 °C compared to the MMT was associated with an increase of 27.4 YLL per day (95% CI, 2.7–52.0 years). However, there was no additional effect for extended periods of cold spells, nor did we find significant associations between YLL to heat or heat waves. Overall, increased YLL from all-causes were associated with cold spells indicating the need for initiating measure for reducing health burdens. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Cold spell; Cold-related mortality; Heat wave; Heat-related mortality; Temperatureclimate effect; environmental factor; health geography; health impact; informal settlement; mortality; survival; temperature gradient; urban population; Article; cause of death; cold injury; cold spell; controlled study; environmental impact; environmental monitoring; environmental temperature; heat wave; human; Kenya; life expectancy; mortality; outcome assessment; physical phenomena; social status; survival; temperature sensitivity; temperature variation; thermal analysis; urban area; weather; Kenya; Nairobi [Kenya]; Nairobi [Nairobi (CNT)]None
Scopus2-s2.0-65949110577The impact of female employment on fertility in Dakar (Senegal) and Lomé (Togó)Beguy D.2009Demographic Research20None10.4054/DemRes.2009.20.7African Population and Health Research Center, Shelter Afrique Center, Longonot Road, Upper Hill, 00100 - GPO Nairobi, KenyaBeguy, D., African Population and Health Research Center, Shelter Afrique Center, Longonot Road, Upper Hill, 00100 - GPO Nairobi, KenyaThis paper investigates the impact of female employment on fertility in two urban contexts in sub-Saharan Africa: Dakar (Senegal) and Lomé (Togo). The hypothesis that wage employment and maternal obligations are incompatible seems to be corroborated in Lomé, where women are likely to consider work as a legitimate alternative to their role as a mother or spouse. Being involved in economic activity is a real option and can therefore impact upon their reproductive life. By contrast, in Dakar working does not seem to hinder family formation. Greater involvement of women in the labour force is not the main reason for fertility decline in Dakar. These findings illustrate how important it is to consider social gender-specific roles in order to accurately determine the influence of female employment on reproductive life.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84856564960Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: First evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis ControlTekle A.H., Elhassan E., Isiyaku S., Amazigo U.V., Bush S., Noma M., Cousens S., Abiose A., Remme J.H.2012Parasites and Vectors5110.1186/1756-3305-5-2822313631African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control, WHO/APOC, P. O. Box: 01 B.P. 549, Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso; SightSavers Regional Office for Africa, Dakar, Senegal; Sightsavers Nigeria Country Office, 1 Golf Course Road, Kaduna, Nigeria; No. 8 Somto Anugwom Close. Ekulu West, G.R.A. Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria; Sightsavers, PO Box 181909, Airport, Accra, Ghana; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Sightcare International, Secretariat Main Office, P.O. Box 29771, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; APOC, 120 Rue des Campanules, 01210 Ornex, FranceTekle, A.H., African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control, WHO/APOC, P. O. Box: 01 B.P. 549, Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso; Elhassan, E., SightSavers Regional Office for Africa, Dakar, Senegal; Isiyaku, S., Sightsavers Nigeria Country Office, 1 Golf Course Road, Kaduna, Nigeria; Amazigo, U.V., No. 8 Somto Anugwom Close. Ekulu West, G.R.A. Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria; Bush, S., Sightsavers, PO Box 181909, Airport, Accra, Ghana; Noma, M., African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control, WHO/APOC, P. O. Box: 01 B.P. 549, Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso; Cousens, S., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Abiose, A., Sightcare International, Secretariat Main Office, P.O. Box 29771, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Remme, J.H., APOC, 120 Rue des Campanules, 01210 Ornex, FranceBackground. Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled as a public health problem by annual mass drug administration of ivermectin, but it was not known if ivermectin treatment in the long term would be able to achieve elimination of onchocerciasis infection and interruption of transmission in endemic areas in Africa. A recent study in Mali and Senegal has provided the first evidence of elimination after 15-17 years of treatment. Following this finding, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has started a systematic evaluation of the long-term impact of ivermectin treatment projects and the feasibility of elimination in APOC supported countries. This paper reports the first results for two onchocerciasis foci in Kaduna, Nigeria. Methods. In 2008, an epidemiological evaluation using skin snip parasitological diagnostic method was carried out in two onchocerciasis foci, in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area (LGA), and in the Kauru and Lere LGAs of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The survey was undertaken in 26 villages and examined 3,703 people above the age of one year. The result was compared with the baseline survey undertaken in 1987. Results. The communities had received 15 to 17 years of ivermectin treatment with more than 75% reported coverage. For each surveyed community, comparable baseline data were available. Before treatment, the community prevalence of O. volvulus microfilaria in the skin ranged from 23.1% to 84.9%, with a median prevalence of 52.0%. After 15 to 17 years of treatment, the prevalence had fallen to 0% in all communities and all 3,703 examined individuals were skin snip negative. Conclusions. The results of the surveys confirm the finding in Senegal and Mali that ivermectin treatment alone can eliminate onchocerciasis infection and probably disease transmission in endemic foci in Africa. It is the first of such evidence for the APOC operational area. © 2012 Tekle et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.APOC; elimination; epidemiological evaluation; Kaduna Nigeria; Onchocerciasisivermectin; adolescent; adult; article; child; eradication therapy; feasibility study; female; human; infant; infection control; major clinical study; male; Microfilaria; Nigeria; nonhuman; Onchocerca volvulus; onchocerciasis; preschool child; prevalence; school child; Adolescent; Adult; Animals; Antiparasitic Agents; Child; Child, Preschool; Disease Eradication; Female; Humans; Infant; Ivermectin; Male; Middle Aged; Nigeria; Onchocerca volvulus; Onchocerciasis; Prevalence; Public Health; Young AdultNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84944315308Impact of climate change on brackish water aquaculture development in the coastal areas of Niger DeltaAkinrotimi O.A., Edun O.M.2015International Journal of Agricultural Research10210.3923/ijar.2015.44.53African Regional Aquaculture Center, Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, P.M.B. 5122, Buguma, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, NigeriaAkinrotimi, O.A., African Regional Aquaculture Center, Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, P.M.B. 5122, Buguma, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria; Edun, O.M., African Regional Aquaculture Center, Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, P.M.B. 5122, Buguma, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, NigeriaThe issue of climate change has generated a lot of concern among the general public in Niger Delta region in recent time. It has been described in different ways by many people based on their views, perception and understanding. However, little considerations have been given to the impact of climate change on brackish water aquaculture in the coastal areas of Niger Delta. This study therefore, review critically, based on existing literature and field experience, the causes of climate change, impact of climate change on aquaculture production such as: increase in temperature, flooding of ponds, increase in water turbidity, heavy siltation of pond bottom, introduction of new species, collapse of farms infrastructure and fluctuations in salinity levels. Also, various adaptation and mitigation strategies that will ameliorate the impact of climate change in aquaculture operations, namely: reduction in human activities that are inimical to stable climate, selection of good site suitable for fish farming, provision of shading materials for fish cultured in tanks, raising of pond dykes, good management practices and improvement of monitoring and early warning systems are explicitly elucidated. As these strategies will go a long way in minimizing the impact of this menace, in the brackish water zone of the region. Moreover, efforts should be made by relevant institutions and agencies to come up with coordinated plans and policies that will reduce the effects of climate change on brackish water aquaculture in the coastal areas of Niger Delta. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc.Climate; Coastal environment; Fish; Fish farming; Niger DeltaNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84949806808The turn of the south? Social and economic impacts of mega-events in India, Brazil and South AfricaMaharaj B.2015Local Economy30810.1177/0269094215604318University of Kwazulu-Natal, South AfricaMaharaj, B., University of Kwazulu-Natal, South AfricaIn the neoliberal era, competing to host global sporting events has become a prominent urban promotion strategy, and with a few exceptions, the scholarly focus has been on the western experience. In contrast, this paper focuses on the south experience with specific reference to the 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi, the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa and the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. A common argument is that such sporting events provide global marketing opportunities that can attract foreign investment, which may serve as catalysts for development. A key goal is to promote the status and power of the post-colonial nation-state (although ironically ceding sovereignty to entities like FIFA for the duration of events). While there are some benefits, especially in terms of infrastructure development, the Indian, Brazilian and South African experience suggests that the privileged tend to benefit at the expense of the poor, and socio-economic inequalities were exacerbated. These points are illustrated in this paper with reference to evictions, loss of livelihoods and violations of human rights. Disturbingly, the cost of constructing new sports’ facilities and associated infrastructure escalated phenomenally from the original bid-document estimates, without any public oversight, and some are destined to be white elephants. The mega-events were largely organised and funded by the governments in consultation with the private sector, with little or no accountability to citizens, although such decisions had major implications in terms of the diversion of public spending priorities from more urgent social needs such as housing, healthcare and education. © 2015, © The Author(s) 2015.evictions; legacy; livelihoods; mega-events; South citiesNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-8744262025Impact assessment of a community-based animal health project in Dollo Ado and Dollo Bay districts, southern EthiopiaAdmassu B., Nega S., Haile T., Abera B., Hussein A., Catley A.2005Tropical Animal Health and Production37110.1023/B:TROP.0000047932.70025.44African Union/Interafrican Bur. A., PO Box 30786, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya, Kenya; Veterinary Services Team, Ministry of Agriculture, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Ethiopia; Natl. Animal Health Research Centre, Sebeta, Ethiopia, Ethiopia; Action Contre la Faim, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Ethiopia; Regional Bureau of Agriculture, Somali National Regional State, Ethiopia, EthiopiaAdmassu, B., African Union/Interafrican Bur. A., PO Box 30786, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya, Kenya; Nega, S., Veterinary Services Team, Ministry of Agriculture, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Ethiopia; Haile, T., Natl. Animal Health Research Centre, Sebeta, Ethiopia, Ethiopia; Abera, B., Action Contre la Faim, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Ethiopia; Hussein, A., Regional Bureau of Agriculture, Somali National Regional State, Ethiopia, Ethiopia; Catley, A., African Union/Interafrican Bur. A., PO Box 30786, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya, KenyaParticipatory methods were used to assess the impact of a community-based animal health worker (CAHW) project in two remote pastoralist districts of Ethiopia. The CAHW project had been operating for 3 years at the time of the assessment. Participatory methods were standardized and repeated with 10 groups of informants in the project area. The assessment showed significant reductions in disease impact for diseases handled by CAHWs compared with diseases not handled by CAHWs. In camels, there was significant reduction (p<0.001) in the impact of mange, trypanosomosis, helminthosis, anthrax and non-specific respiratory disease. In cattle there was a signficant reduction (p<0.001) in the impact of blackleg, anthrax and helminthosis. In sheep and goats there was a sign reduction (p<0.001) in the impact of mange, helminthosis, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, orf and non-specific diarrhoea. In order of importance, these reductions in disease impact were attributed to (1) increased use of modern veterinary services provided by CAHWs, (2) vaccination campaigns involving CAHWs, (3) good rainfall and availability of grazing and (4) decreased herd mobility. Decreased herd mobility was also associated with negative impact of tick infestation. Community-based animal health workers were considered to be highly accessible, available, affordable and trustworthy relative to other service providers. They were also perceived to be suppliers of a good quality service. Specific types of positive impact attributed to CAHW activities were increases in milk, meat, income and draught power.community-based animal health worker; Ethiopia; impact assessment; participatory methodsrain; animal; animal disease; animal husbandry; animal welfare; article; community care; developing country; domestic animal; Ethiopia; health care quality; human; methodology; organization and management; paramedical personnel; standard; vaccination; veterinary medicine; Animal Husbandry; Animal Technicians; Animal Welfare; Animals; Animals, Domestic; Community Networks; Developing Countries; Ethiopia; Humans; Quality of Health Care; Rain; Vaccination; Veterinary Medicine; Acari; Animalia; Anthrax; Bos taurus; Camelidae; Capra; Capra hircus; Mycoplasma; Ovis ariesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-66049163407Impact assessment of the use of insecticide-treated bed nets on parasitaemia and anaemia for malaria control in children, Ogun State, NigeriaAdah P.O., Mafiana C.F., Sam-Wobo S.O.2009Public Health123510.1016/j.puhe.2008.10.017Africare Nigeria, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; Parasitology Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, PMB 2240, Abeokuta 110001, NigeriaAdah, P.O., Africare Nigeria, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; Mafiana, C.F., Parasitology Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, PMB 2240, Abeokuta 110001, Nigeria; Sam-Wobo, S.O., Parasitology Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, PMB 2240, Abeokuta 110001, Nigeria[No abstract available]Noneinsecticide; anemia; child; disease control; malaria; parasite prevalence; social impact assessment; anemia; article; bed net; child; controlled study; female; human; infant; major clinical study; malaria; malaria control; male; Nigeria; parasite prevalence; parasitemia; Plasmodium falciparum; preschool child; sex difference; urban rural difference; Anemia; Animals; Bedding and Linens; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Infant; Insecticides; Malaria; Male; Mosquito Control; Nigeria; Parasitemia; Plasmodium falciparum; Seasons; Africa; Nigeria; Ogun; Sub-Saharan Africa; West AfricaNone
WoSWOS:000303784900011Impacts of e-health on the outcomes of care in low- and middle-income countries: where do we go from here?Fraser, Hamish S. F.,Khoja, Shariq R.,Lun, K. C.,Mechael, Patricia N.,Moura, Lincoln A., Jr.,Piette, John D.,Powell, John2012BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION90510.2471/BLT.11.099069Aga Khan University, Columbia University, Harvard University, National University of Singapore, University of Warwick, Assis Mouse eHlth, Vet Affairs Ann Arbor Ctr Clin Management Res & D"Fraser, Hamish S. F.: Harvard University","Khoja, Shariq R.: Aga Khan University","Lun, K. C.: National University of Singapore","Mechael, Patricia N.: Columbia University","Powell, John: University of Warwick",E-health encompasses a diverse set of informatics tools that have been designed to improve public health and health care. Little information is available on the impacts of e-health programmes, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We therefore conducted a scoping review of the published and non-published literature to identify data on the effects of e-health on health outcomes and costs. The emphasis was on the identification of unanswered questions for future research, particularly on topics relevant to low- and middle-income countries. Although e-health tools supporting clinical practice have growing penetration globally, there is more evidence of benefits for tools that support clinical decisions and laboratory information systems than for those that support picture archiving and communication systems. Community information systems for disease surveillance have been implemented successfully in several low- and middle-income countries. Although information on outcomes is generally lacking, a large project in Brazil has documented notable impacts on health-system efficiency. Meta-analyses and rigorous trials have documented the benefits of text messaging for improving outcomes such as patients' self-care. Automated telephone monitoring and self-care support calls have been shown to improve some outcomes of chronic disease management, such as glycaemia and blood pressure control, in low- and middle-income countries. Although large programmes for e-health implementation and research are being conducted in many low- and middle-income countries, more information on the impacts of e-health on outcomes and costs in these settings is still needed.,BEHAVIOR-CHANGE,"DISEASE PREVENTION",FOLLOW-UP,IMPLEMENTATION,"LABORATORY INFORMATION-SYSTEM",RANDOMIZED-TRIAL,SELF-CARE,"SHORT-MESSAGE SERVICE",SOUTH-AFRICA,SUPPORTNoneNone
WoSWOS:000313561800010Conceptual Framework for Development of Comprehensive e-Health Evaluation ToolDurrani, Hammad,Khoja, Shariq,Piryani, Usha,Sajwani, Afroz,Scott, Richard E.2013TELEMEDICINE AND E-HEALTH19110.1089/tmj.2012.0073Aga Khan University, University of Calgary"Piryani, Usha: Aga Khan University","Sajwani, Afroz: Aga Khan University",Objective: The main objective of this study was to develop an e-health evaluation tool based on a conceptual framework including relevant theories for evaluating use of technology in health programs. This article presents the development of an evaluation framework for e-health programs. Materials and Methods: The study was divided into three stages: Stage 1 involved a detailed literature search of different theories and concepts on evaluation of e-health, Stage 2 plotted e-health theories to identify relevant themes, and Stage 3 developed a matrix of evaluation themes and stages of e-health programs. Results: The framework identifies and defines different stages of e-health programs and then applies evaluation theories to each of these stages for development of the evaluation tool. This framework builds on existing theories of health and technology evaluation and presents a conceptual framework for developing an e-health evaluation tool to examine and measure different factors that play a definite role in the success of e-health programs. The framework on the horizontal axis divides e-health into different stages of program implementation, while the vertical axis identifies different themes and areas of consideration for e-health evaluation. Conclusions: The framework helps understand various aspects of e-health programs and their impact that require evaluation at different stages of the life cycle. The study led to the development of a new and comprehensive e-health evaluation tool, named the Khoja-Durrani-Scott Framework for e-Health Evaluation.e-health,evaluation,FRAMEWORK,OUTCOMES,THEORIES,INFORMATION-SYSTEMS,NEED,SERVICESNoneNone
WoSWOS:000287817800001Parental control and monitoring of young people's sexual behaviour in rural North-Western Tanzania: Implications for sexual and reproductive health interventionsFenwick, Angela,Stones, William,Urassa, Mark,Wamoyi, Joyce,Zaba, Basia2011BMC PUBLIC HEALTH11None10.1186/1471-2458-11-106Aga Khan University, University of London, University of Southampton, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine"Fenwick, Angela: University of Southampton",Background: Parenting through control and monitoring has been found to have an effect on young people's sexual behaviour. There is a dearth of literature from sub-Saharan Africa on this subject. This paper examines parental control and monitoring and the implications of this on young people's sexual decision making in a rural setting in North-Western Tanzania. Methods: This study employed an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved 17 focus group discussions and 46 in-depth interviews conducted with young people aged 14-24 years and parents/carers of young people within this age-group. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVIVO 7 software. Results: Parents were motivated to control and monitor their children's behaviour for reasons such as social respectability and protecting them from undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. Parental control and monitoring varied by family structure, gender, schooling status, a young person's contribution to the economic running of the family and previous experience of a SRH outcome such as unplanned pregnancy. Children from single parent families reported that they received less control compared to those from both parent families. While a father's presence in the family seemed important in controlling the activities of young people, a mother's did not have a similar effect. Girls especially those still schooling received more supervision compared to boys. Young women who had already had unplanned pregnancy were not supervised as closely as those who hadn't. Parents employed various techniques to control and monitor their children's sexual activities. Conclusions: Despite parents making efforts to control and monitor their young people's sexual behaviour, they are faced with several challenges (e. g. little time spent with their children) which make it difficult for them to effectively monitor them. There is a need for interventions such as parenting skills building that might enable parents to improve their relationships with children. This would equip parents with the appropriate skills for positive guidance and monitoring of their children and avoid inappropriate parenting behaviour. As much as parents focus their attention on their school going daughters, there is a need to also remember the out-of-school young people as they are also vulnerable to adverse SRH outcomes.,ADOLESCENCE,AFRICAN-AMERICAN,DESIGN,FAMILY,HIV,MOTHERS,"RISK BEHAVIORS"NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84945410130Diabetes: knowledge, psychosocial impact, and attitude of patientsAchigbu E.O., Oputa R.N., Achigbu K.I., Ahuche I.U.2015International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries35None10.1007/s13410-015-0368-2Department of Ophthalmology, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Department of Paediatrics, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, NigeriaAchigbu, E.O., Department of Ophthalmology, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Oputa, R.N., Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Achigbu, K.I., Department of Paediatrics, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Ahuche, I.U., Department of Ophthalmology, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, NigeriaThe scourge of diabetes has been increasing worldwide with a tendency to double, from 176 to 370 million people by 2030 according to WHO prediction. In Nigeria, only 20 % of the 3.2 million estimated to have diabetes are aware of it. Among those already diagnosed, about 50 % have poor glycaemic control attributable to poor diabetes self-management despite effective medication. Diabetes self-management in addition to medical therapy, lifestyle modification and education are key to the management of diabetes. This study aims to determine the knowledge, psychosocial impact and attitude of people with diabetes to diabetes with a view to make recommendations for a more encompassing patient-based management of diabetes. A cross-sectional study using a structured questionnaire in the endocrinology clinic of the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, interviewed 104 consecutive newly diagnosed patients with diabetes who willingly consented to the study. One hundred and four patients with an equal male to female ratio were interviewed. The 41–60-year (78.8 %) age group and traders (66.3 %) constituted the greatest number. Majority (58.7 %) heard of diabetes prior to their diagnosis, but many (41.3 %) did not. This knowledge was significantly associated with occupation (0.022). Many (84.6 %) were willing to disclose diagnosis to family and friends as well as join a support group (61.5 %). But, the major reason for this inclination was wrong. Many never heard of diabetes prior to their diagnosis. In spite of being aware, a diagnosis of diabetes is associated with different emotional responses and attitudes including willingness to disclose their diagnosis and get support. Appropriate treatment based on current medical knowledge, self-management education and development of diabetic support groups is recommended. © 2015, Research Society for Study of Diabetes in India.Attitude; Diabetes; Knowledge; PsychologyNoneNone
WoSWOS:000265567000026The univariate and bivariate impact of HIV/AIDS on the quality of life: A cross sectional study in the Hubei Province-Central ChinaBapumiia, Mustaafa,Jackson, Felicia Williams,Kobelo, Theresia M.,Liu, LI,Mkangara, Ommari Baaliy,Mweri, Saumu Tobbi,Nie, Shaofa,Wang, Chongjian,Xiang, Hao,Xu, Yihua2009JOURNAL OF HUAZHONG UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-MEDICAL SCIENCES29210.1007/s11596-009-0226-xAgakhan Hosp, Hondros Coll, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Huazhong Univ Sci & TechnolNoneThis study is aimed to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) for individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Hubei province-central China by using WHOQOL-BREF instrument (Chinese version). One hundred and thirty six respondents (HIV/AIDS individuals) attending out-patient department of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Chinese CDC) were administered a structured questionnaire developed by investigators. QOL was evaluated by using WHOQOL-BREF instrument (Chinese version). The results showed that the mean score of overall QOL on a scale of 0-100 was 25.8. The mean scores in 4 domains of QOL on a scale of 0-100 were 82.9 (social domain), 27.5 (psychological domain), 17.7 (physical domain) and 11.65 (environmental domain). The significant difference of QOL was noted in the score of physical domain between asymptomatic (14.6) and early symptomatic individuals (12) (P=0.014), and between patients with early symptoms (12) and those with AIDS (10.43) (P &lt; 0.001). QOL in psychological domain was significantly lower in early symptomatic (12.1) (P &lt; 0.05) and AIDS patients (12.4) (P &lt; 0.006) than in asymptomatic individuals (14.2). The difference in QOL scores in the psychological domain was significant with respect to the income of patients (P &lt; 0.048) and educational status (P &lt; 0.037). Significantly better QOL scores in the physical domain (P &lt; 0.040) and environmental domain (P &lt; 0.017) were noted with respect to the occupation of the patients. Patients with family support had better QOL scores in environmental domain. In our research, QOL for HIV/AIDS individuals was associated with education, occupation, income, family support and clinical categories of the patients. It was concluded that WHOQOL-BREF Chinese version was successfully used in the evaluation of QOL of HIV/AIDS individuals in Chinese population and proved to be a reliable and useful tool.AIDS,BIVARIATE,"CENTRAL CHINA",HIV,IMPACT,univariate,"WHOQOL-Bref Chinese version",DISEASE,"SOCIAL SUPPORT"NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84904244528Development and performance evaluation of a motorized fish smoking kilnAshaolu Michael O.2014Journal of Aquaculture Research and Development5310.4172/2155-9546.1000225Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Department, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu Lagos, NigeriaAshaolu Michael, O., Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Department, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu Lagos, NigeriaFish smoking is a major activity in the fish industry. In most riverside areas in Nigeria, where fish business is very prominent smoking operations are mostly carried out manually and under unhygienic conditions. The concept of the smoking kiln development is to ease the drudgery associated with traditional methods (drum smoking) in the riverside communities. In this study, a motorized fish smoking kiln was designed, fabricated with locally available materials. The smoking process is based on natural convection of heated air with temperature ranging between 60°C and 110°C. The fish smoking kiln has an overall dimension of1600×1220×70 mm and uses charcoal as the main source of energy. The average capacity of the smoking chamber is 120 kg. The performance test was conducted to ascertain its performance. The result showed that moisture content was reduced from 80% to 30% with an average smoking time of 60 mins. The study concluded that fishes smoked by the kiln have a longer shelf life during storage when compared with traditional (drum) method, due to hot smoking temperature which reduces moisture faster. The overall average percentage weight loss obtained for three species tested are as follows: Etholmosa Fimbriata (sawa)-36%, Scombridae mackerel (37%) and Clarias gariepinus (cat fish) -45%. © 2014 Ashaolu Michael O.Charcoal; Fish; Motorized; Shelf-life; Smoking kiln; TemperatureNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84926201819Feed formulation and feeding impact on the performance of dairy cows in Central Highland of EthiopiaAssaminew S., Ashenafi M.2015Livestock Research for Rural Development274NoneAgricultural College, ATVET, Holetta, Ethiopia; College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, EthiopiaAssaminew, S., Agricultural College, ATVET, Holetta, Ethiopia; Ashenafi, M., College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, EthiopiaThe study was conducted on private urban and periurban dairy production systems around Holetta, Central Highland of Ethiopia, with the objective to assess the existing feed formulation and feeding of crossbred dairy cows in terms of nutrient supply in relation to the performances. Structured questionnaire and laboratory analysis for home-mixed concentrate were employed to generate data from a total of 60 dairy farms. The average of home-mixed concentrates chemical composition for urban and periurban farm, respectively, were 209 and 224 g/kg dry matter (DM) of crude protein (CP), 3.85 and 5.28 g/kg DM calcium (Ca) and 10.6 and 9.74 g/kg DM of phosphorus (P). The nutrients supplied per kg of milk through home-mixed concentrates for urban and periurban crossbred dairy cows, respectively, were 92.6 and 93.5 g CP, 1.70 and 2.21 g Ca and 4.69 and 4.04 g P. The average daily milk yield (ADMY)/cow/day, calving interval(CI) and days open(DO) for urban and periurban farms, respectively, were 11.1 and 9.28 kg, 14.3 and 15.4 months, and 152 and 176 days. Significant variations in terms of nutrient supply through home-mixed concentrate between the production subsystems of the study site existed. Thus, big variations in nutrient supply and imbalances resulted in an apparently low performance of dairy animals in terms of ADMY, CI and DO as compared to what was expected. © 2015, Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.Calving interval; Days open; Home-mixed concentrates; Milk yield; Periurban; UrbanAnimaliaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-36448939790Reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows in Eastern Lowlands of EthiopiaMureda E., Zeleke Z.M.2007Livestock Research for Rural Development1911NoneAgricultural College, ATVET, Holleta, Ethiopia; Bair Dar University, P.O.Box 1866, Bahir Dar, EthiopiaMureda, E., Agricultural College, ATVET, Holleta, Ethiopia; Zeleke, Z.M., Bair Dar University, P.O.Box 1866, Bahir Dar, EthiopiaA study was conducted to assess reproductive performances of 304 crossbred (Holstein Friesian x Zebu) dairy cows kept in small (SSDP), medium (MSDP) and large scale dairy production (LSDP) systems in Eastern lowland of Ethiopia. The overall mean age at first service (AFS) and at first calving (AFC) across all production systems were 25.6 (n=283) and 36.2 (n=210) months, respectively. The AFS and AFC were significantly longer (P≤0.05) in the MSDP than in the SSDP and LSDP systems. The overall mean intervals from calving to first service (CFSI) and from calving to conception (CCI) were 162.5 (n=149) and 218.5 (n=108) days, respectively. The crossbred cows under SSDP management system had shorter (P≤0.05) CFSI and CCI than those managed under MSDP and LSDP. The CFSI and CCI were the longest (P≤0.05) for the first and beyond 6th parities as compared to 2nd, 3rd and 4th parities. The mean calving interval (CI) across all production systems was 17.8 (n=155) months. Cows managed under SSDP system had significantly shorter (P≤0.05) CI as compared to cows managed under MSDP and LSDP. The overall pregnancy, calving and conception to first service rates were 72.8%, 63.4% and 45.9%, respectively with no significant difference (P≥ 0.05) among production systems. In conclusion, crossbred cows under the SSDP management systems had better reproductive performance followed by cows in LSDP. Developing feed resource, effective reproductive health management and reliable AI service could be management options to mitigate some of the prevailing problems.Crossbred cows; Production system; ReproductionBos; Bos indicus; FriesiaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77956693880Impact of variable-rate application of nitrogen on yield and profit: A case study from South AfricaMaine N., Lowenberg-DeBoer J., Nell W.T., Alemu Z.G.2010Precision Agriculture11510.1007/s11119-009-9139-8Agricultural Development Programmes, P.O. Box 440, Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; International Programs in Agriculture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States; Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, Centre for Agricultural Management, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa; Development Bank of Southern Africa, Johannesburg, South AfricaMaine, N., Agricultural Development Programmes, P.O. Box 440, Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Lowenberg-DeBoer, J., International Programs in Agriculture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States; Nell, W.T., Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, Centre for Agricultural Management, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa; Alemu, Z.G., Development Bank of Southern Africa, Johannesburg, South AfricaThe response of maize (Zea mays) to banded variable-rate nitrogen (N) application over a period of 3 years (2002/3-2004/5) is analyzed. The experimental design alternated variable-rate (VR) and single-rate (SR) applications of N. The yield monitor data were spatially autocorrelated and therefore were analyzed with spatial regression methods. The baseline spatial regression model defined in this study showed that the VR treatment, treatment by year and treatment by management zone were statistically significant. Sensitivity tests were applied; the first showed that VR treatment had a yield advantage when soil depth was greater than the field average of 174 cm. The second test showed that the VR N rates applied were close to those that would maximize profit. Partial budgeting indicates that benefits from VR vary from year to year, but in this test VR was slightly more profitable than uniform rate application. Economic sensitivity testing indicates that farm size and the price of maize are the key factors in the profitability of VR N. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.Precision agriculture; South Africa; Spatial regression models; Variable-rate applicationagricultural economics; crop yield; experimental design; farm size; fertilizer application; maize; nitrogen; precision agriculture; profitability; regression analysis; soil depth; spatial analysis; yield response; South Africa; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-57049185124Evaluation of some physico-chemical properties of Shea-butter (Butyrospermum paradoxum) related to its value for food and industrial utilisationChukwu O., Adgidzi P.P.2008International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation1310.1504/IJPTI.2008.021466Agricultural Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna, Niger State, NigeriaChukwu, O., Agricultural Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria; Adgidzi, P.P., Agricultural Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna, Niger State, NigeriaThe physical and chemical properties of edible oils influence their suitability for use in food and other process industries. The aim of this study was to determine the physico-chemical properties and proximate composition of Shea-butter oil. Results obtained showed that Shea-butter has the following chemical properties: acid value (3.825), iodine number (43.27), peroxide value (12.85), saponification value (196.90) and unsaponifiable matter (6.23%). Other physico-chemical properties quantified were moisture content (1.37%), ash content (1.26%), total fat (75.03%), carbohydrate content (22.34%), refractive index (1.452), relative density (0.906) and melting point (27°C). These results showed that the physico-chemical properties and proximate composition of Shea-butter are comparable with the properties of groundnut oil which is widely used for cooking and industrial food processes. Copyright © 2008 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.Chemical properties; Edible oil; Physico-chemical properties; SheabutterArachis; Butyrospermum; Vitellaria paradoxaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-53749102149Effects of environmental variables on poultry performance and pond water quality in an integrated poultry/fishery farmingFalayi F.R., Ogunlowo A.S., Alatise M.O.2008European Journal of Scientific Research204NoneAgricultural Engineering Department, The Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, NigeriaFalayi, F.R., Agricultural Engineering Department, The Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria; Ogunlowo, A.S., Agricultural Engineering Department, The Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria; Alatise, M.O., Agricultural Engineering Department, The Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, NigeriaThe need to find alternative but productive means of managing animal waste in the modern day agriculture waste cannot be over emphasised. One important means of managing these wastes is through conversion to important use either as animal feeds or as manures. Fish farming can be combined with poultry, animal husbandry and irrigation practices, which can lead to higher production and net profits. This practice is called integrated fish farming or integrated aquaculture. The integration of animal husbandry, especially poultry, with fish farming in a small scale results in the production of organic manure for the fertilization of the fish pond to increase the production of the natural food organism (planktonic algae) to be eaten by the fish. In some cases, the poultry wastes are used as direct food by some fish without supplementary feedings, such species include Nile Tilapia and catfish. An integrated poultry/fishery housing unit was designed and constructed such that poultry droppings were made to drop into the ponds directly and used as feed for clarias gariepinus. The set-up was made of four concrete ponds on which three wooden battery cages were mounted except the fourth pond which served as the control. The ponds were stocked with twenty (20) juvenile clarias garipinus each. There were four treatments and 3 replicates, fish in pond 1, two and three were fed with droppings from one broiler, two broilers and three broilers respectively. While fish in ponds 4 were fed with the fish concentrate. A total of 6 birds (4 weeks old) and 80 juvenile clarias gariepinus were used. This experiment lasted for 6 months. During this period, the environmental parameters were monitored and the effect of poultry waste on the development of the fish was analysed. There were remarkable differences in the microclimate inside and outside the building. The birds were well protected from harsh environmental conditions and a uniform development was recorded. Pollution resulting from the use of poultry droppings adversely affected the development of the fish. Increase in the volume of droppings led to increase in the Bio-Chemical oxygen demand and Chemical Oxygen demand of the pond water which consequently led to a decrease in the dissolved oxygen. Water turbidity also increased with increased droppings. Other water parameters like conductivity, chloride and pH values were within acceptable values suggested in literatures. The system has shown the possibility of effective poultry waste management technique which ensured that nothing is wasted and waste handling problem is grossly reduced. © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2008.Droppings; Fishery; Integrated; Pond; PoultryNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84919790050Comparative evaluation of economic benefits of earthen fish ponds and concrete tanks in aquaculture enterprises in Oyo state, Nigeria [Usporedba procjene ekonomske koristi zemljanih bazena ribnjaka i betonskih spremnika u akvakulturnom poduzetništvu državOlaoye O.J., Adegbite D.A., Oluwalana E.O., Vaughan I.O., Odebiyi C.O., Adediji A.P.2014Ribarstvo, Croatian Journal of Fisheries723NoneAgricultural Media Resources and Extension Centre, Federal University of Agriculture, P. M. B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria; Institute of Food Security, Environmental Resources and Agricultural Research, Federal University of Agriculture, P. M. B.Olaoye, O.J., Agricultural Media Resources and Extension Centre, Federal University of Agriculture, P. M. B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria; Adegbite, D.A., Agricultural Media Resources and Extension Centre, Federal University of Agriculture, P. M. B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria; Oluwalana, E.O., Agricultural Media Resources and Extension Centre, Federal University of Agriculture, P. M. B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria; Vaughan, I.O., Institute of Food Security, Environmental Resources and Agricultural Research, Federal University of Agriculture, P. M. B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State,, Nigeria; Odebiyi, C.O., Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Federal University of Agriculture, P. M. B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria; Adediji, A.P., Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Federal University of Agriculture, P. M. B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, NigeriaThe study focused on the comparative evaluation of economic benefits of earthen fish ponds and concrete tanks in aquaculture enterprises in Ibadan, Oyo state. Primary data were collected with the aid of structured interview schedule, administered through personal interviews and obser- vations to elicit information from 100 fish farmers using purposive and convenience sampling procedure. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive, budgetary and inferential statistics. The study revealed that the mean age, male, married, household size, educated and fish farm- ing experience were 41 years, 83.0%, 87.0%, 5 persons, 96.0% and 8 years, respectively. Earthen fish ponds users earned mean revenue of ₦3,322,189.85 with gross margin of ₦2,188,397.89 while concrete tank users earned ₦2,412,271.08 with gross margin of ₦1,413,299.46. The results showed profitability indices (0.61 and 0.47), Variable Cost ratio (0.35 and 0.30), Benefit Cost Ratio (2.55 and 1.89), Gross ratio (0.40 and 0.54) and Expenses structure ratio (0.13 and 0.23) for both the earthen ponds and concrete fish tanks, respectively. There were significant differences (t = 42.53, p≤0.05) between the profit level of earthen fish ponds and con- crete tanks. Major constraints affecting economic status of the respond- ents were high cost of quality feed, insufficient funds, poaching and poor marketing channel. In conclusion, aquaculture is a more profitable and vi- able business regardless of the culture system. Government should assist the fish farmers by subsidizing feeds cost, granting and monitoring of loan. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture. All rights reserved.Comparative evaluation; Concrete tanks; Earthen fish ponds; Economic benefits; NigeriaNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84903935462Impact of microfinance bank loan on aquaculture development in Ogun State, NigeriaJacob O.O., Christianah O.O.2013Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities213NoneAgricultural Media Resources and Extension Centre, University of Agriculture, P.M.B 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria; Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, University of Agriculture, P.M.B 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, NigeriaJacob, O.O., Agricultural Media Resources and Extension Centre, University of Agriculture, P.M.B 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria; Christianah, O.O., Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, University of Agriculture, P.M.B 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, NigeriaThis study was conducted to assess the impacts of microfinance bank loan on beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries aquaculturists in Ogun state, Nigeria. A total of eighty aquaculturists (40 beneficiaries and 40 non-beneficiaries) were randomly selected from four agricultural extension zones, as classified by Ogun State Agricultural Development Programme (OGADEP). Data collected were scored and the percentages of the parameters were calculated appropriately. The types of loan disbursed to beneficiaries revealed that 27.5% was in kind, 7.5% in cash, and the remaining 65% was both in cash and kind. The credit package ranged between N50,000 and N250,000, with 40% of them ranging between N 100,001 and N150,000 were approved, and 70% of the loans were released timely. The results obtained from the membership of cooperative showed that 87.5% of the beneficiaries and 37.5% of the non-beneficiaries were cooperators. Meanwhile, 65% of the beneficiaries earned a higher income (N62,500), while only 42.5% of the non-beneficiaries earned this amount per respondent. Major constraints hindering aquaculture development in the study area include high cost of feeding, poor marketing channel, lack of adequate capital and high cost of investment. Lastly, recommendations are made for the financial institutions, government and other lending institutions on how to improve the livelihood of the aquaculturists, i.e. by increasing the loans that are usually granted. © Universiti Putra Malaysia Press.Aquaculture; Constraints; Loan and microfinanceNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84930884256Multienvironment performance of new orange-fleshed sweetpotato cultivars in South AfricaLaurie S.M., Booyse M., Labuschagne M.T., Greyling M.M.2015Crop Science55410.2135/cropsci2014.09.0664Agricultural Research Council (ARC)–Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, Pretoria, South Africa; ARC–Biometry Unit, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Dep. of Plant Sciences, Univ. Of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South AfricaLaurie, S.M., Agricultural Research Council (ARC)–Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, Pretoria, South Africa; Booyse, M., ARC–Biometry Unit, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Labuschagne, M.T., Dep. of Plant Sciences, Univ. Of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa; Greyling, M.M., Agricultural Research Council (ARC)–Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, Pretoria, South AfricaVitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem in South Africa, as in several parts of the world. One strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency is through biofortification, particularly through orange-fleshed sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam]. Previously, a shortage existed in South Africa of orange-fleshed genotypes with a combination of high dry mass, good yield, and good taste. Local cream-fleshed parents and orange-fleshed US introductions were used in the local polycross program. This study aimed at testing the agronomic performance, stability, and genetic diversity of newly developed orange-fleshed genotypes. Twelve entries, nine with orange flesh color, were evaluated at four sites for two seasons in multienvironment trials and the data was subjected to ANOVA and genotype plus genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE) biplot analysis. Simple-sequence repeat (SSR) analysis of the 12 entries was done followed by hierarchical clustering. Two of the orange-fleshed cultivars were recommended for production and plant breeders’ rights were registered for these. Cultivar Impilo produced stable, high root yield similar to the commercial control cultivar Beauregard; while the elite breeding line Purple Sunset (2001_5_2) had high yield and specific adaptability. Both displayed average dry mass and acceptable taste. The genetic analysis indicated relatedness of most new genotypes with the cream-fleshed parents used in the polycross program. The improved cultivars offer considerable yield advantage above US introductions previously recommended for combating vitamin A deficiency. © Crop Science Society of America.NoneIpomoea batatasNone
Scopus2-s2.0-39849103457Farmers' agronomic and social evaluation of productivity, yield and N 2-fixation in different cowpea varieties and their subsequent residual N effects on a succeeding maize cropAdjei-Nsiah S., Kuyper T.W., Leeuwis C., Abekoe M.K., Cobbinah J., Sakyi-Dawson O., Giller K.E.2008Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems80310.1007/s10705-007-9133-3Agricultural Research Centre-Kade, Institute of Agricultural Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 4, Wageningen 6708 PB, Netherlands; P.O. Box 47, Wageningen 6700 AA, Netherlands; Communication and Innovation Studies Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands; Department of Soil Science, School of Agriculture, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Sector, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Accra, Ghana; Department of Agricultural Extension, School of Agriculture, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; Plant Production Systems Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, NetherlandsAdjei-Nsiah, S., Agricultural Research Centre-Kade, Institute of Agricultural Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; Kuyper, T.W., Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 4, Wageningen 6708 PB, Netherlands, P.O. Box 47, Wageningen 6700 AA, Netherlands; Leeuwis, C., Communication and Innovation Studies Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands; Abekoe, M.K., Department of Soil Science, School of Agriculture, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; Cobbinah, J., Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Sector, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Accra, Ghana; Sakyi-Dawson, O., Department of Agricultural Extension, School of Agriculture, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; Giller, K.E., Plant Production Systems Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, NetherlandsCowpea-maize rotations form an important component of the farming systems of smallholder farmers in the forest/savannah transitional agro-ecological zone of Ghana. We evaluated five cowpea varieties for grain yield, N 2-fixation, biomass production, and contribution to productivity of subsequent maize grown in rotation. We further analyzed the interrelationship between these technical dimensions and the social acceptability of these cowpea varieties for farmers. Cowpea grain yield ranged between 1.1 and 1.4 t ha -1 with no significant yield differences among the different varieties. Using the 15N natural abundance technique, the average proportion of N2 fixed ranged between 61% for Ayiyi and 77% for Legon prolific. This resulted in average amounts of N2 fixed in above-ground biomass ranging between 32 and 67 kg N ha-1, respectively. Variation in estimates due to differences in δ15N among reference plants were larger than differences between cowpea varieties. The amount of soil-derived N ranged from 15 to 20 kg N ha-1. The above-ground net N contribution of the cowpea varieties to the soil (after adjusting for N export in grains) was highest for Legon Prolific (31 kg N ha-1) due to high N2-fixation and high leaf biomass production. Maize grain yield after cowpea without application of mineral N fertilizer ranged between 0.4 t ha-1 with maize after maize to 1.5 t ha-1 with Legon Prolific. The N fertilizer equivalence values for the cowpea varieties ranged between 18 and 60 kg N ha-1. IT810D-1010 was ranked by the farmers as the most preferred cowpea variety due to its white seed type, short-duration, ease of harvesting and good market value. Despite the high leaf biomass production and high amount of N2 fixed by Legon Prolific, it was generally the least preferred variety due to lower market price, late maturity, least potential cash income (due to the red mottled seed type) and difficulty in harvesting. Although farmers recognized the contribution of cowpea to soil fertility and yields of subsequent maize, they did not consider this as an important criterion for varietal selection. Soil fertility improvement must be considered as an additional benefit rather than a direct selection criterion when designing more sustainable smallholder farming systems. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.15N natural abundance; Crop rotations; Forage cowpea; Marketabilityaboveground biomass; agricultural management; agroecology; crop production; crop rotation; crop yield; farmers knowledge; farming system; legume; maize; nitrogen fixation; Africa; Ghana; Sub-Saharan Africa; West Africa; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84890794785The impact of Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Hemiptera: Coreidae) on premature fruit drop and yield of Litchi chinensis in the Mpumalanga province of South AfricaSchoeman P.S., Mohlala R.2013International Journal of Pest Management59410.1080/09670874.2013.859332Agricultural Research Council - Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, Private Bag X 11208, Nelspruit 1200, South AfricaSchoeman, P.S., Agricultural Research Council - Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, Private Bag X 11208, Nelspruit 1200, South Africa; Mohlala, R., Agricultural Research Council - Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, Private Bag X 11208, Nelspruit 1200, South AfricaThis is the first record of the coconut bug Pseudotheraptus wayi on litchis in South Africa. Although damage on immature fruit was often in excess of 50%, chemical control of P. wayi did not necessarily increase yields. Litchi trees flower profusely and are probably able to compensate for damage which occurs early in the production season. Because litchis have a strong tendency towards biennial bearing, it was speculated that P. wayi could have a detrimental effect in orchards producing below-average yields. Since P. wayi damaged approximately 50% of the immature fruit in the Nelspruit region, it is safe to assume that litchi is a good alternative host for this insect. Producers of other subtropical fruit should take cognizance of this observation and adapt control programmes for hemipterans in adjoining orchards if necessary. © 2013 Agricultural Research Council, South Africa.host plants; Litchi chinensis; Pseudotheraptus wayi; stink bugs; subtropical fruitchemical control; crop damage; fruit production; host plant; insect; new record; orchard; yield response; Mpumalanga; South Africa; Coreidae; Hemiptera; Hexapoda; Litchi chinensis; Pentatomidae; Pseudotheraptus wayiNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84927513994Impact of mass rearing and gamma irradiation on thermal tolerance of Eldana saccharinaMudavanhu P., Addison P., Conlong D.E.2014Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata153110.1111/eea.12228Agricultural Research Council - Plant Protection Research Institute (ARC-PPRI), Private Bag X5017, Vredenburg Campus, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, South Africa; South African Sugarcane Research Institute, 170 Flanders Drive, Mt Edgecombe, Durban, South AfricaMudavanhu, P., Agricultural Research Council - Plant Protection Research Institute (ARC-PPRI), Private Bag X5017, Vredenburg Campus, Stellenbosch, South Africa, Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, South Africa; Addison, P., Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, South Africa; Conlong, D.E., Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, South Africa, South African Sugarcane Research Institute, 170 Flanders Drive, Mt Edgecombe, Durban, South AfricaMating ability, survival, and fitness of mass-produced sterile insects when released into the wild, are critical to the success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a pest management strategy, but their field performance remains one of the greatest challenges. Thermal stress tolerance by irradiated insects is a determinant of sterile insect quality, hence knowledge of their physiological competitiveness is essential for developing the SIT. Here, we report the results of experiments investigating effects of laboratory rearing and increasing radiation dosage on thermal limits to activity of the adult stage of Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The critical thermal maximum (CTmax) and critical thermal minimum (CTmin) were assayed using a dynamic method on both sexes of E. saccharina moths in laboratory vs. wild populations (to determine effect of rearing history). Furthermore, the laboratory population was exposed to 150, 200, and 250 Gy, to determine the effect of radiation dose. Laboratory-reared E. saccharina were more heat tolerant compared to wild moths for both sexes (CTmax = 44.5 vs. 44.3 °C), whereas in the case of CTmin (3.7 vs. 4.4 °C), wild moths were more cold tolerant than their laboratory-reared counterparts. Irradiation had a negative effect on both CTmax and CTmin. Moths treated at the lowest radiation dose were more cold and heat tolerant than those treated at the highest dosages (CTmin = 4.5 vs. 6.2 °C; CTmax = 43.9 vs. 43.5 °C), thereby reinforcing the importance of lower dosages rather than those that induce full sterility against E. saccharina. In general, sex had no influence on critical thermal limits in all moth treatments except for those irradiated at 150 Gy. The data presented in this article provide evidence that increasing radiation dose impacts on fitness of laboratory-produced moths relative to their wild counterparts, which in turn could affect the effectiveness of the SIT programme. © 2014 The Netherlands Entomological Society.Critical thermal limits; Laboratory domestication; Lepidoptera; Physiological fitness; Pyralidae; Radiation treatment; SIT; Sterile insect technique; SugarcaneEldana saccharina; Hexapoda; Lepidoptera; Pyralidae; SaccharinaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34250872220The impact of cold temperatures during grain maturation on selected quality parameters of wheatCraven M., Barnard A., Labuschagne M.T.2007Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture87910.1002/jsfa.2927Agricultural Research Council - Small Grain Institute, Private Bag X21, Bethlehem 9700, South Africa; Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; Agricultural Research Council - Grain Crops Institute (ARC-GCI), Private Bag X1251, Potchefstroom, 2520, South AfricaCraven, M., Agricultural Research Council - Small Grain Institute, Private Bag X21, Bethlehem 9700, South Africa, Agricultural Research Council - Grain Crops Institute (ARC-GCI), Private Bag X1251, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa; Barnard, A., Agricultural Research Council - Small Grain Institute, Private Bag X21, Bethlehem 9700, South Africa; Labuschagne, M.T., Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South AfricaThe influence of sudden cold spells during grain filling of wheat on the quality traits of three South African hard red wheat cultivars (Gariep, Elands and Tugela-DN) was studied, with the emphasis on Hagberg falling number (HFN). Four treatments were used (-1°C at soft dough stage, -1°C at late milk stage, -4°C at soft dough stage and -4°C at late milk stage) and were administered for one night only. From the results it was concluded that, although limited in duration, such frost conditions did have an effect on the quality of the wheat cultivars. Cultivars differed in their response to the various treatments but also as to what quality traits were affected the most. The -4°C at late milk stage resulted in significantly reduced HFN being measured for both Elands and Tugela-DN. A similar effect was observed for Gariep, but was not statistically significant. Although the response was limited to the main tillers only, the conclusion was made that it is probable that the reduced HFN would be visible in the pooled sample of head and side tillers. A screening protocol was suggested that would allow classification of cultivars for frost tolerance. © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.Frost; Hagberg falling number; Quality parameters; WheatTragelaphus oryx; Triticum aestivumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-51349138067Integrated community-based growth monitoring and vegetable gardens focusing on crops rich in β-carotene: Project evaluation in a rural community in the Eastern Cape, South AfricaLaurie S.M., Faber M.2008Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture881210.1002/jsfa.3319Agricultural Research Council - Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute (ARC-VOPI), Private Bag X293, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Nutritional Intervention Research Unit, Medical Research Council (MRC), P.O. Box 19070, Tygerberg 7505, South AfricaLaurie, S.M., Agricultural Research Council - Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute (ARC-VOPI), Private Bag X293, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Faber, M., Nutritional Intervention Research Unit, Medical Research Council (MRC), P.O. Box 19070, Tygerberg 7505, South AfricaBACKGROUND: Cultivation in β-carotene vegetables was promoted in a crop-based intervention in Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape, South Africa. The project also included nutrition education and community-based growth monitoring, and focused on technology transfer and mobilisation of local organisations. Three years after initiation of the project, participating (n = 219) and non-participating (n = 223) households were compared in terms of child morbidity, nutritional knowledge, dietary intake and gardening practices. RESULTS: Compared to control households, more caregivers from project households thought that yellow fruit and vegetables were good for their children (73% vs. 45%; P < 0.001), were familiar with the term 'vitamin A' (89% vs. 63%; P < 0.001), knew that vitamin A is a nutrient in food (83% vs. 53%; P < 0.001), and could name three food sources rich in vitamin A (56% vs. 27%; P < 0.001). Fewer 1-5-year-old children in the project households reportedly experienced vomiting (6% vs. 13%; P = 0.012), fever (30% vs. 42%; P = 0.008), sores on the skin (6% vs. 19%; P < 0.001), continuous runny nose (20% vs. 33%; P = 0.002), diarrhoea (2% vs. 7%; P = 0.026) and poor appetite (7% vs. 14%; P = 0.016). Children from project households consumed carrot (P = 0.008), butternut (P = 0.002), spinach (P = 0.004) and orange-fleshed sweetpotato (P = 0.028) more frequently than children from control households. CONCLUSION: The agricultural intervention, combined with nutrition education and community-based growth monitoring, showed a favourable effect on child morbidity, nutritional knowledge and dietary intake of β-carotene-rich vegetables. Agricultural interventions can therefore contribute significantly towards nutritional outcomes. © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.Crop-based approach; Ipomoea batatas; Provitamin A-rich vegetablesDaucus carota; Ipomoea batatas; Juglans cinerea; Spinacia oleraceaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77953759638The effect of increasing levels of dried leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) on dry matter intake and body weight gain performance of broiler finisher chickensTsega W., Tamir B.2009Livestock Research for Rural Development2112NoneAndassa Livestock Research Center, P.O. Box, 27, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Addis Ababa University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, EthiopiaTsega, W., Andassa Livestock Research Center, P.O. Box, 27, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Tamir, B., Addis Ababa University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, EthiopiaThis study was conducted with the objective of determining the effects of increasing levels of air dried leaves of sweet potato on dry matter intake and body weight gain of Ross broiler finisher chickens. Three hundred chicks with similar body weight of 540 ± 5.28 g and aging 29 days were randomly distributed using completely randomized design in to 15 pens each with 20 chicks and five treatment rations were allocated each with three replications. The five dietary treatments consisted of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% air dried leaves of sweet potato. The experimental feed ingredients as well as the formulated rations were analyzed for dry matter and nutrient contents. The experiment lasted for 28 days during which dry matter intake and body weight change was measured. The laboratory chemical analysis results showed that dried leaves of sweet potato contained 25% crude protein and 2672.44 kcal ME /kg dry matter, indicating its potential to be used as sources of both protein and energy. The dry matter intake and body weight gain of birds fed on diets containing dried leaves of sweet potato up to 10% inclusion was similar with the control group. But, beyond 10% air dried leaves of sweet potato inclusion, the dry matter intake and body weight gain were reduced from the control group. The results of this study suggested that inclusion of air dried leaves of sweet potato up to the level of 10% of the diet dry matter in the finisher ration might be considered as the optimum level of inclusion when birds are sold on live weight basis.Byproducts; PoultryAves; Gallus gallus; Ipomoea batatasNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77952879263Growth performances of Washera sheep under smallholder management systems in Yilmanadensa and Quarit districts, EthiopiaTaye M., Abebe G., Gizaw S., Lemma S., Mekoya A., Tibbo M.2010Tropical Animal Health and Production42410.1007/s11250-009-9473-xAndassa Livestock Research Centre, P.O. Box 27, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Hawassa University, P.O. Box 5, Awassa, Ethiopia; Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Centre, P.O. Box 112, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia; International Livestock Research Institute, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syrian Arab RepublicTaye, M., Andassa Livestock Research Centre, P.O. Box 27, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 5, Awassa, Ethiopia; Abebe, G., Hawassa University, P.O. Box 5, Awassa, Ethiopia; Gizaw, S., Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Centre, P.O. Box 112, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia; Lemma, S., Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Centre, P.O. Box 112, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia; Mekoya, A., Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Centre, P.O. Box 112, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia; Tibbo, M., International Livestock Research Institute, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syrian Arab RepublicA study was conducted to evaluate growth performances of Washera sheep under smallholder production systems in the Yilmanadensa and Quarit districts of the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. Data were collected and analysed on the growth of 690 lambs owned by 110 households from October 2004 to September 2007. Weight (kilograms) of Washera lambs at birth, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age was 2.69 ± 0.02, 7.10 ± 0.16, 12.42 ± 0.11, 16.12 ± 0.91, 20.05 ± 0.55 and 23.47 ± 0.68, respectively. Birth weight was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by district, year of birth, parity of the dam, birth type and sex of lamb and by the interaction effect of parity by birth type and parity by sex of lamb. Weaning weight was also affected by year of birth, type of birth and sex of lamb. Yearling weight was affected by only year of birth and sex of birth. The average daily weight gain (ADG; grams) from birth to 30 days, birth to 90 days, 90 to 180 days and birth to 1 year of age was 143.37 ± 13.46, 107.09 ± 2.67, 39.78 ± 9.73 and 60.13 ± 1. 89, respectively. Growth rates from birth to 30 and 90 days of age were significantly (P < 0. 05) affected by birth year, birth type and sex. ADG from birth to 1 year of age was affected by lamb sex and district. The indigenous Washera sheep had faster growth rate than those sheep breeds of Ethiopia extensively studied thus far. Integrated efforts combining improved nutrition, health and participatory community-based breeding would help the smallholder farmers to utilise and conserve this immense sheep genetic resource of Ethiopia. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.Ethiopia; Growth traits; Sheep; Smallholder management system; Washera breedanimal; animal husbandry; article; birth weight; Ethiopia; female; growth, development and aging; male; methodology; multivariate analysis; physiology; pregnancy; rural population; season; sheep; Animal Husbandry; Animals; Birth Weight; Ethiopia; Female; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Pregnancy; Rural Population; Seasons; Sheep; Ovis ariesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77956305713Milk yield and calf growth performance of cattle under partial suckling system at Andassa Livestock Research Centre, North West EthiopiaBitew A., Taye M., Kebede A., Mekuriaw G., Tassew A., Mulugeta T., Goshu G.2010Livestock Research for Rural Development228NoneAndassa Livestock Research Centre, P.O.Box 27, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Bahir Dar University, P.O.Box 79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; ANRS, Food Security Coordination and Disaster Prevention Office, P.O.Box 497, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O.Box 34, Debre Zeit, EthiopiaBitew, A., Andassa Livestock Research Centre, P.O.Box 27, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Taye, M., Andassa Livestock Research Centre, P.O.Box 27, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Kebede, A., Andassa Livestock Research Centre, P.O.Box 27, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Mekuriaw, G., Bahir Dar University, P.O.Box 79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Tassew, A., Bahir Dar University, P.O.Box 79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Mulugeta, T., ANRS, Food Security Coordination and Disaster Prevention Office, P.O.Box 497, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Goshu, G., Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O.Box 34, Debre Zeit, EthiopiaMilk yield and calf growth performance of cattle under partial suckling system were studied at Andassa Livestock Research Centre from 2002-2008. The results of the study showed that mean partial lactation and daily milk yield of Fogera cows was 291 and 0.99 kg, respectively. Parity of cow and year of calving significantly affected both partial lactation and daily milk yield, while season of calving had no significant effect on both parameters. The mean lactation length was 292 days. Season of calving, parity of cow and year of calving significantly affected lactation length. Linear relationship between partial lactation milk yield and lactation length was observed. The overall mean birth weight obtained in the current study was 22.7 kg. Birth weight was significantly affected by breed of calf and birth year. The overall mean weights (kg) of calf at one month, three months, six months, nine months and at one year of age were 40.7, 56.5, 80.4, 121 and 120 kg, respectively. Weight at one month was significantly affected by all the fixed effects considered. The weights at three and six months of age were significantly affected by breed of calf and year of birth only. The overall mean daily body weight gain (g) from birth to one month, three months, six months, nine months and one year of age were 591, 374, 321, 359 and 272, respectively. Calf growth showed a significant correlation with the length of suckling period only until six months. Results of the present study showed that milk yield data generated through partial hand milking (two teats) revealed the existence of variability within the herd and improvements in productivity could be achieved through long term genetic selection. Weaning of calves could be practiced at six months of age to prevent the negative effect of longer suckling time on reproduction performance of the dam so as to increase calf crop productivity. Milk yield and calf growth performance of Fogera cattle and their crossbred under improved nutrition needs to be studied.Calf crop; Fogera cattle; Hand milking; Partial lactation yieldBosNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84880673961Nutritional evaluation of different sources of nitrogen on digestible nutrient intake, nitrogen balance and production of rumen metabolites in growing Yankasa sheepAbubakar M., Adegbola T.A., Abubakar M.M., Shehu Y., Ngele M.B., Kalla D.J.U.2010Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture224NoneAnimal Production Program, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria; Department of Biological Sciences, School of The Environment and Society, Singleton Park SA2 8PP, Swansea University, United KingdomAbubakar, M., Animal Production Program, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria, Department of Biological Sciences, School of The Environment and Society, Singleton Park SA2 8PP, Swansea University, United Kingdom; Adegbola, T.A., Animal Production Program, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria; Abubakar, M.M., Animal Production Program, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria; Shehu, Y., Animal Production Program, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria; Ngele, M.B., Animal Production Program, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria; Kalla, D.J.U., Animal Production Program, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248, Bauchi, NigeriaA study was conducted to evaluate digestible nutrient intake, nitrogen balance and rumen metabolites in twenty growing Yankasa rams fed urea and /or sundried broiler litter (SDBL) as a partial or complete replacement for cotton seed cake (CSC) in diets for 90 days. The diets were: 1(CSC; control), 2(urea), 3(urea/SDBL), 4(CSC/urea) and 5(CSC/SDBL). The results indicated difference (P<0.05) in DM intake across diets, with animals fed CSC, urea and CSC/urea having the highest values (543.1, 523.4 and 483.6 g/day respectively), while those fed urea/SDBL and CSC/SDBL ((459.5 and 424.3g/day respectively) had the lowest feed intake. Mean digestible CP intake differed (P<0.001)across the diets and the values were higher for rams fed CSC and urea (75.7 and 72.7g/day) and lowest for those on CSC/SDBL (49.0g/day). However, mean digestible ADF intake was similar among the diets. A positive nitrogen balance was observed for all animals across the treatments, with significant (P<0.05) differences between treatments ranging from 4.3g/day for rams fed CSC/SDBL to 7.5g/day for those on urea. pH decreased with time after feeding. At 3 hrs post feeding, pH was highest (P<0.01) for rams fed CSC/SDBL and CSC/urea (6.9) and lowest for those on urea alone (6.1) and CSC (6.2). There was a gradual increase in the concentrations of both rumen ammonia-N (RAN) and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) after feeding. Rams fed urea and urea/SDBL (37.5 and 34.2mg/100ml respectively) had the highest (P<0.001) RAN concentration 3 hrs after feeding, while those on the other diets recorded the lowest. On the other hand, rams fed CSC/SDBL (13.1mmol/100ml) had the highest (P<0.001) VFA concentrations while those on urea the lowest (10.5mmol/100ml). It was concluded from this study that diets containing urea and CSC/urea fed to Yankasa sheep gave results comparable to those fed cotton seed cake (control), which are better than for those fed sundried broiler litterbased diets in terms of digestible nutrients intake, positive nitrogen balance and production of adequate rumen ammonia-N. However, rams fed CSC/SDBL had a better concentration of total volatile fatty acids of rumen fluid after feeding.Nitrogen balance; Nitrogen sources; Nutrient intake; Rumen metabolites; Yankasa sheepNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79961175993Available feedstuffs such as palm performance of broilers fed varying levels of palm kernel cakeBello K.M., Oyawoye E.O., Bogoro S.E., Dass U.S.2011International Journal of Poultry Science10410.3923/ijps.2011.290.294Animal Production Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, NigeriaBello, K.M., Animal Production Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria; Oyawoye, E.O., Animal Production Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria; Bogoro, S.E., Animal Production Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria; Dass, U.S., Animal Production Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, NigeriaThe high cost of conventional feed ingredients has necessitated the investigation into unconventional readily Kernel Meal (PKM). The study was conducted to determine the effect of using different levels of PKM in broilers chicks diet on performance, cost effectiveness, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics. Two hundred (200) day old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were in a completely randomized design allocated to five dietary treatments (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% PKM) in four replicates. The birds were fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing 21% crude protein and 2700 kcal/kgME at the starter phase and 23% CP and 3000 kcal/kgME for the Finisher phase. The result showed that the feed intake and daily weight gain increases significantly (p<0.05) with increase in PKM inclusion up to 30% while the FCR were similar to the control. Performance in terms of daily weight gain and FCR indicated that birds on PKM diet perform equally well as those on the control diets. Similarly, the feed cost/kg weight gains were slightly better on the PKM based diet than the control. The result of the blood biochemical analysis showed there was no significant treatment effect on all the haematological parameters measured, which indicates that PKM does not contain any anti nutritional factor. Similarly, the carcass analysis showed non-significance effect of level of PKM on most of the organs except the heart, gall bladder and back weight. The gall bladder and back weight showed significant (p<0.05) increase with increase in PKM inclusion level while the heart weight was not following any particular pattern. These findings show that PKM can be included at 30% level in the diet of broilers without a negative effect on performance, carcass yield and blood constituents. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2011.Blood biochemistry; Broilers; Carcass characteristics; Palm kernel cake; PerformanceAvesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77649198073Performance of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-dipsticks for rapid detection of intestinal schistosomiasis in schoolchildren from shoreline communities of Lake VictoriaStandley C.J., Lwambo N.J.S., Lange C.N., Kariuki H.C., Adriko M., Stothard J.R.2010Parasites and Vectors3110.1186/1756-3305-3-7Biomedical Parasitology Division, Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom; Institute of Genetics, School of Biology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom; National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza, Tanzania; Invertebrate Zoology Section, Nairobi National Museum, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi, Kenya; Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; Vector Control Division, Ministry of Health, Kampala, UgandaStandley, C.J., Biomedical Parasitology Division, Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom, Institute of Genetics, School of Biology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom; Lwambo, N.J.S., National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza, Tanzania; Lange, C.N., Invertebrate Zoology Section, Nairobi National Museum, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi, Kenya; Kariuki, H.C., Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; Adriko, M., Vector Control Division, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda; Stothard, J.R., Biomedical Parasitology Division, Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United KingdomFor disease surveillance and mapping within large-scale control programmes, RDTs are becoming popular. For intestinal schistosomiasis, a commercially available urine-dipstick which detects schistosome circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) in host urine is being increasingly applied, however, further validation is needed. In this study, we compared the CCA urine-dipstick test against double thick Kato-Katz faecal smears from 171 schoolchildren examined along the Tanzanian and Kenyan shorelines of Lake Victoria. Diagnostic methods were in broad agreement; the mean prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis inferred by Kato-Katz examination was 68.6% (95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 60.7-75.7%) and 71.3% (95% CIs = 63.9-78.8%) by CCA urine-dipsticks. There were, however, difficulties in precisely 'calling' the CCA test result, particularly in discrimination of 'trace' reactions as either putative infection positive or putative infection negative, which has important bearing upon estimation of mean infection prevalence; considering 'trace' as infection positive mean prevalence was 94.2% (95% CIs = 89.5-97.2%). A positive association between increasing intensity of the CCA urine-dipstick test band and faecal egg count was observed. Assigning trace reactions as putative infection negative, overall diagnostic sensitivity (SS) of the CCA urine-dipstick was 87.7% (95% CIs = 80.6-93.0%), specificity (SP) was 68.1% (95% CIs = 54.3-80.0%), positive predictive value (PPV) was 86.1% (95% CIs = 78.8-91.7%) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 71.1% (95% CIs = 57.2-82.8%). To assist in objective defining of the CCA urine-dipstick result, we propose the use of a simple colour chart and conclude that the CCA urine-dipstick is a satisfactory alternative, or supplement, to Kato-Katz examination for rapid detection of intestinal schistosomiasis. © 2010 Standley et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Noneparasite antigen; schistosome circulating cathodic antigen; unclassified drug; article; child; controlled study; feces analysis; human; intermethod comparison; Kenya; lake; prevalence; schistosomiasis; school child; sensitivity and specificity; Tanzania; urinalysis; SchistosomaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84857162854Evaluation of "Cyscope", a novel fluorescence-based microscopy technique for the detection of malariaGwanzura L., Mayini J., Mabhanga K., Chipinduro J., Mashamba K., Mutenherwa M., Mutambu S.L., Mutsvangwa J., Mason P.R.2012Journal of Infection in Developing Countries62NoneBiomedical Research and Training Institute, Harare, Zimbabwe; University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, Harare, Zimbabwe; National Institute of Health Research, Harare, Zimbabwe; Partec GmbH, Munster, GermanyGwanzura, L., Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Harare, Zimbabwe, University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, Harare, Zimbabwe; Mayini, J., Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Harare, Zimbabwe; Mabhanga, K., National Institute of Health Research, Harare, Zimbabwe; Chipinduro, J., National Institute of Health Research, Harare, Zimbabwe; Mashamba, K., National Institute of Health Research, Harare, Zimbabwe; Mutenherwa, M., Partec GmbH, Munster, Germany; Mutambu, S.L., National Institute of Health Research, Harare, Zimbabwe; Mutsvangwa, J., Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Harare, Zimbabwe; Mason, P.R., Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Harare, Zimbabwe, University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, Harare, ZimbabweIntroduction: This study was designed to compare the detection of malaria parasites in peripheral blood smears using the Cyscope malaria rapid fluorescent microscopic technique and light microscopy of Giemsa-stained smears. Methodology: A total of 295 blood smears were collected from patients of all age groups presenting with clinical signs and symptoms of malaria to 10 City Health Clinics in Harare. For each patient two blood films were prepared. Microscopic examination was done independently in two laboratories, with one performing the Giemsa stain and the other the Cyscope method. After the tests were completed, the results were then matched and recorded without any alterations. Results: An equal number of men and women were malaria positive and their ages ranged from five to 66 years. Concordance in the detection of parasites (positive or negative) was 98.6% (291/295). In all four cases of discordance, malaria parasites were detected using the Cyscope but not with conventional microscopy. The Cyscope gave a 100% sensitivity and a specificity of 98.6%. Conclusion: The Cyscope may be a valuable addition to diagnostics of malaria in resource-limited settings such as Zimbabwe. © 2012 Gwanzura et al.Diagnosis; Fluorescence-based microscopy technique; Malaria; Resource-limited settingsadult; article; blood sampling; blood smear; cyscope test; female; fluorescence microscopy; Giemsa stain; human; major clinical study; malaria; male; sensitivity and specificity; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Blood; Child; Child, Preschool; Clinical Laboratory Techniques; Female; Humans; Malaria; Male; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Middle Aged; Parasitemia; Sensitivity and Specificity; Young Adult; ZimbabweNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84878992794Evaluation of the undergraduate physics programme at indira gandhi national open university: A case studyMishra A., Vijayshri, Garg S.2009International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning106NoneBJB College, Bhubaneswar, India; Indira Gandhi National Open University, India; National University of Lesotho, South AfricaMishra, A., BJB College, Bhubaneswar, India; Vijayshri, Indira Gandhi National Open University, India; Garg, S., National University of Lesotho, South AfricaThe undergraduate science programme was launched at the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) in 1991-92 with an enrolment of 1,210 students. The programme was well received, and enrolments increased over the years. However,the success rates have not kept pace with enrolment. In this paper, the authors report the results of an evaluation of the undergraduate physics programme at IGNOU. The evaluation, the first of its type for this programme, adapted the major tenets of the CIPP model. The findings are based on the responses from a randomly chosen sample of 509 learners across India. The methods employed for the study include records, document, and database analysis, surveys, and case studies. Although the University has enhanced access to higher science education, the attrition rate is high (73%), and the success rate is low. The authors recommend that the University review and reorient its strategies for providing good quality, learner-centred higher education in science subjects. The programme should address the concerns of the learners about the effectiveness of the student support systems, the difficulty level, and the learner-friendliness of study materials with the goal of achieving long-term sustainability while maintaining parity with the conventional system. The need for improving the presentation of the courses and simplifying the mathematical details is emphasised.Open learning; Physics; Science educationNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-72849151026Impact of discharged wastewater final effluent on the physicochemical qualities of a receiving watershed in a suburban community of the eastern Cape ProvinceOsode A.N., Okoh A.I.2009Clean - Soil, Air, Water371210.1002/clen.200900098Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), University of Fort Hare, Alice, South AfricaOsode, A.N., Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa; Okoh, A.I., Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), University of Fort Hare, Alice, South AfricaFailures of sewage treatment systems, both within and outside South Africa, are most commonly ascribed to inadequate facilities and other factors resulting in the production of poor quality effluents with attendant negative consequences on the receiving watershed. The impact of the final effluent of a wastewater treatment facility in a suburban community of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa on the physicochemical qualities of the receiving watershed was assessed between August 2007 and July 2008. Water quality parameters were analyzed according to the South African Department of Water Affairs and Forestry standards. The effluent quality was acceptable with respect to the pH (6.9-7.8), temperature (13.8-22.0°C), dissolved oxygen (DO) (4.9-7.8 mg/L), salinity (0.12-0.17 psu), total dissolved solids (TDS) (119-162 mg/L) and nitrite concentration (0.1-0.4 mg/L). The other physicochemical parameters that did not comply with regulated standards include the following: phosphate (0.1-4.0 mg/L), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (5-211 mg/L), electrical conductivity (EC) (237-325 μS/cm), and turbidity (7.7-62.7 NTU). The results suggest that eutrophication is intensified in the vicinity of the effluent discharge points, where phosphate and nitrate were found in high concentrations. The discharged final effluents had detrimental effects on the receiving body of water, thus suggesting the need for regular and consistent intervention by appropriate monitoring and compliance agencies to ensure adherence to acceptable standards for discharged effluents. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.Referencesdischarge; dissolved oxygen; effluent; nitrite; pH; physicochemical property; salinity; sewage treatment; suburban area; waste treatment; wastewater; water quality; water treatment; watershed; Eastern Cape; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-35348871884Evaluation of weigh-in-motion accuracy by simulationSlavik M.2007Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering493NoneBKS, South Africa; BKS (Pty) Ltd., PO Box 3173, Pretoria, 0001, South AfricaSlavik, M., BKS, South Africa, BKS (Pty) Ltd., PO Box 3173, Pretoria, 0001, South AfricaA method for the evaluation of accuracy of weigh-in-motion (WIM) scales based on Monte Carlo simulation Is proposed. The objective of the method is to assist with decision on acceptance of the tested WIM scale as sufficiently accurate, or its rejection. Conceptually, the method considers a 'nebula' of possible populations that could supply the observed sample of n weighing errors. Excessive WIM weighing error is defined as an error falling outside a specified acceptance region. The percentage of excessive errors, Q, is then determined in each of the above populations. The distribution of Q Is constructed and the probability of Q exceeding a tolerable limit Qcrit is determined from this distribution. Verdict on acceptance or rejection is formulated in terms of the above probability and displayed graphically. Also graphically displayed are risks of wrong acceptance and wrong rejection. This allows the user to make decisions with a full view of consequences. The method is simple to use and its applications Indicate that, when using conventional WIM-accuracy testing procedures, one may under-estimate the risk of wrong decision. The objective of the paper is to Introduce and explain the principle of a method for correct evaluation of accuracy of weigh-in-motion scales. The purpose of the method is to assist with decisions on acceptance of the tested scale as sufficiently accurate, or its rejection.Risk of wrong acceptance or rejection; Simulation; Weighing error; WIM accuracyWeighing error; WIM accuracy; Computer simulation; Decision making; Monte Carlo methods; Probability; Risk analysis; Building codesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-23344435343Performance of the CardioChek™ PA and Cholestech LDX® point-of-care analysers compared to clinical diagnostic laboratory methods for the measurement of lipidsPanz V.R., Raal F.J., Paiker J., Immelman R., Miles H.2005Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa162NoneCarbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; National Health Laboratory Services, Department of Chemical Pathology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaPanz, V.R., Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Raal, F.J., Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Paiker, J., National Health Laboratory Services, Department of Chemical Pathology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Immelman, R., National Health Laboratory Services, Department of Chemical Pathology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Miles, H., National Health Laboratory Services, Department of Chemical Pathology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaPoint-of-care (POC) blood testing is intended to provide results more rapidly than can be obtained from a central laboratory. Precision and accuracy of the CardioChek PA and Cholestech LDX analysers were compared to clinical diagnostic laboratory methods. In 100 patients, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured by both analysers and compared to those analysed by the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) laboratory. Data were evaluated for conformance with National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines. Results were grouped into low, middle and high ranges and were similar to those obtained by the NHLS, except in the high range where TC and LDL-C levels were under-read by both analysers. All analytes measured by both analysers correlated significantly with NHLS (p < 0.0001). With the exception of LDL-C, both analysers showed reasonable compliance with NCEP goals for coefficients of variation and bias measurements. Both analysers met NCEP guidelines for all analytes at two clinical cut-off points. We concluded that, compared to NHLS methods, performance of the CardioChek PA and Cholestech LDX analysers is acceptable and that they offer healthcare professionals a rapid, POC method for the measurement of lipids.Nonehigh density lipoprotein cholesterol; low density lipoprotein cholesterol; triacylglycerol; biological marker; lipid; analytic method; article; blood testis barrier; cholesterol blood level; controlled study; diagnostic accuracy; hospital information system; human; laboratory test; lipid analysis; major clinical study; triacylglycerol blood level; blood; blood examination; comparative study; diagnosis, measurement and analysis; evaluation; hyperlipoproteinemia type 2; methodology; sensitivity and specificity; Biological Markers; Hematologic Tests; Humans; Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II; Laboratory Techniques and Procedures; Lipids; Point-of-Care Systems; Sensitivity and SpecificityNone
Scopus2-s2.0-44449119917Improving daily production capacity and energy efficiency in sugar refineries and sugar mills with CarboUA high performance process aidsBushong J.H., Bogari A., González C.A.D., Odipo W., Marroquin J.M.P., Massucato A.L., Sarir E.M.2008International Sugar Journal1101313NoneCarboUA, Philadelphia, United States; United Sugar Company, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; CarboUA, CaIi, Colombia; CarboUA, Nairobi, Kenya; CarboUA, Guatemala City, Guatemala; CarboUA, São Paulo, Brazil; CarboUA, Beverly Hills, United StatesBushong, J.H., CarboUA, Philadelphia, United States; Bogari, A., United Sugar Company, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; González, C.A.D., CarboUA, CaIi, Colombia; Odipo, W., CarboUA, Nairobi, Kenya; Marroquin, J.M.P., CarboUA, Guatemala City, Guatemala; Massucato, A.L., CarboUA, São Paulo, Brazil; Sarir, E.M., CarboUA, Beverly Hills, United StatesWith reference to case studies, this paper describes and discusses the use of CarboUA high performance process aids for increasing sugar refinery and sugar mill process efficiency via improvements in daily sugar process throughput (from increased operating Brix and/or higher average process flow rates), an increase in conversion rate of feed sugar to raw sugar (mill) or refined sugar (refinery), an associated reduction in energy, and improvements in final product quality.Efficiency; Energy; Mill; Production; Refinery; SugarConversion rates; Daily production; Energy; Mill; Process efficiency; Process throughput; Refined sugars; Refinery; Efficiency; Production; Refining; Sugar factories; Sugars; Energy efficiency; Polygala incarnataNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33751172520Impact of chronic β-adrenoceptor activation on neurotensin-induced myocardial effects in ratsOsadchii O., Norton G., Deftereos D., Muller D., Woodiwiss A.2006European Journal of Pharmacology5534237210.1016/j.ejphar.2006.09.037Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Genomics Research Unit, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South AfricaOsadchii, O., Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Genomics Research Unit, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa; Norton, G., Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Genomics Research Unit, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa; Deftereos, D., Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Genomics Research Unit, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa; Muller, D., Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Genomics Research Unit, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa; Woodiwiss, A., Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Genomics Research Unit, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South AfricaIn heart failure chronic sympathetic activation results in contractile dysfunction in part through down-regulation of the β-adrenoceptor-cAMP system. However, the impact of chronic adrenergic activation on cardiac sympathetic neuromodulator systems is unclear. In this study, we sought to determine whether chronic adrenergic activation modifies myocardial norepinephrine release and contractile responses elicited by neurotensin, a neuropeptide found in cardiovascular system. Chronic administration of isoproterenol, a β-adrenoceptor agonist, to rats (0.05 mg/kg daily for 1 month, i.p.), produced cardiac hypertrophy with preserved baseline ventricular systolic function, but reduced contractile responses to exogenous norepinephrine as shown in isolated, isovolumically-contracting heart preparations. Neurotensin produced a marked increase in coronary effluent norepinephrine release, an effect abolished by SR 48692, a specific neurotensin receptor antagonist. In isoproterenol-treated rats, neurotensin has no significant impact on myocardial norepinephrine release. Consistently, concentration-dependent positive inotropic responses elicited by neurotensin in control rat hearts were blunted over a wide range of neurotensin concentrations (10- 10-10- 5.5 M) in isoproterenol-treated rats. In conclusion, these data indicate that following chronic β-adrenoceptor activation, neurotensin-induced effects on norepinephrine release and subsequent contractile changes are markedly down-regulated. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Cardiac hypertrophy; Myocardial norepinephrine; Neurotensin; Ventricular contractility2 [[1 (7 chloro 4 quinolinyl) 5 (2,6 dimethoxyphenyl) 3 pyrazolyl]carbonylamino] 2 adamantanecarboxylic acid; beta adrenergic receptor; beta adrenergic receptor stimulating agent; isoprenaline; neurotensin; propranolol; adrenergic activity; animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; article; controlled study; drug effect; heart muscle; heart muscle contractility; heart ventricle contraction; heart ventricle hypertrophy; isolated heart; male; nonhuman; noradrenalin release; priority journal; rat; Adrenergic beta-Agonists; Animals; Blood Pressure; Body Weight; Coronary Circulation; Heart; Isoproterenol; Male; Myocardial Contraction; Myocardium; Neurotensin; Norepinephrine; Organ Size; Pyrazoles; Quinolines; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Receptors, Neurotensin; Ventricular Function, LeftNone
Scopus2-s2.0-25444448818Impact and mechanisms of action of neurotensin on cardiac contractility in the rat left ventricleOsadchii O., Norton G., Deftereos D., Badenhorst D., Woodiwiss A.2005European Journal of Pharmacology5204237210.1016/j.ejphar.2005.07.014Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Genomics Research Unit, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South AfricaOsadchii, O., Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Genomics Research Unit, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa; Norton, G., Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Genomics Research Unit, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa; Deftereos, D., Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Genomics Research Unit, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa; Badenhorst, D., Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Genomics Research Unit, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa; Woodiwiss, A., Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Genomics Research Unit, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, South AfricaUsing immunoassay measurements, neurotensin was identified in rat ventricular tissue and in coronary effluent samples. Exogenous neurotensin evoked contractile responses in isolated ventricular preparations, which were equivalent in magnitude to those of norepinephrine and histamine, but greater than those for serotonin and angiotensin II. EC50 values revealed neurotensin to be as potent as serotonin, but more potent than norepinephrine, histamine and angiotensin II. Structure-activity studies indicated that the contractile effects are attributed to the C-terminal portion of neurotensin. Neurotensin-induced responses were decreased by SR 48692, a specific neurotensin receptor antagonist. Neurotensin elicited an increase in coronary effluent norepinephrine concentrations, and a strong relationship between the magnitude of neurotensin-induced contractile effects and increments in myocardial norepinephrine release were noted. Neurotensin-induced contractile responses were abolished by β-adrenoceptor antagonists, but not by histamine, serotonin or angiotensin II receptor antagonists. In conclusion, neurotensin increases ventricular contractility through stimulation of myocardial norepinephrine release. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Inotropic effect; Neurotensin; Ventricular contractility2 [[1 (7 chloro 4 quinolinyl) 5 (2,6 dimethoxyphenyl) 3 pyrazolyl]carbonylamino] 2 adamantanecarboxylic acid; angiotensin; angiotensin II antagonist; antihistaminic agent; beta adrenergic receptor blocking agent; histamine; inotropic agent; neurotensin; neurotensin receptor antagonist; noradrenalin; serotonin; serotonin antagonist; animal tissue; article; beta adrenergic receptor blocking; carboxy terminal sequence; comparative study; concentration response; controlled study; drug activity; drug effect; drug inhibition; drug mechanism; drug potency; evoked muscle response; heart left ventricle contractility; heart muscle contractility; heart stimulation; immunoassay; inotropism; isolated heart; male; nonhuman; noradrenalin release; pathophysiology; priority journal; rat; structure activity relation; Animals; Cardiotonic Agents; Coronary Circulation; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Extracellular Fluid; Heart Ventricles; Male; Myocardial Contraction; Neurotensin; Norepinephrine; Perfusion; Pyrazoles; Quinolines; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Receptors, Neurotensin; Ventricular Function, LeftNone
WoSWOS:000208237600006An Evaluative Study of a Distance Teacher Education Program in a University in GhanaSampong, Kwasi Addo2009INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF RESEARCH IN OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING104NoneCent Univ CollNoneThe study used an adaptation of Provus' discrepancy evaluation model to evaluate a distance teacher education program in the University of Cape Coast, the premier teacher education institution in Ghana. The study involved comparing performance data of the program as perceived by students and faculty/administrators to standards prepared from the program's design. Performance data was obtained by administering two survey instruments to a random sample of students and faculty/administrators. Discrepancies between performance and standards were reported. The study concluded that although there were some discrepancies between program standards and performance the program is fulfilling its purpose of upgrading the professional and academic performance of a large number of teachers in the public K-8 schools in Ghana.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84925878225Evaluation of adherence measures of antiretroviral prophylaxis in HIV exposed infants in the first 6 weeks of lifeDesmond A.C., Moodley D., Conolly C.A., Castel S.A., Coovadia H.M.2015BMC Pediatrics15110.1186/s12887-015-0340-9Center for AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa-CAPRISA, Women's Health and HIV Research Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Biostatistics Unit, Medical Research Council, Durban, South Africa; Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Maternal Adolescent and Child Health (MatCH), University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaDesmond, A.C., Center for AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa-CAPRISA, Women's Health and HIV Research Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Moodley, D., Center for AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa-CAPRISA, Women's Health and HIV Research Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; Conolly, C.A., Biostatistics Unit, Medical Research Council, Durban, South Africa; Castel, S.A., Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Coovadia, H.M., Maternal Adolescent and Child Health (MatCH), University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaBackground: Adherence to an antiretroviral regimen is imperative for treatment success in both HIV infected adults and children. Likewise, adherence to antiretroviral prophylaxis is critical in HIV prevention. Studies on pediatric adherence are limited, particularly the prophylactic use of antiretroviral drugs and treatment adherence in very young infants. The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 046 study (Clinical Trial Registration NCT00074412) determined the safety and efficacy of an extended regimen of nevirapine suspension in infants born to HIV-1 infected women for the prevention of vertical HIV transmission during breastfeeding. As per protocol, adherence to nevirapine prophylaxis was measured by maternal verbal reports. In addition, the pharmacy assessed the unused returned suspension. The aim of this sub-study was to determine the reliability of maternal verbal reports in measuring adherence to antiretroviral prophylaxis in infants in the first 6 weeks of life and evaluating the unused returned nevirapine as an alternative method of measuring adherence. Methods: Maternal verbal reports and pharmacy returns indicative of "missed&lt;2 doses" were evaluated against a plasma nevirapine concentration of &gt;100 ng/ml in a subgroup of infants at 2, 5 and 6 weeks of age. Plasma nevirapine concentration of &gt;100 ng/ml was used as a marker of adherence (10 times the in vitro IC50 against HIV). Results: Adherence was 87.7% (maternal verbal report) and 71.3% (unused returned medication), as compared to 85.6% by plasma nevirapine concentration. Evaluated against plasma nevirapine concentration &lt;100 ng/ml, the sensitivity and specificity of maternal verbal reports to detect a missed dose in the last 3 days were 75% and 78% (p=0.03) respectively. Overall, among infants who were classified as adherent based on missed doses by maternal verbal reports and unused returned medication, 88.4% and 87.4% of infants attained a nevirapine concentration above 100 ng/ml respectively. Conclusion: Maternal verbal reports are a reliable measure of adherence to infant antiretroviral prophylaxis in the first 6 weeks of life and could be useful in assessing adherence to antiretroviral treatment in infants younger than 6 weeks. In the absence of resources or expertise to determine plasma drug concentration, we would recommend random assessments of unused returned medication. © Desmond et al.; licensee BioMed Central.Adherence measures; Antiretroviral prophylaxis; Infants; Maternal verbal report; Pharmacy returnsnevirapine; adult; antibiotic prophylaxis; Article; breast feeding; diagnostic test accuracy study; drug blood level; drug efficacy; drug safety; female; highly active antiretroviral therapy; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; IC50; infant; maternal verbal report; measurement; medication compliance; patient compliance; sensitivity and specificity; verbal communication; vertical transmissionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79954439764Evaluation of genetic manipulation strategies on d-lactate production by Escherichia coliZhou L., Zuo Z.-R., Chen X.-Z., Niu D.-D., Tian K.-M., Prior B.A., Shen W., Shi G.-Y., Singh S., Wang Z.-X.2011Current Microbiology62310.1007/s00284-010-9817-9Center for Bioresource and Bioenergy, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, China; Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology of Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, China; Department of Microbiology, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Durban University of Technology, P.O. Box 1334, Durban 4001, South AfricaZhou, L., Center for Bioresource and Bioenergy, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, China; Zuo, Z.-R., Center for Bioresource and Bioenergy, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, China; Chen, X.-Z., Center for Bioresource and Bioenergy, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, China, Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology of Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, China; Niu, D.-D., Center for Bioresource and Bioenergy, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, China; Tian, K.-M., Center for Bioresource and Bioenergy, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, China; Prior, B.A., Department of Microbiology, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; Shen, W., Center for Bioresource and Bioenergy, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, China, Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology of Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, China; Shi, G.-Y., Center for Bioresource and Bioenergy, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, China, Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology of Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, China; Singh, S., Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Durban University of Technology, P.O. Box 1334, Durban 4001, South Africa; Wang, Z.-X., Center for Bioresource and Bioenergy, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, China, Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology of Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, ChinaIn order to rationally manipulate the cellular metabolism of Escherichia coli for d-lactate production, single-gene and multiple-gene deletions with mutations in acetate kinase (ackA), phosphotransacetylase (pta), phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (pps), pyruvate formate lyase (pflB), FAD-binding d-lactate dehydrogenase (dld), pyruvate oxidase (poxB), alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE), and fumarate reductase (frdA) were tested for their effects in two-phase fermentations (aerobic growth and oxygen-limited production). Lactate yield and productivity could be improved by single-gene deletions of ackA, pta, pflB, dld, poxB, and frdA in the wild type E. coli strain but were unfavorably affected by deletions of pps and adhE. However, fermentation experiments with multiple-gene mutant strains showed that deletion of pps in addition to ackA-pta deletions had no effect on lactate production, whereas the additional deletion of adhE in E. coli B0013-050 (ackA-pta pps pflB dld poxB) increased lactate yield. Deletion of all eight genes in E. coli B0013 to produce B0013-070 (ackA-pta pps pflB dld poxB adhE frdA) increased lactate yield and productivity by twofold and reduced yields of acetate, succinate, formate, and ethanol by 95, 89, 100, and 93%, respectively. When tested in a bioreactor, E. coli B0013-070 produced 125 g/l d-lactate with an increased oxygen-limited lactate productivity of 0.61 g/g h (2.1-fold greater than E. coli B0013). These kinetic properties of d-lactate production are among the highest reported and the results have revealed which genetic manipulations improved d-lactate production by E. coli. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.Noneacetate kinase; acetic acid; alcohol; alcohol dehydrogenase; formic acid; fumarate reductase; lactate dehydrogenase; lactic acid; phosphate acetyltransferase; pyruvate oxidase; pyruvate water dikinase; succinic acid; synthetase; unclassified drug; ackA gene; adhE gene; aerobic fermentation; article; bacterial gene; bacterial growth; bacterial metabolism; bacterial strain; controlled study; dld gene; Escherichia coli; frda gene; gene deletion; gene mutation; genetic manipulation; nonhuman; pflB gene; poxb gene; pps gene; priority journal; pta gene; wild type; Aerobiosis; Anaerobiosis; Escherichia coli; Escherichia coli Proteins; Fermentation; Gene Deletion; Genetic Engineering; Lactic Acid; Metabolic Networks and Pathways; Mutation; Organisms, Genetically Modified; Escherichia coliNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77949655143Environmental, irrigation and fertilization impacts on the seed quality of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray)Bekaardt C.R., Coffelt T.A., Fenwick J.R., Wiesner L.E.2010Industrial Crops and Products31310.1016/j.indcrop.2009.12.008Agricultural Research Council, P/Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, 7599, South Africa; U.S. Arid-Land Agricultural Research Center, USDA-ARS, Maricopa, AZ 85138, United States; Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523, United States; National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation, USDA-ARS, Ft. Collins, CO 80523, United StatesBekaardt, C.R., Agricultural Research Council, P/Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, 7599, South Africa; Coffelt, T.A., U.S. Arid-Land Agricultural Research Center, USDA-ARS, Maricopa, AZ 85138, United States; Fenwick, J.R., Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523, United States; Wiesner, L.E., National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation, USDA-ARS, Ft. Collins, CO 80523, United StatesGuayule is a perennial shrub that originates from the Chihuahua desert. Currently stand establishment is by transplanting seedlings. In order for guayule commercialization to be more profitable, direct seeding methods need to be developed. For direct seeding to be practical factors affecting seed quality need to be identified. Guayule seed quality is highly variable. The objective of this study was to determine the seed quality of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) grown under various field conditions in Arizona, USA, and to determine the influence of irrigation frequency and fertilization management practices on seed quality. In experiment I guayule lines AZ-2, AZ-4, AZ-R2 and 11591 were compared at four locations in Arizona (Marana, Maricopa, Yuma Mesa and Yuma Valley). In experiment II guayule lines AZ-2 and 11591 were compared under three irrigation frequencies (40%, 60% and 80%) field capacity and fertilization at low and high levels of nitrogen, at Maricopa. Germination, embryo viability, empty achene production and achene moisture content were determined for harvested achenes. In experiment I a line × location interaction occurred for normal germination, empty achenes and achene fresh weight. Line AZ-4 had the highest germination of 59% at the Yuma Valley location. Empty achenes were the highest in Marana for line 11591 at 56%. In experiment II normal germination was affected by the line, irrigation and fertilization factors. The highest germination of 66% with line 11591, 55% at 60% irrigation and 56% at high fertilization was recorded. Empty achenes were the highest with line AZ-2 at 27%. Correlations of normal germination vs. maximum temperature, empty achenes vs. total rainfall and empty achenes vs. average wind speed were positive. Negative correlations occurred for empty achene vs. maximum temperature, normal germination vs. total rainfall and normal germination vs. average wind speed. The quality of guayule seed under both experimental conditions is severely decreased by empty achene production, which seems due to genetic variability and environmental conditions during flower bloom.Achene; Fertilization; Guayule; Irrigation; Parthenium argentatumArizona; Arizona , USA; Direct-seeding; Environmental conditions; Experimental conditions; Fertilization; Field capacity; Field conditions; Flower bloom; Fresh weight; Genetic variability; Irrigation frequency; Management practices; Maximum temperature; Moisture contents; Negative correlation; Parthenium argentatum; Perennial shrubs; Seed quality; Stand establishment; Total rainfall; Wind speed; Experiments; Landforms; Location; Profitability; Seed; Wind effects; Irrigation; commercialization; fertilizer application; genetic variation; germination; irrigation system; nitrogen; seedling; shrub; transplantation; wind velocity; Chihuahuan Desert; Parthenium argentatum; Yuma; crop production; environmental management; genetic modification; harvesting; moisture content; production management; profitability; seedNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70249105104Evaluation of biochemical parameters and genetic markers for association with meat tenderness in South African feedlot cattleFrylinck L., van Wyk G.L., Smith T.P.L., Strydom P.E., van Marle-Köster E., Webb E.C., Koohmaraie M., Smith M.F.2009Meat Science83410.1016/j.meatsci.2009.07.016Agricultural Research Council of South Africa, Private Bag X2, Irene, 0062, South Africa; Department of Animal and Wildlife Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa; US Meat Animal Research Centre, ARS, USDA, P.O. Box 166, Spur 18-D, NE 68933-0166, United States; IEH Laboratories, Consulting Group, 15300 Bothell Way NE, Lake Forest Pk., WA 98155, United StatesFrylinck, L., Agricultural Research Council of South Africa, Private Bag X2, Irene, 0062, South Africa; van Wyk, G.L., Agricultural Research Council of South Africa, Private Bag X2, Irene, 0062, South Africa; Smith, T.P.L., US Meat Animal Research Centre, ARS, USDA, P.O. Box 166, Spur 18-D, NE 68933-0166, United States; Strydom, P.E., Agricultural Research Council of South Africa, Private Bag X2, Irene, 0062, South Africa; van Marle-Köster, E., Department of Animal and Wildlife Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa; Webb, E.C., Department of Animal and Wildlife Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa; Koohmaraie, M., IEH Laboratories, Consulting Group, 15300 Bothell Way NE, Lake Forest Pk., WA 98155, United States; Smith, M.F., Agricultural Research Council of South Africa, Private Bag X2, Irene, 0062, South AfricaA large proportion of South African feedlot cattle are crossbreds of Brahman (BrX, Bos indicus), and Simmental (SiX, Bos taurus). A sample of 20 grain fed bulls from each of these crossbreeds was used to compare meat quality with that of the small frame indigenous Nguni (NgX, Sanga) by evaluating a variety of biochemical and genetic parameters previously shown to be associated with meat tenderness. Shear force values were generally high (5.6 kg average at 14 days post mortem), with SiX animals higher than BrX or NgX (P = 0.051) despite higher calpastatin:calpain ratio in BrX (P < 0.05). Calpain activity and cold shortening were both correlated with tenderness for all classes. The sample size was too small to accurately estimate genotypic effects of previously published markers in the CAST and CAPN1 genes, but the allele frequencies suggest that only modest progress would be possible in these South African crossbreds using these markers. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.Beef crossbreds; Calpain proteolytic system; Cold shortening/toughening; Genetic markers; TendernessAnimalia; Bos; Bos indicus; Bos taurus; SangaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-40549146585Impact of Redbilled Quelea control operations on wetlands in South AfricaLötter L.2008International Pest Control501NoneAgricultural Research Council, ARC, Plant Protection Research Institute, PPRI, Private bag X 134, Queenswood, Pretoria 0121, South AfricaLötter, L., Agricultural Research Council, ARC, Plant Protection Research Institute, PPRI, Private bag X 134, Queenswood, Pretoria 0121, South Africa[No abstract available]Nonebird; crop damage; migratory species; pest control; wetland; Africa; South Africa; Southern Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; QueleaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79958027963Field evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to Exserohilum turcicumCraven M., Fourie A.P.2011South African Journal of Plant and Soil281NoneAgricultural Research Council, Grain Crops Institute, Private Bag 1251, Potchefstroom, 2520, South AfricaCraven, M., Agricultural Research Council, Grain Crops Institute, Private Bag 1251, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa; Fourie, A.P., Agricultural Research Council, Grain Crops Institute, Private Bag 1251, Potchefstroom, 2520, South AfricaNine maize inbred lines with excellent grey leaf spot resistance and good combining ability were evaluated for their reaction to infection by Exserohilum turcicum. The lines were compared to a differential set consisting of Oh43 and B73 (susceptible controls) and OMZHt1B, Oh43Ht2, Oh43Ht3, B37HtN (containing resistant genes) in both growth chamber and field trials. All nine lines possessed seedling resistance to northern corn leaf blight (NCLB). Two field trials were planted over two growing seasons (2007/08 and 2008/09) as randomized complete block designs with three replicates. Trials were inoculated twice (at the 4-5 and 8-12 leaf stages) with NCLB and disease assessments made at growth stages R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5. Disease progress curves were created and total severity (yt), diseased plant severity (ydp) and AUDPC were determined for each replicate. Linearised forms of the exponential, logistic and Gompertz models were fitted to the disease-progress data and the best model selected for each trial. Rate of disease increase (r) and level of disease at the onset of the epidemic (y0; time=0) were obtained from which y0* (back-transformed from y0) were determined. Canonical variate analysis (CVA) indicated that yt, ydp, sAUDPC and y0* were responsible for 73.68% of the variation observed between the lines, with r explaining 15.44% of the variation. Ranking of lines were based on their yt, y dp, sAU-DPC and y0* performance. GLS resistant lines 185-2, 182-2, 72-2A and 182-1 demonstrated higher levels of resistance to NCLB than that of lines Oh43Ht1B, Oh43Ht2, Oh43Ht3 and B37HtN while 122-2, 578 and 72-3 showed higher levels of resistance than that of Oh43Ht2 and B37HtN.Canonical variate analysis; Cercospora maydis; Northern corn leaf blight; Sources of resistance; Zeamayscanonical analysis; disease resistance; disease severity; fungal disease; growing season; logistics; maize; Cercospora; Setosphaeria turcica; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84868483815Evaluation of NASA satellite and modelled temperature data for simulating maize water requirement satisfaction index in the Free State Province of South AfricaMoeletsi M.E., Walker S.2012Physics and Chemistry of the EarthNoneNone10.1016/j.pce.2012.08.012Agricultural Research Council, Institute for Soil, Climate and Water, Private Bag X79, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South AfricaMoeletsi, M.E., Agricultural Research Council, Institute for Soil, Climate and Water, Private Bag X79, Pretoria 0001, South Africa, Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; Walker, S., Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South AfricaLow density of weather stations and high percentages of missing values of the archived climate data in most places around the world makes it difficult for decision-makers to make meaningful conclusions in natural resource management. In this study, the use of NASA modelled and satellite-derived data was compared with measured minimum and maximum temperatures at selected climate stations in the Free State Province of South Africa. The NASA temperature data-fed Hargreaves evapotranspiration estimate was compared with the Penman-Monteith estimate to obtain regional coefficients for the Free State. The maize water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI) obtained using the NASA temperature data and calibrated Hargreaves equation was evaluated against the WRSI obtained using Penman-Monteith estimate. The data used is mostly from 1999 to 2008. The results of the comparison between measured minimum temperatures and NASA minimum temperatures show overestimation of the NASA values by between a monthly mean of 1.4°C and 4.1°C. NASA maximum temperatures seem to underestimate measured temperatures by monthly values ranging from 2.2 to 3.8°C. NASA-fed Hargreaves equation in its original form underestimates Penman-Monteith evapotranspiration by between 20% and 40% and hence its coefficient was calibrated accordingly. The comparison of the maize WRSI simulated with NASA temperatures showed a good correlation and small deviations from WRSI calculated from measured data. Thus, the use of NASA satellite and modelled data is recommended in the Free State Province in places where there are no meteorological readings, with special consideration of the biasness of the data. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.Evapotranspiration; Hargreaves; Maize; Minimum and maximum temperatures; WRSIClimate data; Climate stations; Decision makers; Free state; Good correlations; Hargreaves; Hargreaves equations; Low density; Maize; Maximum temperature; Missing values; NASA satellite; Natural resource management; Penman-Monteith; South Africa; Temperature data; Water requirements; Weather stations; WRSI; Estimation; Evapotranspiration; NASA; Natural resources management; Satellites; Water supply; Information management; computer simulation; evapotranspiration; maize; resource management; satellite data; temperature effect; Free State; South Africa; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84856973712The impacts of herbivory on vegetation in Moremi Game Reserve, Botswana: 1967-2001Hamandawana H.2012Regional Environmental Change12110.1007/s10113-011-0230-0Agricultural Research Council, Institute for Soil, Water and Climate, PB X79, Pretoria 0001, South AfricaHamandawana, H., Agricultural Research Council, Institute for Soil, Water and Climate, PB X79, Pretoria 0001, South AfricaBrowsing and grazing pressure on vegetation in the Moremi Game Reserve in Botswana was analyzed using remotely sensed imagery comprising CORONA photographs of 1967 and Landsat TM and Landsat ETM imagery of 1989 and 1994 and 2001, respectively. Comparison of temporal variations in the spatial distributions of different vegetation types and changes in the abundance of selected wildlife species demonstrate a persistent decrease in capacity of the environment to support wild animals, due to increasing abundance of poorly preferred browse species and increasing scarcity of favored varieties. Given the long-term direction of change showing continued deterioration of habitat conditions and the limited prospects for reversal of this trend, it is apparent that there is immediate need to realign wildlife management strategies in ways that can enhance the sustainability of wildlife and the supporting environment. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.Preferred browse; Vegetation response; Wildlife managementAnimaliaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34548216169Evaluation of selected herbicides for the control of European gorse (Ulex europaeus L) by cut-stump and foliar treatmentViljoen B.D., Stoltsz C.W.2007South African Journal of Plant and Soil242NoneAgricultural Research Council, Plant Protection Research Institute, P.O. Box 318, Uitenhage 6230, South AfricaViljoen, B.D., Agricultural Research Council, Plant Protection Research Institute, P.O. Box 318, Uitenhage 6230, South Africa; Stoltsz, C.W., Agricultural Research Council, Plant Protection Research Institute, P.O. Box 318, Uitenhage 6230, South AfricaEuropean gorse (Ulex europaeus L) is a persistent, declared weed (Category 1) of South Africa. Current distribution is limited to the moist, high altitude regions of the Drakensberg (KwaZulu Natal Province) and Amatola (Eastern Cape Province) mountains. Gorse poses a threat to the plant diversity of forests, where it could establish itself quickly and occupies the site indefinitely. Once established, gorse can be difficult to eradicate, as it resprouts if cut or burnt and no herbicide was registered in South Africa at the time of this research on its control. The objective of this investigation was therefore to evaluate selected herbicides at various concentrations using different application techniques. Picloram and triclopyr ester proved the most effective and consistent across all application methods, while imazapyr is also recommended for cut-stump treatment. As a result of this research, both picloram and triclopyr were registered under Act 36 (1947) for the control of European gorse by means of cut stump and foliar treatment.Chemical control; Declared weed; European gorse; Herbicides; Ulex europaeusagroforestry; herbicide; species diversity; weed control; Africa; South Africa; Southern Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; Ulex europaeusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77957201164Preliminary evaluation of residual herbicides for the control of camelthorn bush (Alhagi maurorum Medik.)Viljoen B.D., Stoltsz C.W., Van Der Rijst M.2010South African Journal of Plant and Soil272NoneAgricultural Research Council, Plant Protection Research Institute, P.O. Box 318, Uitenhage, 6230, South Africa; Agricultural Research Council, Biometry Unit, Private Bag X5013, Stellenbosch, 7599, South AfricaViljoen, B.D., Agricultural Research Council, Plant Protection Research Institute, P.O. Box 318, Uitenhage, 6230, South Africa; Stoltsz, C.W., Agricultural Research Council, Plant Protection Research Institute, P.O. Box 318, Uitenhage, 6230, South Africa; Van Der Rijst, M., Agricultural Research Council, Biometry Unit, Private Bag X5013, Stellenbosch, 7599, South AfricaCamelthorn bush (Alhagi maurorum Medik.) invasion in South Africa is a serious, but still relatively localized problem, with the potential to spread into many other parts of the country. Previous research revealed the difficulty in killing the deep extensive root system when using foliarapplied herbicides. The small leaf area available for herbicide absorption relative to the large root system and the apparent inability of foliar-applied herbicides to translocate in sufficient quantity beyond the root crown are probably some of the main reasons for the poor levels of control normally achieved. It stands to reason that residual herbicides that are root absorbed may be a better option to enhance control. Tebuthiuron 200 g kg1 (Molopo 200 GG) is an example of such a herbicide and is presently the only product registered for control of camelthorn bush in South Africa. However, since the plant is often a problem in cultivated areas and since tebuthiuron has a long-term soil sterilizing effect, this product has limited practical application value for control of camelthorn bush. The objective of this study was to investigate other residual herbicides that would have a lower residual impact on the soil. Results showed that both imazapyr 250 g ℓ-1 SL (8 ℓ ha-1) and metsulfuron-methyl 600 g kg-1 WP (13.33 kg ha-1) outper-formed all other treatments and sustained good levels of population control for at least 2 years after application. It is recommended that the registration holders of these products conduct further trials for the purpose of registration to control camelthorn bush.Chemical control; Herbicides; Invasive vegetation; Noxious weedbiological invasion; herbicide; leaf area; legume; pesticide application; pesticide residue; root architecture; root system; translocation; weed control; South Africa; Alhagi maurorumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80053892761Preliminary evaluation of soil-residual herbicides for the control of silver-leaf bitter apple (Solarium elaeagnifolium Cav.)Viljoen B.D., Stoltsz C.W., Van Der Rijst M.2011South African Journal of Plant and Soil282NoneAgricultural Research Council, Plant Protection Research Institute, P.O. Box 318, Uitenhage, 6230, South Africa; Agricultural Research Council, Biometry Unit, Private Bag X5013, Stellenbosch, 7599, South Africa; Hofmeyer Street, Despatch, 6220, South AfricaViljoen, B.D., Agricultural Research Council, Plant Protection Research Institute, P.O. Box 318, Uitenhage, 6230, South Africa, Hofmeyer Street, Despatch, 6220, South Africa; Stoltsz, C.W., Agricultural Research Council, Plant Protection Research Institute, P.O. Box 318, Uitenhage, 6230, South Africa; Van Der Rijst, M., Agricultural Research Council, Biometry Unit, Private Bag X5013, Stellenbosch, 7599, South AfricaSolatium elaeagnifolium Cav., commonly known as silver-leaf bitter apple, silverleaf nightshade or "satansbos",has become one of the most important emerging weeds in South Africa, with the potential to spread throughoutsome of the major crop growing areas of the country. Consequently, it has been declared a weed of nationalimportance. Previous research revealed the difficulty in killing the extensive root system when using foliarapplied herbicides. The small leaf area for herbicide absorption relative to the large root system and apparentinability to translocate sufficient herbicide beyond the root crown are believed to be some of the main reasonsfor the poor levels of control achieved. Since herbicides capable of being absorbed by the roots may be moreeffective, a study was undertaken to evaluate a range of soil-residual herbicides in the hope of improving control.While imazapyr 250 g V SL applied at 81 ha"1initially caused the most significant reduction in weed populationlevels, it was ultimately tebuthiuron 500 g !"1 SC and a bromacil/tebuthiuron mixture 250/250 g ("1 SC applied at32 J ha"1 that sustained the best long-term control. However, the high cost and long soil residual nature of theseproducts would seriously limit their application value in cropping areas and sensitive habitats. Nonetheless, theymay be useful for controlling isolated dense patches on fallow land and along roadsides, away from desirablevegetation, steep slopes or watercourses. The registration holders of these products are encouraged to conductfurther evaluations using lower rates, as well as combining these products with foliar applied herbicides, toreduce costs and potential environmental impacts if used in sensitive habitats.Chemical control; Noxious weed; Satansbos; Silverleaf nightshadedicotyledon; environmental impact; herbicide; pesticide residue; root system; tolerance; translocation; weed control; South Africa; Citrullus colocynthis; Solanum elaeagnifolium; SolariumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80455131226The effect of dosing Megasphaera elsdenii NCIMB 41125 (Me) on lactation performance of multiparous Holstein cowsHenning P.H., Erasmus L.J., Meissner H.H., Horn C.H.2011South African Journal of Animal Sciences412NoneAgricultural Research Council, Private Bag x2, Irene 0062, South Africa; Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South Africa; Megastarter Biotech Pty Ltd T/A MS Biotech, PO Box 10520, Centurion 0046, South AfricaHenning, P.H., Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag x2, Irene 0062, South Africa, Megastarter Biotech Pty Ltd T/A MS Biotech, PO Box 10520, Centurion 0046, South Africa; Erasmus, L.J., Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South Africa; Meissner, H.H., Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag x2, Irene 0062, South Africa; Horn, C.H., Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag x2, Irene 0062, South AfricaThe objective of the study was to determine whether early post-partum dosing of Megasphaera elsdenii NCIMB 41125 (Me) will be beneficial to performance of high producing TMR-fed cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein cows were randomly allocated to four treatments (60% or 70% concentrate diet and placebo or Me [single oral dose of 1011 cfu in 250 mL suspension on day of calving and Days 10 and 20 post-partum, respectively]). Observations were recorded between calving and 80 days post-partum. Performance data were analysed for all 60 cows combined and for the 40 highest producing cows only, since they were considered more susceptible to ruminal acidosis. For all 60 cows, body weight, condition score and milk yield tended to increase with Me, but data for the 40 highest producing cows suggested that this response could be ascribed primarily to higher producing cows on the higher concentrate diet. Dry matter intake and milk protein were not affected by Me, whereas milk fat percentage increased with Me but only in cows on the 60% concentrate diet. Results support the hypothesis that dosing with Megasphaera elsdenii is most likely to benefit higher producing cows with greater risk of acidosis.Body weight; Concentrate; Dairy cow; Feed intake; Milk yield; SaraBos; Megasphaera elsdeniiNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84875868358Evaluation of the bovineSNP50 genotyping array in four south african cattle populationsQwabe S.O., vanMarle-Köster E., Maiwashe A., Muchadeyi F.C.2013South African Journal of Animal Sciences43110.4314/sajas.v43i.7Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa; Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield, 0028, South Africa; Biotechnology Platform, Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X5, Onderstepoort, 0110, South AfricaQwabe, S.O., Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa, Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield, 0028, South Africa; vanMarle-Köster, E., Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield, 0028, South Africa; Maiwashe, A., Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa; Muchadeyi, F.C., Biotechnology Platform, Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X5, Onderstepoort, 0110, South AfricaThe BovineSNP50 genotyping array is a product with a wide range of applications in cattle such as genome-wide association studies, identification of copy number variation and investigation of genetic relationships among cattle breeds. It also holds potential for genomic selection, especially for traits that are expensive and difficult to measure. The successfulness of this chip for any of these applications depends on the degree of polymorphisms in the cattle breeds. The SNP50 array has not been validated in any South African cattle population and this could lead to overestimating the number of polymorphic SNPs available for application in it. This study is a first attemptto evaluate the Bovine64SNP50 genotyping array in the South African cattle population. Ninety six bovine samples, consisting of 45 Holstein, 29 Nguni, 12 Angus and 10 Nguni x Angus crossbred animals, were genotyped with the BovineSNP50 infinium assay. The results of this study demonstrated that 40 555 SNPs were polymorphic (MAF >0.05) in these breeds and indicate potential for application in South African cattle populations. Genomic information generated from the BovineSNP50 can now beapplied in genetic prediction, genetic characterization and genome-wide association studies.Call rate; Minor allele frequencyAnimalia; Bos; BovinaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77954164867Effect of Megasphaera elsdenii NCIMB 41125 drenching on health and performance of steers fed high and low roughage diets in the feedlotLeeuw K.-J., Siebrits F.K., Henning P.H., Meissner H.H.2009South African Journal of Animal Sciences394NoneAgricultural Research Council, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa; Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Megastarter Biotech Pty LTD t/a MS Biotech, P.O. Box 10520, Centurion 0046, South Africa; 189 Van Riebeeck Avenue, Centurion 0157, South AfricaLeeuw, K.-J., Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Siebrits, F.K., Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Henning, P.H., Megastarter Biotech Pty LTD t/a MS Biotech, P.O. Box 10520, Centurion 0046, South Africa; Meissner, H.H., Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa, 189 Van Riebeeck Avenue, Centurion 0157, South AfricaLactate utilising bacteria (LUB) assist in reducing the risk of ruminal lactate acidosis when high concentrate diets are fed to feedlot cattle. Ruminal lactate acidosis can lead to lower animal performance and morbidity. Preliminary studies suggested that the strain, Megasphaera elsdenii (M.e.) NCIMB 41125, is a particularly potent LUB. The potential of M.e.NCIMB 41125 to improve the health and performance of feedlot cattle was investigated. Four hundred and forty eight Bonsmara steers (ca. 240 kg) were used in a 100-day feeding trial. Half the steers received at processing 200 mL M.e.NCIMB 41125 per os (LY) and the other half no LUB (LN). The diets in each of these treatments were divided into a low roughage (2%) (RL) and high roughage (8%) (RH) diet. The effects of LY vs. LN, RL vs. RH as main effects and their respective interactions (LYRL, LYRH, LNRL & LNRH) were compared in terms of morbidity, feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. The steers were weighed at two week intervals, feed was offered daily and the orts were removed weekly from each pen. The faecal consistency score and incidence of morbidity were recorded. At slaughter, carcass data were collected and the health status of the liver and rumen epithelium was assessed. Steers dosed with M.e.NCIMB 41125 had a 5.6% better average daily gain (ADG) during weeks 3 - 5 (2.09 kg/day vs. 1.98 kg/day for LY and LN, respectively). Feed conversion ratio (FCR, Weeks 1 - 13) was better for the steers fed the RL than the RH treatment (4.72 kg/kg vs. 4.99 kg/kg for RL and RH, respectively). Steers on the LNRH treatment during weeks 3 - 5 used more feed per kg gain than steers on the other treatments (5.39 kg/kg for LNRH vs. 4.74 kg/kg and 4.72 kg/kg for LYRL and LNRL, respectively). More steers (21) on the LNRL treatment were treated for morbidity than on the other treatments (8, 7 and 5 for LYRL, LYRH and LNRH, respectively). In general, animal performance was not improved by dosing with M.e.NCIMB 41125, but since ADG was improved in the immediate postadaptation phase (weeks 3 - 5) and morbidity levels were lower on the low roughage diet, dosing of steers on low roughage, lactate acidosis-prone, diets with M.e.NCIMB 41125 should prove useful. © South African Society for Animal Science.Acidosis; Beef cattle; Lactic acid utilising bacteria; MorbidityAnimalia; Bacteria (microorganisms); Bos; Megasphaera elsdeniiNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84871394974Characterization and evaluation of South African sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) LAM) land racesLaurie S.M., Calitz F.J., Adebola P.O., Lezar A.2013South African Journal of Botany85None10.1016/j.sajb.2012.11.004Agricultural Research Council, Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Inst., Private Bag X293, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa; Agricultural Research Council, Biometry Unit, PO Box 8783, Pretoria, 0001, South AfricaLaurie, S.M., Agricultural Research Council, Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Inst., Private Bag X293, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa; Calitz, F.J., Agricultural Research Council, Biometry Unit, PO Box 8783, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa; Adebola, P.O., Agricultural Research Council, Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Inst., Private Bag X293, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa; Lezar, A., Agricultural Research Council, Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Inst., Private Bag X293, Pretoria, 0001, South AfricaA total of 57 sweet potato accessions, consisting of 51 South African land races and six local cultivars, were subjected to characterization in a glass house and in follow-up field experiments. The accessions were morphologically characterized using the Bioversity International descriptors and, in addition, screened for drought and heat tolerance. Significant differences were observed for the following drought-heat screening parameters: number of days to severe wilting and number of severely wilted plants. A number of land races showed tolerance to both drought and heat, namely A3026, A3027, A2316 and A46. The multivariate cluster analysis and principal component analysis divided the 57 accessions into three groups consisting of 17, 21 and 19 accessions, respectively. The commercial varieties were all allocated to group 3, except the old cultivar Mafutha, which was in group 1. The most important characters for distinction of the accessions were leaf outline, leaf lobe type, leaf lobe number, and shape of the central leaf lobe. The study provided comprehensive information concerning locally available sweet potato germplasm and is of vital importance for advancement in the sweet potato improvement program in South Africa. The information will also be useful to SASHA (a regional network for sweet potato breeding), ensuring wider utilization of these germplasms within Sub-Saharan Africa. © 2012.Drought screening; Morphological traits; Multivariate cluster analysis; Sweet potatocluster analysis; cultivar; germplasm; morphology; principal component analysis; root vegetable; tolerance; South Africa; Ipomoea batatasNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80053905827Comparative performance of tomato cultivars cultivated in two hydroponic production systemsMaboko M.M., Du Plooy C.P., Bertling I.2011South African Journal of Plant and Soil282NoneAgricultural Research Council, Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, Private Bag X 293, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa; Horticultural Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Pietermaritzburg, 3201, South AfricaMaboko, M.M., Agricultural Research Council, Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, Private Bag X 293, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa, Horticultural Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Pietermaritzburg, 3201, South Africa; Du Plooy, C.P., Agricultural Research Council, Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, Private Bag X 293, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa; Bertling, I., Horticultural Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Pietermaritzburg, 3201, South AfricaCultivar selection for different hydroponic production systems is an important management decision, potentially impacting the tomato grower's profitability. Knowledge on the performance of tomato cultivars, in specific hydroponic systems (open-bag and closed system) under South African conditions, is still very limited. The performance of four cultivars was evaluated in an open and a closed hydroponic (gravel-film technique) system. The commonly grown cultivars evaluated in each of the two hydroponic systems were 'FA593', 'Malory', 'Miramar' and 'FiveOFive'. For each experiment a randomized complete block design was used with four replicates. Total, marketable and unmarketable yields, as well as internal fruit quality characteristics (total soluble solids (̊Brix) and pH) were determined. Although no significant differences in total yield could be established - neither in the open nor in the closed hydroponic system - differences in marketable yield were observed. 'Miramar' and 'FiveOFive' produced the highest marketable yield in the closed system; the high unmarketable yield of 'FA593' and 'Malory' in the closed hydroponic system could be attributed to the high number of cracked fruit due to their inherent larger fruit size. There were no significant differences in ̊Brix between cultivars in the closed system. Cultivar 'FiveOFive', 'FA593' and 'Miramar' produced higher marketable yields than cultivar 'Malory' when grown in the open-bag system. 'Malory' and 'FA593' produced the highest number of fruit exhibiting fruit cracking in the open bag system. In the open system, only cultivar 'Malory' had a higher ̊Brix than 'Miramar' and 'FiveOFive'. The most promising cultivars for local hydroponic tomato production, with regard to yield and quality, were identified as 'Miramar' and 'FiveOFive', with 'FA593' performing equally in the open system only. Further studies need to be undertaken on economical comparison of the two production systems.Closed hydroponic system; Fruit cracking; Marketable yield; Open hydroponic systemagricultural market; agricultural research; comparative study; crop production; crop yield; cultivar; cultivation; decision making; experimental design; fruit; fruit production; hydroponics; nutritive value; performance assessment; profitability; South Africa; Lycopersicon esculentumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84946190421Growth performance, blood metabolic responses, and carcass characteristics of grower and finisher south african windsnyer-type indigenous and large white × landrace crossbred pigs fed diets containing ensiled corncobsKanengoni A.T., Chimonyo M., Erlwanger K.H., Ndimba B.K., Dzama K.2014Journal of Animal Science921210.2527/jas2014-8067Agricultural Research Council-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, South Africa; Discipline of Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag X 3, Wits, South Africa; Agricultural Research Council, Proteomics Research and Services Unit, Infruitech-Nietvoorbij Institute, Department of Biotechnology, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, South AfricaKanengoni, A.T., Agricultural Research Council-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, South Africa, Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, South Africa; Chimonyo, M., Discipline of Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Erlwanger, K.H., School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag X 3, Wits, South Africa; Ndimba, B.K., Agricultural Research Council, Proteomics Research and Services Unit, Infruitech-Nietvoorbij Institute, Department of Biotechnology, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa; Dzama, K., Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, South AfricaA study was taken to evaluate growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolite concentrations when ensiled corncobs were included in indigenous and commercial pig diets. Fifty Large White × Landrace (LW×LR) crossbred pigs and 30 South African Windsnyer-type indigenous pigs (SAWIP) were evaluated. They were fed a control (CON), a low inclusion of ensiled corncob (LMC), and a high inclusion of ensiled corncob (HMC) diet in a completely randomized block design. The LW×LR crosses had greater (P < 0.05) final weight, ADFI, DMI, ADG, and G:F ratios than the SAWIP at both the grower and finisher stages. The SAWIP consumed more feed per metabolic BW (BW0.75) than LW×LR crosses at the grower stage while LW×LR crosses consumed more than SAWIP at the finisher stage (P < 0.05). The finishers’ G:F ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in the CON than in the HMC diet. The LW×LR growers and finishers had greater (P < 0.05) warm carcass weight (WCW), cold carcass weight (CCW), carcass length, drip loss, pH at 24 h, eye muscle area, and lean percent than those of SAWIP growers and finishers. The LW×LR finishers on the CON diet had greater (P < 0.05) WCW and CCW than those on the HMC and LMC diets. There were diet × breed interactions for dorsal fat thickness at first rib (DFT1), dorsal fat thickness at last lumbar vertebra (DFT3), backfat thickness (BFT), and hindquarter weight proportion (HQWP) in the growers. The LW×LR growers and finishers had greater values (P < 0.05) of hindquarter length, hindquarter circumference, HQWP, and shoulder weight proportion than the SAWIP growers and finishers, respectively. The SAWIP growers and finishers had greater values (P < 0.05) of DFT1, dorsal fat thickness at last rib, DFT3, and BFT than the LW×LR growers and finishers, respectively. There were breed × diet interactions (P < 0.05) for alanine aminotransferase and amylase (AMYL). The LW×LR crosses had greater (P < 0.05) values of creatinine, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, and AMYL than the SAWIP. The breed of pig influenced most of the growth performance and carcass parameters more than the diet did. There was no clear link between the blood metabolite levels and the diets. Since the inclusion of ensiled corncobs in diets did not affect negatively the selected important commercial pork cuts in South Africa, this could imply that they have a greater role as a pig feed resource. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.Blood metabolites; Fermentation; Fiber; Pig genotypes; Serum enzymesPieris brassicae; SuidaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79961045624Evaluation of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and Pseudomonas fluorescens for Panama disease controlBelgrove A., Steinberg C., Viljoen A.2011Plant Disease95810.1094/PDIS-06-10-0409Agricultural Research Council-Grain Crops Institute, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa; Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa; INRA-Université de Bourgogne, Microbiology of Soil and Environment, Dijon, France; Department of Plant Pathology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland 7602, South AfricaBelgrove, A., Agricultural Research Council-Grain Crops Institute, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa, Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa; Steinberg, C., INRA-Université de Bourgogne, Microbiology of Soil and Environment, Dijon, France; Viljoen, A., Department of Plant Pathology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland 7602, South AfricaNonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum endophytes from healthy banana roots were evaluated for their ability to reduce Fusarium wilt of banana (Panama disease). Isolates were identified morphologically and by using species-specific primers. Pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculating banana plantlets in the greenhouse. Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolates were grouped into 14 haplotype groups by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the intergenic spacer region, and representative isolates evaluated for biocontrol of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. In the greenhouse, 10 nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolates were able to significantly reduce Fusarium wilt of banana. The isolate that protected banana plantlets best in the greenhouse, a nonpathogenic F. oxysporum from the root rhizosphere, and Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS 417 were then field tested. When the putative biological control organisms were tested in the field, neither the nonpathogenic F. oxysporum, P. fluorescens, nor combinations thereof reduced Fusarium wilt development significantly. A number of factors could contribute to the lack of field protection, including soil microbial and chemical composition and reduced survival of biocontrol organisms in banana roots. A lack of knowledge regarding the etiology of Fusarium wilt of 'Cavendish' banana in the subtropics and the effect of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense race and banana cultivar in protection of banana by biocontrol organisms should be further investigated. © 2011 The American Phytopathological Society.NoneFusarium; Fusarium oxysporum; Fusarium sp.; Musa acuminata; Pseudomonas fluorescensNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84898598774Evaluation of soil conservation measures on a highly erodible soil in the Free State province, South AfricaPaterson D.G., Smith H.J., Van Greunen A.2013South African Journal of Plant and Soil30410.1080/02571862.2013.861029Agricultural Research Council-Institute for Soil, Climate and Water, Private Bag X79, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Free State Provincial Department of Agriculture, PO Box 13, Ladybrand 9745, South AfricaPaterson, D.G., Agricultural Research Council-Institute for Soil, Climate and Water, Private Bag X79, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Smith, H.J., Agricultural Research Council-Institute for Soil, Climate and Water, Private Bag X79, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Van Greunen, A., Free State Provincial Department of Agriculture, PO Box 13, Ladybrand 9745, South AfricaSoil erosion is a problem in South Africa, and is exacerbated by poor land use practices and erodible soils. Several methods are available to address the problem and a runoff trial was conducted over four rainfall seasons on an erodible, duplex soil. Various geotextiles and physical measures were evaluated. The treatments comprised jute matting, a synthetic geotextile, woven palm mats, micro-basins, surface stone rows and bare soil as the control. Runoff was recorded by a datalogger, with sediment load manually sampled after each rainfall event. All the treatments performed better than the bare soil, but there were several variations. Runoff was on average 38-63% less than that produced by the bare soil, whereas sediment load was on average 16-72% less. Re-establishment of vegetation cover was up to twice that of the bare plot. Approximation of soil loss showed reduction from an annual rate of over 50 t ha-1 to between 1 and 7 t ha-1 for most treatments. While many land users or communities may not be able to obtain or afford relatively expensive geotextiles, more basic treatments, requiring a lower level of inputs, are available as a cost-effective means of addressing the problem of excessive soil loss. Copyright © 2013 Combined Congress Continuing Committee.Runoff plots; Soil conservation; Soil loss; Vegetation cover; Water erosiondata acquisition; erodibility; geotextile; land use; revegetation; runoff; soil conservation; soil erosion; water erosion; Free State; South Africa; Corchorus capsularisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84903273884Preliminary evaluation of guava selections for guava wilt disease resistance in South AfricaSchoeman M.H., Labuschagne N.2014South African Journal of Plant and Soil31210.1080/02571862.2014.917385Agricultural Research Council-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, Nelspruit, South Africa; Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaSchoeman, M.H., Agricultural Research Council-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops, Nelspruit, South Africa; Labuschagne, N., Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaGuava wilt disease (GWD), caused by Nalanthamala psidii, is a serious disease occurring in the guava-producing areas of the Mpumalanga and Limpopo provinces of South Africa. Two resistant guava rootstocks, TS-G1 and TS-G2, were developed by the ARC-ITSC in 1995. In 2009, a renewed outbreak of GWD was reported, which also affected the resistant TS-G2 cultivar, placing the guava industry under threat again. The aim of this study was to seek resistant guava selections by means of in vitro screening of guava seedlings and subsequently testing the most promising selections in inoculation studies with N. psidii. A culture filtrate of N. psidii was used to screen guava seedlings in vitro. Promising selections were multiplied in tissue culture, hardened-off and planted in bags before inoculation with the GWD fungus in a shadehouse trial. The number of plants surviving nine months after inoculation was recorded. Although none of the selections showed complete resistance, selection MS44 showed some tolerance against the G2 isolate of the pathogen obtained from diseased TS-G2 trees, whilst selection MS70 showed some tolerance against the G1 isolate obtained from diseased TS-G1 trees. These selections were also resistant to the original Fan Retief isolate of the pathogen. © 2014 © Southern African Plant and Soil Sciences Committee.guava wilt; in vitro screening; Nalanthamala psidii; resistancecultivar; disease resistance; fruit; inoculation; pathogen; seedling; wilt; Limpopo; Mpumalanga; South Africa; Fungi; Nalanthamala psidii; PsidiumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79958254797Evaluation of strategies for the control of canola and lupin seedling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia anastomosis groupsLamprecht S.C., Tewoldemedhin Y.T., Calitz F.J., Mazzola M.2011European Journal of Plant Pathology130310.1007/s10658-011-9764-8Agricultural Research Council-Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X5017, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa; Agricultural Research Council-Biometry Unit, PO Box 8783, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Tree Fruit Research Laboratory, Wenatchee, WA 98801, United StatesLamprecht, S.C., Agricultural Research Council-Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X5017, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa; Tewoldemedhin, Y.T., Agricultural Research Council-Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X5017, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa; Calitz, F.J., Agricultural Research Council-Biometry Unit, PO Box 8783, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Mazzola, M., United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Tree Fruit Research Laboratory, Wenatchee, WA 98801, United StatesSeveral methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia diseases of canola and lupin including plant resistance, fungicide seed treatment and biological control using binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AGs) were evaluated under glasshouse conditions. Screening included the examination of resistance of eight canola and eight lupin cultivars/selections to damping-off and hypocotyl/root rot caused by the multinucleate Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1, 2-2, 4 and 11. All canola cultivars were highly susceptible to AG-2-1, but Rocket, Spectrum and 44C11 were more resistant than the other cultivars. Spectrum and 44C73 were also more resistant to AG-4 than the other canola cultivars. On lupin, R. solani AG-2-2 and 4 were most virulent, and the cultivar Cedara 6150 and selection E16 were most resistant to AG-2-2; Cedara 6150, E16, Mandelup and Quilinock were more resistant to AG-4 than the other cultivars/selections. The Lupinus luteus selections, E80.1.1.2 and E82. 1. 1 were most susceptible to AG-2-2, 4 and 11. Seed treatment with the fungicides Cruiser OSR (a.i. difenconazole, fludioxonil, metalaxyl-M, thiamethoxam) and SA-combination (a. i. iprodione, metalaxyl, thiram) significantly increased survival of canola and lupin seedlings, decreased hypocotyl/root rot and improved the percentage of healthy seedlings, with the SA-combination being significantly more effective than Cruiser OSR. Application of the binucleate Rhizoctonia AGs (A, Bo, K and I) significantly increased the survival of lupin seedlings inoculated with R. solani AG-2-2 and 4, and AG-I and K significantly improved survival of canola in the presence of AG-4. This is the first report of the potential of binucleate AGs to protect canola and lupin seedlings against infection by multinucleate AGs. © 2011 KNPV.Binucleate; Multinucleate; Protective effect; Resistance; Seed treatmentbiological control; canola; cultivar; disease control; disease resistance; fungal disease; fungicide; infectious disease; legume; pesticide application; survival; Brassica napus; Brassica napus var. napus; Hyphomycetes; Lupinus luteus; Rhizoctonia; Thanatephorus cucumerisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84922261523Evaluation of butterhead lettuce cultivars for winter production under a shadenet structureMaboko M.M., Ncayiyana M., Du Plooy C.P.2015Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science65210.1080/09064710.2014.985250Agricultural Research Council-Roodeplaat, Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, Private Bag X293, Pretoria, South AfricaMaboko, M.M., Agricultural Research Council-Roodeplaat, Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, Private Bag X293, Pretoria, South Africa; Ncayiyana, M., Agricultural Research Council-Roodeplaat, Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, Private Bag X293, Pretoria, South Africa; Du Plooy, C.P., Agricultural Research Council-Roodeplaat, Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute, Private Bag X293, Pretoria, South AfricaIncorrect selection of cultivar leads to profit loss due to variability in yield and in quality characteristics of butterhead lettuce. Nine butterhead lettuce cultivars were evaluated in soil cultivation under a 40% white shadenet structure during the winter season on an experimental farm of the Agricultural Research Council – Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute (ARC-VOPI). The experiment was laid out as a randomised complete block design with five replicates. During harvest, 10 plants from each cultivar per replicate were assessed for yield, and five uniform heads were cut longitudinally for internal quality assessment. Quality assessment included compactness, uniformity, tipburn, disease tolerance and bolting tolerance. Results showed that head mass, height, diameter, uniformity, compactness, tipburn, disease tolerance and internal quality were significantly affected by cultivar choice. Recommended cultivars which outperformed the control (Ofelia) based on uniformity, tipburn and percentage marketable harvest were Analena, Fabieto RZ, Lobela and Rousso RZ. Results thus indicate that improved yield and quality of butterhead lettuce cultivars can be obtained by selecting the correct cultivar for winter production. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.compactness; internal quality; tipburn; uniformity; yieldLactucaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84897446615Diversity in Puccinia triticina detected on wheat from 2008 to 2010 and the impact of new races on South African wheat germplasmTerefe T.G., Visser B., Herselman L., Prins R., Negussie T., Kolmer J.A., Pretorius Z.A.2014European Journal of Plant Pathology139110.1007/s10658-013-0368-3Agricultural Research Council-Small Grain Institute, Private Bag X29, Bethlehem, 9700, South Africa; Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa; CenGen, 78 Fairbairn St., Worcester, 6850, South Africa; USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 55108, United StatesTerefe, T.G., Agricultural Research Council-Small Grain Institute, Private Bag X29, Bethlehem, 9700, South Africa; Visser, B., Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa; Herselman, L., Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa; Prins, R., Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa, CenGen, 78 Fairbairn St., Worcester, 6850, South Africa; Negussie, T., Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa; Kolmer, J.A., USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 55108, United States; Pretorius, Z.A., Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South AfricaSamples of wheat and triticale infected with leaf rust were collected from 2008 to 2010 in South Africa to identify Puccinia triticina races. Races were identified based on their virulence profile on standard differential lines. Eight races were identified from 362 isolates. The dominant races were 3SA133 (syn. PDRS) in 2008 (78 %) and 2009 (34 %), and 3SA145 (47 %) in 2010. Race 3SA145 (CCPS) identified in 2009 was a new race in South Africa with virulence for the adult plant resistance gene Lr37. Another new race, 3SA146 (MCDS), was identified in 2010. Race 3SA146 is also virulent for Lr37 but unlike 3SA145, it is virulent for Lr1 and Lr23 and avirulent for Lr3ka and Lr30. Microsatellite analysis showed that 3SA145 and 3SA146 shared 70 % genetic similarity with each other, but only 30 % similarity with other races in South Africa, suggesting that both represent foreign introductions. In seedling tests of 98 South African winter and spring cultivars and advanced breeding lines, 27 % were susceptible to 3SA145 and 3SA146 but resistant to 3SA133. In greenhouse studies of 59 spring wheat adult plants, 19 % of breeding lines and 46 % of cultivars were susceptible to 3SA145, whereas 29 % of the lines and 53 % of cultivars were susceptible to 3SA146. The cssfr6 gene-specific DNA marker confirmed the presence of Lr34 gene for leaf rust resistance in a homozygous condition in 28 wheat entries. Five entries were heterogeneous for Lr34. Several entries which were susceptible as seedlings to the new races carried Lr34. These lines are expected to show lower levels of leaf rust as adult plants. Results of these studies indicate a continued vulnerability of South African wheat cultivars to new races and emphasise the importance of regular rust monitoring and the need to incorporate genes for durable resistance. © 2014 KNPV.Leaf rust; Lr34; Microsatellites; Puccinia triticina; Racecultivar; disease resistance; fungal disease; gene expression; genetic marker; germplasm; seedling; species diversity; vulnerability; wheat; South Africa; Puccinia triticina; Triticosecale; Triticum aestivumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84861986901Evaluation of aqueous extracts of five plants in the control of flea beetles on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)Onunkun O.2012Journal of Biopesticides5SUPPL.NoneAgricultural Science Department, Adeyemi College of Educatio, P.M.B. 520, Ondo, NigeriaOnunkun, O., Agricultural Science Department, Adeyemi College of Educatio, P.M.B. 520, Ondo, NigeriaThe emergence of biodegradable pesticides as safe option has reduced the problems that result from the use of synthetic insecticides, thus creating a renewed interest in their development and use in integrated pest management of crops. The objective of this study was to investigate the insecticidal properties of the water extracts of Jatropha curcas, Vernonia amygdalina, Ageratum conyzoides, Chromolaena odorata (L) and Annona squamosa on two species of flea beetles (Podagrica uniforma and P. sjostedti (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infesting okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench), variety NHAE 47-4). The leaves and seeds of the plants used in the experiment were collected from the locality, washed and shade dried. A synthetic insecticide, lambda-cyhalothrin (karate) was included in the treatments as a standard check alongside the untreated (control). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with seven treatments and four replicates. The efficacy of the treatments was based on reduction in flea beetles and percentage reduction in population of the pests. The results showed that only three of the plant extracts (Jatropha curcas, Vernonia amygdalina and Annona squamosa) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the population of the two flea beetles at 64%, 55% and 49%, respectively. Though the other two botanicals were not significant in reducing the population of the pests, they were better than the control. All the plant extracts tested were not as effective as the synthetic insecticide in reducing flea beetles population. Among the tested plants, J. curcas, was found to be more effective, hence its use by resource poor farmers is recommended in the protection of okra against the infestation of P. uniforma and P. sjostedti.© JBiopest.Biodegradable; Botanicals; P. sjostedti; Plant extracts; Podagrica uniformaAbelmoschus; Abelmoschus esculentus; Ageratum conyzoides; Alticini; Annona squamosa; Chromolaena; Chromolaena odorata; Chrysomelidae; Coleoptera; Gymnanthemum amygdalinum; Jatropha curcas; Podagrica; Siphonaptera (fleas); Vernonia amygdalinaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79551714785Study on reproductive performance of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows at Alage Dairy Farm, Rift Valley of EthiopiaFekadu A., Kassa T., Belehu K.2011Tropical Animal Health and Production43310.1007/s11250-010-9734-8Alage Agricultural Technical Vocational and Educational Training College, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Zeway 78, Ethiopia; Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; School of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 34, Debre Zeit, EthiopiaFekadu, A., Alage Agricultural Technical Vocational and Educational Training College, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Zeway 78, Ethiopia; Kassa, T., Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Belehu, K., School of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 34, Debre Zeit, EthiopiaA retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the reproductive performance of Holstein-Friesian cattle in Alage Dairy Farm in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia using data recorded from July 1983 to June 2005. Data of cows with complete information were considered, and a total of 1,104 records for calving to conception (Cal-Con), calving interval (CI), and number of services per conception (NSC), and 721 records for age at first service (AFS) and at first calving (AFC) were analyzed. The overall means (±S. E.) of AFS, AFC, Cal-Con and CI, and NSC were 991.4 ± 24.3, 1,265 ± 24.3, 285.8 ± 18.9, 561.3 ± 18.9 days and 1.69 ± 0.1, respectively. Parity significantly influenced NSC, Cal-Con, and CI. Season and year showed a significant effect on all the parameters, indicating the role of the environment and more specifically the influence of nutritional conditions at least for the long AFS and AFC, management practices, and climate on reproductive performance of the study herd. A more focused study to discern the elements of the reproductive constraints have been recommended. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.Holstein-Friesian; Reproductive performance; Rift Valleyanimal; animal husbandry; article; cattle; Ethiopia; female; methodology; physiology; pregnancy; regression analysis; reproduction; retrospective study; season; tropic climate; Animal Husbandry; Animals; Cattle; Ethiopia; Female; Least-Squares Analysis; Pregnancy; Reproduction; Retrospective Studies; Seasons; Tropical Climate; Bos; FriesiaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84920913660Isolation of α-linolenic acid biohydrogenation products by combined silver ion solid phase extraction and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatographyTurner T.D., Meadus W.J., Mapiye C., Vahmani P., López-Campos Ó., Duff P., Rolland D.C., Church J.S., Dugan M.E.R.2015Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences980None10.1016/j.jchromb.2014.11.038Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe Research Centre, 6000 C and E Trail, Lacombe, AB, Canada; Thompson Rivers University, 900 McGill Road, Kamloops, BC, Canada; Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, P. Bag X1, Matieland, South Africa; Livestock Gentec, 1400 College Plaza 8215 112 Street, Edmonton, AB, CanadaTurner, T.D., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe Research Centre, 6000 C and E Trail, Lacombe, AB, Canada, Thompson Rivers University, 900 McGill Road, Kamloops, BC, Canada; Meadus, W.J., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe Research Centre, 6000 C and E Trail, Lacombe, AB, Canada; Mapiye, C., Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, P. Bag X1, Matieland, South Africa; Vahmani, P., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe Research Centre, 6000 C and E Trail, Lacombe, AB, Canada; López-Campos, Ó., Livestock Gentec, 1400 College Plaza 8215 112 Street, Edmonton, AB, Canada; Duff, P., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe Research Centre, 6000 C and E Trail, Lacombe, AB, Canada; Rolland, D.C., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe Research Centre, 6000 C and E Trail, Lacombe, AB, Canada; Church, J.S., Thompson Rivers University, 900 McGill Road, Kamloops, BC, Canada; Dugan, M.E.R., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lacombe Research Centre, 6000 C and E Trail, Lacombe, AB, CanadaPolyunsaturated fatty acids typically found in cattle feed include linoleic (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA). In the rumen, microbes metabolize these resulting in the formation of biohydrogenation products (BHP), which can be incorporated into meat and milk. Bioactivities of LA-BHP, including conjugated linoleic acid (cis (c) 9,trans (t) 11-18:2 and t10,c12-18:2) and trans fatty acid isomers (t9-, t10- and t11-18:1) have been investigated, but effects of several BHP unique to ALA have not been extensively studied, and most ALA-BHP are not commercially available. The objective of the present research was to develop methods to purify and collect ALA-BHP using silver ion (Ag+) chromatography in sufficient quantities to allow for convenient bioactivity testing in cell culture. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were prepared from perirenal adipose tissue from a cow enriched with ALA-BHP by feeding flaxseed. These were applied to Ag+-solid phase extraction, and eluted with hexane with increasing quantities of acetone (1, 2, 10, 20%) or acetonitrile (2%) to pre-fractionate FAME based on degree of unsaturation and double bond configuration. Fractions were collected, concentrated and applied to semi-preparative Ag+-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the isolation and collection of purified isomers, which was accomplished using isocratic elutions with hexane containing differing amounts of acetonitrile (from 0.015 to 0.075%). Purified trans-18:1 isomers collected ranged in purity from 88 to 99%. Purity of the ALA-BHP dienes collected, including c9,t13-18:2, t11,c15-18:2 and t10,c15-18:2, exceeded 90%, while purification of other dienes may require the use of other complementary procedures (e.g. reverse phase HPLC). © 2014.Ag+-HPLC; Ag+-SPE; Biohydrogenation; α-Linolenic acidAcetone; Acetonitrile; Bioactivity; Cell culture; Chromatography; Extraction; Hexane; High performance liquid chromatography; Isomers; Linoleic acid; Liquid chromatography; Liquids; Metal ions; Olefins; Phase separation; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Purification; Alpha linolenic acids; Biohydrogenation; Conjugated linoleic acid; Degree of unsaturations; Fatty acid methyl ester; Linolenic acids; Semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatographies; Solid-phase extraction; Fatty acids; acetone; acetonitrile; conjugated linoleic acid; fatty acid ester; hexane; linolenic acid; silver; trans fatty acid; linolenic acid; adipose tissue; animal cell; animal tissue; Article; biological activity; concentration (parameters); controlled study; cow; fractionation; high performance liquid chromatography; hydrogenation; isomer; linseed; nonhuman; priority journal; solid phase extraction; high performance liquid chromatography; isolation and purification; procedures; solid phase extraction; Bos; alpha-Linolenic Acid; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid; Linoleic Acids, Conjugated; Solid Phase ExtractionNone
NoneNoneUse of hybrid cultivars in Kagera region, Tanzania, and their impactEdmeades S., Nkuba J.M., Smale M.2007Research Report of the International Food Policy Research InstituteNone155NoneAgriculture and the Rural Development, World Bank, Washington, DC, United States; Maruku Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Bukoba, Tanzania; IFPRI, IPGRIEdmeades, S., Agriculture and the Rural Development, World Bank, Washington, DC, United States; Nkuba, J.M., Maruku Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Bukoba, Tanzania; Smale, M., IFPRI, IPGRIBanana hybrid use in Kagera Region, Tanzania have been beneficial in that the reduce vulnerability to production losses from biotic pressures. In order to assess, a treatment model is used as well as for the identification of the determinants of adoption and the effects of adoption on expected yield losses from pests and diseases. Meanwhile, the hybrids are high yielding and resistant to pests and diseases that ravaged banana production in the lakes region. It was shown that the intended impact of reducing yield losses to pests and diseases has been achieved, supporting research efforts aimed at developing resistant planting material and the formal diffusion program. Findings from the research showed that there is a need to disseminate new cultivars to sustain the benefits. Using the disease and pest resistant cultivars help farmers reduce dependence on pesticides and fungicides which are costly and bear health risks for farming communities, not to mention degrade the environment.Nonebiotic factor; cultivar; health risk; hybrid; pest resistance; pesticide resistance; yield; Africa; East Africa; Kagera; Sub-Saharan Africa; TanzaniaNone
WoSWOS:000242694600004Development of a participatory monitoring and evaluation strategyForde, Sarah,Holte-McKenzie, Merydth,Theobald, Sally2006EVALUATION AND PROGRAM PLANNING29410.1016/j.evalprogplan.2006.08.007Agriteam Canada Consulting Ltd, Moving Goalposts Kilifi, Univ Liverpool Liverpool Sch Trop MedNoneThis paper describes the process of developing a participatory monitoring and evaluation strategy for a Kenyan youth-based NGO. The iterative nature of the study including the process of narrowing down indicators to measure and methods to monitor/evaluate these is well documented. A discussion on the extent to which the process achieved participation and was empowering for the participants reflects on existing power relationships and cultural context of Kenya and points to the need to create opportunities for youth where they engage with the broader community. Lessons that emerge out of the study focus on the importance of prioritizing monitoring and evaluation, the potential of youth to carry out effective monitoring and evaluation, and the need for researchers to engage respectfully with communities and participants. (c) 2006 Published by Elsevier Ltd."capacity building",EMPOWERMENT,evaluation,MONITORING,participatory,YOUTH,HEALTH-CARE,"WOMENS EMPOWERMENT"NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-49549106447Impact of milling techniques on the particle size distribution pattern of turmeric powderMangaraj S., Singh R., Adewumi B.A.2008Journal of Food Science and Technology455NoneAgro Processing Division, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Nabibagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal-462 038, India; Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, NigeriaMangaraj, S., Agro Processing Division, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Nabibagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal-462 038, India; Singh, R., Agro Processing Division, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Nabibagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal-462 038, India; Adewumi, B.A., Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, NigeriaTurmeric (Curcuma longa Roxb) powder (TP) was prepared by milling turmeric rhizomes using pulverizer mill, burr mill and home grinder. The TP obtained from each machine was analyzed for particle size distribution using a particle size analyzer with laser distraction to study the effect of each milling technique on the particle size of TP. Standard percentile diameter D (v, 0.5), D (v, 0.1) and D (v, 0.9) for samples obtained from the pulverizer mill, burr mill and home grinder were 270.41μm, 109.48 μm and 511.67 μm; 310.23 UMn, 121.74 μm; and 607.42 μm; 391.56 μm, 132.12 μm, and 682.78 μm, respectively. Volume mean diameter [D 4, 3] was more (312.77 μm) for home grinder milled TP sample compared to 216.42 μm; for burr milled and 199.71 μm; for pulverizer milled TP. Surface area mean diameter [D 3, 2] was also higher (197.43 μm) for home grinder milled TP samples compared to other milled samples. The specific surface area (Aw) for pulverizer milled TP sample was highest (0.0367 m 2/g), followed by burr milled (0.0311 m 2/g and home grinder (0.0298 m 2/g) TP sample. Pulverizer milled TP was finer compared to burr milled and home grinder as indicated by standard deviation value of pulverized mill (0,155), home grinder (0.054) and burr mill (0.086). There was significant difference (p≤0.05) in particle size distribution of TP prepared employing various milling techniques.Milling technique; Particle size distribution; Specific surface area; Surface area moment mean; Turmeric powder; Volume moment meanGrain size and shape; Grinding (machining); Grinding machines; Milling (machining); Particle size; Particle size analysis; Powders; Size distribution; Standards; Curcuma longa; Mean diameter; Milling technique; Particle size analyzer; Particle size distribution; Specific surface area; Specific surface areas; Surface area; Surface area moment mean; Turmeric powder; Volume mean diameter; Volume moment mean; Grinding mills; Curcuma longaNone
NoneNoneProjected impacts of climate change on marine fish and fisheriesHollowed A.B., Barange M., Beamish R.J., Brander K., Cochrane K., Drinkwater K., Foreman M.G.G., Hare J.A., Holt J., Ito S.-I., Kim S., King J.R., Loeng H., Mackenzie B.R., Mueter F.J., Okey T.A., Peck M.A., Radchenko V.I., Rice J.C., Schirripa M.J., Yats2013ICES Journal of Marine Science70510.1093/icesjms/fst081Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115, United States; Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, Plymouth PL1 3DH, United Kingdom; Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Pacific Biological Station, 3190 Hammond Bay Rd, Nanaimo, BC, V9T 6N7, Canada; Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, DTU Aqua-National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Jaegersborg Allé 1, 2920 Charlottenlund, Denmark; Department of Ichthyology and Fisheries Science, PO Box 94, Grahamstown 6150, South Africa; Institute of Marine Research, PO Box 1870, Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway; Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean Sciences, 9860 W. Saanich Rd, Sidney, BC, V8L 4B2, Canada; NOAA Fisheries, Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Narragansett Laboratory, Narragansett, RI, United States; National Oceanography Centre, Joseph Proudman Building, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool L3 5DA, United Kingdom; Tohoku National Fisheries Research Institute, FRA, 3-27-5, Shinhama-cho, Shiogama, Miyagi 985-001, Japan; Department of Marine Biology, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyeon-3dong, Nam-gu, Busan R 608-737, South Korea; Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate and Center for Ocean Life, Technical University of Denmark, KavalergûËrden 6, DK 2920 Charlottenlund, Denmark; School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Juneau Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 17101 Pt. Lena Loop Rd, Juneau, AK 99801, United States; School of Environmental Studies, University of Victoria, PO Box 3060 STN CSC, Victoria BC V8W 3R4, Canada; Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, Olbersweg 24, 22767 Hamburg, Germany; Pacific Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (TINRO-Center), 4 Shevchenko Alley, Vladivostok, Primorsky Kray 690950, Russian Federation; Science Sector, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, 200 Kent Street Station 12S015, Ottawa, ON, K1A0E6, Canada; Southeast Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 75 Virginia Beach Dr, Miami, FL 33149, United States; Seikai National Fisheries Research Institute, Fisheries Research Agency, 1551-8 Taira-machi, Nagasaki 851-2213, Japan; Graduate School of Environmental Science, Division of Environmental Resources, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, JapanHollowed, A.B., Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115, United States; Barange, M., Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, Plymouth PL1 3DH, United Kingdom; Beamish, R.J., Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Pacific Biological Station, 3190 Hammond Bay Rd, Nanaimo, BC, V9T 6N7, Canada; Brander, K., Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, DTU Aqua-National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Jaegersborg Allé 1, 2920 Charlottenlund, Denmark; Cochrane, K., Department of Ichthyology and Fisheries Science, PO Box 94, Grahamstown 6150, South Africa; Drinkwater, K., Institute of Marine Research, PO Box 1870, Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway; Foreman, M.G.G., Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean Sciences, 9860 W. Saanich Rd, Sidney, BC, V8L 4B2, Canada; Hare, J.A., NOAA Fisheries, Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Narragansett Laboratory, Narragansett, RI, United States; Holt, J., National Oceanography Centre, Joseph Proudman Building, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool L3 5DA, United Kingdom; Ito, S.-I., Tohoku National Fisheries Research Institute, FRA, 3-27-5, Shinhama-cho, Shiogama, Miyagi 985-001, Japan; Kim, S., Department of Marine Biology, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyeon-3dong, Nam-gu, Busan R 608-737, South Korea; King, J.R., Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Pacific Biological Station, 3190 Hammond Bay Rd, Nanaimo, BC, V9T 6N7, Canada; Loeng, H., Institute of Marine Research, PO Box 1870, Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway; Mackenzie, B.R., Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate and Center for Ocean Life, Technical University of Denmark, KavalergûËrden 6, DK 2920 Charlottenlund, Denmark; Mueter, F.J., School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Juneau Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 17101 Pt. Lena Loop Rd, Juneau, AK 99801, United States; Okey, T.A., School of Environmental Studies, University of Victoria, PO Box 3060 STN CSC, Victoria BC V8W 3R4, Canada; Peck, M.A., Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, Olbersweg 24, 22767 Hamburg, Germany; Radchenko, V.I., Pacific Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (TINRO-Center), 4 Shevchenko Alley, Vladivostok, Primorsky Kray 690950, Russian Federation; Rice, J.C., Science Sector, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, 200 Kent Street Station 12S015, Ottawa, ON, K1A0E6, Canada; Schirripa, M.J., Southeast Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 75 Virginia Beach Dr, Miami, FL 33149, United States; Yatsu, A., Seikai National Fisheries Research Institute, Fisheries Research Agency, 1551-8 Taira-machi, Nagasaki 851-2213, Japan; Yamanaka, Y., Graduate School of Environmental Science, Division of Environmental Resources, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, JapanHollowed, A. B., Barange, M., Beamish, R., Brander, K., Cochrane, K., Drinkwater, K., Foreman, M., Hare, J., Holt, J., Ito, S-I., Kim, S., King, J., Loeng, H., MacKenzie, B., Mueter, F., Okey, T., Peck, M. A., Radchenko, V., Rice, J., Schirripa, M., Yatsu, A., and Yamanaka, Y. 2013. Projected impacts of climate change on marine fish and fisheries. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70: 1023-1037.This paper reviews current literature on the projected effects of climate change on marine fish and shellfish, their fisheries, and fishery-dependent communities throughout the northern hemisphere. The review addresses the following issues: (i) expected impacts on ecosystem productivity and habitat quantity and quality; (ii) impacts of changes in production and habitat on marine fish and shellfish species including effects on the community species composition, spatial distributions, interactions, and vital rates of fish and shellfish; (iii) impacts on fisheries and their associated communities; (iv) implications for food security and associated changes; and (v) uncertainty and modelling skill assessment. Climate change will impact fish and shellfish, their fisheries, and fishery-dependent communities through a complex suite of linked processes. Integrated interdisciplinary research teams are forming in many regions to project these complex responses. National and international marine research organizations serve a key role in the coordination and integration of research to accelerate the production of projections of the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems and to move towards a future where relative impacts by region could be compared on a hemispheric or global level. Eight research foci were identified that will improve the projections of climate impacts on fish, fisheries, and fishery-dependent communities. © 2013 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 2013. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.climate change; fish; fisheries; fisheries-dependent communities; uncertainty; vulnerability assessmentclimate change; ecosystem; fish; fishery; fishery management; food security; habitat; Northern Hemisphere; shellfish; uncertainty analysis; vulnerabilityNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79960421455Comparative evaluation of different organic fertilizers on the soil fertility, leaf minerals composition and growth performance of dikanut seedlings (Irvingia gabonnesis L.)Moyin-Jesu E.I.2008Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture202NoneAgronomy Department, Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, Ondo State, NigeriaMoyin-Jesu, E.I., Agronomy Department, Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, Ondo State, NigeriaAn experiment was carried out at Akure in the rainforest zone of Nigeria to determine the effectiveness, of ten organic fertilizers on plant growth, soil fertility, and leaf nutrients composition of dikanut seedlings in the nursery. The organic fertilizer treatments were applied at 8t/ha (40g/10kg soil) to each polybag, a reference treatment NPK 15-15-15 compound fertilizer applied at 2g NPK/10kg soil (400kg/ha) and a control treatment (no chemical fertilizer nor manure), arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) and replicated four times. The results showed that the organic fertilizers increased the seedlings' growth significantly (P<0.05), leaf and soil N, P, K, Ca, Mg, soil pH and O.M of dikanut compared to the control treatment. The oil palm bunch ash + poultry manure increased the plant height, leaf area, stem girth, leaf numbers and root length of dikanut seedlings by 22%, 50%, 33%, 21% and 49% respectively, when compared to the NPK chemical fertilizer treatment. It also increased the leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg of dikanut seedlings by 35%, 37%, 39%, 36% and 65.3% respectively compared to the sole application of poultry manure. Oil palm bunch ash + poultry manure treatment increased the soil pH, O.M, N. P, K, Ca, Mg by 6%, 13%, 19%, 28%, 32%, 33% and 21% respectively compared to the cocoa husk + spent grain treatment. Therefore the, oil palm bunch ash + poultry manure applied at 8t/ha was the most effective treatment in increasing growth, soil and leaf parameters of dikanut seedlings.Dikanut seedlings; Growth performance; Leaf mineral composition; Organic fertilizers; Soil fertilityNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-76749099272Evaluation of sole and amended organic fertilizers on soil fertility and growth of kola seedlings (Cola acuminate)Moyin-Jesu E.I.2009Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science321NoneAgronomy Department, Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, Ondo State, NigeriaMoyin-Jesu, E.I., Agronomy Department, Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, Ondo State, NigeriaA healthy kola seedling in the nursery is very important for sustainable establishment and high yield of kolanuts in the fields. An investigation was carried out in Akure, in the rainforest zone of Nigeria, to determine the effectiveness of amended forms of wood ash and cocoa husk, turkey, goat and duck manures (sole) as sources of fertilizers, on the growth of kola (Cola acuminate) seedlings in the nursery. For this purpose, nine organic fertilizer treatments [duck manure, goat manure, turkey manure (sole), wood ash/duck manure mix, cocoa husk/duck manure mix, goat manure/wood ash mix, goat manure/cocoa husk mix, turkey manure/cocoa husk mix and turkey manure and wood ash mix] were applied at 8t/ha (40g per 10kg soil filled pots), replicated three times with NPK fertilizer and a control (no fertilizer), and arranged in a completely randomized design. The soil, plant and the organic residues were chemically analysed. The findings revealed that the use of organic residues significantly increased plant height, leaf area, stem girth, root length as well as leaf number of kolanut seedlings, soil and leaf N, P, K, Ca, Mg concentrations, soil pH and O.M contents (p&lt;0.05), relative to the control treatments. The amended wood ash + duck increased the shoot weight, plant height, root length, leaf area, leaf number and stem girth of kolanut by 6%, 27%, 20%, 35%, 27% and 37% respectively, as compared to using the NPK fertilizer. In addition, it was also found to increase the same parameters by 84%, 80%, 72%, 78%, 56% and 82% respectively, as compared to the control treatment. As for the soil chemical composition, duck manure + wood ash were shown to increase the soil N, P, K, Ca, Mg, pH and O.M by 42%, 26%, 38%, 46%, 59%, 6% and 52% respectively, compared to the duck manure (sole). At the same time, it also increased soil K, Ca, Mg, pH and O.M by 51%, 97%, 93%, 29% and 90% respectively, as compared to using the NPK fertilizer. In particular, the treatment using duck manure + cocoa husk increased the leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg of kolanut seedlings by 12%, 74%, 56%, 69% and 75%, respectively as compared to merely using duck manure (sole). It also increased the same leaf parameters by 42%, 54%, 92% and 84% respectively, as compared to the control treatment. In this study, the NPK fertilizer was found to decrease soil O.M but it increased soil N and P more than the organic residues. The amended duck manure + wood ash and duck manure + cocoa husk, applied at 8tha-1 (40g/10kg), were found to be the most effective in improving the performance of kolanut seedlings. ©Universiti Putra Malaysia Press.Cola acuminate; Kolanut seedlings; Organic fertilizersCapra hircus; Theobroma cacaoNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84865618859Comparative evaluation of modified neem leaf, wood ash and neem leaf extracts for seed treatment and pest control in maize (Zea mays L.)Moyin-Jesu E.I.2010Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture221NoneAgronomy Department, Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, Ondo State, NigeriaMoyin-Jesu, E.I., Agronomy Department, Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, Ondo State, NigeriaAn experiment was conducted at Akure, rainforest zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effectiveness of neem leaf, wood ash extracts, modified neem leaf extract, Apron star 42WS and Karate 720EC as seed treatment and pest control in maize. The organic treatment extracts namely neem leaf extract, wood ash extract applied at 1200ml per hectare and modified neem leaf extract (1:1 ratio 600ml wood ash + 600ml neem leaf extract) were compared with Apron star 42WS (seed treatment), Karate 720EC and control treatment (no neem leaf, wood ash extracts nor Karate),replicated four times and arranged in randomized complete block design. The results showed that there were significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in the germination counts, insect population, number of damaged leaves, growth and yield parameters of maize under different treatments compared to the control treatment. The modified neem leaf extract performed better in germination counts, reduction of damaged leaves, insect population and yield of maize than the sole application of neem leaf and wood ash. For percentage germination counts, Apron star 42WS had 65% followed by modified neem leaf extract (57%), wood ash extract (51%), neem leaf extract (47%) respectively. Modified neem leaf extract increased the leaf area, plant height and stem girth of maize by 8%, 5% and 7% respectively compared to the neem leaf (sole) extract. Generally, modified neem leaf extract had the best values of maize growth parameters followed by Karate, neem leaf and wood ash extracts respectively. Modified neem leaf extract decreased significantly the insect population, number of damaged leaves and number of holes per plant in maize by 33%, 70% and 30% respectively compared to the neem leaf extract (sole). When compared to modified neem extract, Karate decreased the number of damaged leaves per sample plot by 33%. However, there was no significant difference between karate and modified neem extract for insect population. For yield parameters, modified neem leaf extract significantly increased the maize yield gains by 15%, 14% and 2% compared to neem leaf, wood ash extracts and karate treatments respectively. However, wood ash and neem leaf extracts did not affect significantly the maize yield. Therefore, the modified neem leaf extract applied at 1200L/ha (3L/25m2) was most effective for pest control and seed treatment in maize crop.Modified neem leaf; Neem leaf; Pest control and maize; Wood ash extractNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84878793878Comparative evaluation of different organic fertilizers on the soil fertility, leaf mineral composition and growth of bitter kola seedlingsMoyin-Jesu E.I., Adeofun C.O.2008Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture201NoneAgronomy Department, Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria; College of Environmental Studies, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, NigeriaMoyin-Jesu, E.I., Agronomy Department, Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria; Adeofun, C.O., College of Environmental Studies, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, NigeriaThe effect of oil palm bunch ash, spent grain, poultry and turkey manures applied solely and their supplemented forms, as sources of fertilizer on soil fertility, leaf mineral composition and growth of bitter kola (Garnicia colae) seedlings was investigated at Akure in the rainforest zone of Nigeria. The eight organic fertilizer treatments: spent grain, oil palm bunch ash, poultry manure, turkey manure, spent grain + poultry manure, spent grain + turkey manure, oil palm bunch ash + poultry manure and oil palm bunch ash + turkey manure were applied at 40g per 10kg soil filled polybag (8t/ha dry weight) with a reference treatment 400kg/ha NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer (2g per bag) and arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) and replicated three times. The supplemented or amended treatments were applied at a 50:50% by weight (20g each). The results showed that these organic fertilizers increased the growth parameters, soil and leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, soil pH and organic matter significantly (P<0.05) compared to the control treatment. The supplements of oil palm bunch ash and wood ash with poultry and turkey manures increased consistently the growth, soil and leaf mineral compared to their sole forms. Oil pal bunch ash + poultry manure increased the leaf N (52%), P (27%), K (44%), Ca (39%) and Mg (51%) compared to the sole application of poultry manure. When compared with NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer, the oil palm bunch ash + poultry manure treatment increased the plant height (40%) leaf area (50%), stem girth (45%) number of leaves (53%), and fresh shoot weight (29%). For soil chemical composition, the oil palm bunch ash + poultry manure treatment increased the soil pH (28%), O.M. (92%), P (26.3%), Ca (99%), Mg (98%) and Na (93%) compared to the NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer. However, the NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer increased the soil K by 11% compared to the former. The high soil K/Ca, K/Mg and P/Mg ratios in the NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer treatment led to an imbalance in the supply of P, K, Ca and Mg nutrient to bitter kola seedlings. In these experiments, oil palm bunch ash + poultry manure applied at 8t/ha was most effective treatment in improving bitter kola growth parameters, soil and leaf mineral composition.Bitter kola seedlings.; Growth parameters; Leaf mineral composition; Organic fertilizer; Soil fertilityNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84875021820Comparative evaluation of different organic fertilizer on the soil fertility, leaf mineral composition, and growth performance of mango seedlings (Magnifera indica L.)Moyin-Jesu E.I., Adeofun C.O.2008Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture201NoneAgronomy Department, Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, Ondo-State, Nigeria; College of Environmental Studies, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, NigeriaMoyin-Jesu, E.I., Agronomy Department, Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, Ondo-State, Nigeria; Adeofun, C.O., College of Environmental Studies, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, NigeriaAn investigation was carried out at Akure in the rainforest of Nigeria to determine the effectiveness of sole and amended oil palm bunch ash and spent grain with poultry and turkey manures as sources of fertilizers on the growth of mango seedlings (Magnifera indica L) in the nursery. Eight organic fertilizer treatments, spent grain, oil palm bunch ash, poultry manure, turkey manures (sole forms), oil palm bunch ash + poultry manure, oil palm bunch ash + turkey manure, spent grain + poultry manure, spent grain + turkey manure, were applied at 8t/ha (40g per 10kg soil filled poly bag) with an NPK fertilizer 400kg/ha (2g per bag) treatment as a reference and a control (no fertilizer; no manure), replicated three times and arranged in a completely randomized design. The results showed that the organic fertilizers increased significantly (P<0.05) plant height, leaf area, stem girth, number of leaves of mango seedlings and root length, soil and leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, soil pH and organic matter contents relative to the control treatment. Oil palm bunch ash + poultry manure treatment increased the plant height, stem girth, leaf area, leaf number and root length of mango seedlings by 22%, 24%, 1%, 27% and 10% respectively, compared to NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer treatment. Amended oil palm bunch ash + poultry manure treatment also increased the soil pH (H2O), O.M., N, P, Ca and Mg by 27%, 79%, 30%, 26%, 99% and 99.2% respectively compared to NPK fertilizer treatment. In addition, it also increased the leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg by 37%, 45%, 18%, 35%, and 15% respectively compared to the oil palm bunch ash (sole) treatment. However, NPK 15- 15-15 fertilizers increased only soil K by 10% compared to the oil palm bunch ash (sole) treatment. The highest soil K/Ca, K/Mg and P/Mg ratios in NPK fertilizer treatment led to imbalance in the supply of P, K, Ca and Mg nutrients to mango. Oil palm bunch ash + poultry manure treatment applied at 8t/ha was the most effective treatment in improving mango growth parameters, leaf mineral composition, and soil fertility.Growth performance and mango seedlings.; Leaf mineral composition; Organic fertilizers; Soil fertilityNoneNone
WoSWOS:000327073900019The impact of HIV status, HIV disease progression, and post-traumatic stress symptoms on the health-related quality of life of Rwandan women genocide survivorsAdedimeji, Adebola A.,Anastos, Kathryn,Cohen, Mardge H.,Gard, Tracy L.,Hoover, Donald R.,Mutimura, Eugene,Shi, Qiuhu2013QUALITY OF LIFE RESEARCH22810.1007/s11136-012-0328-yAlbert Einstein College of Medicine, New York Medical College, Rush University, Rutgers State University, Yeshiva University, Kigali Hlth Inst"Cohen, Mardge H.: Rush University","Hoover, Donald R.: Rutgers State University","Shi, Qiuhu: New York Medical College",We examined whether established associations between HIV disease and HIV disease progression on worse health-related quality of life (HQOL) were applicable to women with severe trauma histories, in this case Rwandan women genocide survivors, the majority of whom were HIV-infected. Additionally, this study attempted to clarify whether post-traumatic stress symptoms were uniquely associated with HQOL or confounded with depression. The Rwandan Women's Interassociation Study and Assessment was a longitudinal prospective study of HIV-infected and uninfected women. At study entry, 922 women (705 HIV+ and 217 HIV-) completed measures of symptoms of post-traumatic stress and HQOL as well as other demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics. Even after controlling for potential confounders and mediators, HIV+ women, in particular those with the lowest CD4 counts, scored significantly worse on HQOL and overall quality of life (QOL) than did HIV- women. Even after controlling for depression and HIV disease progression, women with more post-traumatic stress symptoms scored worse on HQOL and overall QOL than women with fewer post-traumatic stress symptoms. This study demonstrated that post-traumatic stress symptoms were independently associated with HQOL and overall QOL, independent of depression and other confounders or potential mediators. Future research should examine whether the long-term impact of treatment on physical and psychological symptoms of HIV and post-traumatic stress symptoms would generate improvement in HQOL.HIV,"post-traumatic stress disorder","QUALITY OF LIFE",RWANDA,WOMEN,"ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY",DEPRESSION,DISORDER,INFECTION,PEOPLE,PREDICTORS,RAPE,SOUTH,TRAUMA,WORLDNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84884948338Evaluation of cast Al-Si-Fe alloy/coconut shell ash particulate compositesAku S.Y., Yawas D.S., Apasi A.2013Gazi University Journal of Science263NoneAhmadu Bello University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Samaru, Zaria, NigeriaAku, S.Y., Ahmadu Bello University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria; Yawas, D.S., Ahmadu Bello University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria; Apasi, A., Ahmadu Bello University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Samaru, Zaria, NigeriaAl-7wt%Si-2wt%Fe alloy/Coconut shell ash(CSAp) composites having 3-15wt%coconut shell ash were fabricated by double stir-casting method. The microstructure, hardness values and density of the composites were evaluated. The density of the composites decreased as the percentage of coconut shell ash increases in the aluminum alloy. This means that composites of lower weight component can be produced by adding CSAp. Microstructural analysis showed fairy distribution of coconut shell ash particles in the aluminum alloy. The presence of the coconut shell ash particles in the matrix alloy resulted in a much smaller grain size in the cast composites compared to the matrix alloy as confirmed from X-ray diffractometer analysis. Significant improvement in hardness values is noticeable as the wt% of the coconut shell ash increased in the alloy. Hence, this work has established that incorporation of coconut shell particles in aluminum matrix can lead to the production of low cost aluminum composites with improved hardness values.Aluminum alloy; Coconut shell ash; Density; Microstructure and hardness valuesAluminum composites; Aluminum matrix; Cast composites; Coconut shells; Hardness values; Microstructural analysis; Particulate composites; X ray diffractometers; Aluminum; Density (specific gravity); Hardness; Microstructure; Shells (structures); Silicon; Aluminum alloysNone
WoSWOS:000313314600007Impact of a customized peer-facilitators training program related to sexual health interventionAbdulRahman, Hejar,AbuSamah, Bahaman,Awaisu, Ahmed,Ibrahim, Auwal,Rampal, Lekhraj,Saad, Abdulmumin,Sabitu, Kabiru2012INTERNATIONAL HEALTH4410.1016/j.inhe.2012.09.002Ahmadu Bello University, Johns Hopkins University, Universiti Putra Malaysia, University of Qatar"AbdulRahman, Hejar: Universiti Putra Malaysia","AbuSamah, Bahaman: Universiti Putra Malaysia","Awaisu, Ahmed: University of Qatar","Rampal, Lekhraj: Universiti Putra Malaysia","Saad, Abdulmumin: Johns Hopkins University","Sabitu, Kabiru: Ahmadu Bello University",This study aimed to develop and implement a customized training program related to the delivery of an integrated human immunodeficiency virus - sexually transmitted infections (HIV-STI) risk reduction intervention for peer-facilitators and to evaluate its immediate outcome including changes in trainee knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported competence and confidence. We developed and delivered a structured training program and materials about HIV and STI prevention in a university setting. The training was offered to candidate facilitators who were planned to be involved in a larger project, known as Integrated HIV-STI Risk Reduction Program. Ten candidate facilitators participated in the training program and completed both the pretest and posttest survey questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 software package and Wilcoxon signed rank test was applied to assess the impact of the training program. Overall, the trainees' performance in HIV-related and STI knowledge, attitude and stigma scores had significantly increased compared to the baseline.. The median scores for HIV and STI knowledge after the training significantly increased from 22.0 to 30.5 (p=0.007) and 8.0 to 9.5 (p=0.005), respectively, whereas the median score on the positive attitude towards HIV and STI prevention rose from 39.0 to 57.0 (p=0.011). Upon completion of the program, 80-100% of the trainees believed that they were competent and confident in performing most of the designed sexual health intervention activities. This preliminary study suggests that a customized on-site training program on sexual health intervention could significantly improve their knowledge, attitude and practice related to HIV-STI prevention. (C) 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.HIV/AIDS,NIGERIA,Peer-facilitators,STI,TRAINING,YOUTH,ADOLESCENTS,"AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE",ATTITUDES,BEHAVIOR,EDUCATION,HIV/AIDS,"HIV PREVENTION",SCHOOL,SOUTH-AFRICA,TRANSMITTED-DISEASESNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-27844443523The impact of reduced drug prices on the cost-effectiveness of HAART in South AfricaNattrass N., Geffen N.2005African Journal of AIDS Research41NoneAIDS and Society Research Unit, Centre for Social Science Research, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Treatment Action Campaign, 34 Main Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town, South AfricaNattrass, N., AIDS and Society Research Unit, Centre for Social Science Research, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Geffen, N., Treatment Action Campaign, 34 Main Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town, South AfricaSouth Africa has started 'rolling out' highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) through the public health sector, but implementation has been slow. Studies have shown that in Africa AIDS prevention may be more cost-effective than providing HAART; such published results provide some support for the South African government's apparent reluctance to implement a large-scale rapid HAART roll-out. However, previous studies have not linked treatment and prevention plans, and do not, for the most part, consider the potential savings to the public health sector (e.g., fewer hospital admissions) that may arise from the introduction of HAART. The South African costing exercise summarised here avoids both these limitations. It provides an update of earlier work and takes into account the recent decline in antiretroviral drug prices. It shows that once HIV-related hospital costs are included in the calculation, the cost per HIV infection averted is lower in a treatment-plus-prevention intervention scenario than it is in a prevention-only scenario. This suggests that it is economically advantageous to fund a large-scale comprehensive intervention plan and that the constraints for doing so are political. Once human-rights considerations are included, the case for providing HAART is even more compelling. Copyright © NISC Pty Ltd.Antiretroviral therapy; HIV/AIDS; Prevention; Public health; Treatmentantiretrovirus agent; article; cost control; cost effectiveness analysis; cost of illness; drug cost; drug utilization; government; health care planning; health program; health promotion; highly active antiretroviral therapy; hospital cost; hospitalization; human; Human immunodeficiency virus; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; human rights; nonhuman; patient counseling; preventive health service; public health service; South Africa; vertical transmission; virus transmissionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-81855175823Evaluation of the thermochemical properties for tropospheric ozone reactionsIgbafe A.I., Omhenke S.A.2010International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa1None10.4028/www.scientific.net/JERA.1.39Air Pollution Climatology and Energy Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, NigeriaIgbafe, A.I., Air Pollution Climatology and Energy Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria; Omhenke, S.A., Air Pollution Climatology and Energy Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, NigeriaThe thermochemical properties of varieties of species involved in the formation and consumption or destruction of tropospheric ozone during chemical reactions have been established. Ozone in the troposphere is produced during the day-time; hence it is a photochemically induced transformation process. This compound acts as precursor specie in many atmospheric transformations and constitutes a baseline component worth investigating. This study utilized electronic structure methods of computational model chemistries to evaluate for Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation and reactions of the various species. Ten prominent gas-phase and aqueous-phase reactions were analysed using five computational approaches consisting of four ab initio methods and one density functional theory (DFT) method. The computed energy values in comparison to those obtained through experimental approaches yielded an error of mean absolute deviation of 0.81%. The most relevant species that tend to enhance the production of ozone in the troposphere were O* and H2O2 for the gas-phase and aqueous-phase reactions respectively. Chemical equilibrium analysis indicated that the ozone formation and consumption reactions are more favourable in colder regions and at winter. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.Chemical reaction equilibrium; Thermochemical properties; Tropospheric ozoneAb initio method; Atmospheric transformation; Chemical equilibriums; Chemical reaction equilibrium; Computational approach; Computational model; Density functional theory methods; Energy value; Enthalpies of formation; Experimental approaches; Gasphase; Mean absolute deviations; Ozone formation; Thermochemical properties; Transformation process; Tropospheric ozone; Chemical reactions; Computational methods; Density functional theory; Electronic structure; Troposphere; OzoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84869988258Thermochemical evaluation of hydroxyl and peroxyl radical precursors in the formation of tropospheric ozone reactionsIgbafe A.I., Umukoro S.E.2010International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa3None10.4028/www.scientific.net/JERA.3.74Air Pollution Climatology and Energy Research Unit, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, NigeriaIgbafe, A.I., Air Pollution Climatology and Energy Research Unit, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria; Umukoro, S.E., Air Pollution Climatology and Energy Research Unit, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, NigeriaThe thermochemical properties of varieties of species needed to assess the most prominent pathways of tropospheric ozone transformation have been established. In the troposphere, ozone which is a secondary pollution produced by photochemical induced transformation, acts as an oxidizing agent to numerous atmospheric reactions leading to the formation of particulate matter. Based on the climate related problems resulting from the precursor of particulate matter, it is adequate to establish the feasible routes of ozone formation. In this study, the electronic structure methods which approximate the Schrödinger equation to compute Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation of the various chemical species participating in the reactions were used. These thermodynamic properties were determined using four computational model chemistry methods integrated in the Gaussian 03 (G03) chemistry package. Five known reaction pathways for the formation of NO2 (the O3 precursor specie), as well as the dominant ozone formation route from NO 2 were examined and their energies determined. Of all the computational methods, the complete basis set (CBS-4M) method produced energies for all species of the five reaction routes. Out of the five routes, only the reactions involving radical species were favoured to completion over a temperature range of -100 and +100°C. The most relevant reaction route for the formation of NO2 and subsequently O3 is that involving the peroxyl acetyl nitrate (PAN) and hydroxyl radicals. Chemical equilibrium analyses of the reaction routes also indicated that reduction in temperature encourages NO2 formation while increase in temperature favours O 3 production. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.Chemical equilibrium; Nitrogen dioxide; Peroxyl acetyl nitrate; Thermochemical properties; Tropospheric ozoneAtmospheric reactions; Chemical equilibriums; Chemical species; Complete basis sets; Computational model; Dinger equation; Enthalpies of formation; Gaussians; Hydroxyl radicals; Nitrogen dioxides; Oxidizing agents; Ozone formation; Particulate Matter; Peroxyl radical; Radical species; Reaction pathways; Reaction routes; Relevant reactions; Secondary pollution; Temperature range; Thermochemical properties; Tropospheric ozone; Computational methods; Electronic structure; Nitrogen oxides; Ozone; Photochemical reactions; Troposphere; Air pollutionNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84876960079Effects of soil parent material and climate on the performance of Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Sauvignon blanc and cabernet Sauvignon - Part I. Soil analysis, soil water status, root system characteristics, leaf water potential, cane mass and yieldShange L.P., Conradie W.J.2012South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture332NoneARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, 7599, Stellenbosch, South AfricaShange, L.P., ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, 7599, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Conradie, W.J., ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, 7599, Stellenbosch, South AfricaIn the Helderberg area of the Western Cape, South Africa, soil parent material may vary between granite and shale over relatively short distances. However, little information is available concerning the possible effects of different soil parent materials on grapevine performance. A five-year investigation (2004/05 to 2008/09) was therefore carried out. Two Sauvignon blanc and two Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard blocks were selected at four localities. Soils derived mainly from granite and shale were identified in each vineyard block. Climate and soil parameters, root distribution, grapevine water status, cane mass and yield were evaluated at all localities. Shale-derived soils contained significantly greater amounts of fine sand, but less coarse sand, than granite-derived soils. These differences resulted in water-holding capacities that were generally higher in the shale-derived soils. Shale-derived soils contained higher concentrations of total potassium (K), but the levels of water-soluble K were generally greater in the granitic soils. Root system development could not be related directly to soil parent material. However, in most cases fine root density in the granite-derived soils tended to be higher, while the cane mass and yield of grapevines in the same soils also tended to be higher, at least at two of the four localities. The effect of soil parent material on grapevine water constraints seemed more prominent during the drier seasons, namely 2004/05 and 2005/06, compared to the wet and coolest seasons, 2007/08 and 2008/09.Fine root density; Granite; Grapevine performance; Shale; Soil water statusVitaceae; Vitis; Vitis viniferaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84880263775Evaluation of urine-circulating cathodic antigen (Urine-CCA) cassette test for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in areas of moderate prevalence in EthiopiaErko B., Medhin G., Teklehaymanot T., Degarege A., Legesse M.2013Tropical Medicine and International Health18810.1111/tmi.12117Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaErko, B., Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Medhin, G., Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Teklehaymanot, T., Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Degarege, A., Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Legesse, M., Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaObjective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of antigen detecting urine-CCA cassette test for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in areas of moderate prevalence in Ethiopia. Methods: Stool specimens were collected from 620 schoolchildren on three consecutive days. The samples were microscopically examined using double Kato slides; midstream urine specimens were also collected for three consecutive days and tested for S. mansoni. The sensitivity of the urine-CCA cassette test was determined using combined results of six Kato-Katz thick smears and three urine-CCA cassette tests as gold standard. The specificity of the urine-CCA cassette test was evaluated in an area where schistosomiasis is not endemic. Results: Prevalence of S. mansoni infection as determined by single urine-CCA cassette test was 65.9%, by single Kato-Katz smear 37.3% and by six Kato-Katz thick smears 53.1% (P < 0.001). A single urine-CCA cassette test was significantly (P < 0.001) more sensitive (89.1%), had a lower negative predictive value (78.2%), was more accurate (92.6%) and agreed better with the gold standard (k = 0.83) than one or six Kato-Katz thick smears. However, both the Kato-Katz and urine-CCA cassette test showed 100% specificity in endemic settings. Conclusions: In moderate and high prevalence areas, urine-CCA cassette test is more sensitive than the Kato-Katz method and can be used for screening and mapping of S. mansoni infection. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Ethiopia; Rapid diagnosis; Schistosomiasis mansoni; Urine-circulating cathodic antigen cassettealbendazole; praziquantel; antigen; disease prevalence; flatworm; infectious disease; infectivity; schistosomiasis; urine; article; child; diagnostic accuracy; diagnostic test; diagnostic test accuracy study; diagnostic value; endemic disease; Ethiopia; feces analysis; female; gold standard; helminthiasis; human; Kato Katz method; major clinical study; male; parasite identification; point of care testing; predictive value; preschool child; prevalence; schistosomiasis mansoni; school child; sensitivity and specificity; single drug dose; urinalysis; urine circulating cathodic antigen cassette test; Ethiopia; rapid diagnosis; Schistosomiasis mansoni; urine-circulating cathodic antigen cassette; Animals; Anthelmintics; Antigens, Helminth; Child; Child, Preschool; Clinical Laboratory Techniques; Cross-Sectional Studies; Ethiopia; Feces; Female; Glycoproteins; Helminth Proteins; Humans; Male; Parasite Egg Count; Point-of-Care Systems; Praziquantel; Prevalence; Schistosoma mansoni; Schistosomiasis mansoni; Sensitivity and Specificity; EthiopiaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34248169658Field-based evaluation of a reagent strip test for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni by detecting circulating cathodic antigen in urine before and after chemotherapyLegesse M., Erko B.2007Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene101710.1016/j.trstmh.2006.11.009Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaLegesse, M., Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Erko, B., Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaThe sensitivity of a reagent strip test for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis by detecting circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) in urine was evaluated under field conditions using 251 stool and urine samples collected from a Schistosoma mansoni-endemic area of Ethiopia. The specificity of the test was evaluated in an area where schistosomiasis is not endemic. Stool samples were examined microscopically using duplicate Kato slides and formol-ether concentration methods. The effectiveness of the test in monitoring efficacy was also evaluated following chemotherapy. The results revealed that detection of CCA in urine using the one-step reagent strip test was superior to the stool examination methods (P < 0.05) in indicating the prevalence of the disease. Assuming the combination of parasitological test results as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 82.1% and 75.9%, respectively. The results of egg counts suggested the potential use of urine CCA in indicating the intensity of infection as an alternative to parasitological methods. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 75% and 73.7%, respectively, following chemotherapy. Diagnosis of S. mansoni infection in urine using reagent strips would provide information on the prevalence of the disease, although further study is needed to improve its sensitivity and specificity. © 2007 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.Circulating cathodic antigen; Ethiopia; Reagent strip; Schistosoma mansoni; Urine CCAantigen; circulating cathodic antigen; praziquantel; unclassified drug; adolescent; adult; aged; antigen detection; article; child; controlled study; diagnostic test; drug efficacy; drug monitoring; endemic disease; Ethiopia; feces analysis; female; human; intermethod comparison; major clinical study; male; microscopy; nonhuman; prediction; prevalence; Schistosoma mansoni; schistosomiasis; sensitivity and specificity; test strip; urinalysis; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Anthelmintics; Antigens, Helminth; Child; Cross-Sectional Studies; Ethiopia; Feces; Female; Glycoproteins; Helminth Proteins; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Praziquantel; Reagent Strips; Schistosomiasis mansoni; Sensitivity and Specificity; Schistosoma mansoniNone
Scopus2-s2.0-46049089443Field-based evaluation of a reagent strip test for diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni by detecting circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) in urine in low endemic area in EthiopiaLegesse M., Erko B.2008Parasite152NoneAklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaLegesse, M., Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Erko, B., Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaThe sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of a reagent strip test for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni by detecting circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) in urine were evaluated using 184 stool and urine samples collected from schoolchildren living in relatively low endemic area of schistosomiasis mansoni in Ethiopia. A combined result of stool samples processed by Kato and formol-ether concentration methods was used as gold standard. The results showed that detection of CCA in urine using reagent strip test was slightly higher than the combined results of the stool techniques (65.2 % vs 42.4 %, p > 0.05) in suggesting the prevalence of the disease. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the reagent strip test were 76.9 %, 43.4 %, 50 % and 71.9 %, respectively. The result of egg counts using Kato method suggested that detection of urine CCA could be used to indicate the intensity of infection. Nevertheless, like that of stool examination, the reagent strip test was found to be less sensitive in case of light to moderate infections. About 23.1 % of the study children who were excreting the eggs of the parasite were found negative by the reagent strip test. The relative insensitivity of a reagent strip test in low intensity of infection necessitates for the development of more sensitive assay that can truly discriminate schistosome-infected from non-infected individuals.CCA; Ethiopia; Reagent strip test; S. mansoni; UrineCCA protein, Schistosoma mansoni; glycoprotein; helminth protein; parasite antigen; adolescent; adult; animal; article; child; cross-sectional study; Ethiopia; feces; female; human; immunology; male; parasite identification; parasitology; preschool child; prevalence; reproducibility; Schistosoma mansoni; sensitivity and specificity; test strip; urine; Adolescent; Adult; Animals; Antigens, Helminth; Child; Child, Preschool; Cross-Sectional Studies; Ethiopia; Feces; Female; Glycoproteins; Helminth Proteins; Humans; Male; Parasite Egg Count; Prevalence; Reagent Strips; Reproducibility of Results; Schistosoma mansoni; Schistosomiasis mansoni; Sensitivity and Specificity; Schistosoma; Schistosoma mansoniNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84873716775Performance of CareStart™ malaria Pf/Pv combo test for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax infections in the Afar Region, North East EthiopiaChanie M., Erko B., Animut A., Legesse M.2012Ethiopian Journal of Health Development253NoneAklilu Lemma Institute of Patho-biology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaChanie, M., Aklilu Lemma Institute of Patho-biology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Erko, B., Aklilu Lemma Institute of Patho-biology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Animut, A., Aklilu Lemma Institute of Patho-biology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Legesse, M., Aklilu Lemma Institute of Patho-biology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pv Combo test has shown encouraging results for the diagnosis of P. falciparum and P. vivax infections in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, the performance of the test could be affected by different factors like gene polymorphisms, excess heat and humidity. Hence, evaluation of the performance of the test in different settings in Ethiopia is vital for the routine diagnosis of malaria. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pv Combo test for the diagnosis of P. falciparum and P. vivax infections in the Afar Region, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods: Finger prick blood samples were collected from a total of 1092 patients who had malaria symptoms and visited three different health facilities in the Afar Region. Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood smears were prepared and microscopically examined under 100 × magnifications for Plasmodium species identification and determination of parasitaemia. CareStart Malaria Pf/Pv Combo test was also performed as per the manufacturer's instructions. The sensitivity and the specificity of the test was determined using microscopy as gold standard. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 98.5% and 98.0% respectively, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 91.7% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.7% for the diagnosis of P. falciparum infection. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of P. vivax infection were 100% and 99.6% respectively, with PPV and NPV of 86.2% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed high sensitivity and specificity of CareStartTM Malaria Pf/Pv Combo test for the diagnosis of both P. falciparum and P. vivax infections in the study area, though additional study may be needed in the most peripheral hottest areas of the region.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-67650573158Evaluation of the performance of CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pv Combo and Paracheck Pf® tests for the diagnosis of malaria in Wondo Genet, southern EthiopiaBekele Sharew, Mengistu Legesse, Abebe Animut, Daddi Jima, Girmay Medhin, Berhanu Erko2009Acta Tropica111310.1016/j.actatropica.2009.05.014Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P.O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBekele Sharew, Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Mengistu Legesse, Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Abebe Animut, Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Daddi Jima, Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, P.O. Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Girmay Medhin, Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Berhanu Erko, Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaObjective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pv Combo test relative to microscopy for the diagnosis of falciparum and vivax malaria in Ethiopia. Methods: 668 febrile patients visiting two health centers in Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia, involved in this study in 2008. Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood smears were prepared and microscopically examined under a 100× oil immersion microscope objective for Plasmodium species identification and determination of parasitaemia, respectively. CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pv Combo test and Paracheck Pf® test were performed as per the manufacturers' instruction. Findings: The diagnostic validity of CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pv Combo test for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum were very good with sensitivity of 99.4%, specificity of 98%, positive predictive value of 94.4% and negative predictive value of 99.8%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the test for the diagnosis of P. vivax were 99.4%, 98.2%, 94.5% and 99.8%, respectively. The diagnostic performance of CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pv Combo test is comparable to that of Paracheck Pf® test for the diagnosis of P. falciparum (sensitivity 99.4%, specificity 98.2%). Conclusion: Although CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pv Combo test and Paracheck Pf® test have comparable diagnostic performance for the diagnosis of P. falciparum, CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pv Combo test has the added advantage of diagnosing P. vivax. Hence, it is preferable to use CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pv Combo test for the diagnosis of malaria in areas where microscopy is not accessible and where malaria due to P. falciparum and P. vivax are co-endemic as in Ethiopia. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.CareStart™ Malaria RDT; Diagnosis; Ethiopia; Malaria; Plasmodium speciesdisease treatment; malaria; medicine; microscopy; sensitivity analysis; adolescent; adult; aged; article; blood smear; child; controlled study; diagnostic accuracy; diagnostic test; diagnostic value; Ethiopia; female; human; infant; intermethod comparison; major clinical study; malaria; malaria falciparum; male; parasite identification; Plasmodium vivax malaria; sensitivity and specificity; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Animals; Child; Child, Preschool; Ethiopia; Female; Humans; Infant; Malaria, Falciparum; Malaria, Vivax; Male; Middle Aged; Molecular Diagnostic Techniques; Plasmodium falciparum; Plasmodium vivax; Predictive Value of Tests; Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; Sensitivity and Specificity; Young Adult; Africa; East Africa; Ethiopia; Sub-Saharan Africa; Wondo Genet; Plasmodium falciparum; Plasmodium vivaxNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77957875582Field evaluation of the efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin against bovine tuberculosis in neonatal calves in EthiopiaAmeni G., Vordermeier M., Aseffa A., Young D.B., Hewinson R.G.2010Clinical and Vaccine Immunology171010.1128/CVI.00222-10Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; TB Research Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, United Kingdom; Armauer Hansen Research Institute, P.O. Box 1005, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Division of Infectious Diseases, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, United KingdomAmeni, G., Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Armauer Hansen Research Institute, P.O. Box 1005, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Vordermeier, M., TB Research Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, United Kingdom; Aseffa, A., Armauer Hansen Research Institute, P.O. Box 1005, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Young, D.B., Division of Infectious Diseases, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom; Hewinson, R.G., TB Research Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, United KingdomIn developing countries, the conventional test and slaughter strategy for the control of bovine tuberculosis is prohibitively expensive, and alternative control methods such as vaccination are urgently required. In this study, the efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for protection against bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was evaluated in Holstein calves under field conditions in Ethiopia. Thirteen neonatally vaccinated and 14 control calves were exposed for 10 to 23 months to skin test reactor cows. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) testing, comparative intradermal tuberculin testing, postmortem examination, and bacteriological culture were used for the evaluation of BCG efficacy. The overall mean pathology score was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in control calves than in vaccinated calves. Culture positivity for Mycobacterium bovis was higher in the control calves than in the vaccinated calves, and significantly more BCG-vaccinated animals would have passed a standard meat inspection (P = 0.021). Overall, the protective efficacy of BCG was between 56% and 68%, depending on the parameters selected. Moreover, by measuring gamma interferon responses to the antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10, which are present in M. bovis but absent from BCG, throughout the experiment, we were able to distinguish between vaccinated animals that were protected against bTB and those animals that were not protected. In conclusion, the present trial demonstrated an encouraging protective effect of BCG against bTB in a natural transmission setting in Ethiopia. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.NoneBCG vaccine; culture filtrate protein 10; early secretory antigenic target 6; gamma interferon; animal experiment; animal tissue; article; bacterium culture; BCG vaccination; bovine tuberculosis; controlled study; disease severity; drug efficacy; Ethiopia; Mycobacterium bovis; newborn; nonhuman; priority journal; tuberculin test; Animals; Bacterial Proteins; Cattle; Ethiopia; Interferon-gamma; Lymphocytes; Mycobacterium bovis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Severity of Illness Index; Tuberculin Test; Tuberculosis Vaccines; Tuberculosis, BovineNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84862843375Effects of level of concentrate supplementation on growth performance of Arsi-Bale and Boer × Arsi-Bale male goats consuming low-quality grass hayMohammed S., Urge M., Animut G., Awigechew K., Abebe G., Goetsch A.L.2012Tropical Animal Health and Production44610.1007/s11250-011-0056-2Alage Agricultural Technical and Vocational Education Training College, Alage, Ethiopia; School of Animal and Range Sciences, Haramaya University, Alemaya, Ethiopia; Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; American Institute for Goat Research, Langston University, P. O. Box 730, Langston, OK, United StatesMohammed, S., Alage Agricultural Technical and Vocational Education Training College, Alage, Ethiopia; Urge, M., School of Animal and Range Sciences, Haramaya University, Alemaya, Ethiopia; Animut, G., School of Animal and Range Sciences, Haramaya University, Alemaya, Ethiopia; Awigechew, K., Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Abebe, G., Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Goetsch, A.L., American Institute for Goat Research, Langston University, P. O. Box 730, Langston, OK, United StatesEighteen Arsi-Bale (local) and 18 Boer × Arsi-Bale (crossbred) male goats, initially approximately 10 months of age, were used in a 12-week experiment to investigate potential interactions between genotype and nutritional plane in growth performance, carcass and skin characteristics, and mass of non-carcass components. Grass hay (6.7% crude protein and 71.9% neutral detergent fiber) was consumed ad libitum supplemented with 150, 300, or 450 g/day (dry matter; low, moderate, and high, respectively) of a concentrate mixture (50% wheat bran, 49% noug seed cake, and 1% salt). Initial body weight was 20.7 and 14.0 kg for crossbred and local goats, respectively (SE = 0.36). Hay dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.05) for crossbred vs. local goats (461 and 429 g/day) and similar among concentrate levels (438, 444, and 451 g/day for high, moderate, and low, respectively; SE = 4.7). Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.05) for crossbred than for local goats (36.6 and 20.8 g) and differed (P < 0.05) among each level of concentrate (43.7, 29.6, and 12.8 g for high, moderate, and low, respectively). Dressing percentage was similar between genotypes (41.1% and 41.1% live body weight for crossbred and local goats, respectively; SE = 0.59) and greater (P < 0.05) for high vs. low (43.5% vs. 38.7% live body weight). Carcass weight differed (P < 0.05) between genotypes (9.23 and 6.23 kg for crossbred and local goats, respectively) and high and low (8.80 and 6.66 kg, respectively). Carcass concentrations of physically dissectible lean and fat were similar between genotypes and high and low concentrate levels. There were few differences between genotypes or concentrate levels in other carcass characteristics such as color and skin properties. Relative to empty body weight, the mass of most non-carcass tissues and organs did not differ between genotypes. However, the low concentrate-level mass of omental-mesenteric fat was greater (P < 0.05) for local vs. crossbred goats (1.06% vs. 0.54% empty body weight, respectively). In conclusion, growth performance and carcass weight advantages from crossing Boer and Arsi-Bale goats were similar with a low-quality basal grass hay diet regardless of level of supplemental concentrate. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.Breed; Carcass; Goat; Growth; Supplementationadipose tissue; animal; animal disease; animal food; article; body weight; clinical trial; comparative study; controlled clinical trial; controlled study; cross breeding; diet supplementation; dietary fiber; Ethiopia; genetics; genotype; goat; growth, development and aging; male; morphometrics; physiology; plant seed; randomized controlled trial; statistical model; Adipose Tissue; Animal Feed; Animals; Body Weight; Body Weights and Measures; Crosses, Genetic; Dietary Fiber; Dietary Supplements; Ethiopia; Genotype; Goats; Linear Models; Male; Seeds; Capra hircus; Triticum aestivumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84916594942Health behaviour and self-reported academic performance among university students: An international studyPeltzer K., Pengpid S.2014Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences52710.5901/mjss.2014.v5n27p998ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Madidol University, Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhonpathom, Thailand; University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, Sovenga, South Africa; HIV/AIDS/STIs/and TB (HAST), Human Sciences Research Council, Private Bag X41, Pretoria, South AfricaPeltzer, K., ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Madidol University, Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhonpathom, Thailand, University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, Sovenga, South Africa, HIV/AIDS/STIs/and TB (HAST), Human Sciences Research Council, Private Bag X41, Pretoria, South Africa; Pengpid, S., ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Madidol University, Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhonpathom, Thailand, University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, Sovenga, South AfricaThe aim of this study was to investigate health correlates of academic performance among university students from 26 low and middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 20222 university students, 41.5% men and 58.5% women, with a mean age of 20.8 years (SD=2.8), from 26 countries across Africa, Asia and Americas. Overall, 28.4% reported excellent or very good, 65.5% good or satisfactory and 6.2% not satisfactory academic performance. Multivariate linear regression found that that sociodemographic factors (younger age, coming from a wealthier family background, lack of social support and high intrinsic religiosity), health behaviours (trying to eat fibre, avoiding fat and cholesterol, high levels of physical activity, no illicit drug use, not drinking and driving), and better mental health (no severe sleep problem and no moderate or severe depression) were associated self-reported academic performance. Several clustering health behaviours were identified which can be utilized in public health interventions. © 2014, Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research. All rights reserved.Academic performance; Correlates; Multi-country; University studentsNoneNone
NoneNoneEvaluation of the safety and immunogenicity of the RTS,S/AS01E malaria candidate vaccine when integrated in the expanded program of immunizationAgnandji S.T., Asante K.P., Lyimo J., Vekemans J., Soulanoudjingar S.S., Owusu R., Shomari M., Leach A., Fernandes J., Dosoo D., Chikawe M., Issifou S., Osei-Kwakye K., Lievens M., Paricek M., Apanga S., Mwangoka G., Okissi B., Kwara E., Minja R., Lange J2010Journal of Infectious Diseases202710.1086/656190Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Medical Research Unit Lambaréné, Lambaréné, Gabon; Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Kintampo, Ghana; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Ifakara Health Institute, Bagamoyo Research and Training Centre, Bagamoyo District Hospital, Bagamoyo, Tanzania; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium; Program for Appropriate Technology in Health Malaria Vaccine Initiative, Bethesda, MD, United States; Swiss Tropical Institute, University of Basel, Basel, SwitzerlandAgnandji, S.T., Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Medical Research Unit Lambaréné, Lambaréné, Gabon, Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Asante, K.P., Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Kintampo, Ghana, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Lyimo, J., Ifakara Health Institute, Bagamoyo Research and Training Centre, Bagamoyo District Hospital, Bagamoyo, Tanzania; Vekemans, J., GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium; Soulanoudjingar, S.S., Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Medical Research Unit Lambaréné, Lambaréné, Gabon, Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Owusu, R., Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Kintampo, Ghana; Shomari, M., Ifakara Health Institute, Bagamoyo Research and Training Centre, Bagamoyo District Hospital, Bagamoyo, Tanzania; Leach, A., GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium; Fernandes, J., Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Medical Research Unit Lambaréné, Lambaréné, Gabon, Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Dosoo, D., Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Kintampo, Ghana; Chikawe, M., Ifakara Health Institute, Bagamoyo Research and Training Centre, Bagamoyo District Hospital, Bagamoyo, Tanzania; Issifou, S., Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Medical Research Unit Lambaréné, Lambaréné, Gabon, Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Osei-Kwakye, K., Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Kintampo, Ghana; Lievens, M., GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium; Paricek, M., Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Medical Research Unit Lambaréné, Lambaréné, Gabon, Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Apanga, S., Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Kintampo, Ghana; Mwangoka, G., Ifakara Health Institute, Bagamoyo Research and Training Centre, Bagamoyo District Hospital, Bagamoyo, Tanzania; Okissi, B., Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Medical Research Unit Lambaréné, Lambaréné, Gabon, Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Kwara, E., Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Kintampo, Ghana; Minja, R., Ifakara Health Institute, Bagamoyo Research and Training Centre, Bagamoyo District Hospital, Bagamoyo, Tanzania; Lange, J., Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Medical Research Unit Lambaréné, Lambaréné, Gabon, Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Boahen, O., Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Kintampo, Ghana; Kayan, K., Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Kintampo, Ghana; Adjei, G., Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Kintampo, Ghana; Chandramohan, D., Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Kintampo, Ghana, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Jongert, E., GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium; Demoitié, M.-A., GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium; Dubois, M.-C., GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium; Carter, T., Program for Appropriate Technology in Health Malaria Vaccine Initiative, Bethesda, MD, United States; Vansadia, P., Program for Appropriate Technology in Health Malaria Vaccine Initiative, Bethesda, MD, United States; Villafana, T., Program for Appropriate Technology in Health Malaria Vaccine Initiative, Bethesda, MD, United States; Sillman, M., Program for Appropriate Technology in Health Malaria Vaccine Initiative, Bethesda, MD, United States; Savarese, B., Program for Appropriate Technology in Health Malaria Vaccine Initiative, Bethesda, MD, United States; Lapierre, D., GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium; Ballou, W.R., GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium; Greenwood, B., Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Kintampo, Ghana, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Tanner, M., Ifakara Health Institute, Bagamoyo Research and Training Centre, Bagamoyo District Hospital, Bagamoyo, Tanzania, Swiss Tropical Institute, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Cohen, J., GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium; Kremsner, P.G., Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Medical Research Unit Lambaréné, Lambaréné, Gabon, Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Lell, B., Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Medical Research Unit Lambaréné, Lambaréné, Gabon, Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Owusu-Agyei, S., Kintampo Health Research Centre, Ghana Health Service, Kintampo, Ghana, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Abdulla, S., Ifakara Health Institute, Bagamoyo Research and Training Centre, Bagamoyo District Hospital, Bagamoyo, TanzaniaBackground. The RTS,S/AS01E malaria candidate vaccine is being developed for immunization of African infants through the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI). Methods. This phase 2, randomized, open, controlled trial conducted in Ghana, Tanzania, and Gabon evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of RTS,S/AS01E when coadministered with EPI vaccines. Five hundred eleven infants were randomized to receive RTS,S/AS01E at 0, 1, and 2 months (in 3 doses with diphtheria, tetanus, and whole-cell pertussis conjugate [DTPw]; hepatitis B [HepB]; Haemophilus influenzae type b [Hib]; and oral polio vaccine [OPV]), RTS,S/AS01E at 0, 1, and 7 months (2 doses with DTPwHepB/Hib+OPV and 1 dose with measles and yellow fever), or EPI vaccines only. Results. The occurrences of serious adverse events were balanced across groups; none were vaccine-related. One child from the control group died. Mild to moderate fever and diaper dermatitis occurred more frequently in the RTS,S/AS01E coadministration groups. RTS,S/AS01E generated high anti-circumsporozoite protein and anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibody levels. Regarding EPI vaccine responses upon coadministration when considering both immunization schedules, despite a tendency toward lower geometric mean titers to some EPI antigens, predefined noninferiority criteria were met for all EPI antigens except for polio 3 when EPI vaccines were given with RTS,S/AS01E at 0, 1, and 2 months. However, when antibody levels at screening were taken into account, the rates of response to polio 3 antigens were comparable between groups. Conclusion. RTS,S/AS01E integrated in the EPI showed a favorable safety and immunogenicity evaluation. Trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00436007. GlaxoSmithKline study ID number: 106369 (Malaria-050). © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.Nonecircumsporozoite protein; diphtheria antibody; diphtheria pertussis tetanus vaccine; Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; hepatitis B surface antibody; hepatitis B vaccine; hepb; immunoglobulin G antibody; immunological adjuvant; malaria vaccine; measles vaccine; oral poliomyelitis vaccine; protein antibody; protozoal protein; rts s as 01 e vaccine; stamaril; tetanus antibody; unclassified drug; yellow fever vaccine; diphtheria pertussis tetanus vaccine; Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide vaccine; Haemophilus vaccine; hepatitis B vaccine; malaria vaccine; oral poliomyelitis vaccine; RTS,S AS01E vaccine; RTS,S-AS01E vaccine; alanine aminotransferase blood level; anemia; anorexia; antibody blood level; antibody response; article; bronchitis; clinical trial; conjunctivitis; controlled clinical trial; controlled study; coughing; diaper dermatitis; diarrhea; diphtheria; drowsiness; drug safety; drug screening; enteritis; enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; febrile convulsion; female; fever; Gabon; gastroenteritis; Ghana; Haemophilus infection; hepatitis B; human; immunization; immunogenicity; impetigo; infant; injection site induration; injection site pain; injection site swelling; irritability; major clinical study; malaria falciparum; male; measles; multicenter study; nonhuman; open study; otitis media; pertussis; phase 2 clinical trial; Plasmodium falciparum; pneumonia; priority journal; randomized controlled trial; rhinitis; rhinopharyngitis; rhinorrhea; seizure; sepsis; side effect; skin infection; staphylococcal skin infection; Tanzania; tetanus; upper respiratory tract infection; yellow fever; bacterial membrane; immunology; methodology; Bacterial Capsules; Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine; Female; Gabon; Ghana; Haemophilus Vaccines; Hepatitis B Vaccines; Humans; Immunization; Immunization, Secondary; Infant; Malaria Vaccines; Male; Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral; TanzaniaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84893204534Identifying perceived barriers to monitoring service quality among substance abuse treatment providers in South AfricaMyers B., Petersen Z., Kader R., Koch J.R., Manderscheid R., Govender R., Parry C.D.H.2014BMC Psychiatry14110.1186/1471-244X-14-31Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Institute for Drug and Alcohol Studies, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States; National Association of County Behavioral Health and Developmental Disability Directors, Washington DC, United States; Department of Sociology, Centre for Social Science Research, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Psychiatry, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South AfricaMyers, B., Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Petersen, Z., Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; Kader, R., Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Koch, J.R., Institute for Drug and Alcohol Studies, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States; Manderscheid, R., National Association of County Behavioral Health and Developmental Disability Directors, Washington DC, United States; Govender, R., Department of Sociology, Centre for Social Science Research, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Parry, C.D.H., Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa, Department of Psychiatry, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South AfricaBackground: A performance measurement system is planned for South African substance abuse treatment services. Provider-level barriers to implementing these systems have been identified in the United States, but little is known about the nature of these barriers in South Africa. This study explored the willingness of South African substance abuse treatment providers' to adopt a performance measurement system and perceived barriers to monitoring service quality that would need to be addressed during system development.Methods: Three focus group discussions were held with treatment providers from two of the nine provinces in South Africa. These providers represented the diverse spread of substance abuse treatment services available in the country. The final sample comprised 21 representatives from 12 treatment facilities: eight treatment centres in the Western Cape and four in KwaZulu-Natal. Content analysis was used to extract core themes from these discussions.Results: Participants identified barriers to the monitoring of service quality that included outdated modes of collecting data, personnel who were already burdened by paperwork, lack of time to collect data, and limited skills to analyse and interpret data. Participants recommended that developers engage with service providers in a participatory manner to ensure that service providers are invested in the proposed performance measurement system.Conclusion: Findings show that substance abuse treatment providers are willing to adopt a performance measurement system and highlight several barriers that need to be addressed during system development in order to enhance the likelihood that this system will be successfully implemented. © 2014 Myers et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Performance measurement; Service monitoring; Service quality; South Africa; Substance abuse treatmentadult; article; female; health care facility; health care personnel; health care quality; health service; human; information processing; job stress; male; middle aged; patient monitoring; performance measurement system; physician; psychologist; social participation; social worker; South Africa; substance abuse; health care personnel; perception; psychology; Substance-Related Disorders; task performance; Adult; Female; Focus Groups; Health Personnel; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Perception; South Africa; Substance-Related Disorders; Task Performance and AnalysisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-21444456142Cross-national performance of the RAPS4/RAPS4-QF for tolerance and heavy drinking: Data from 13 countriesCherpitel C.J., Ye Y., Bond J., Borges G., Cremonte M., Marais S., Poznyak V., Sovinova H., Moskalewicz J., Swiatkiewicz G.2005Journal of Studies on Alcohol663NoneAlcohol Research Group, 2000 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94709, United States; National Institute of Psychiatry, Metropolitan Autonomous University, Mexico City, Mexico; National University, Mar del Plata, Argentina; Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; National Institute of Public Health, Prague, Czech Republic; Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, PolandCherpitel, C.J., Alcohol Research Group, 2000 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94709, United States; Ye, Y., Alcohol Research Group, 2000 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94709, United States; Bond, J., Alcohol Research Group, 2000 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94709, United States; Borges, G., Alcohol Research Group, 2000 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94709, United States, National Institute of Psychiatry, Metropolitan Autonomous University, Mexico City, Mexico; Cremonte, M., Alcohol Research Group, 2000 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94709, United States, National University, Mar del Plata, Argentina; Marais, S., Alcohol Research Group, 2000 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94709, United States, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; Poznyak, V., Alcohol Research Group, 2000 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94709, United States, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Sovinova, H., Alcohol Research Group, 2000 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94709, United States, National Institute of Public Health, Prague, Czech Republic; Moskalewicz, J., Alcohol Research Group, 2000 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94709, United States, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland; Swiatkiewicz, G., Alcohol Research Group, 2000 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94709, United States, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, PolandObjective: There are little data available on the performance of brief screening instruments for alcohol-use disorders cross-nationally; therefore, we analyzed the performance of one such instrument in a number of countries. Method: Performance of the RAPS4 for tolerance and the RAPS4-QF for heavy drinking are analyzed from emergency room data across 13 countries included in the combined Emergency Room Collaborative Alcohol Analysis Project (ERCAAP) and the World Health Organization Collaborative Study on Alcohol and Injuries, Results: The RAPS4 showed good sensitivity and specificity for tolerance across most of the countries, but was higher in countries that were higher on societal-level detrimental drinking patterns. Prevalence of tolerance was also higher in those countries with high detrimental drinking pattern scores. Sensitivity of the RAPS4-QF for heavy drinking was uniformly high across countries, while maintaining good specificity, and did not vary by detrimental drinking patterns. Conclusions: Findings suggest the RAPS4 and RAPS4-QF may hold promise cross-nationally. Future research should more fully address the performance of brief screening instruments for alcohol-use disorders (using standard diagnostic criteria) cross-nationally, with consideration of the impact of societal drinking patterns.Nonealcohol; adult; alcohol consumption; alcoholism; article; diagnostic accuracy; drinking behavior; emergency ward; human; screening test; Alcoholism; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; International Cooperation; Mass Screening; Questionnaires; Reproducibility of Results; Sensitivity and SpecificityNone
WoSWOS:000320019700006Exploring impacts of multi-year, community-based care programs for orphans and vulnerable children: A case study from KenyaBrooks, Mohamad,Bryant, Malcolm,Larson, Bruce A.,Masila, Juliana,Rohr, Julia,Wambua, Nancy,Wangai, Susan2013AIDS CARE-PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-MEDICAL ASPECTS OF AIDS/HIV25None10.1080/09540121.2012.729807Boston University, Benevolent Inst Dev Initiat, Christian Aid"Brooks, Mohamad: Boston University","Bryant, Malcolm: Boston University","Rohr, Julia: Boston University",The Community-Based Care for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (CBCO) program operated in Kenya during 2006-2010. In Eastern Province, the program provided support to approximately 3000 orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) living in 1500 households. A primary focus of the program was to support savings and loan associations composed of OVC caregivers (typically elderly women) to improve household and OVC welfare. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2011 from 1500 randomly selected households from 3 populations: program participants (CBCO group, n=500), households in the same villages as program participants but not in the program (the local-community-group = Group L, n=300), and households living in nearby villages where the program did not operate (the adjacent-community-group, Group A, n=700). Primary welfare outcomes evaluated are household food security, as measured by the Household Food Insecurity Access instrument, and OVC educational attainment. We compared outcomes between the CBCO and the subset of Group L not meeting program eligibility criteria (L-N) to investigate disparities within local communities. We compared outcomes between the CBCO group and the subset of Group A meeting eligibility criteria (A-E) to consider program impact. We compared outcomes between households not eligible for the program in the local and adjacent community groups (L-N and A-N) to consider if the adjacent communities are similar to the local communities. In May-June 2011, at the end of the OVC program, the majority of CBCO households continued to be severely food insecure, with rates similar to other households living in nearby communities. Participation rates in primary school are high, reflecting free primary education. Among the 18-22 year olds who were children during the program years, relatively few children completed secondary school across all study groups. Although the CBCO program likely provided useful services and benefits to program participants, disparities continued to exist in food security and educational outcomes between program participants and their non-OVC peers in the local community. Outcomes for CBCO households were similar to those observed for OVC households in adjacent communities."educational attainment","FOOD SECURITY","orphans and vulnerable children","village savings and loan associations"NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84920437223Towards collective circum-antarctic passive acoustic monitoring: The southern ocean hydrophone network (SOHN)Van Opzeeland I., Samaran F., Stafford K.M., Findlay K., Gedamke J., Harris D., Miller B.S.2014Polarforschung832NoneAlfred-Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany; PELAGIS Observatory CNRS-UMS 3462, University of la Rochelle, France; Applied Physics Lab University of Washington SeattleWA, United States; Mammal Research Institute Whale Unit, University of Pretoria, South Africa; National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Ocean Acoustics Program, Office of Science and Technology, United States; Centre for Research into Ecological and Environmental Modelling, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom; Australian Marine Mammal Centre, Australian Antarctic Division, Hobart, AustraliaVan Opzeeland, I., Alfred-Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany; Samaran, F., PELAGIS Observatory CNRS-UMS 3462, University of la Rochelle, France; Stafford, K.M., Applied Physics Lab University of Washington SeattleWA, United States; Findlay, K., Mammal Research Institute Whale Unit, University of Pretoria, South Africa; Gedamke, J., National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Ocean Acoustics Program, Office of Science and Technology, United States; Harris, D., Centre for Research into Ecological and Environmental Modelling, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom; Miller, B.S., Australian Marine Mammal Centre, Australian Antarctic Division, Hobart, AustraliaThe Southern Ocean Research Partnership (SORP) is an international research program initiated within the International Whaling Commission (IWC) in 2009 to promote collaborative cetacean research, develop nov el research techniques, and conduct non-lethal research on whales in the Southern Ocean (CHILDERHOUSE 2009). One of the original research projects of the SORP is the Blue and Fin Whale Acoustic Trends Project, which aims to implement a long term passive acoustic research program to examine trends in Antarctic blue (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) and fin whale (B. physalus) abundance, distribution, and seasonal presence in the Southern Ocean through the use of a network of passive acoustic recorders: the Southern Ocean Hydrophone Network (SOHN). Networks of widely spaced passive acoustic recorders can provide insights in spatio-temporal patterns of the presence and properties of whale calls as well as the potential to monitor trends in Antarctic blue and fin whale abundance. The SOHN will consist of a network of autonomous underwater acoustic re cording stations surrounding the Antarctic continent with each site remaining active throughout the 10-year duration of the project. In addition to circum polar coverage, high priority will be given towards achieving simultaneous temporal coverage, especially in the early years of the project. While logis tical constraints may prevent uniform distribution of SOHN recording sites around the continent, the Acoustic Trends Working group (ATW) aims to have at least one recording site in each of the six IWC management areas (i.e., one per 60° longitudinal wedge). International collaboration and coordination are imperative to achieve the project goals due to the high cost of Antarctic research as well as the broad spatial and temporal scales over which the SOHN will span. Furthermore, standardization of data is paramount for accurate and efficient analysis and interpretation of SOHN data. To facilitate international participation in the SOHN, this document provides practical recommendations to guide and support passive acoustic data of project as well as technical and logistic information and recommendations regarding standardization of recording locations is provided here for a diverse collection in Antarctic waters. This whitepaper addresses a wide audience, ranging from scientists from different disciplines with access to instrumenttation and/or infrastructure to collect passive acoustic data in the Southern Ocean, to ship operators or other parties that can provide logistic support to make the SOHN a reality. Background information and an outline of the sci entific aims of project as well as technical and logistic information and re commendations regarding standardization of recording locations is provided here for a diverse audience coming from different backgrounds with widely differing levels of experience with the applications and use of passive acoustic instrumentation. By providing the information relevant for SOHN from the ground up, we aim that this document contributes to increase aware ness and participation by a broad range of partner nations and organizations in the SOHN and Acoustic Trends Projects.Noneabundance; autonomous underwater vehicle; bioacoustics; biomonitoring; cetacean; hydrophone; population distribution; spatiotemporal analysis; standardization; Southern Ocean; Balaenoptera musculus intermedia; Balaenoptera physalus; CetaceaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78650167700Evaluation of PCR assays for the detection of Campylobacter fetus in bovine preputial scrapings and the identification of subspecies in South African field isolatesSchmidt T., Venter E.H., Picard J.A.2010Journal of the South African Veterinary Association812NoneAllerton Provincial Veterinary Laboratory, Private Bag X2, Cascades, 3202, South Africa; Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South AfricaSchmidt, T., Allerton Provincial Veterinary Laboratory, Private Bag X2, Cascades, 3202, South Africa; Venter, E.H., Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; Picard, J.A., Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South AfricaAs a result of the high lability and slow growth of Campylobacter fetus subspecies, the laboratory diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis has always been difficult. This is especially true under South African conditions, where farms are far apart, laboratories are only present in major centres and there are high ambient temperatures. In order to overcome the short-comings associated with traditional diagnostic methods, the implementation of a molecular assay was sought. This work describes how a previously published PCR assay (MG3F/MG4R primers) was adapted, optimised and applied in the diagnostic laboratory to test preputial samples directly for the presence of Campylobacter fetus. Field evaluation of the assay revealed an analytical sensitivity and specificity of 85.7 % and 99 %, respectively. Subsequent genotyping and phenotyping of a diverse collection of South African field isolates revealed that South Africa has an unexpected and previously unreported high incidence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius strains. These strains were not identified correctly by the subspecies-specific primer set evaluated. Until such time that cost- effective genotyping methods are available to diagnostic laboratories in South Africa, and other countries with these atypical Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis strains, the need for bacterial culture will persist. Identification to subspecies level of isolates at present remains dependent upon a single phenotypic criterion, namely tolerance to 1 % glycine.Bovine genital campylobacteriosis; Campylobacter fetus fetus; Campylobacter fetus venerealis biovar intermedius; Culture; Polymerase chain reactionarticle; bacterial strain; bacterium culture; Campylobacter fetus; controlled study; cost effectiveness analysis; cow; genotype; laboratory diagnosis; nonhuman; phenotype; polymerase chain reaction; prepuce; sensitivity and specificity; South Africa; Animals; Campylobacter fetus; Campylobacter Infections; Cattle; Cattle Diseases; Male; Polymerase Chain Reaction; South Africa; Bacteria (microorganisms); Bovinae; Campylobacter fetus; Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus; Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84893516821Late presentation to HIV/AIDS testing, treatment or continued care: Clarifying the use of CD4 evaluation in the consensus definitionMaccarthy S., Bangsberg D., Fink G., Reich M., Gruskin S.2014HIV Medicine15310.1111/hiv.12088Alpert Medical School of Brown University and The Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI, United States; Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Global Health, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States; Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Mbarara District, Uganda; Department of Global Health and Population, Boston, MA, United States; Institute of Global Health, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United StatesMaccarthy, S., Alpert Medical School of Brown University and The Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI, United States; Bangsberg, D., Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Global Health, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Mbarara District, Uganda; Fink, G., Department of Global Health and Population, Boston, MA, United States; Reich, M., Department of Global Health and Population, Boston, MA, United States; Gruskin, S., Department of Global Health and Population, Boston, MA, United States, Institute of Global Health, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United StatesObjectives: Late presentation to HIV/AIDS services compromises treatment outcomes and misses opportunities for biomedical and behavioural prevention. There has been significant heterogeneity in how the term 'late presentation' (LP) has been used in the literature. In 2011, a consensus definition was reached using CD4 counts to define and measure late presenters and, while it is useful for clinical care, the consensus definition has several important limitations that we discuss in this article. Methods: Using the spectrum of engagement in HIV care presented by Gardner and colleagues, this article highlights issues and opportunities associated with use of the consensus definition. Results: The consensus definition is limited by three principal factors: (1) the CD4 count threshold of 350cells/μL is being increasingly questioned as the biomedical justification grows for earlier initiation of treatment; (2) CD4 evaluations are conducted at multiple services providing HIV care; thus it remains unclear to which service the patient is presenting late; and (3) the limited availability of CD4 evaluation restricts its use in determining the prevalence of LP in many settings. Conclusions: The consensus definition is useful because it describes the level of disease progression and allows for consistent evaluation of the prevalence and determinants of LP. Suggestions are provided for improving the application of the consensus definition in future research. © 2013 British HIV Association.CD4 evaluations; HIV/AIDS; Late presentation; Testing; Treatmentantiretrovirus agent; acquired immune deficiency syndrome; article; CD4 lymphocyte count; disease course; evaluation study; health care; health care utilization; HIV test; human; Human immunodeficiency virus; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; late presentation; prevalence; priority journal; treatment outcome; virus replication; virus transmission; CD4 evaluations; HIV/AIDS; late presentation; testing; treatment; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes; Delayed Diagnosis; Disease Progression; HIV Infections; Humans; Time FactorsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-20144361977Valuing the impacts of climate change on protected areas in AfricaVelarde S.J., Malhi Y., Moran D., Wright J., Hussain S.2005Ecological Economics53110.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.07.024Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn Programme, World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya; School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, United Kingdom; School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom; Land Economy, Scottish Agricultural College, Kings Buildings, West Main Rd., Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, United Kingdom; Department of Geography, University of Southampton, United KingdomVelarde, S.J., Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn Programme, World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya; Malhi, Y., School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, United Kingdom, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom; Moran, D., Land Economy, Scottish Agricultural College, Kings Buildings, West Main Rd., Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, United Kingdom; Wright, J., Department of Geography, University of Southampton, United Kingdom; Hussain, S., Land Economy, Scottish Agricultural College, Kings Buildings, West Main Rd., Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, United KingdomThis study quantifies the economic costs of climate change impacts on protected areas in Africa. Downscaled results from four Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are used to classify different ecosystems in accordance with the Holdridge Life Zone (HLZ) system. A benefits transfer approach is then used to place an economic value on the predicted ecosystem shifts resulting from climate change in protected areas. The results provide approximations for the impacts on biodiversity in Africa under the "business-as-usual" scenario established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for the middle and end of the 21st century. The geographical analysis shows that there are twenty HLZs in Africa and all of them are represented in the protected area network. Three of these HLZs do not change in extent as a result of climate change. Assuming initially that the willingness to pay (WTP) values and the preferences for different ecosystem services remain constant, three of the GCM models show an (undiscounted) negative economic impact of climate change for protected areas in Africa for the year 2100. The worst-case damage scenario totals USD 74.5 million by 2100. However, the model for the year 2065 shows a higher undiscounted value than the present. The finding of positive net impacts from warming is consistent with the predictions of other macro models that show potential gains from warming scenarios. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.African protected areas; Benefits transfer; Climate change; Ecosystem shifts; Holdridge life zonesclimate change; economic impact; environmental impact; protected area; Africa; Eastern Hemisphere; WorldNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84885576797Evaluation of indigenous fungal pathogens from horse purslane (trianthema portulacastrum) for their relative virulence and host range assessments to select a potential mycoherbicidal agentRay P., Vijayachandran L.S.2013Weed Science61410.1614/WS-D-12-00076.1Amrita Center for Nanomedicine and Molecular Medicine, AIMS, Ponekkara, Kochi, 41, Kerala, India; Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South AfricaRay, P., Amrita Center for Nanomedicine and Molecular Medicine, AIMS, Ponekkara, Kochi, 41, Kerala, India, Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa; Vijayachandran, L.S., Amrita Center for Nanomedicine and Molecular Medicine, AIMS, Ponekkara, Kochi, 41, Kerala, India, Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South AfricaPeriodic surveys were conducted to seek potential indigenous fungal agents for development as mycoherbicides against horse purslane, a major weed of agricultural fields in India. Pathogenic fungal species were isolated and identified from naturally infected horse purslane. The biocontrol potential of these pathogens for horse purslane was evaluated by studying their host range and virulence under growth chamber and greenhouse conditions. Three candidates, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, and Phoma herbarum, were identified as potential candidates for biological control of horse purslane. Preliminary host-range tests and pathogenicity studies, conducted using 45 crop and weed plants belonging to 18 families, demonstrated that P. herbarum provided effective weed control and was safe to most of the plant species tested. Further mycoherbicidal application of P. herbarum as plant spray under field condition caused mortality of horse purslane 60 d after application of the inoculums. Phoma herbarum is a good mycoherbicide candidate against horse purslane. Nomenclature: Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl., Phoma herbarum Westendorp, horse purslane, Trianthema portulacastrum L. TRTPO.indigenous fungal pathogenbiological control; dicotyledon; field; fungal disease; fungus; greenhouse ecosystem; host range; infectivity; inoculation; mortality; pathogen; pathogenicity; potential biocontrol agent; virulence; weed control; IndiaNone
NoneNoneEvaluation of the long-lasting insecticidal net Interceptor LN: Laboratory and experimental hut studies against anopheline and culicine mosquitoes in northeastern TanzaniaMalima R., Tungu P.K., Mwingira V., Maxwell C., Magesa S.M., Kaur H., Kirby M.J., Rowland M.2013Parasites and Vectors6110.1186/1756-3305-6-296Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, P.O. Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania; Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, WC1E 7HT London, United KingdomMalima, R., Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, P.O. Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania; Tungu, P.K., Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, P.O. Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania; Mwingira, V., Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, P.O. Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania; Maxwell, C., Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, WC1E 7HT London, United Kingdom; Magesa, S.M., Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, P.O. Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania; Kaur, H., Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, WC1E 7HT London, United Kingdom; Kirby, M.J., Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, WC1E 7HT London, United Kingdom; Rowland, M., Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, WC1E 7HT London, United KingdomBackground: Long lasting insecticidal nets (LN) are a primary method of malaria prevention. Before new types of LN are approved they need to meet quality and efficacy standards set by the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme. The process of evaluation has three phases. In Phase I the candidate LN must meet threshold bioassay criteria after 20 standardized washes. In Phase II washed and unwashed LNs are evaluated in experimental huts against wild, free flying anopheline mosquitoes. In Phase III the LN are distributed to households in malaria endemic areas, sampled over three years of use and tested for continuing insecticidal efficacy. Interceptor® LN (BASF Corporation, Germany) is made of polyester netting coated with a wash resistant formulation of alpha-cypermethrin. Methods. Interceptor LN was subjected to bioassay evaluation and then to experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-susceptible Anopheles gambiae and An. funestus and resistant Culex quinquefasciatus. Mosquito mortality, blood feeding inhibition and personal protection were compared between untreated nets, conventional alpha-cypermethrin treated nets (CTN) washed 20 times and LNs washed 0, 20 and 30 times. Results: In Phase I Interceptor LN demonstrated superior wash resistance and efficacy to the CTN. In the Phase II hut trial the LN killed 92% of female An. gambiae when unwashed and 76% when washed 20 times; the CTN washed 20 times killed 44%. The LN out-performed the CTN in personal protection and blood-feeding inhibition. The trend for An. funestus was similar to An. gambiae for all outcomes. Few pyrethroid-resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus were killed and yet the level of personal protection (75-90%) against Culex was similar to that of susceptible An. gambiae (76-80%) even after 20 washes. This protection is relevant because Cx. quinquefasciatus is a vector of lymphatic filariasis in East Africa. After 20 washes and 60 nights' use the LN retained 27% of its initial insecticide dose. Conclusions: Interceptor LN meets the approval criteria set by WHO and is recommended for use in disease control against East African vectors of malaria and filariasis. Some constraints associated with the phase II evaluation criteria, in particular the washing procedure, are critically reviewed. © 2013 Malima et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Anopheles funestus; Anopheles gambiae; Culex quinquefasciatus; Experimental hut; Interceptor LN; LN; Long-lasting insecticidal netcipermethrin; Anopheles funestus; Anopheles gambiae; article; bed net; bioassay; chemical industry; clinical evaluation; controlled study; Culex quinquefasciatus; human; insecticide resistance; lymphatic filariasis; malaria; malaria control; Tanzania; Anopheles funestus; Anopheles gambiae; Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus; Animals; Anopheles; Biological Assay; Culex; Feeding Behavior; Female; Humans; Insecticide-Treated Bednets; Insecticides; Malaria; Mosquito Control; Survival Analysis; TanzaniaNone
NoneNoneEvaluation of permanet 3.0 a deltamethrin-PBO combination net against Anopheles gambiae and pyrethroid resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes: An experimental hut trial in TanzaniaTungu P., Magesa S., Maxwell C., Malima R., Masue D., Sudi W., Myamba J., Pigeon O., Rowland M.2010Malaria Journal9110.1186/1475-2875-9-21Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, PO Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania; Pan-African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, Tanzania; Pesticides Research Department, Walloon Agricultural Research Centre, 11 Rue du Bordia, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium; Department of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, United KingdomTungu, P., Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, PO Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania, Pan-African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, Tanzania; Magesa, S., Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, PO Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania, Pan-African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, Tanzania; Maxwell, C., Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, PO Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania, Pan-African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, Tanzania, Department of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom; Malima, R., Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, PO Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania, Pan-African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, Tanzania; Masue, D., Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, PO Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania, Pan-African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, Tanzania; Sudi, W., Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, PO Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania, Pan-African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, Tanzania; Myamba, J., Amani Medical Research Centre, National Institute for Medical Research, PO Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania, Pan-African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, Tanzania; Pigeon, O., Pesticides Research Department, Walloon Agricultural Research Centre, 11 Rue du Bordia, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium; Rowland, M., Pan-African Malaria Vector Research Consortium, Tanzania, Department of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, United KingdomBackground. Combination mosquito nets incorporating two unrelated insecticides or insecticide plus synergist are designed to control insecticide resistant mosquitoes. PermaNet 3.0 is a long-lasting combination net incorporating deltamethrin on the side panels and a mixture of deltamethrin and synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the top panel. PBO is an inhibitor of mixed function oxidases implicated in pyrethroid resistance. Method. An experimental hut trial comparing PermaNet 3.0, PermaNet 2.0 and a conventional deltamethrin-treated net was conducted in NE Tanzania using standard WHOPES procedures. The PermaNet arms included unwashed nets and nets washed 20 times. PermaNet 2.0 is a long-lasting insecticidal net incorporating deltamethrin as a single active. Results. Against pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles gambiae the unwashed PermaNet 3.0 showed no difference to unwashed PermaNet 2.0 in terms of mortality (95% killed), but showed differences in blood-feeding rate (3% blood-fed with PermaNet 3.0 versus 10% with PermaNet 2.0). After 20 washes the two products showed no difference in feeding rate (10% with 3.0 and 9% with 2.0) but showed small differences in mortality (95% with 3.0 and 87% with 2.0). Against pyrethroid resistant Culex quinquefasciatus, mediated by elevated oxidase and kdr mechanisms, the unwashed PermaNet 3.0 killed 48% and PermaNet 2.0 killed 32% but after 20 washes there was no significant difference in mortality between the two products (32% killed by 3.0 and 30% by 2.0). For protecting against Culex PermaNet 3.0 showed no difference to PermaNet 2.0 when either unwashed or after 20 washes; both products were highly protective against biting. Laboratory tunnel bioassays confirmed the loss of biological activity of the PBO/deltamethrin-treated panel after washing. Conclusion. Both PermaNet products were highly effective against susceptible Anopheles gambiae. As a long-lasting net to control or protect against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes PermaNet 3.0 showed limited improvement over PermaNet 2.0 against Culex quinquefasciatus. © 2010 Tungu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Nonedeltamethrin; oxidoreductase; piperonyl butoxide; vasculotropin receptor 2; deltamethrin; insecticide; nitrile; piperonyl butoxide; pyrethroid; Anopheles gambiae; article; bed net; Culex quinquefasciatus; feeding behavior; insect bite; mortality; nonhuman; Tanzania; world health organization; animal; Culex; drug effect; drug resistance; human; methodology; mosquito; survival; Animals; Anopheles gambiae; Culex; Drug Resistance; Feeding Behavior; Humans; Insecticide-Treated Bednets; Insecticides; Mosquito Control; Nitriles; Piperonyl Butoxide; Pyrethrins; Survival Analysis; TanzaniaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-58049090543Ecological thresholds in the Savanna landscape: Developing a protocol for monitoring the change in composition and utilisation of large treesDruce D.J., Shannon G., Page B.R., Grant R., Slotow R.2008PLoS ONE31210.1371/journal.pone.0003979Amarula Elephant Research Programme, Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban, South Africa; Scientific Services, Kruger National Park, Skukuza, South AfricaDruce, D.J., Amarula Elephant Research Programme, Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban, South Africa; Shannon, G., Amarula Elephant Research Programme, Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban, South Africa; Page, B.R., Amarula Elephant Research Programme, Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban, South Africa; Grant, R., Scientific Services, Kruger National Park, Skukuza, South Africa; Slotow, R., Amarula Elephant Research Programme, Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban, South AfricaBackground: Acquiring greater understanding of the factors causing changes in vegetation structure - particularly with the potential to cause regime shifts - is important in adaptively managed conservation areas. Large trees (≥5 m in height) play an important ecosystem function, and are associated with a stable ecological state in the African savanna. There is concern that large tree densities are declining in a number of protected areas, including the Kruger National Park, South Africa. In this paper the results of a field study designed to monitor change in a savanna system are presented and discussed. Methodology/Principal Findings: Developing the first phase of a monitoring protocol to measure the change in tree species composition, density and size distribution, whilst also identifying factors driving change. A central issue is the discrete spatial distribution of large trees in the landscape, making point sampling approaches relatively ineffective. Accordingly, fourteen 10 m wide transects were aligned perpendicular to large rivers (3.0-6.6 km in length) and eight transects were located at fixed-point photographic locations (1.0-1.6 km in length). Using accumulation curves, we established that the majority of tree species were sampled within 3 km. Furthermore, the key ecological drivers (e.g. fire, herbivory, drought and disease) which influence large tree use and impact were also recorded within 3 km. Conclusions/Significance: The technique presented provides an effective method for monitoring changes in large tree abundance, size distribution and use by the main ecological drivers across the savanna landscape. However, the monitoring of rare tree species would require individual marking approaches due to their low densities and specific habitat requirements. Repeat sampling intervals would vary depending on the factor of concern and proposed management mitigation. Once a monitoring protocol has been identified and evaluated, the next stage is to integrate that protocol into a decision-making system, which highlights potential leading indicators of change. Frequent monitoring would be required to establish the rate and direction of change. This approach may be useful in generating monitoring protocols for other dynamic systems. © 2008 Druce et al.Nonearticle; conservation biology; controlled study; ecosystem restoration; environmental planning; environmental protection; landscape ecology; nonhuman; plant density; plant ecology; population size; savanna; species distribution; tree; animal; biodiversity; chemistry; ecosystem; elephant; environmental monitoring; environmental protection; evaluation; geography; health care quality; methodology; physiology; population density; South Africa; tree; Animals; Biodiversity; Conservation of Natural Resources; Ecosystem; Elephants; Environmental Monitoring; Geography; Population Density; Program Evaluation; South Africa; TreesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-81555205837Relative Impacts of Elephant and Fire on Large Trees in a Savanna EcosystemShannon G., Thaker M., Vanak A.T., Page B.R., Grant R., Slotow R.2011Ecosystems14810.1007/s10021-011-9485-zAmarula Elephant Research Programme, School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Pvt. Bag 54001, Durban 4000, South Africa; Scientific Services, Kruger National Park, Box 106, Skukuza 1350, South AfricaShannon, G., Amarula Elephant Research Programme, School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Pvt. Bag 54001, Durban 4000, South Africa; Thaker, M., Amarula Elephant Research Programme, School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Pvt. Bag 54001, Durban 4000, South Africa; Vanak, A.T., Amarula Elephant Research Programme, School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Pvt. Bag 54001, Durban 4000, South Africa; Page, B.R., Amarula Elephant Research Programme, School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Pvt. Bag 54001, Durban 4000, South Africa; Grant, R., Scientific Services, Kruger National Park, Box 106, Skukuza 1350, South Africa; Slotow, R., Amarula Elephant Research Programme, School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Pvt. Bag 54001, Durban 4000, South AfricaElephant and fire are considered to be among the most important agents that can modify the African savanna ecosystem. Although the synergistic relationship between these two key ecological drivers is well documented, it has proved much more difficult to establish the relative effects they have on savanna vegetation structure at a fine-scale over time. In this study, we explore the comparative impacts of fire and elephant on 2,522 individually identified large trees (≥5 m in height) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Data were collected from 21 transects first surveyed in April 2006 and resurveyed in November 2008, to determine the relative importance of past damage by these agents on subsequent impacts and mortality. The occurrence of fire or elephant damage in 2006 affected the amount of tree volume subsequently removed by both these agents; elephant removed more tree volume from previously burned trees and the impact of subsequent fire was higher on previously burned or elephant-utilized trees than on undamaged trees. Mortality was also affected by an interaction between previous and recent damage, as the probability of mortality was highest for trees that suffered from fire or elephant utilization after being pushed over. Subsequent fire damage, but not elephant utilization, on debarked trees also increased the probability of mortality. Mortality was twice (4. 6% per annum) that of trees progressing into the ≥5 m height class, suggesting an overall decline in large tree density during the 30-month study period. The responses of large trees were species and landscape-specific in terms of sensitivity to elephant and fire impacts, as well as for levels of mortality and progression into the ≥5 m height class. These results emphasize the need for fine-scale site-specific knowledge for effective landscape level understanding of savanna dynamics. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.ecological drivers; elephant; fire; herbivory; savanna management; tree survival; vegetation dynamics; woody speciesbiological invasion; elephant; forest fire; habitat management; herbivory; mortality; population decline; probability; savanna; sensitivity analysis; spatiotemporal analysis; survival; synergism; transect; volume; woody plant; Kruger National Park; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84912042628The Dube TradePort-King Shaka International Airport mega-project: Exploring impacts in the context of multi-scalar governance processesRobbins G.2015Habitat International45P310.1016/j.habitatint.2014.05.006Amsterdam Institutes for Social Science Research, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; School of Built Environment and Development Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaRobbins, G., Amsterdam Institutes for Social Science Research, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands, School of Built Environment and Development Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaMega-projects aimed at enhancing urban economic infrastructure have been widely recognised as a feature of cities in which influential actors are eager to encourage economic growth. They have also been described as being central in influencing physical patterns of city growth through their direct and indirect impacts on land-uses. Whilst such initiatives are not necessarily new, it has been noted in more recent urban development experiences that these projects tend to involve crafting highly complex, mixed-use environments through a variety of forms of public-private collaboration. Furthermore, they are promoted not only in instrumental terms as facilities or infrastructure to serve a need of a particular economic process, but are also often packaged and motivated as comprehensive urban developments that can reposition the image of cities in a highly competitive global investment environment. Such processes are both influenced by and, in turn, influence multi-scalar governance processes and practices, both in the planning and motivating projects, as well as in their operations. The new King Shaka International Airport (KSIA) and Dube TradePort (DTP), located some 35km north from the City of Durban in South Africa, were projects developed with the intention of replacing an apparently obsolete facility so as to enable the region to attract more international aviation links that could, in turn, support tourism and exports. Based on analysis of documents and a range of stakeholder interviews, the paper shows how the development of the facilities and the associated impacts, from the shaping of space to meeting of operational targets, have been influenced by and also influenced the character of governance arrangements. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.Cities; Mega-project impacts; Mega-projects; Multi-scalar governance; Private sector; Public sectorairport; governance approach; private sector; public sector; urban development; urban economy; urban planning; Durban; KwaZulu-Natal; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84903217902Effects of different organic materials and npk fertilizer on the performance of maize [Utjecaj različitih organskih tvari i npk gnojiva na performance kukuruza]Remison S.U., Eifediyi E.K.2014Poljoprivreda201NoneAmbrose Alli University, Department of Crop Science, Ekpoma, Nigeria; University of Ilorin, Department of Agriculture, Ilorin, NigeriaRemison, S.U., Ambrose Alli University, Department of Crop Science, Ekpoma, Nigeria; Eifediyi, E.K., University of Ilorin, Department of Agriculture, Ilorin, NigeriaThe interest in organic materials as soil fertility restorer is increasing due to the high cost and unavailability at the right time of inorganic fertilizer and the problem associated with residue disposal by burning which can further aggravate global warming. The effects of different organic materials and NPK fertilizer on the performance of maize were examined in field experiments carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma in a forest savanna transition zone of Edo State, Nigeria. The investigations were carried out during the 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons and involved the use of organic materials (wood shavings, rice hulls, kola husks and their combinations) and NPK fertilizer. The layout of the experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The results indicated that most of the organic materials, especially kola husk and mixtures with kola husk and NPK increased yield and its components. The treatments significantly increased the concentrations of N, P, K and Na in ear leaves and grains.Maize yield; Rice hull and kola husk; Wood shavingsNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79960446073Impact of water harvesting ponds on household incomes and rural livelihoods in Minjar Shenkora district of EthiopiaTeshome A., Adgo E., Mati B.2010Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology104240410.2478/v10104-011-0016-5Amhara Agricultural Reseach Institute, P.O. Box 527, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Bahir Dar University, P.O. Box 1289, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Management of Agricultural Water in Eastern and Southern Africa (IMAWESA), P.O. Box 39063-00623, Nairobi, KenyaTeshome, A., Amhara Agricultural Reseach Institute, P.O. Box 527, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Adgo, E., Bahir Dar University, P.O. Box 1289, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Mati, B., Management of Agricultural Water in Eastern and Southern Africa (IMAWESA), P.O. Box 39063-00623, Nairobi, KenyaThis paper presents the fndings of the socio-economic impact of household-level water harvesting technology. Before water harvesting was introduced, onions were not grown in the area due to lack of seedlings. Thus onion seedlings were grown on 100 m 2 plots using water from the ponds in the dry season, then sold or planted under rainfed conditions during the rainy season. The results obtained show that the average net income from onion seedlings was 155 US$ per 100 m 2 plot, while those from bulb onions grown rainfed in the feld was 1848 US$ per ha, making the contribution to farmer incomes by onions alone about 2003 US$ per year which is higher than from rainfed teff and wheat combined.Net incomes; Onions seedlings; Rainfed agriculture; Socio-economic assesment; Water harvestingcrop production; household income; irrigation; pond; rainfed agriculture; rural economy; rural society; socioeconomic impact; water resource; water technology; Ethiopia; Minjar Shenkora; Allium cepa; Eragrostis tef; Triticum aestivumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84880098112Evaluation of specific gravity of potato varieties in Ethiopia as a criterion for determining processing qualityAbebe T., Wongchaochant S., Taychasinpitak T.2013Kasetsart Journal - Natural Science471NoneAmhara Agricultural Research Institute, Adet Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box 08, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Department of Horticulture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, ThailandAbebe, T., Amhara Agricultural Research Institute, Adet Agricultural Research Center, P.O.Box 08, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Wongchaochant, S., Department of Horticulture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand; Taychasinpitak, T., Department of Horticulture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, ThailandSpecific gravity (SG) is the measure of choice for estimating dry matter (DMC) and starch content (SC) and ultimately for determining the processing quality of potato varieties. Evaluation of the SG of 25 potato varieties was carried out at three distinct locations in the Amhara region of Ethiopia with the main objectives of determining their culinary quality and most suitable areas of production. The varieties were planted in a 5 × 5 balanced lattice design of six replications during the 2011 rainy season. The results of the data analysis showed highly significant (P < 0.01) genotypic and location differences and significant (P < 0.05) genotype × environment interactions. The pooled SG values ranged from 1.058 to 1.102. The SG of tubers of the improved variety Belete was the highest while that of Menagesha was the lowest. Furthermore, the SG values for varieties grown at Debretabor were higher than those for the corresponding varieties grown at Adet and Merawi. The DMC and SC were computed based on the SG and showed significant (P < 0.01) genotypic variability. The highest DMC and SC were also obtained at Debretabor; thus, it is an ideal location to grow potatoes for high DMC and starch accumulation. Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis identified CIP-392640.524, Zengena, Jalenie and Belete as stable genotypes with SG values above average.Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis; Potato varieties; Processing quality; Specific-gravity; VariabilityNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77749264428Evaluation of the FAO CROPWAT model for deficit-irrigation scheduling for onion crop in a semiarid region of EthiopiaDiro S.B., Tilahun K.2009Journal of Applied Horticulture112NoneAmhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Sekota, Ethiopia; School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, AustraliaDiro, S.B., Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Sekota, Ethiopia; Tilahun, K., Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Sekota, Ethiopia, School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, AustraliaDeficit irrigation conserves water and minimizes adverse effects of excess irrigation. In this study, the applicability of the CROPWAT model in management of deficit irrigation was evaluated at Sekota Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. Water was applied using low head drippers. There were eight treatments with three replications: stress at 1st, 2nd, 3 rd, and 4th growth stages and partial stresses of 50% ETc, 75% ETc with two controls of 25% ETc and 100% ETc of the water requirement throughout the growing season. The input data for CROPWAT program were climatic, rainfall, crop and soil data. Yield reductions simulated by CROPWAT program were comparable with yield reduction measured under field condition. Model efficiency and correlation coefficients of 98% were obtained. Based on the above comparative analysis, CROPWAT program could adequately simulate yield reduction resulting from water stress.Cropwat model; Deficit irrigation; Ethiopia; Growth stages; OnionAllium cepaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-31744447128The first 5 years of the family clinic for HIV at Tygerberg hospital: Family demographics, survival of children and early impact of antiretroviral therapyvan Kooten Niekerk N.K.M., Knies M.M., Howard J., Rabie H., Zeier M., van Rensburg A., Frans N., Schaaf H.S., Fatti G., Little F., Cotton M.F.2006Journal of Tropical Pediatrics52110.1093/tropej/fmi047Amsterdam Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa; Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa; Department of Social Work, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa; Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africavan Kooten Niekerk, N.K.M., Amsterdam Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Knies, M.M., Amsterdam Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Howard, J., Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa; Rabie, H., Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa; Zeier, M., Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa; van Rensburg, A., Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa; Frans, N., Department of Social Work, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa; Schaaf, H.S., Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa; Fatti, G., Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Little, F., Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Cotton, M.F., Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South AfricaBackground: Family clinics address the problems of HIV-infected children and their families. The aims were to document demographics of the children and caregivers attending the Family Clinic for HIV at Tygerberg Academic Hospital (TAH) and to investigate factors affecting disease progression in children. Methods: A retrospective folder review of children and parents attending the Family Clinic at TAH between January 1997 and December 2001, a period noted for its lack of antiretroviral treatment. Results: Of 432 children seen for testing, 274 children, median age 16.9 months, were HIV-infected. During follow-up, 46 children died (median age 23 months) and 113 were lost to follow-up. The majority of children were malnourished. Those <2 years of age had lower weight for age Z-scores (WAZ) than older children (p<0.001). At presentation, 47 per cent were in clinical stage B and two-thirds had moderate or severe CD4+ T cell depletion. Seventeen children had received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 12 dual and 31 monotherapy. HAART was associated with improved survival compared to dual or monotherapy. Risk of death was reduced from eleven-fold for a WAZ <-4 to four-fold between -2 and -3. There was no association with immunological and clinical classification at entry and risk of mortality. Only 18 per cent of parents were evaluated in the clinic. Non-parental care was documented for 25 per cent of families. Conclusions: A low WAZ is associated with poor survival in children. Nutritional status should receive more attention in HIV disease classification in children. Parent utilization of the clinic was inadequate. Even in the absence of HAART, extended survival in children is possible. © The Author [2005]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.Noneanti human immunodeficiency virus agent; antiretrovirus agent; tuberculostatic agent; adolescent; article; body weight; caregiver; CD4+ T lymphocyte; child; child care; child death; clinical feature; correlation analysis; cost of illness; demography; disease classification; disease course; disease severity; family counseling; female; follow up; general practice; health care utilization; highly active antiretroviral therapy; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; immunology; lymphocyte depletion; major clinical study; male; malnutrition; medical documentation; monotherapy; nutritional status; risk assessment; scoring system; screening test; South Africa; survival; Age Factors; Ambulatory Care Facilities; Analysis of Variance; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active; Child Mortality; Child, Preschool; Developing Countries; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Drug Administration Schedule; Female; HIV Infections; Hospitals, Teaching; Humans; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Nutritional Status; Patient Compliance; Proportional Hazards Models; Retrospective Studies; Risk Assessment; Severity of Illness Index; Socioeconomic Factors; South Africa; Survival Analysis; Treatment OutcomeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84862826827Comparative evaluation of environmental contamination and DNA damage induced by electronic-waste in Nigeria and ChinaAlabi O.A., Bakare A.A., Xu X., Li B., Zhang Y., Huo X.2012Science of the Total Environment423None10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.01.056Analytic Cytology Laboratory, The Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China; Biosciences and Biotechnology Department, Babcock University, Ilisan-remo, Ogun State, Nigeria; Cell Biology and GeAlabi, O.A., Analytic Cytology Laboratory, The Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China, Biosciences and Biotechnology Department, Babcock University, Ilisan-remo, Ogun State, Nigeria, Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Bakare, A.A., Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Xu, X., Analytic Cytology Laboratory, The Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China; Li, B., Analytic Cytology Laboratory, The Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China; Zhang, Y., Analytic Cytology Laboratory, The Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China; Huo, X., Analytic Cytology Laboratory, The Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, ChinaIn the last decade, China and Nigeria have been prime destinations for the world's e-waste disposal leading to serious environmental contamination. We carried out a comparative study of the level of contamination using soils and plants from e-waste dumping and processing sites in both countries. Levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed using gas chromatography/spectrophotometry and heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. DNA damage was assayed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using an alkaline comet assay. Soils and plants were highly contaminated with toxic PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, and heavy metals in both countries. Soil samples from China and plant samples from Nigeria were more contaminated. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of organics and heavy metals in plant samples and the surrounding soils. In human lymphocytes, all tested samples induced significant (p < 0.05) concentration-dependent increases in DNA damage compared with the negative control. These findings suggest that e-waste components/constituents can accumulate, in soil and surrounding vegetation, to toxic and genotoxic levels that could induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.Comet assay; DNA damage; Electronic waste; Heavy metals; Organic contaminantsAdverse health effects; Alkaline comet assay; Atomic absorption spectrophotometry; Comet assays; Comparative evaluations; Comparative studies; Concentration-dependent; DNA damage; DNA damages; e-Waste; Electronic waste; Environmental contamination; Genotoxic; Human lymphocytes; Human peripheral blood; Negative control; Nigeria; Organic contaminant; Organics; Plant samples; Polyaromatic hydrocarbons; Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs); Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs); Positive correlations; Soil sample; Surrounding soils; Contamination; DNA; Electronic equipment; Heavy metals; Hydrocarbons; Organic pollutants; Polychlorinated biphenyls; Soils; Waste disposal; Wastes; Soil pollution; chromium; copper; DNA; heavy metal; iron; lead; manganese; nickel; polybrominated diphenyl ether; polychlorinated biphenyl; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; soil organic matter; bioaccumulation; comparative study; DNA; genotoxicity; health impact; heavy metal; organic pollutant; PAH; PBDE; PCB; plant; pollution exposure; soil pollution; waste disposal; article; atomic absorption spectrometry; bioaccumulation; China; comet assay; comparative study; concentration (parameters); controlled study; correlation analysis; DNA damage; dumping; electronic waste; environmental exposure; gas chromatography; genotoxicity; human; human cell; Nigeria; nonhuman; peripheral lymphocyte; phytotoxicity; priority journal; soil analysis; soil pollution; vegetation; waste disposal; China; Comet Assay; DNA Damage; Electronics; Environmental Pollutants; Environmental Pollution; Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry; Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers; Humans; Hydrocarbons, Aromatic; Metals, Heavy; Nigeria; Plants; Polychlorinated Biphenyls; Recycling; Soil; Waste Management; China; NigeriaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77249163163Mobility and speciation of heavy metals in soils impacted by hazardous wasteOgundiran M.B., Osibanjo O.2009Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability21210.3184/095422909X449481Analytical/Environmental Chemistry Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, NigeriaOgundiran, M.B., Analytical/Environmental Chemistry Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Osibanjo, O., Analytical/Environmental Chemistry Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, NigeriaThis study describes the mobility and chemical fractionation of heavy metals (HMs) from a site impacted by auto battery slag that was generated from secondary lead smelting operations. Samples were collected from the waste pile and from the immediate surrounding soil at four depths to assess the migration and potential bioavailability of Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni and Zn. Total levels of the HMs and their fractionation were determined. The results indicate that highest levels of HMs are present in the uppermost layer with significant migration down the depth, thereby posing a threat to groundwater quality. In the fractions, the concentrations of the metals follow this sequence: Pb>Zn>Cd>Cr>Ni. The chemical fractions of Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni and Zn in the samples, expressed as mean concentrations of the sum of the individual chemical fractions, demonstrate that the HMs exist mainly in the non-residual fractions. For instance, the percentage of non-residual fractions of lead in the waste pile and the surrounding soil ranged from 48.9 to 95.6% and 69.4 to 98.3% respectively. The mobility factors of the heavy metals are significantly high indicating high potential mobility and bioavailable forms of these HMs. The high concentrations of the HMs particularly Pb in the non-residual fractions, as observed in this study, shows the impact of anthropogenic activities on enrichment of natural soil with bioavailable HMs. Consequently, there is a need to be cautious in the way waste that is generated from heavy metals projects is added to natural soil.Bioavailability; Contamination; Fractionation; Heavy metals; Mobility factorNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77955022557Assessment of village chicken production system and evaluation of the productive and reproductive performance of local chicken ecotype in bure district, North West EthiopiaMoges F., Mellesse A., Dessie T.2010African Journal of Agricultural Research513NoneAndassa Livestock Research Center, P. O. Box 27, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P. O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Hawassa University, P. O. Box 5, Awassa, EthiopiaMoges, F., Andassa Livestock Research Center, P. O. Box 27, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Mellesse, A., Hawassa University, P. O. Box 5, Awassa, Ethiopia; Dessie, T., International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P. O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaA survey was conducted in Bure district, North West Ethiopia, from 2007 to 2008 to assess the existing village chicken production system. A participatory rural appraisal and a formal survey were used to collect all the relevant data, using a multi-stage sampling technique. Seven farmer administrative kebeles (two from high land, three from mid altitude and two from low land agro-ecologies) and a total of 280 village chicken owner households were considered for the study. The result revealed that the dominant (83%) chicken production system was an extensive/traditional type of production, using a majority (97%) of local chicken ecotypes, managed mainly on scavenging with seasonal supplementation of home grown grains and household food leftovers. The purposes of chicken production were sale for income (51.4%), egg hatching for replacement (45%), consumption (44.3%), use of birds for cultural and/or religious ceremonies (36.4%) and egg production (40.7%). The average flock size per household was 13 (ranged 1 - 57), with a hen to cock ratio of 3.7:1. Only 22.1% of chicken owners prepared a separate overnight house for birds and the rest (77.9%) kept birds in various night sheltering places. The result revealed that 97.5% of interviewed chicken owners experienced chicken disease problems, mainly Newcastle disease (98.2%). The result indicated that 95% of village chicken owners used only traditional means to treat sick birds. The average age of cockerels at first mating and pullets at first egg were 24.6 weeks and 27.5 weeks, respectively. The average number of eggs laid/clutch was 16 (ranged 8 - 28) and the number of total clutch periods/hen/year was 4 (ranged 2 - 6). The annual egg production performance of local hens, under farmer's management condition, was 60 eggs/hen (ranged 24 -112). The average number of eggs incubated/hen was 13 and 11 chicks, on average, were hatched from them. The average hatchability performance of local hens was 81.7%. However, survivability of young chicks was only 60.5% (ranged 0 -100%). High hatchability performance of local hens (81.7%) and high mortality of young chicks (39.5%) were the two contradictory features for the existing village chicken production system of the district. Seasonal diseases outbreaks (84.3%) and predation (11.4%) were the major causes of chicken loss in the district. Women were the major responsible members of the household involved in various chicken husbandry activities like cleaning bird's house (38.6%), feeding birds (81.7%), selling birds (83%) and selling eggs (54.6%). Only 37.5% of interviewed chicken owners got appropriate extension services related to modern chicken management practices. The result of the study revealed that there is a great interest to boost up the existing village chicken production and productivity. This should be considered as an opportunity and potential to design and implement interventions, aimed at improving production and productivity of village chicken in the district. © 2010 Academic Journals.Ethiopia; Local chicken ecotypes; Village chicken production systemAvesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84878474369Effects of dietary supplementation with urea molasses multi-nutrient block on performance of mid lactating local Ethiopian and crossbred dairy cowsTekeba E., Wurzinger M., Baldinger L., Zollitsch W.J.2013Livestock Research for Rural Development256NoneAndassa Livestock Research Centre, P.O.box 27, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Gregor-Mendel-Strasse 33, A-1180, Vienna, AustriaTekeba, E., Andassa Livestock Research Centre, P.O.box 27, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Wurzinger, M., BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Gregor-Mendel-Strasse 33, A-1180, Vienna, Austria; Baldinger, L., BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Gregor-Mendel-Strasse 33, A-1180, Vienna, Austria; Zollitsch, W.J., BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Gregor-Mendel-Strasse 33, A-1180, Vienna, AustriaAn experiment was conducted on station, using a nested design in order to evaluate the effects of a Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient Block (UMMB) supplementation of typical dry season, roughage based diets on the performance of mid lactating local Fogera and their F1 Holstein Friesian crosses in Ethiopia. Eight cows each from both breeds were assigned to a forage-based control diet and an experimental diet with UMMB supplementation. Highly significant differences were observed between treatments for most production traits. However, Fogera and crossbred dairy cows showed a different response pattern for some traits. Crossbred dairy cows were superior over Fogera for milk production, reproductive performance and benefit-cost ratio regardless of UMMB supplementation. Conversely, Fogera cows had higher milk solid contents and supplementing them with UMMB had a greater effect on milk fat than in crossbred cows. It is concluded that supplementing dairy cows with UMMB during the dry season is basically a helpful measure to maintain production. Depending on the availability of UMMB, priority in supplementation however, should be given to cows with a high genetic potential for milk production.Fogera; Mid-lactating; On-station; Roughage-based; SupplementBos; FriesiaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84919436435Determination of bulk density, methods and impacts, with a case study from Los Bronces Mine, ChileMakhuvha M., Arellano R.M., Harney D.M.W.2014Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B: Applied Earth Science123310.1179/1743275814Y.0000000058Anglo American Kumba Iron Ore, Thabazimbi Mine, 11 Jourdan Street, Thabazimbi, South Africa; Anglo American Copper, Los Bronces, Pedro de Valdivia 29, Santiago, Chile; FAusIMM, Anglo American, 45 Main Street, Johannesburg, South AfricaMakhuvha, M., Anglo American Kumba Iron Ore, Thabazimbi Mine, 11 Jourdan Street, Thabazimbi, South Africa; Arellano, R.M., Anglo American Copper, Los Bronces, Pedro de Valdivia 29, Santiago, Chile; Harney, D.M.W., FAusIMM, Anglo American, 45 Main Street, Johannesburg, South AfricaMineral resource and ore reserve estimates are founded on two sources of data: tonnage and grade. The tonnage is a product of volume and density; both of which are estimates. Density impacts numerous operational factors, which include, but are not limited to, mine design, mine planning, equipment selection and operational performance. Hence, density is a significant parameter and its determination requires similar care as the measurement of grade. This paper provides an overview of methods used to determine density within the Anglo American Group. It is not the purpose of this paper to identify a preferred method, but to highlight the importance of choosing the best suited practice for a project or mine site. In addition, a case study comparing two different density determination methods applied to the same rock samples from the Los Bronces Copper mine in Chile was undertaken and the results of that study are presented here. Selecting the most appropriate method to determine density and comparing results from two or more techniques against each other, together with other suitable quality control procedures, is considered to be essential for mining operations and exploration projects in order to reduce risk and to improve operational performance, which in turn increases profit margin. © 2014 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining and The AusIMM.Bulk density; Core pycnometer; Density determination; Los Bronces; Mineral resourcesCopper mines; Economic geology; Ores; Bulk density; Core pycnometer; Determination methods; Different densities; Exploration projects; Los Bronces; Operational factors; Operational performance; Mineral resources; bulk density; copper; mineral exploration; mineral resource; mining; ChileNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78651515238Optimizing the performance of wet drum magnetic separatorsDworzanowski M.2010Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy11011NoneAnglo American Technical Division, South AfricaDworzanowski, M., Anglo American Technical Division, South AfricaThe difference in the magnetic properties of minerals is the basis for magnetic separation. All minerals can be generally classified as ferromagnetic (strongly magnetic), paramagnetic (weakly magnetic) or diamagnetic (non-magnetic). Magnetic separation can be conducted dry or wet. The majority of the applications of wet magnetic separation in the mining industry are based on the wet drum magnetic separator. The wet drum magnetic separator has been in use for over 50 years and its design is based on a rotating drum installed inside a tank. Inside the drum are stationary, permanent magnets arranged in an arc to provide the magnetic field. These magnets can be of the ceramic ferrite type providing a low intensity magnetic field or of the rare earth type providing a high intensity magnetic field. Wet drum magnetic separators are generally applied in three different ways, namely to recover and recycle the medium used in dense medium separation (DMS), to remove magnetic contaminants from ores and concentrates, and to recover valuable magnetic products. Wet drum magnetic separators are applied in the following commodity areas: coal, diamonds, iron ore, chrome, platinum, heavy mineral sands, industrial minerals, and base metals. Whereas the design and operation of wet drum magnetic separators is relatively straightforward, it is very often found that the performance of wet drum magnetic separators is far from optimum. The reason for this is generally a lack of understanding of how the different design and operating variables interact and how they affect performance. This paper examines these variables, describing their importance and impact for all applications of wet drum magnetic separators. It also provides clear guidelines on how to adjust and control these variables so that optimum performance is achieved. © The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2010.Demagnetization; Ferrite and rare earth magnets; Magnetic flocculation; Magnetic separation; Magnetite and ferrosilicon recoveryBase metals; Dense medium separation; Design and operations; Heavy minerals; High intensity; Industrial mineral; Low-intensity; Magnetic flocculation; Mining industry; Nonmagnetics; Operating variables; Optimum performance; Rotating drums; Wet-drum magnetic separator; Demagnetization; Design; Diamonds; Ferrite; Ferrites; Flocculation; Industrial diamonds; Magnetic fields; Magnetic properties; Magnetic separation; Magnetite; Magnets; Mineral exploration; Minerals; Ores; Paramagnetism; Platinum; Rare earths; Recovery; Silicon steel; Magnetic separatorsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84856588612Testing stemming performance, possible or not?Boshoff D., Webber-Youngman R.C.W.2011Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy11112NoneAnglo American, Johannesburg, South Africa; University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaBoshoff, D., Anglo American, Johannesburg, South Africa; Webber-Youngman, R.C.W., University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaThe ability of an explosive to break rock is influenced considerably by the extent of confinement in the blasthole. It is believed that confinement is improved by the use of adequate stemming. The aim of this paper is to present the results of the first and second stages of developing a stemming performance testing rig for small diameter boreholes. The rig was used to compare and contrast the performance of different designs of products. The results showed that different stemming products have differences in terms of their functionality, which can have a major impact on the efficiency of rock breaking. Two test procedures were used, one through the exclusive use of compressed air and the second using a purposebuilt high pressure test rig with small quantities of explosives. Both tests were used to identify and evaluate the ability of various stemming products to resist the escape of explosive gas through the collar of a blasthole. An investigation was done to determine the types of stemming products most commonly used in South African underground hard rock mines, and these products were used during the tests. The first stage of tests using compressed air only did not prove adequate to predict with certainty the pressure behaviour in the borehole of a particular product under high pressure conditions. The purpose-built high pressure test rig also did not prove to be a very effective tool to test stemming products under high pressure conditions. The test rig incorporated only the effect of gas pressure on the stemming product, and excluded the effect of the shock wave. This study therefore proved that to take into account only the gas pressure generated in the blasthole is not sufficient to effectively test stemming product performance. © The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2011.Blasthole; Break rock; Confinement; Explosive; Stemming performance testing.Blasthole; Effective tool; Gas pressures; Hard rock mines; High-pressure condition; High-pressure test-rig; Performance testing; Product performance; Rock breaking; Test procedures; Test rigs; Ability testing; Boreholes; Compressed air; Drilling rigs; Explosives; Plasma confinement; Pressure vessels; Rock productsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-22544475944Effect of constant photoperiods on the laying performance of broiler breeders allowed conventional or accelerated growthLewis P.D., Backhouse D., Gous R.M.2005Journal of Agricultural Science143110.1017/S0021859605005010Animal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural Sciences and Agribusiness, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; Northcot, Cowdown Lane, Andover, Hants SP11 7HG, United KingdomLewis, P.D., Animal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural Sciences and Agribusiness, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa, Northcot, Cowdown Lane, Andover, Hants SP11 7HG, United Kingdom; Backhouse, D., Animal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural Sciences and Agribusiness, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; Gous, R.M., Animal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural Sciences and Agribusiness, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South AfricaAn experiment was conducted at the University of KwaZulu-Natal to assess the effect of constant photoperiods on sexual maturity and egg-laying performance in broiler breeders given two levels of control-feeding during the rearing phase. Cobb broiler breeder females were grown to reach 2.1 kg body weight at 17 or 21 weeks, and maintained on 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 or 16-h photoperiods from 2 days to 68 weeks of age. There were no significant interactions between photoperiod and growth rate for any production parameter. The time required reaching 2.1 kg increased proportionally with photoperiod but, because of delayed sexual development, birds on longer photoperiods consumed more feed to, and were heavier at, sexual maturity than shorter daylengths. The longer-photoperiod birds also had inferior rates of lay in the first half of the cycle, but superior in the second, which, together with the photoperiodic effects on maturity, resulted in birds on 11, 13 or 14 h producing most eggs to 68 weeks, and those on 16 h fewest. It is possible that the pattern of egg production was due to some of the birds on ≥ 13-h photoperiods becoming photorefractory, having a mid-cycle pause, and then spontaneously resuming egg production in the latter half of the cycle. However, a hinge-analysis of current and other data to the more usual depletion age of 60 weeks showed that the combined effects of photoperiod on sexual maturity and egg production resulted in constant 10-h birds producing the highest number of eggs, with numbers decreasing by 3.6 eggs/h of photoperiod above the hinge and 7.8 eggs/h of photoperiod below it. Mean egg weight increased by 0.4 g/h of photoperiod, but the proportion of abnormally large and floor eggs and the incidence of mortality were unaffected by daylength. For each photoperiod, accelerated growth resulted in body weights being heavier than controls at sexual maturity, despite the mean age at maturity being 10 days earlier for the faster-growing birds. Body weights for the two growth groups were not significantly different at 68 weeks. Faster-growth birds consumed 1 kg less feed to 2.1 kg body weight, but 1.3 kg more feed to sexual maturity and 2.7 kg more to 68 weeks, and produced 6 more eggs than, but had similar patterns of egg production to, the conventionally managed controls. Mean egg weight, the proportion of floor eggs and the incidence of mortality were similar for both groups. Notwithstanding that the overall production of abnormally large eggs was low (1.1 eggs per bird); the faster-growing birds produced significantly more than the controls. Egg weight was positively influenced by age at sexual maturity, body weight at sexual maturity and photoperiod, but was unaffected by rate of growth to 2.1 kg per se. These findings show that there are differences between broiler breeders and egg-type pullets in their response to constant photoperiods. It is likely that the factors responsible for these differences, particularly in terms of sexual development, are the exhibition of photorefractoriness by, and the retardational effects of controlled feeding on, broiler breeders. © 2005 Cambridge University Press.Nonephotoperiod; poultry; AvesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-54249117675Male broiler performance and nocturnal feeding under constant 8-h or 16-h photoperiods, and various increasing lighting regimensLewis P.D., Danisman R., Gous R.M.2008South African Journal of Animal Sciences383NoneAnimal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural Sciences and Agribusiness, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville 3209, South AfricaLewis, P.D., Animal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural Sciences and Agribusiness, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; Danisman, R., Animal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural Sciences and Agribusiness, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; Gous, R.M., Animal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural Sciences and Agribusiness, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville 3209, South AfricaThis paper describes the responses of two genotypes of male broilers to constant 8- and 16-h photoperiods, and to an abrupt transfer from 8 to 16 h at 10, 15 or 20 d. Body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion efficiency were not significantly different at any stage during the 35 d study. Mortality and the incidence of Sudden Death Syndrome were similar for all lighting groups at 35 d. When these data were pooled with previously reported data for female broilers, growth and feed conversion efficiency post 21 d and through to depletion for constant 8-h and birds transferred from 8 to 16 h at 20 d were significantly superior to constant 16-h birds. Constant 8-h birds ate about half their feed during the dark period, whilst 16-h birds consumed no more than 10%. Birds which had been started on 8 h and transferred to 16 h at 10, 15 or 20 d reduced their rate of nocturnal feeding when changed to the longer photoperiod, however, they still consumed more feed in the 8-h dark period than birds that had always been given 16 h illumination. Cobb and Ross genotypes responded similarly to all lighting treatments. © South African Society for Animal Science.Broiler growth; Nocturnal feeding; PhotoperiodAvesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80455174106Nutritional evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) in feeds for weaner pigsEmiola I.A., Gous R.M.2011South African Journal of Animal Sciences412NoneAnimal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/B X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Department of Animal Production and Health, PMB 4000, 038, Ogbomoso, NigeriaEmiola, I.A., Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Department of Animal Production and Health, PMB 4000, 038, Ogbomoso, Nigeria; Gous, R.M., Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/B X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaThe objective of this experiment was to determine whether faba bean could successfully be used in feeds for weaner pigs in the period 10 to 25 kg liveweight. An experiment was conducted using 48 weaner pigs (average weight 10 ± 0.42 kg) to determine the nutritive value of dehulled faba bean meal (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) in comparison with full-fat soy. Two basal feeds were formulated, the first containing no faba bean but with full-fat soy (FFS) as the protein source, while the second contained 300 g faba bean/kg feed (FB). These feeds were blended to produce a series of five feeds (T1 to T5) containing a range of faba bean contents. In addition, a choice feeding treatment was included in the experiment to determine whether pigs showed preferences for or against faba bean. The experimental feeds were: 1) 1.0 FFS; 2) 0.75 FFS + 0.25 FB; 3) 0.5 FFS + 0.5 FB; 4) 0.25 FFS + 0.75FB; 5) 1.0 FB and 6) choice between FFS and FB. Feeds were formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1998) nutrient requirements of weaner pigs. Diluting full-fat soya with dehulled faba bean meal had no effect on growth rate (ADG), feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion efficiency (FCE) or time taken to attain final weight. Male pigs had a numerically higher ADFI (1150 vs. 992 g/d) and ADG (553 vs. 539 g/d) than females, and reached the final liveweight on average 3 d before the females. When given a choice between the two basal feeds, no preference was shown for either feed. It may be concluded that a feed for weaner pigs may contain as much as 300 g dehulled faba bean/kg without causing any deleterious effects on performance as long as the quality of the faba beans is the same as that used in this trial.Anti-nutritional factors; Growth response; Protein sourcesGlycine max; Suidae; Vicia fabaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77955024861Broiler performance and bone strength minimally affected by either a simulated dusk or night-interruption photoperiodLewis P.D., Gous R.M., Tumova E.2010South African Journal of Animal Sciences401NoneAnimal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural Sciences and Agribusiness, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol, Czech Republic, Czech RepublicLewis, P.D., Animal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural Sciences and Agribusiness, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; Gous, R.M., Animal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural Sciences and Agribusiness, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; Tumova, E., Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol, Czech Republic, Czech RepublicTwo genotypes of male broilers were given 12 h of daily illumination; as a conventional photoperiod, with the final hour at reduced illuminance to simulate dusk, or with 1 h of the light given during the middle of the night. The lighting modifications had no significant effect on any performance variable or on tibial breaking strength. Feed intake was unaffected by the lighting treatments during either the 1-h dusk period or the night, but was inexplicably stimulated in the both experimental groups during the main photoperiod. © South African Society for Animal Science.Bone strength; Broiler growth; Dusk; PhotoperiodNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84947998995Growth performance and nutrition-related serum metabolites in growing pigs fed on Acacia Tortilis leaf mealNdou S.P., Khanyile M., Chimonyo M.2015Livestock Science182None10.1016/j.livsci.2015.10.003Animal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaNdou, S.P., Animal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; Khanyile, M., Animal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Chimonyo, M., Animal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaThe objective of the study was to determine the response in metabolites and growth performance in growing pigs fed on Acacia tortilis leaf meal-based diets using a dose-response trial. Forty-eight male hybrid pigs (28.5±2.18. kg BW) were individually penned and assigned in a complete randomized design to six experimental diets containing 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150. g/kg DM of A. tortilis leaf meal. Pigs were bled once after three weeks for biochemical analyses. An increase in A. tortilis resulted in quadratic reductions in ADFI (P<0.0001) and ADG (P<0.05), and linear decreases in G:F (P<0.001). Serum iron, cholesterol and total protein initially increased, and then started decreasing with incremental levels of A. tortilis. There was a quadratic increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P<0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P<0.01) and a linear increase (P<0.001) in alkaline phosphatases (ALP) observed as A. tortilis inclusion increased. Using the broken-stick model, the optimum levels of leaf meals marking break points at which threshold values of ADG, serum iron, serum cholesterol and total protein occurred when A. tortilis was included at 64.8, 60.0, 87.1 and 63.2. g/kg DM, respectively. In conclusion, growth performance, serum iron and total proteins are reliable indicators of optimum inclusion levels of leaf meals in pigs. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.Acacia tortilis; Blood metabolites; Growing pigs; Optimum inclusion levels; TanninsNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84906943697Influence of Acacia tortilis leaf meal-based diets on growth performance of pigsKhanyile M., Ndou S.P., Chimonyo M.2014Livestock Science167110.1016/j.livsci.2014.04.016Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01 Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaKhanyile, M., Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01 Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Ndou, S.P., Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01 Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Chimonyo, M., Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01 Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaThe objectives of the study were to assess nutritive value of Acacia leaf meals and to determine the optimum inclusion level of Acacia tortilis leaf meal in finishing pigs. Five dominant leguminous leaf meals namely, Acacia tortilis, Acacia robusta, Acacia nilotica, Acacia nigrescens and Acacia xanthophloea, were individually hand-harvested and analyzed for their chemical and physical properties. Although the crude protein content of A. xanthophloea and A. tortilis were similar, the latter was incorporated into the experimental diets as it had the lowest water holding capacity, swelling capacity and moderate levels of condensed tannins. A. tortilis was also the most abundant in the locality. Thirty finishing male F1 hybrid (Landrace×Large White) pigs with an initial weight of 60.6 (s.d.=0.94)kg were randomly allotted to six diets containing 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250g/kg DM inclusion levels of A. tortilis leaf meal. Each diet was offered ad libitum to five pigs in individual pens for 21 days. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed (G:F) ratio was measured every week. There was an increase in both ADFI and ADG (P&lt;0.001) as A. tortilis leaf meal increased, before they started to decrease. An increase in A. tortilis leaf meal levels in the diets caused a quadratic decrease (P&lt;0.01) in the G:F ratio. The change of ADFI, ADG and G:F ratio during each week of successive feeding decreased (P&lt;0.05) with incremental levels of A. tortilis in the diets. Using piecewise regression (broken-stick analyses), it was observed that A. tortilis leaf meal can be included up to 129g/kg DM in finishing pig feeds, without negatively affecting G:F ratio. The ability with which pigs utilize leaf meal-based diets improves with duration of exposure to such diets. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.Acacia tortilis; Condensed tannins; Feed intake; Pig performanceAcacia; Acacia nigrescens; Acacia nilotica; Acacia robusta; Acacia tortilis; Acacia xanthophloea; SuidaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84880042718Effects of within-litter birth weight variation of piglets on performance at 3 weeks of age and at weaning in a Large White×Landrace sow herdZindove T.J., Dzomba E.F., Kanengoni A.T., Chimonyo M.2013Livestock Science1554240310.1016/j.livsci.2013.04.013Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209 Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Genetics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209 Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Animal Production Institute, ARC, P. Bag X2, Irene 0062, South AfricaZindove, T.J., Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209 Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Dzomba, E.F., Genetics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209 Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Kanengoni, A.T., Animal Production Institute, ARC, P. Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa; Chimonyo, M., Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209 Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaThe effect of piglet birth weight variation on subsequent weight variations and litter performance in Large White×Landrace sows is not well understood. The objective of the current study was to determine the relationship between within-litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CVB) and performance of piglets at 3 weeks and at weaning. A total of 1836 litter records, collected between January 1998 and September 2010 at the Agricultural Research Council (ARC), Irene, were used. The CVB had a linear relationship with survival at 3 weeks (SURV3) (b=-0.20; P<0.05) and within-litter weight coefficient of variation at 3 weeks (CV3) (b=0.50; P<0.05). Litters with high CVB had more deaths at 3 weeks (P<0.05). Increase of CV3 with CVB varied with parity (P<0.05). The rate of increase of CV3 with CVB was highest in Parity 1 (b=0.41) followed by Parity 2 (b=0.36) then middle aged (Parity 3-5) sows (b=0.32). There was no significant relationship between CVB and litter weight at 3 weeks (LWt3) or mean litter weight at 3 weeks (MWt3) (P>0.05). Weight variation at weaning was positively skewed (skewness value of 0.81). The survival to 3 weeks (SURV3) ranged from 13.3% to 100% with a mean of 87.6%. The CVB had a linear relationship with both within-litter weaning weight coefficient of variation (CVW) (b=0.50; P<0.05) and percent survival to weaning (SURVW) (b=-0.04; P<0.05). There was an unfavorable positive relationship between CVB with both CVW and SURVW. It can be concluded that litter performance at weaning is related to CVB. © 2013.Coefficient of variation; Parity; Piglets; SurvivabilityNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80455158232Evaluation of dehulled faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein source for laying hensMagoda S.F., Gous R.M.2011South African Journal of Animal Sciences412NoneAnimal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/B X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaMagoda, S.F., Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/B X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Gous, R.M., Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/B X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaDehulled faba beans were evaluated as an alternative to soybeans as a protein source for laying hens using 240 individually caged birds, 50 weeks of age. Two basal feeds were formulated to the same nutrient specifications but with one containing no faba beans and the other containing 200 g dehulled faba bean meal/kg. The experiment was divided into two parts: a dilution series, and a choice feeding treatment. The dilution series consisted of increasing concentrations of faba beans, the five levels in the series being 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 g/kg of food. The sixth treatment was a choice between the two basal feeds. Although food intake increased linearly with faba bean inclusion, reflecting a need by the hens to consume more in an attempt to obtain sufficient of some unidentified limiting nutrient, laying performance was the same on all feeds in the dilution series. Hens consumed the same amount of each basal feed when given a choice between the two, suggesting that no anti-nutritional factors were present in the faba beans used in this trial. It can be concluded, from a nutritional point of view, that dehulled faba bean meal may be used successfully as an alternative to soybeans as a source of amino acids for laying hens as long as the levels of antinutritional factors present are very low, as was the case in this trial, and as long as accurate estimates of the AME and the digestible amino acid contents of the ingredient are used when formulating feeds containing faba beans. If faba beans can be grown and then used locally in areas unsuitable for soybean production, the reduced transport cost could make this an attractive alternative to soybeans.Anti-nutritional factors; Choice feeding; Protein sourcesAves; Glycine max; Vicia fabaNone
WoSWOS:000268766900003Do the socioeconomic impacts of antiretroviral therapy vary by gender? A longitudinal study of Kenyan agricultural worker employment outcomesBii, Margret,Fox, Mathew P.,Larson, Bruce A.,McCoy, Kelly,Rosen, Sydney,Sawe, Fredrick,Shaffer, Douglas,Sigei, Carolyne,Simon, Jonathan L.,Wasunna, Monique2009BMC PUBLIC HEALTH9None10.1186/1471-2458-9-240Boston University, Kenya Govt Med Res Ctr, Walter Reed ProjectNoneBackground: As access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has grown in Africa, attention has turned to evaluating the socio-economic impacts of ART. One key issue is the extent to which improvements in health resulting from ART allows individuals to return to work and earn income. Improvements in health from ART may also be associated with reduced impaired presenteeism, which is the loss of productivity when an ill or disabled individual attends work but accomplishes less at his or her usual tasks or shifts to other, possibly less valuable, tasks. Methods: Longitudinal data for this analysis come from company payroll records for 97 HIV-infected tea estate workers (the index group, 56 women, 41 men) and a comparison group of all workers assigned to the same work teams (n = 2485, 1691 men, 794 women) for a 37-month period covering two years before and one year after initiating ART. We used nearest neighbour matching methods to estimate the impacts of HIV/AIDS and ART on three monthly employment outcomes for tea estate workers in Kenya - days plucking tea, days assigned to non-plucking assignments, and kilograms harvested when plucking. Results: The female index group worked 30% fewer days plucking tea monthly than the matched female comparison group during the final 9 months pre-ART. They also worked 87% more days on non-plucking assignments. While the monthly gap between the two groups narrowed after beginning ART, the female index group worked 30% fewer days plucking tea and about 100% more days on non-plucking tasks than the comparison group after one year on ART. The male index group was able to maintain a similar pattern of work as their comparison group except during the initial five months on therapy. Conclusion: Significant impaired presenteeism continued to exist among the female index group after one year on ART. Future research needs to explore further the socio-economic implications of HIV-infected female workers on ART being less productive than the general female workforce over sustained periods of time.,ADULTS,HIV/AIDS,HIV-INFECTION,ILLNESS,PERFORMANCE,PRESENTEEISM,PREVALENCE,SECTOR,SICK,SOUTH-AFRICANoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80455125989Evaluation of faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Fiord) as a protein source for broilersGous R.M.2011South African Journal of Animal Sciences412NoneAnimal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaGous, R.M., Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaAn experiment was conducted, using 960 sexed broiler chicks between 7 and 21 d of age, to measure their response to increasing contents of faba bean in the feed. The experimental design consisted of two sexes, six levels of faba bean (0 to 250 g/kg feed), two feed forms (mash and pellets) and two levels of methionine supplementation (0 and 1.5 g DL methionine/kg feed). Each treatment was replicated twice, using 96 pens and 10 chicks per pen. The responses were the same between sexes and between methionine levels. Where feeds were offered in a mash form, growth rate and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) declined linearly, and food intake increased linearly, with increasing faba bean content, but when the feeds were pelleted, performance was the same on all levels of faba bean, suggesting that heat generated during the pelleting process may have destroyed some heat labile anti-nutritional factor present in the faba bean. As most broiler feeds are pelleted, it would appear that faba beans could be used successfully as an alternative protein source in feeds for broilers, up to an inclusion level of 250 g/kg, when geographic, agronomic and economic conditions favour the use of these beans.Anti-nutritional factors; Dilution trial; Feed formVicia fabaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84875870637Effect of dietary protein on performance of four broiler strains and on the allometric relationships between carcass portions and body proteinDanisman R., Gous R.M.2013South African Journal of Animal Sciences43110.4314/sajas.v43i1.3Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaDanisman, R., Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Gous, R.M., Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaThis is the second paper in a series that reports the allometric relationships between some of the physical parts and body protein weight of commercial broiler strains reared, sexes separate, on different dietary protein levels. In this trial, four commercial broiler strains were sampled at day old and then weekly from each of three dietary protein treatments to determine the weights of the physical parts and the chemical composition of each of 936 birds. Allometric regressions were compared between strains, sexes and dietary protein levels using linear regression with groups. Whereas these regressions were similar over strains and sexes, some interactions were evident between factors, the largest differences occurring when broilers were fed differing dietary protein levels. These differences may be explained on the basis that lipid is deposited to different extents in each of the parts in response to dietary protein. Day-old breast meat and wing weights fell below the regression that best fitted the remaining observations and so were omitted from allometric analyses. The allometric regressions presented are an attempt to provide information that would enable the prediction of the weights of breast meat, thigh, drum and wing at different stages of growth of broilers whose genotype and feed composition are adequately described.Breast meat; Carcass yield; Drum; Thigh; WingAvesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84860695112The performance of broilers on a feed depends on the feed protein content given previouslyGous R.M., Emmans G.C., Fisher C.2012South African Journal of Animal Sciences42110.4314/sajas.v42i1.8Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Scottish Agricultural College, Bush Estate, Midlothian, EH26 0QE, Scotland, United KingdomGous, R.M., Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Emmans, G.C., Scottish Agricultural College, Bush Estate, Midlothian, EH26 0QE, Scotland, United Kingdom; Fisher, C., Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaIt has been proposed that all animals have an inherent relationship between body protein and lipid that can be described allometrically, and the hypothesis tested in the research reported here is that the animal will at all times attempt to retain this relationship. The test was accomplished by feeding broilers, of three genotypes and in two experiments, in such a way as to produce lean and fat birds that were then subjected to a range of dietary protein levels in a second feeding period, during which their performance was measured. Birds were initially offered one of two feeds with widely different protein to energy ratios until they reached a pre-defined liveweight, after which they were given one of two feed protein contents in Experiment 1 and four in Experiment 2. Their performance was monitored until a second pre-defined liveweight was reached, at which time they were killed for carcass analysis. The genotype selected to be lean, in Experiment 1, showed no response to protein level in the second period, whether they were fat or lean at the start. Conversely, the genetically fat birds showed some additional growth in males and additional efficiency in the females. Averaged across genotypes and sexes, birds initially in the fat state gained only 6.9 g lipid/d versus 13.5 g lipid/d for the nutritionally lean broilers. In Experiment 2, growth rate and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were related directly to dietary protein content and were higher for those birds made nutritionally fat. Carcass lipid gain was lower for the initially fat birds on the three highest dietary protein treatments. All birds made fat at 880 g and 1000 g, by giving them a low protein feed, had a much reduced fat content in their subsequent gain, provided that the protein content of the feed used was sufficiently high, indicating that they were making use of the excessive lipid reserves as an energy source. The hypothesis tested cannot be rejected by the evidence presented.Body lipid: Protein ratio; Broiler nutrition; Dietary protein content; FatnessAnimalia; AvesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84901061068Koch's postulate in reproduction of broiler coccidiosis by co-infection with eight most common Eimeria spp.: A model for future evaluation of new biologicsBarbour E.K., Ayyash D.B., Shaib H., Bragg R.R., Azhar E., Iyer A., Harakeh S., Kambris Z., Kumosani T.2014International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine121NoneAnimal and Veterinary Sciences Department, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon; Biochemistry Department, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Animal and Veterinary Sciences Department, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, Nelson Mandela Drive, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa; Special Infectious Agents Unit - Biosafety Level 3, King Fahad Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Biochemistry Department, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Biology Dept, American University of Beirut, LebanonBarbour, E.K., Animal and Veterinary Sciences Department, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon, Biochemistry Department, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Ayyash, D.B., Animal and Veterinary Sciences Department, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon; Shaib, H., Animal and Veterinary Sciences Department, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon; Bragg, R.R., Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, Nelson Mandela Drive, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa; Azhar, E., Special Infectious Agents Unit - Biosafety Level 3, King Fahad Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Iyer, A., Biochemistry Department, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Harakeh, S., Special Infectious Agents Unit - Biosafety Level 3, King Fahad Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Kambris, Z., Biology Dept, American University of Beirut, Lebanon; Kumosani, T., Biochemistry Department, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaThe purpose of this research is to establish a model of Koch's postulate for reproducing coccidiosis in broilers by co-infection with eight most common Eimeria spp. involved in this economic disease, in an attempt to use this model in future evaluation of new controlling biologics. Four groups of broilers each challenged at a different age (14, 21, 28, and 35 d) with an equivalent number of sporulated oocysts of eight Eimeria spp. had a reduction in their mean weight gain of 10.2% compared to the four parallel control groups of birds that were deprived of the challenge. The mean feed to live body weight conversion ratio increased significantly from 1.5 in the four unchallengedcontrol groups to 3.1 in the four challenged groups (P<0.05). The mean frequency of mortality increased up to 15% in the challenged groups in comparison to 5% in the controls. This higher mortality was associated in most challenged groups with significant increase in the mean lesion scores and mean oocyst count in the intestine compared to those observed in the controls. The benefit of this established model of Koch's postulate for reproducing coccidiosis in broilers, in future search of new controlling biologics, will be presented.Chicken; Eimeria spp.; Koch's postulate; Lesions; Oocyst count; PerformanceNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80052234722Evaluation of potato hash silage from two bacterial inoculants and their effects on the growth performance of grower pigsThomas R., Nkosi B.D., Umesiobi D.O., Meeske R., Kanengoni A.T., Langa T.2010South African Journal of Animal Sciences405SUPPL.1NoneARC: Animal Production Institute, P/Bag X2, Irene, 0062, South Africa; Department of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Central University of Technology, Free State Private Bag X 20539, Bloemfontein, 9300, Free State, South Africa; Outeniqua Research Farm, P.O. Box 249, George, 6530, South AfricaThomas, R., Department of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Central University of Technology, Free State Private Bag X 20539, Bloemfontein, 9300, Free State, South Africa; Nkosi, B.D., ARC: Animal Production Institute, P/Bag X2, Irene, 0062, South Africa; Umesiobi, D.O., Department of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Central University of Technology, Free State Private Bag X 20539, Bloemfontein, 9300, Free State, South Africa; Meeske, R., Outeniqua Research Farm, P.O. Box 249, George, 6530, South Africa; Kanengoni, A.T., ARC: Animal Production Institute, P/Bag X2, Irene, 0062, South Africa; Langa, T., ARC: Animal Production Institute, P/Bag X2, Irene, 0062, South AfricaPotato hash was mixed with wheat bran at 7:3 ratio, treated with homofermentative LAB inoculant (BMF, bonsilage forte), heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (LFLB, Lalsil Fresh LB) and without LAB inoculant and ensiled in 210 L drums for 90 days. After 90 days of ensiling, concentrates that contained 40% potato hash silage (PHS) were formulated and the treatment groups were control (no silage), untreated PHS, BMF treated PHS and LFLB treated PHS. The diets were fed to 64 growing pigs (60 days old and 30.4 ± 2.3 kg body mass). The pigs were allocated in a complete randomized block design with four treatments, and each treatment consisted of eight boars and eight sows. Pigs were fed ad libitum, feed intake was measured daily while body masses were recorded at the start and weekly throughout the experimental period. The dry matter intake (DMI) was higher in the control diet (1062 g/kg) than in the untreated PHS diets (933 g/kg), BMF treated PHS (873 g/kg) and LFLB treated PHS (919 g/kg) diets, respectively. Pigs in the control group had higher final body weight (60.77 kg), average daily gain (ADG) (551 g/d) and better feed conversion rate (FCR) (4.92 g/g) at the end of the trial compared to those in other treatment groups. It can be concluded that potato hash silage produced with or without LAB inoculants had the same effect on the growth performance of growing pigs. However, further work is needed to evaluate the effects of higher dietary inclusion levels (>40 %) of ensiled potato hash on pig growth and reproductive performance. © South African Society for Animal Science.Grower pigs; Growth performance; LAB inoculation; Potato hashNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-83455206593Productive performance of three commercial broiler genotypes reared in the derived savannah zone of NigeriaOlawumi S.O., Fagbuaro S.S.2011International Journal of Agricultural Research61110.3923/rjar.2011.798.804Animal Breeding and Genetics Unit, Department of Animal Production and Health Sciences, Ekiti State University, PMB 5363, Ado-Ekiti, NigeriaOlawumi, S.O., Animal Breeding and Genetics Unit, Department of Animal Production and Health Sciences, Ekiti State University, PMB 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria; Fagbuaro, S.S., Animal Breeding and Genetics Unit, Department of Animal Production and Health Sciences, Ekiti State University, PMB 5363, Ado-Ekiti, NigeriaCarcass characteristics of three broiler strains reared on deep litter and under similar management practices and feeding regime to 8 weeks of age were compared. The broiler strains are Marshall, Arbor Acre and Hubbard. The obtained result showed that breed has significant (p<0.05) effect on live weight at 8 weeks. Marshall Genotype has higher (p<0.05) mean values and was superior to Arbor Acre and Hubbard in live body weight. In terms of other carcass traits, the former also recorded higher (p<0.05) mean values than the latter in carcass weight, dressing weight, eviscerated weight, carcass percentage, breast muscle weight, back muscle weight, thigh muscle weight, drumstick and heart weight. However, the three breeds recorded similar mean values in dressing percentage, abdominal fat weight, liver and gizzard weight. As regards sex effect, males were superior (p<0.05) to females in live body weight at 8 weeks, eviscerated weight, back muscle weight, thigh muscle weight and drumstick weight. However, the two sexes had similar mean values in dressing weight, dressing percentage, carcass weight, carcass percentage, breast weight, abdominal fat weight and edible giblets. There was significant (p<0.05) strain x sex interaction effects on all the traits considered. Regardless of the sex therefore, Marshall was more productive, feed efficient and gave more carcass yield than Arbor Acre and Hubbard when slaughtered at the same age under uniform management practices and environmental conditions. Males also yielded more meat than the females. For increased broiler meat production and maximum profit in the industry, Marshall breed is recommended to poultry farmers. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.Carcass; Dressing; Muscle; Strain; TraitNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79953656769Impact of climate and predation on autumn migration of the Curlew SandpiperBarshep Y., Hedenström A., Underhill L.G.2011Waterbirds34110.1675/063.034.0101Animal Demography Unit, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa; Theoretical Ecology, Ecology Building, 223 62 Lund, Sweden; A. P. Leventis Ornithological Research Institute, Laminga, PMB 13404, Jos, NigeriaBarshep, Y., Animal Demography Unit, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa, A. P. Leventis Ornithological Research Institute, Laminga, PMB 13404, Jos, Nigeria; Hedenström, A., Theoretical Ecology, Ecology Building, 223 62 Lund, Sweden; Underhill, L.G., Animal Demography Unit, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South AfricaUsing constant-effort catch data, causes of annual variation in the timing of migration of Curlew Sandpipers (Calidris ferruginea) migrating through Ottenby, Sweden, as well as the trend in timing of migration from 1946-2005, was investigated. Variation in the timing of autumn migration of adult and juvenile Curlew Sandpipers was influenced by breeding success connected to predation pressure on the Arctic breeding grounds. Median migration date of adult birds was significantly later in good breeding years compared with poor breeding years while the migration of juveniles was earlier in good breeding years compared with poor breeding years. Also, adults migrated earlier when the average temperature in June was warmer. Median migration dates of adults have advanced by 23 days from 1946-2005, but the migration dates of juveniles have remained unchanged. Unchanged migration dates of juveniles indicate that earlier departure of the adult Curlew Sandpipers from the breeding grounds was not due to earlier breeding. Evidence suggests that declining breeding productivity as a result of increasing predation on broods of shorebirds might, over the years, be the reason for the observed pattern of early departure of adults from the breeding grounds. One possible consequence of earlier migration is a mismatch between timing of migration and periods of food abundance on migration routes and at the wintering grounds, leading to a decline in adult and juvenile survival and population size.Arctic; breeding success; Calidris ferruginea; Curlew Sandpiper; June temperature; migration; Ottenby; phenology; predationadult; annual variation; autumn; breeding site; climate change; climate effect; food availability; juvenile; migration; phenology; population decline; population size; predation; reproductive success; wader; Kalmar [Sweden]; Oland; Ottenby; Sweden; Aves; Calidris ferrugineaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79957874200Interpretation of a cross-cultural usability evaluation: A case study based on a hypermedia system for rare species management in NamibiaPaterson B., Winschiers-Theophilus H., Dunne T.T., Schinzel B., Underhill L.G.2011Interacting with Computers23310.1016/j.intcom.2011.03.002Animal Demography Unit, Zoology Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa; School of IT, Polytechnic of Namibia, Private Bag 13388, Windhoek, Namibia; Department of Statistical Science, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa; Abteilung Modellbildung und Soziale Folgen, Institut für Informatik und Gesellschaft, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Friedrichstr. 50, 79098 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany; Marine Research (Ma-Re) Institute and Zoology Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3 Rondebosch, 7701 Cape Town, South AfricaPaterson, B., Animal Demography Unit, Zoology Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa, Marine Research (Ma-Re) Institute and Zoology Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3 Rondebosch, 7701 Cape Town, South Africa; Winschiers-Theophilus, H., School of IT, Polytechnic of Namibia, Private Bag 13388, Windhoek, Namibia; Dunne, T.T., Department of Statistical Science, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa; Schinzel, B., Abteilung Modellbildung und Soziale Folgen, Institut für Informatik und Gesellschaft, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Friedrichstr. 50, 79098 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany; Underhill, L.G., Animal Demography Unit, Zoology Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, South AfricaWe present the results of a usability evaluation of a locally developed hypermedia information system aiming at conservation biologists and wildlife managers in Namibia. Developer and end user come from different ethnic backgrounds, as is common to software development in Namibia and many developing countries. To overcome both the cultural and the authoritarian gap between usability evaluator and user, the evaluation was held as a workshop with usability evaluators who shared the target users' ethnic and social backgrounds. Different data collection methods were used and results as well as specific incidences recorded. Results suggest that it is difficult for Namibian computer users to evaluate functionality independently from content. Users displayed evidence of a passive search strategy and an expectation that structure is provided rather than self generated. The comparison of data collection methods suggests that questionnaires are inappropriate in Namibia because they do not elicit a truthful response from participants who tend to provide answers they think are "expected". The paper concludes that usability goals and methods have to be determined and defined within the target users' cultural context. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Cross-cultural usability evaluation; Dialogical usability methods; International usability evaluation; Participation; Usability methodsDialogical usability methods; International usability evaluation; Participation; Usability evaluation; Usability methods; Conservation; Data acquisition; Developing countries; Hypermedia systems; Information management; Software design; Surveys; Usability engineeringNone
NoneNoneEvaluation of buparvaquone (BUTA-Kel™ KELA, Belgium) as a treatment of East Coast fever in cattle, in the peri-urban of Dar Es Salaam city, TanzaniaMbwambo H.A., Magwisha H.B., Mfinanga J.M.2006Veterinary Parasitology1394237210.1016/j.vetpar.2006.02.024Animal Disease Research Institute, P.O. Box 9254, Dar Es Salaam, TanzaniaMbwambo, H.A., Animal Disease Research Institute, P.O. Box 9254, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania; Magwisha, H.B., Animal Disease Research Institute, P.O. Box 9254, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania; Mfinanga, J.M., Animal Disease Research Institute, P.O. Box 9254, Dar Es Salaam, TanzaniaEvaluation trials of the efficacy of buparvaquone (BUTA-kel™ KELA Laboratoria, N.V. Belgium), as a treatment of field cases of Theileria parva infection (East Coast fever - ECF) were carried out on 63 cattle in the peri-urban of Dar Es Salaam city, Tanzania, during the period November 2004 to August 2005. Thirty-two cattle (56%) received single-dose treatment (2.5 mg buparvaquone per kg body weight), while two and three-dose treatment with interval(s) of 48 h was given to 33% and 11% of total treated cattle, respectively; 38 cattle (60.3%) were treated at an early stage of the disease, while 25 cattle (39.7%) were treated at an advanced stage of the disease. The rectal body temperature of 90.5% of buparvaquone-treated cattle dropped to normal values (37.5-39.5 °C) by day 7 of treatment, and by day 15 of treatment 96.8% of treated cattle showed normal values. Pulmonary signs were observed in 8/68 (11.8%) of total ECF diagnosed cattle and were successfully treated, albeit with parvaquone plus frusemide (Fruvexon); were not included in final evaluation of the efficacy of BUTA-kel. The present evaluation trials record a recovery rate of 95.2%. Buparvaquone (BUTA-kel™ KELA Laboratoria, N.V. Belgium), therefore, records another efficacious and valuable alternative treatment against East Coast fever in Tanzania. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Cattle-East Coast fever; Cost-effective-treatment; Early-disease detection; Early-stage treatment; Pulmonary signs; Theileria parva schizonts; Theilericidal drug-buparvaquonebuparvaquone; buta kel; furosemide; parvaquone; animal parasitosis; article; cattle disease; controlled study; convalescence; drug efficacy; female; fever; lung disease; lymph node; male; nonhuman; rectum temperature; Tanzania; Theileria parva; urban area; Animals; Antiprotozoal Agents; Cattle; Cattle Diseases; Female; Male; Naphthoquinones; Tanzania; Theileria parva; Theileriasis; Treatment Outcome; Bos taurus; Theileria parvaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-43149115382Physiological response of rabbit bucks to dietary fumonisin: Performance, haematology and serum biochemistryEwuola E.O., Gbore F.A., Ogunlade J.T., Bandyopadhyay R., Niezen J., Egbunike G.N.2008Mycopathologia165210.1007/s11046-007-9083-yAnimal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Pathology Unit, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria; International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Ibadan, NigeriaEwuola, E.O., Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Gbore, F.A., Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Ogunlade, J.T., Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Bandyopadhyay, R., Pathology Unit, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria; Niezen, J., Pathology Unit, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Ibadan, Nigeria; Egbunike, G.N., Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaMaize grains contaminated with fumonisin, a metabolite of Fusarium verticillioides was incorporated into matured male rabbits' diet to evaluate its effects on performance, haematology and serum biochemistry in rabbits. Thirty individually caged crossbred adult rabbit bucks averaging 1.36 ± 0.01 kg (about 22-24-week-old) were randomly allotted to three treatment diets comprising a control diet (containing 0.35 ± 0.02 mg fumonisin/kg) and two test diets containing 12.30 ± 0.16 and 24.56 ± 0.14 mg fumonisin/kg, constituting treatments 1 (low infection), 2 (medium infection) and 3 (high infection), respectively, in a five-week feeding trial. Results showed that the dry matter intake (DMI) (g/rabbit) at the end of the feeding trial was significantly (P < 0.05) influenced. The DMI declined with increasing dietary fumonisin by a significant 80% and 95% (P < 0.05) for high and medium levels of dietary fumonisin, respectively, relative to the mean weekly DMI of 609.93 ± 45.08 g by rabbits fed diet with low level of fumonisin. The weekly weight gain tended to decrease with increased dietary fumonisin levels, while the haematological and serum biochemical components examined, were not statistically influenced among the diets when fed to male rabbits for a period of 5 weeks. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.Bucks; Fumonisin; Haematology; Physiological response; Serum biochemistryfumonisin; plasma protein; animal; article; blood examination; body weight; dose response; drug effect; eating; male; metabolism; rabbit; randomization; weight gain; Animals; Blood Proteins; Body Weight; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Eating; Fumonisins; Hematologic Tests; Male; Rabbits; Random Allocation; Weight Gain; Fusarium; Gibberella moniliformis; Oryctolagus cuniculus; Zea maysNone
NoneNoneEvaluation of the hygienic quality and associated public health hazards of raw milk marketed by smallholder dairy producers in the Dar es Salaam region, TanzaniaKivaria F.M., Noordhuizen J.P.T.M., Kapaga A.M.2006Tropical Animal Health and Production38310.1007/s11250-006-4339-yAnimal Diseases Research Institute, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania; Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, NetherlandsKivaria, F.M., Animal Diseases Research Institute, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M., Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Kapaga, A.M., Animal Diseases Research Institute, Dar Es Salaam, TanzaniaA cross-sectional study was conducted to determine three parameters of the quality of the raw milk marketed by milk selling points (MSPs) in Dar es Salaam region. Total bacterial count (TBC) was used as an indicator of the microbial quality of the milk; antimicrobial residues were determined; and the California mastitis test (CMT) was used to screen for milk somatic cells as an indication of the mastitis level in the cows that provided the milk. Moreover, a water sample at each MSP was taken for bacteriological culturing. Finally, a questionnaire survey was conducted with the milk sellers at the MSPs to identify risk factors for poor milk hygiene. A total of 128 milk samples and corresponding water samples were collected from randomly selected milk selling points in Dar es Salaam region. The mean TBC was (8.2± 1.9) × 106 cfu/ml, and major bacterial isolates from the milk samples were Escherichia coli (6.3%), Bacillus cereus (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.3%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (6.3%), Enterobacter aerogenes (5.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (4.7%). In most cases, the organisms identified in milk corresponded to those isolated from the corresponding water samples. Of milk samples, 79.0% were positive to the CMT and 7.0% were positive for antimicrobial residues. TBC was normalized by log-transformation, and the possible predictors of TBC were identified by fitting two linear regression models. In a random effect model, water microbial quality, frequency of cleaning the milk containers, frequency of milk supply, milk storage time and the type of containers, and mixing of fresh and previous milk were significantly (p &lt; 0.05) associated with the mean log TBC. In a fixed effect model, in addition to these indicators, water shortage, water source and the refrigerator condition were significantly (p ≤ 0.01) associated with log TBC. It was concluded that the milk sold in Dar es Salaam region is of poor quality and is of public health significance. © Springer 2006.Antimicrobial residues; CMT; Dar es Salaam; Microbiological quality; Public health hazards; TBCdrug residue; animal; animal disease; article; bacterial count; bacterium; cattle; cattle disease; cell count; chemistry; cross-sectional study; cytology; female; human; hygiene; isolation and purification; microbiology; milk; public health; questionnaire; risk factor; safety; standard; statistical model; Tanzania; Animals; Bacteria; Cattle; Cell Count; Colony Count, Microbial; Consumer Product Safety; Cross-Sectional Studies; Drug Residues; Female; Humans; Hygiene; Linear Models; Mastitis, Bovine; Milk; Public Health; Questionnaires; Risk Factors; Tanzania; Water Microbiology; Bacillus cereus; Bacteria (microorganisms); Enterobacter aerogenes; Enterococcus faecalis; Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiaeNone
NoneNoneEpidemiological aspects and economic impact of bovine theileriosis (East Coast fever) and its control: A preliminary assessment with special reference to Kibaha district, TanzaniaKivaria F.M., Ruheta M.R., Mkonyi P.A., Malamsha P.C.2007Veterinary Journal173210.1016/j.tvjl.2005.08.013Animal Diseases Research Institute, P.O. Box 9254, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaKivaria, F.M., Animal Diseases Research Institute, P.O. Box 9254, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Ruheta, M.R., Animal Diseases Research Institute, P.O. Box 9254, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Mkonyi, P.A., Animal Diseases Research Institute, P.O. Box 9254, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Malamsha, P.C., Animal Diseases Research Institute, P.O. Box 9254, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaA cross-sectional study based on clinical examination, inspection of herd health records and a questionnaire was designed to determine the epidemiology, economics and potential impact of immunisation against theileriosis in Tanzania. The results showed annual theileriosis costs to be US$ 205.40 per head, whereas the introduction of immunisation reduced this by 40-68% depending on the post immunisation dipping strategy adopted. Morbidity risk due to theileriosis was 0.048 in immunised and 0.235 in non-immunised cattle, and the difference was significant (χ2 = 66.7; P = 0.000). The questionnaire results indicated that immunised cattle had a significantly (χ2 = 6; P = 0.015) higher risk of anaplasmosis compared with non-immunised cattle, whereas the risk of bovine babesiosis did not differ significantly (χ2 = 0.06; P = 0.807) between the two groups. Mortality risk due to anaplasmosis was 0.046 in immunised and 0.018 in non-immunised cattle and this difference was statistically significant (χ2 = 4.48; P = 0.043). The theileriosis mortality risk was 0.203 in the non-immunised cattle, while the risk was 0.009 in the immunised cattle and these differences were also significant (χ2 = 103; P = 0.000). It was concluded that farmers who have immunised their cattle may cautiously cut down acaricide application by 50% for extensively grazed herds and by 75% for zero grazed animals depending on the level of tick challenge at the herd level. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Anaplasmosis; Babesiosis; Cost benefit ratio; Infection and treatment method; Net present value; Tanzania; Theileriosis; Tick-borne diseaseacaricide; agricultural worker; anaplasmosis; animal experiment; animal model; animal parasitosis; article; babesiosis; cattle disease; clinical examination; controlled study; cost benefit analysis; economic evaluation; epidemiological data; grazing; herd; immunization; medical record; morbidity; mortality; nonhuman; prevalence; questionnaire; statistical significance; Tanzania; Animals; Cattle; Cross-Sectional Studies; Data Collection; Insecticides; Protozoan Vaccines; Tanzania; Theileriasis; Tick Control; Vaccination; Animalia; Bos; Bovinae; IxodidaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-40149111538Milk production and reproductive performance of Sahiwal cattle in semi-arid KenyaIlatsia E.D., Muasya T.K., Muhuyi W.B., Kahi A.K.2007Tropical Science47310.1002/ts.205Animal Genetic Resources Group, National Animal Husbandry Research Centre, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Naivasha, Kenya; National Beef Research Centre, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Nakuru, Kenya; Animal Breeding and Genetics Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Egerton University, PO Box 536, Egerton 20115, KenyaIlatsia, E.D., Animal Genetic Resources Group, National Animal Husbandry Research Centre, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Naivasha, Kenya; Muasya, T.K., Animal Genetic Resources Group, National Animal Husbandry Research Centre, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Naivasha, Kenya; Muhuyi, W.B., National Beef Research Centre, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Nakuru, Kenya; Kahi, A.K., Animal Breeding and Genetics Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Egerton University, PO Box 536, Egerton 20115, KenyaThe aim of this study was to evaluate milk production and reproductive performance of Sahiwal cattle in semi-arid Kenya. Milk production traits considered were lactation milk yield, lactation length and test-day milk yield, while reproductive traits included age at first calving, calving interval and number of services per conception. Various fixed effects affected performance of milk production and reproductive traits to varying significance levels. The mean estimates for milk production traits were 1368 kg, 282 days and 4.9 kg for lactation milk yield, lactation length and test-day milk yield, respectively. For reproductive traits, mean estimates were 468 days, 2.2 and 1345 days for calving interval, number of services per conception and age at first calving, respectively. There was a decline in lactation milk yield and lactation length, and an increase in calving interval and age at first calving over the years. Satisfactory management and appropriate genetic improvement strategies would result in improved performance. Implications of the results for genetic improvement of the breed in Kenya are discussed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Kenya; Milk production; Reproduction; Sahiwal cattleBosNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78149404628Comparative in vivo evaluation of the trypanocidal activities of aqueous leaf, stem-bark and root extracts of Khaya senegalensis on Trypanosoma evansiAdeiza A.A., Mohammed A., Mamman M.2010Journal of Medicinal Plants Research417NoneAnimal Health and Husbandry Department, College of Agriculture and Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, P. M. B. 2134, Mando Road, Kaduna, Nigeria; Animal Production Technology Department, College of Agriculture and Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello UniverAdeiza, A.A., Animal Health and Husbandry Department, College of Agriculture and Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, P. M. B. 2134, Mando Road, Kaduna, Nigeria; Mohammed, A., Animal Production Technology Department, College of Agriculture and Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, P. M. B. 2134, Mando Road, Kaduna, Nigeria; Mamman, M., National Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research, Surame Road, Kaduna, NigeriaThe effects of three different parts of Khaya senegalensis, commonly used in the traditional treatment of diseases in Northern Nigeria was examined in Trypanosoma evansi infected rats. At a dose of 120 mg/ml body weight for 3 consecutive days, the aqueous stem bark extract completely suppressed parasite establishment. The dose cured the experimentally infected rats in 9 days. The aqueous leaf extract showed a weak trypanocidal activity while the stem bark extract showed the most activity that is dose dependent. The results suggested that traditional use of K. senegalensis extracts has a pharmacological basis. © 2010 Academic Journals.In vivo; Khaya senegalensis; Parasitaemia; Trypanocidal activity; Trypanosoma evansialkaloid; antiprotozoal agent; carbohydrate; cardiac glycoside; diminazene aceturate; flavanoid; Khaya senegalensis extract; plant extract; samorenil; saponin; sugar; tannin derivative; terpene; unclassified drug; animal experiment; animal model; antiprotozoal activity; article; bark; chemical composition; comparative study; controlled study; drug dose comparison; drug efficacy; drug screening; female; Khaya senegalensis; male; nonhuman; phytochemistry; plant; plant leaf; plant root; plant stem; rat; surra; treatment duration; treatment response; Trypanosoma evansi; Khaya senegalensis; Rattus; Trypanosoma evansiNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70349509134Consequences of infection pressure and protein nutrition on periparturient resistance to Teladorsagia circumcincta and performance in ewesKidane A., Houdijk J.G.M., Tolkamp B.J., Athanasiadou S., Kyriazakis I.2009Veterinary Parasitology1654237110.1016/j.vetpar.2009.06.039Animal Health, SAC, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG Scotland, United Kingdom; Department of Animal and Range Sciences, Hawassa University, PO Box 05, Awassa, Ethiopia; Veterinary Faculty, University of Thessaly, PO Box 199, 43100 Karditsa, GreeceKidane, A., Animal Health, SAC, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG Scotland, United Kingdom, Department of Animal and Range Sciences, Hawassa University, PO Box 05, Awassa, Ethiopia; Houdijk, J.G.M., Animal Health, SAC, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG Scotland, United Kingdom; Tolkamp, B.J., Animal Health, SAC, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG Scotland, United Kingdom; Athanasiadou, S., Animal Health, SAC, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG Scotland, United Kingdom; Kyriazakis, I., Animal Health, SAC, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG Scotland, United Kingdom, Veterinary Faculty, University of Thessaly, PO Box 199, 43100 Karditsa, GreeceThe consequences of protein nutrition on the degree of periparturient relaxation of immunity to nematode parasites in sheep may be more pronounced at higher levels of infection pressure. Here, we investigated interactive effects of metabolizable protein (MP) nutrition and infection pressure on resistance and lactational performance of ewes. Twin-rearing ewes were trickle infected with either 1000, 5000 or 10,000 infective Teladorsagia circumcincta larvae and fed either at 0.8 (low protein, LP) or 1.3 (high protein, HP) times their estimated MP requirement. Expected interactions between feeding treatment and infection pressure were not observed. Periparturient relaxation of immunity, as indicated by variation in faecal egg counts, was higher in LP ewes than in HP ewes and FEC showed an inverse relationship with infection pressure indicating possible density dependency effects on worm fecundity. Plasma pepsinogen concentration linearly increased with infection pressure. Daily total nematode egg excretion, assessed at week three of lactation, was not significantly affected by infection pressure but was reduced by 65% in HP ewes compared to LP ewes. MP supplementation improved lamb performance but had little effect on ewe body weight and plasma protein concentrations, whilst lactational performance, as judged from lamb performance, tended to be reduced with increased infection pressure. The results suggest periparturient MP supplementation to ewes reduces nematode egg excretion independent of infection pressure and improves lactational performance of parasitized ewes even in the presence of moderate MP scarcity. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Faecal egg count; Infection pressure; Metabolizable protein; Teladorsagia circumcinctaivermectin; levacide; levamisole; pepsinogen; unclassified drug; animal experiment; animal model; article; controlled study; ewe; feces analysis; feeding; female; fertility; infection; infection resistance; lactation; larva; nematodiasis; nonhuman; protein blood level; protein intake; rearing; sheep disease; Animals; Body Weight; Diet; Dietary Proteins; Eating; Feces; Female; Immunity, Innate; Lactation; Nematoda; Nematode Infections; Parasite Egg Count; Parturition; Pepsinogen A; Pregnancy; Random Allocation; Sheep; Sheep Diseases; Ovis aries; Teladorsagia circumcinctaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77949734629Effects of maternal protein nutrition and subsequent grazing on chicory (Cichorium intybus) on parasitism and performance of lambsKidane A., Houdijk J.G.M., Athanasiadou S., Tolkamp B.J., Kyriazakis I.2010Journal of Animal Science88410.2527/jas.2009-2530Animal Health, Scottish Agricultural College, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, Scotland, United Kingdom; Department of Animal and Range Sciences, Hawassa University, PO Box 05, Awassa, Ethiopia; Veterinary Faculty, University of Thessaly, PO Box 199, 43100 Karditsa, Greece; School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, NE1 7RU, United KingdomKidane, A., Animal Health, Scottish Agricultural College, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, Scotland, United Kingdom, Department of Animal and Range Sciences, Hawassa University, PO Box 05, Awassa, Ethiopia; Houdijk, J.G.M., Animal Health, Scottish Agricultural College, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, Scotland, United Kingdom; Athanasiadou, S., Animal Health, Scottish Agricultural College, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, Scotland, United Kingdom; Tolkamp, B.J., Animal Health, Scottish Agricultural College, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, Scotland, United Kingdom; Kyriazakis, I., Veterinary Faculty, University of Thessaly, PO Box 199, 43100 Karditsa, Greece, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, NE1 7RU, United KingdomForty-eight 4- to 5-yr-old Blackface × Bluefaced Leicester (Mule) ewes and their 24-d-old twin lambs were used to assess the effects of maternal protein nutrition and subsequent grazing on chicory (Cichorium intybus) on performance and parasitism. The experiment consisted of 2 grazing periods: safe pasture period and experimental pasture period. During an adaptation period of 66 d, ewes were infected through oral dosing with Teladorsagia circumcincta infective larvae (3 d per wk) and were supplemented with protein (HP) or not (LP) for the last 45 d of this period. At the end of this period, ewes and their lambs were turned out onto a parasitologically safe pasture; all ewes continued to be dosed with parasite (once a week), and HP ewes received protein supplementation for the first 35 d. Ewes and lambs grazed the safe pasture for an additional 43 d after termination of protein supplementation and of oral dosing with parasites. Ewes and their lambs were then moved onto newly established experimental pastures sown with chicory or grass/clover (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens). During the safe pasture period, HP ewes had decreased fecal egg counts (FEC) compared with LP ewes, whereas HP lambs had temporarily less (P < 0.05) FEC, decreased (P < 0.001) plasma pepsinogen concentrations, and grew faster (P = 0.028) than LP lambs. Lambs grazing chicory had consistently less (P < 0.001) FEC and grew faster (P = 0.013) than lambs grazing grass/clover but had greater (P < 0.001) concentrations of pepsinogen. Pasture larvae counts were decreased (P = 0.07) for the chicory compared with the grass/clover plots. There were no interactions (P > 0.10) between maternal nutrition and grazed forage type on performance or parasitological measurements. Our results suggest that increased maternal protein nutrition and subsequent grazing of chicory independently improve lamb performance and reduce lamb parasitism. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.Chicory; Fecal egg count; Lamb performance; Metabolizable protein; Teladorsagia circumcinctapepsinogen; serum albumin; animal; animal food; animal husbandry; article; blood; chicory; diet supplementation; female; growth, development and aging; male; Medicago; parasite identification; parasitology; pathophysiology; physiology; protein intake; sheep; sheep disease; Animal Husbandry; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Animals; Chicory; Dietary Proteins; Dietary Supplements; Female; Male; Medicago; Parasite Egg Count; Pepsinogen A; Serum Albumin; Sheep; Sheep Diseases; Cichorium intybus; Lolium; Ovis aries; Teladorsagia circumcinctaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-57049169698The comparison of three β-agonists for growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot cattleStrydom P.E., Frylinck L., Montgomery J.L., Smith M.F.2009Meat Science81310.1016/j.meatsci.2008.10.011Animal Nutrition and Animal Products Institute (ANPI), Agricultural Research Council of South Africa, Private Bag X2, Irene, 0062, South Africa; Intervet a Part of Schering-Plough Corporation, 29160 Intervet Lane, Millsboro, DE 19966, United States; Biometry Unit, Agricultural Research Council of South Africa, Private Bag X519, Silverton 0127, South AfricaStrydom, P.E., Animal Nutrition and Animal Products Institute (ANPI), Agricultural Research Council of South Africa, Private Bag X2, Irene, 0062, South Africa; Frylinck, L., Animal Nutrition and Animal Products Institute (ANPI), Agricultural Research Council of South Africa, Private Bag X2, Irene, 0062, South Africa; Montgomery, J.L., Intervet a Part of Schering-Plough Corporation, 29160 Intervet Lane, Millsboro, DE 19966, United States; Smith, M.F., Biometry Unit, Agricultural Research Council of South Africa, Private Bag X519, Silverton 0127, South AfricaForty-eight Bonsmara steers were assigned to three treatment groups and one control group consisting of 12 animals each. The control (C) received no β-agonist, while the three treatment groups received zilpaterol (6 ppm) (Z), ractopamine (30 ppm) (R) or clenbuterol (2 ppm) (Cl) for the last thirty days on feed. Growth performance (final 30 days), USDA quality and yield grades and meat quality (shear force, chemical, histological and biochemical) were compared for the three β-agonist and control groups. Animals responded negatively to Cl treatment during initial stages of supplementation, which was evident in lower feed consumption and initial growth rates. For carcass growth and yield, Cl had greater and more efficient growth rates, higher dressed out yields (proportional), lower USDA yield grades, and reduced marbling compared with C (P < 0.05). For meat quality measurements, the M. longissimus (LL) and M. semitendinosus (ST) were sampled. Cl had the greatest effect (P < 0.05) on WBSF, especially on the LL, followed by Z. Variation in tenderness and ageing effects corresponded with variation in calpastatin activity and myofibrillar fragmentation between treatment groups. While zilpaterol and ractopamine are currently the only products registered for cattle in different countries, it seems that zilpaterol has an advantage in carcass growth efficiency and yield without showing any adaptation problems for animals such as experienced by the more aggressive β-agonist clenbuterol. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.β-Agonist; Beef; Calpain; Drip loss; Myofibril fragment length; TendernessAnimalia; BosNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84860997847Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed five different commercial vitamin-mineral premixes in Ibadan, NigeriaOgunwole O.A., Kolade E.O., Taiwo B.A.2012International Journal of Poultry Science112NoneAnimal Nutrition Unit, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaOgunwole, O.A., Animal Nutrition Unit, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Kolade, E.O., Animal Nutrition Unit, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Taiwo, B.A., Animal Nutrition Unit, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaThe relative efficacy of five proprietary vitamin-mineral premixes on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens was undertaken in a trial lasting six weeks at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of two hundred and eighty eight 1-day broiler chicks of Abor acre strain were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments of forty eight chicks per treatment. Each treatment was a triplicate of sixteen chicks per replicate. Six isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated. Diet 1 (T1) was the control without any premix. Other diets were supplemented appropriately with 0.25% Daramvita (T2), Biorganics (T3), Hinutrients (T4), Optimix (T5) and DSM Nutripoults (T6). The experimental diets were offered to the respective birds with water given ad libitum. The design of the experiment was a completely randomized design. The feed conversion ratio of birds on T3, T4, T5 and T6 were 2.64, 2.58, 2.61 and 2.57 respectively and were significantly different (p<0.05) from those on T1 (3.62) and T2 (3.35). The obtained live, bled and defeathered weights and dressing percentage values of broilers varied significantly (p<0.05) with the type of vitamin-mineral premix used while values of other primal cuts were statistically similar (p>0.05). Performance and carcass indices indicated variable potency and efficacy of the evaluated proprietary vitamin-mineral premixes in Ibadan, Nigeria. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2012.Broiler production; Dressing percentage; Premix efficacy and potency; Primal cuts; Proprietary vitamin-mineral premixesAves; Gallus gallusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33749016456Growth and reproductive performance of West African Dwarf sheep fed endophyte-infected maize stover supplemented with soybean mealGbore F.A., Ewuola E.O., Ogunlade J.T.2006Livestock Research for Rural Development189NoneAnimal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba, Akoko, Nigeria; Department of Animal Production and Health, UniversiGbore, F.A., Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba, Akoko, Nigeria; Ewuola, E.O., Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Ogunlade, J.T., Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, Department of Animal Production and Health, University of Ado-Ekiti, NigeriaAn experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding endophyte-infected maize stover on growth and reproductive parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep. In a six weeks feeding trial, twenty-one individually caged growing WAD sheep were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments in a Randomized Complete Block Design. Treatment 1 (NF = control) consisted of diet with healthy maize stover without Fusarium inoculation while treatments 2 and 3 consisted of diets with slight (SF) and high (HF) Fusarium-infected maize stover respectively. The mean daily dry matter intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher in animals fed the control diet when compared with animals fed the test diets. The mean daily weight gain of the animals fed diet HF was significantly (P<0.05) lower. The feed conversion ratio revealed that it will take 3.76 kg of the highly-infected stover (HF) to produce the same unit weight of meat that was produced by 2.12 kg of healthy maize stover (NF). The mean relative kidney weight tended to decline with an increase in the level of Fusarium infection. The reproductive parameters examined were not significantly different among the treatments. The results suggest that ingestion of Fusarium-infected maize stover by sheep for a short time will depress dry matter intake and weight gain without adverse effect on the organ traits and reproductive potential.Endophyte-infected maize stover; Growth; Reproductive performance; SheepAnimalia; Fusarium; Glycine max; Ovis aries; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84892578494Competitive forces influencing business performance of bicycle Taxis in Kisumu City, KenyaKokwaro P.L., Ajowi J.O., Kokwaro E.A.2013Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences4210.5901/mjss.2013.v4n2p719Box 30-40100, Kisumu, Kenya; School of Education, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga, University of Science and Technology, Kenya; Jaramogi Oginga Odinga, University of Science and Technology, Box 210 - 40601, Bondo, KenyaKokwaro, P.L., Box 30-40100, Kisumu, Kenya; Ajowi, J.O., School of Education, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga, University of Science and Technology, Kenya; Kokwaro, E.A., Jaramogi Oginga Odinga, University of Science and Technology, Box 210 - 40601, Bondo, KenyaWhether domestically or globally, transport is the movement of people, goods and services from one place to another. It enables trade between people and organizations. Globally, transport is the key necessity for specialization. Domestically, not only is Kenya connected by various categories of transport infrastructure but even by different modes, each competing with the other to get the better of the market. In Kisumu City, for example, there is fierce business competition among minivans, locally known as matatus, rick - shaws, referred to in Kenya as tuk-tuks, motor cycles and bicycle taxis. Started in 1960s in Busia County along the Kenya/Uganda border, the bicycle taxis are significantly affected by the current business competition. Before this study commenced, a preliminary survey in April, 2011 indicated that the number of bicycle taxis in Kisumu City had dropped by 61%. Whereas the decline had been variously attributed to the threat of substitutes, new entrants, consumer bargaining power, supplier bargaining power and rivalry among the current competitors, it was not clear which factors influenced the decline and to what extent. Neither had there been any study done to establish the cause of the decline. This study intended to determine competitive forces influencing the business performance of bicycle taxis in Kisumu City. The study used Porter's Five Forces Framework, which analyses industry competition. Also, this study used cross sectional survey design to analyze and discover occurrences, since the researcher's intention was to describe events without manipulating variables. The study population was 632 bicycle taxi riders, 28 of whom came from the lake Market cluster, 90 in the stage market, 26 in Varsity plaza area and 77 in the Oile/Coca Cola square cluster. There were 99 in A-Z Anvi Emporium Cluster, 188 from Kibuye market cluster and 124 from Kondele cluster. A sample of 90 was obtained for analyzing bicycle taxi-riders in Kisumu City. Primary data was obtained through the administration of structured and semi structured questionnaires of the sample of 90 taxi-riders. Secondary data was obtained from journals, publications and from records of the Municipal Council of Kisumu. Quantitative data was analyzed using Chi square and Percentage techniques. The key findings of this study was that 60.97% of bicycle taxi riders in Kisumu City considered substitutes as the main competitive threat. The next most important competitive forces influencing business performance were new entrants at 57.31%, customer bargaining power at 52.43% and rivalry among current competitors at 42.68% respectively. The significance of this study is that it adds towards knowledge about the relevance of Porter's Five Forces Framework to small-scale business industries in developing countries like Kenya. Stakeholders in public transport, like the Government and researchers with an interest to improve public transport would also find this study useful. This study concludes that substitute public transport services are the major competitive threat to bicycle taxis in Kisumu City.Business performance; Kisumu City; Public transportNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34047170305Effects of replacing maize with sun-dried cassava waste meal on growth performance and carcass characteristics of meat type rabbitOlorunsanya B., Ayoola M.A., Fayeye T.R., Olagunju T.A., Olorunsanya E.O.2007Livestock Research for Rural Development194NoneAnimal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, NigeriaOlorunsanya, B., Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria; Ayoola, M.A., Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria; Fayeye, T.R., Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria; Olagunju, T.A., Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria; Olorunsanya, E.O., Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, NigeriaThirty rabbits of mixed sexes with an average initial weight of 600g were used to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with sun dried cassava waste meal on growth performance and carcass characteristics of rabbits. Five experimental isonitrogenous (18%cp) diets were formulated such that sun dried cassava waste replace maize at 0%, 25%, 75% and 100%. The rabbits were randomly allocated to these 5 isonitrogenous diets. Each dietary treatment consists of 2 replicates with 3 rabbits in each replicate. Water and feed were provided ad-libitum throughout the experimental period of 91 days. The result shows that dietary treatment did not have effect on feed in take, average daily weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics. The cost of producing a unit weight of rabbit was greatly reduced by replacing maize with cassava waste meal. Cassava waste meal may therefore be used instead of maize in rabbit diets to reduce cost of feed and the heavy dependence on maize in animal feeding.Carcass characteristics; Cassava waste; Growth performance; RabbitAnimalia; Manihot esculenta; Oryctolagus cuniculus; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84905223536Evaluation of three vacuum packaging methods for retail beef loin cutsStrydom P.E., Hope-Jones M.2014Meat Science98410.1016/j.meatsci.2014.05.030Animal Production Institute, Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South AfricaStrydom, P.E., Animal Production Institute, Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa; Hope-Jones, M., Animal Production Institute, Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South AfricaMeat from beef T-bone cuts was packaged as follows: (1) Sub-primal cuts vacuum packaged (VP) in shrink bags, aged for 14 days, portioned, VP again and aged for a further 7 days (VPR), (2) individual T-bone steaks VP in shrink bags aged for 21 days (VPP), and (3) individual T-bone steaks aged in vacuum-skin packaging (VSP) for 21 days. VSP recorded less purge and showed higher oxymyoglobin values after 2 days and higher chroma after 3 days of aerobic display (P < 0.001) than VPR and VPP. Similar differences in colour stability were recorded for VPP compared to VPR. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.Colour; Purge; Tenderness; Vacuum packaging; Vacuum-skin packagingBone; Color; Purging; Purging; Colour stability; Tenderness; Vacuum packaging; Beef; Color; analysis; animal; bovine; color; food packaging; food quality; meat; pigmentation; procedures; skeletal muscle; vacuum; Animals; Cattle; Color; Food Packaging; Food Quality; Meat; Muscle, Skeletal; Pigmentation; VacuumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84872167285Lactation performance of multiparous holstein cows fed a restricted total mixed ration plus legume and grass hay mixtureMuya M.C., Nherera R.V., Khekana T., Ramapuptla T.2011Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances101410.3923/javaa.2011.1779.1784Animal Production Institute, Agricultural Research Council, South Africa; Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Pretoria, South AfricaMuya, M.C., Animal Production Institute, Agricultural Research Council, South Africa; Nherera, R.V., Animal Production Institute, Agricultural Research Council, South Africa; Khekana, T., Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Pretoria, South Africa; Ramapuptla, T., Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Pretoria, South AfricaThis study was done to evaluate the effects of restricting Total Mixed Ration (TMR)and supplying Eragrostis curvula and Medicago sativa hay mixture adlib on lactation performance of mid-lactation multiparous Holstein cows. Twenty Holstein cows, averaging 598±73 kg body weight and 100 days in milk were assigned to either a 100% TJ\1R diet (control) or a 75% TMR-restricted diet. Cows on the 75% TMR-restricted diet had adlib access to E. curvula and M. sativa hay mixture (1: 1). The experiment included 2 weeks adaptation period and 4 weeks samphng period. Cows were milked twice daily. Total Dry Matter Intake (DMI), DMI as BW%, daily CP intake and intake of net energy for lactation were higher (p&lt;O.05) for cows on the 100% TMR than for cows on the 75% TMR. Cows in 75% TMR consumed 12.5% less total DM and 14.2% less kg DM as of BW% than cows ni 100% TMR Intake of NDF was not affected (p&gt;0.05) by treatment. Milk yield, milk fat% and yield (kg day-1) did not differ between treatments and averaged 29.2 kg day-1,3.70% and 1.08 kg, respectively. Feed efficiency ranged from 1.22-1.37 and tended to be higher (p&lt;0.10) with 75% TMR diet. Efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorous utilisation was not affected (p&gt;0.05) by treatments. Results suggest that TMR restriction to 75% during mid-lactation does not negatively impact milk production. © Medwell Journals, 2011.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33646674295Effects of dietary replacement of maize with malted or unmalted sorghum on the performance of weaner rabbitsAbubakar M., Doma U.D., Kalla D.J.U., Ngele M.B., Augustine C.L.D.2006Livestock Research for Rural Development185NoneAnimal Production Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria; VeterinaryHospital, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Jos, Plateau State, NigeriaAbubakar, M., Animal Production Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria; Doma, U.D., Animal Production Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria; Kalla, D.J.U., Animal Production Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria; Ngele, M.B., Animal Production Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria; Augustine, C.L.D., VeterinaryHospital, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Jos, Plateau State, NigeriaA feeding trial was conducted using twenty-one, 8 to 9 weeks old weaner rabbits allotted to three groups of seven animals each in a completely randomized design. The study which lasted for six weeks was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary replacement of maize as a source of energy with malted or un-malted sorghum on the performance of the animals. The rabbits fed malted sorghum based diet had a similar dry matter intake to those on the maize based diet, but significantly higher than those on the unmalted sorghum based diet. All the animals gained weight, at rates similar across the treatments, indicating that the intake of energy and proteins were well above maintenance requirements. The best feed efficiency was recorded for rabbits fed on the malted sorghum based diet. The financial analysis revealed that feed cost per kg body weight gain was lowest for animals on the malted and unmalted sorghum based diets. It is concluded that malted or unmalted sorghum could effectively replace maize as a source of energy in diets for weaner rabbits without any adverse effects on performance and with reduced cost of feed per kg body weight gain.Maize; Performance; Rabbits; SorghumAnimalia; Oryctolagus cuniculus; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-36448936420Evaluation of some factors affecting milk composition of indigenous goats in NigeriaZahraddeen D., Butswat I.S.R., Mbap S.T.2007Livestock Research for Rural Development1911NoneAnimal Production Programme, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B.0248, Bauchi, NigeriaZahraddeen, D., Animal Production Programme, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B.0248, Bauchi, Nigeria; Butswat, I.S.R., Animal Production Programme, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B.0248, Bauchi, Nigeria; Mbap, S.T., Animal Production Programme, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B.0248, Bauchi, NigeriaThis study was carried out at the Research Farm of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria (October 2003 - May 2006) to evaluate some factors (breed, season, stage of lactation and parity) affecting goat milk composition. The results showed that per cent crude protein, fat, lactose and total solid contents were significantly (P<0.05) affected by breed; with pH and ash contents differed non-significantly in the three breeds. The percentages of crude protein, fat and lactose contents were significantly (P<0.001) different in the four stages of lactation (colostrum, early, mid and late), while the differences in the total solid, pH and ash contents were not affected by the lactation stages. There were seasonal (P<0.001) variations in the per cent fat and lactose contents; with crude protein, total solid, pH and ash contents being not influenced by the two seasons (dry and wet). Similarly, fat and lactose contents showed significant (P<0.001) parity effects; with the crude protein, total solid, pH and ash values differed non-significantly in the three parities (first, second and third). It is therefore concluded that the goat milk composition studied is comparable to the levels obtained in improved goats reported elsewhere. It is therefore suggested that improvement in the goat milk composition of the local breeds can be made through improved management and cross-breeding with higher-yielding local or exotic goats.Breed; Lactation stage; Parity; SeasonCapra hircusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77952601356Chemical evaluation of the nutritive quality of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]Akande K.E., Abubakar M.M., Adegbola T.A., Bogoro S.E., Doma U.D.2010International Journal of Poultry Science91NoneAnimal Production Programme, School of Agriculture, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, P.M.B0248, Bauchi State, NigeriaAkande, K.E., Animal Production Programme, School of Agriculture, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, P.M.B0248, Bauchi State, Nigeria; Abubakar, M.M., Animal Production Programme, School of Agriculture, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, P.M.B0248, Bauchi State, Nigeria; Adegbola, T.A., Animal Production Programme, School of Agriculture, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, P.M.B0248, Bauchi State, Nigeria; Bogoro, S.E., Animal Production Programme, School of Agriculture, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, P.M.B0248, Bauchi State, Nigeria; Doma, U.D., Animal Production Programme, School of Agriculture, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, P.M.B0248, Bauchi State, NigeriaThis study was carried out to evaluate the proximate and amino acid compositions of samples of raw and roasted pigeon pea seeds. The following range of values were obtained for dry matter (95.89-96.34%), crude protein (21.03-21.07%), crude fat (4.43-5.96%), crude fibre (7.16-7.52%) and ash (3.76-4.02%) respectively for the raw and roasted seeds of pigeon pea. While values for nitrogen free extract ranged from 57.77-59.51% for the roasted and raw pigeon pea seeds respectively. Results from the amino acid analysis revealed that some amino acids like arginine, aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, leucine and tyrosine had their concentration in the seeds increased with heat processing, while other amino acids were not. On the whole, the concentration of glutamic acid was found to be the highest in the pigeon pea, with a value of 14.21 g/16 gN for the roasted seeds. Lysine showed the highest concentration among the indispensable amino acids (7.79 g/16 gN for the raw seeds and 7.55 g/16 gN for the roasted seeds). Pigeon pea seed was found to be deficient in the sulphur-containing amino acids (cystine and methionine). © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.Amino acid; Composition; Evaluation; Pigeon pea; ProximateCajanus cajanNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79958009248Sesbania sesban as a fodder tree in Ethiopian livestock farming systems. Feeding practices and farmers' perception of feeding effects on sheep performanceOosting S.J., Mekoya A., Fernandez-Rivera S., van der Zijpp A.J.2011Livestock Science1394237110.1016/j.livsci.2011.03.009Animal Production Systems Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands; International Livestock Research Institute, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaOosting, S.J., Animal Production Systems Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands; Mekoya, A., Animal Production Systems Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands; Fernandez-Rivera, S., International Livestock Research Institute, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; van der Zijpp, A.J., Animal Production Systems Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, NetherlandsSesbania sesban is one of the exotic multipurpose fodder trees introduced in the Ethiopian highlands for livestock feed and soil conservation. Several on-station studies showed that supplementation with Sesbania improved intake and digestibility of basal diet and growth rate of animals. However, information about farmers' feeding practices of Sesbania and farmers' perception of the effect of Sesbania feeding on animal performance is limited. The present study was conducted to assess farmers' feeding practices and their perception about effects of Sesbania supplementation on sheep performance in annual (one wheat-based (WheatCL) and one teff-based (TeffCL)) and perennial (coffee-based (CoffeeCL)) crop-based livestock systems in the Ethiopian Highlands. Data were collected from 98 households by interviews using a structured questionnaire. Farmers had on average 6.9. years of experience using Sesbania as a cut and carry supplementary feed. Farmers in the WheatCL and TeffCL fed Sesbania throughout the dry season while farmers in the CoffeeCL had no specific season for feeding Sesbania. Farmers in WheatCL and TeffCL offered significantly (P < 0.05) more frequently and a higher quantity per feeding of Sesbania than farmers in CoffeeCL. Most farmers perceived increased lamb birth weight and increased body weight gain, earlier onset of puberty, and improved pregnancy rate of ewes and rams' libido. Perceived improvement was significantly more (P < 0.05) in WheatCL and TeffCL than in CoffeeCL. We concluded that Sesbania was appreciated across farming systems for its feeding value. The marginal advantage of Sesbania was lowest in the CoffeeCL with relatively good availability of good quality feeds compared to the WheatCL and TeffCL, which explains the less positive perception of production and reproductive performance of Sesbania feeding in CoffeeCL. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.Ethiopia; Farmers' practices; Sesbania sesban; Sheep; SupplementationAnimalia; Eragrostis tef; Ovis aries; Sesbania; Sesbania sesban; Triticum aestivumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70450170551Performance of Djallonke lambs raised under various management systems in GhanaBaiden R.Y., Duncan J.L.2009Livestock Research for Rural Development2111NoneAnimal Research Institute, Box AH20, Achimota, Accra, GhanaBaiden, R.Y., Animal Research Institute, Box AH20, Achimota, Accra, Ghana; Duncan, J.L., Animal Research Institute, Box AH20, Achimota, Accra, GhanaOne of the major production traits of interest to sheep farmers in Ghana is lamb growth rate, as it determines how quickly they can make return on their investment. However, the rate of growth and milk production of ruminants grazing natural pastures in Ghana are generally low. This could be enhanced through proper feeding management systems. The current study therefore looked at the growth performance of Djallonke lambs under four feeding management systems, NS (No supplement), S-L (Supplement to lambs) S-D (Supplement to dam) and S-LD (Supplement to both dam and lamb). It also compared the cost of production under the various systems. Daily live weight gain of lambs increased by 62.73% when both dam and lamb were supplemented (S-LD) compared to the control group (NS). The cost of concentrate per unit marginal live weight gain was similar for S-LD and S-D. The findings of this study suggested that to enhance live weight gain of Djallonke lambs during the pre-weaning period farmers must attend to the feeding needs of both the dam and lamb.Feed; Live weight; Marginal cost; Sheep; SupplementBovidae; Ovis ariesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84904323956Growth performance of feedlot weaners cattle fed diet containing different levels of cold press soya bean oilcakeChipa M.J., Siebrits F.K., Ratsaka M.M., Leeuw K.-J., Nkosi B.D.2010South African Journal of Animal Sciences405SUPPL.1NoneARC-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X 2, Irene 0062, South Africa; Department of Animal Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X 680, Pretoria 0001, South AfricaChipa, M.J., ARC-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X 2, Irene 0062, South Africa; Siebrits, F.K., Department of Animal Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X 680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Ratsaka, M.M.; Leeuw, K.-J.; Nkosi, B.D.The value of cold press soya bean oil cake (CPSBOC) as the source of protein in beef cattle was evaluated. CPSBOC was included in the diets of beef weaners at different levels i.e. 0%, 6%, 13% and 20%. The control diet contained cotton seed oil cake (CSOC) as a protein source. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous. A total of 40 weaners (20 heifers and 20 steers) at an average weight of 192.3 ± 20 kg were used. The experiment was a randomized block design with ten replicates per treatment and was conducted over 98 days. The group mass of the steers (700 ± 7.80 kg) was significantly heavier when compared with the heifers (6480 ± 7.80 kg). The average daily gain (ADG) (1.5 ± 2.72) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (5.5 ± 0.051) of the steers was significantly better than the heifers (1.35 ± 2.72 and 5.7 ± 0.051, respectively) while the steers consume more feed (8.2 ± 14.4 kg) per day as compared to the 7.4 ± 14.4 kg consumed by heifers. The weaners that were fed the diet containing 6% and 13% inclusion of CPSBOC grew significantly better than the other treatments. According to this study, an inclusion level of CPSBOC of between 6 and 13% will yield suitable growth in feedlot cattle. More research is needed to determine the optimum inclusion level of CPSBOC. © South African Society for Animal Science.Feed conversion ratio; Feed intake; Growth; Heifers; SteersNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33847689867Performance of West African Dwarf sheep and goats fed varying levels of cassava pulp as a replacement for cassava peelsBaiden R.Y., Rhule S.W.A., Otsyina H.R., Sottie E.T., Ameleke G.2007Livestock Research for Rural Development193NoneAnimal Research Institute, Box AH20, Achimota, GhanaBaiden, R.Y., Animal Research Institute, Box AH20, Achimota, Ghana; Rhule, S.W.A., Animal Research Institute, Box AH20, Achimota, Ghana; Otsyina, H.R., Animal Research Institute, Box AH20, Achimota, Ghana; Sottie, E.T., Animal Research Institute, Box AH20, Achimota, Ghana; Ameleke, G., Animal Research Institute, Box AH20, Achimota, GhanaCassava pulp, a by product from the starch industry, was evaluated as a substitute for cassava peels in diets for sheep and goats. Inclusion levels of 15% and 30% pulp in the diet had no significant effect (P>0.05) on feed intake, digestibility, growth rate, feed conversion ratio and carcass weight. Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) values were significantly higher (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively) for sheep on the 15% (PCV 34.3%; Hb 11.8g/100ml) and 30% (PCV 34.5%; Hb 11.4g/100ml) pulp diets compared to those on the 0% (PCV 28.5%; Hb 9.00g/100ml) pulp diet.Carcass characteristics; Cassava pulp; Digestibility; Feed intake; Growth rate; Haematological values; West Africa Dwarf goats; West African Dwarf sheepCapra hircus; Manihot esculenta; Ovis ariesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-45849108294Performance of indigenous beef cattle under two management systems at Pokuase, GhanaBaiden R.Y., Duncan L.2008Livestock Research for Rural Development206NoneAnimal Research Institute, PO Box AH20, Achimota, GhanaBaiden, R.Y., Animal Research Institute, PO Box AH20, Achimota, Ghana; Duncan, L., Animal Research Institute, PO Box AH20, Achimota, GhanaA study was conducted to investigate the performance of a mixture of N'dama x West African Shorthorn (WASH) cattle (6 to 15 weeks old) raised under a traditional management system and an improved system (cut and carry plus supplementation with agro-industrial byproducts) at the Pokuase Research Station of the Animal Research Institute, Ghana, from March 2006 to February 2007. The performance parameters studied were live weight change, feed intake and the economics of production. Calves on the improved system outperformed (P = 0.001) those on the traditional system in terms of live weight gain. Calves in both treatment groups performed at par in terms of live weight change till the first week in September after which those in the traditional system slowed down comparatively. Those on the improved system exhibited a relatively steady gain in live weight. Revenue measured in terms of the product of live weight gain and the prevailing market price per kilogram live weight was higher for the improved system resulting in an overall higher gross margin for the improved system. Nevertheless, considering the return on investment farmers may be tempted to continue using the traditional system. N'dama x WASH calves could be raised indoors under improved nutrition and management practices to enhance live weight gain. This work thus provides a window for landless livestock farmers in creating wealth; as animals could be raised in confinement with some return on investment.Benefit cost ratio; Live weight changeAnimalia; Bos; DamaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33750807946Evaluation of poultry litter as feedstuff for growing rabbitsOnimisi P.A., Omage J.J.2006Livestock Research for Rural Development1811NoneAnimal Science Department, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru Zaria, NigeriaOnimisi, P.A., Animal Science Department, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru Zaria, Nigeria; Omage, J.J., Animal Science Department, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru Zaria, NigeriaTwenty five eight weeks old growing rabbits of mixed breeds and sexes were used to evaluate the nutritive value of poultry litter (PL) by a graded level substitution of maize and soyabeans in the diet. There were five dietary treatments with five rabbits per treatment housed individually in cages in complete randomization. The treatment diets contained 0, 8, 16, 24, and 32% level of PL respectively. The rabbits were fed the treatment diets for the 8 weeks period of the experiment. Average daily weight gain and feed to gain ratio were not statistically different among the dietary treatments. It may be concluded from the results of this experiment that poultry litter could replace up to 32% of maize - soyabeans in rabbit diets without detrimental effects on growth performance.Growing rabbits; Growth performance; Poultry litterOryctolagus cuniculus; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-55849126193Effect of decorticated fermented prosopis seed meal (Prosopis africana) on growth performance of broiler chickenYusuf N.D., Ogah D.M., Hassan D.I., Musa M.M., Doma U.D.2008International Journal of Poultry Science71110.3923/ijps.2008.1054.1057Animal Science Department, College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 033, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria; Animal Production Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B. 0248, Bauchi, Bauchi State, NigeriaYusuf, N.D., Animal Science Department, College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 033, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria; Ogah, D.M., Animal Science Department, College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 033, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria; Hassan, D.I., Animal Science Department, College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 033, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria; Musa, M.M., Animal Science Department, College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 033, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria; Doma, U.D., Animal Production Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B. 0248, Bauchi, Bauchi State, NigeriaTwo hundred and forty 7 days old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were used to determine the growth rate and economic of broiler fed decorticated fermented Prosopis africana seed meal (DFPSM). Five experimental diets containing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% DFPSM replacement levels for full fat soybean meal were fed to broiler for 8 weeks. The experiments were in a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments, each replicated four times with 48 birds per treatment and 12 birds per replicate. The average live weight of broiler ranged from 2500-2850g in each dietary group and were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by dietary treatment, similarly the growth rate and feed conversion ratio were also significantly affected by the dietary treatment (P < 0.05). The study indicate that 20% inclusion of DFPSM with soybean meal could be used in a broiler diet. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2008.Animal protein; Broiler diet; Developing countries; Fermented Prosopis africana seed mealAnimalia; Aves; Glycine max; Prosopis; Prosopis africanaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79959582694Effects of fractionation and combinatorial evaluation of Tamarindus indica fractions for antibacterial activityNwodo U.U., Iroegbu C.U., Ngene A.A., Chigor V.N., Okoh A.I.2011Molecules16610.3390/molecules16064818Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa; Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; DepartmeNwodo, U.U., Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa; Iroegbu, C.U., Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; Ngene, A.A., Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; Chigor, V.N., Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa; Okoh, A.I., Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South AfricaSix fractions, named TiA - TiF, were obtained by fractionating the crude ethanol extract of the stem bark of Tamarindus indica using column chromatographic techniques. On TLC, fraction TiB showed five bands, TiC three bands, while TiD and TiE showed two bands each. TiC, TiD and TiE were re-eluted with different solvent systems to yield two fractions each, while TiB yielded four. These subfractions were designated B1-B4; C1-C2; D1-D2 and E1-E2, respectively. Tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids, among other components, were detected, albeit in different proportions with respect to fractions and subfractions and were compartmentalized with respect to the solvent systems used. The in vitro antibacterial activity of fractions and subfractions was tested separately and in combinations using the agar well diffusion technique. The susceptibly of test strains (expressed as %) were: 83.3% (TiA and TiB), 75.0% (crude extract and TiC), 66.7% (TiD), 50.0% (TiE) and 16.7% (TiF) when used singly, whereas in combination, the corresponding susceptibilities were 100% (CE), 83.3% (DE), 66.7% (AB, AF, BC, BD, DE and EF), 50% (AC and CD), 33.3% (BE and BF) and 16.7% (AD) against Gram negative bacteria strains and 100% (EF), 80% (DE), 60% (AB, BC and CE), 40% (AC, BD, BF, CF and DF) and 20% (AE, AF, BE and CD) against Gram positive strains. Percentage susceptibility with combinatorial use of re-fractions ranged from 85.7-57.1% and 60-40% against Gram negative and positive strains (TiB subfractions), respectively, 100-85.7% and 40-0% against Gram negative and positive strains (TiC, TiD and TiE sub-fractions). © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Antibacterial activity; Combinatorial assay; Phytochemistry; Solvent system; Subfraction; Thin layer chromatographyantiinfective agent; plant extract; article; chemistry; drug effect; fractionation; Gram negative bacterium; Gram positive bacterium; plant stem; tamarind; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Chemical Fractionation; Gram-Negative Bacteria; Gram-Positive Bacteria; Plant Extracts; Plant Stems; TamarindusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-57149097075Research note: Inclusion of lablab in maize and sorghum silages improves sheep performanceNgongoni N.T., Mwale M., Mapiye C., Moyo M.T., Hamudikuwanda H., Titterton M.2008Tropical Grasslands423NoneAnimal Science Department, University of Zimbabwe, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa; Department of Livestock and Wildlife Management, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe; Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, P. Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South AfricaNgongoni, N.T., Animal Science Department, University of Zimbabwe, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Mwale, M., Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa, Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, P. Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa; Mapiye, C., Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa; Moyo, M.T., Department of Livestock and Wildlife Management, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe; Hamudikuwanda, H., Animal Science Department, University of Zimbabwe, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Titterton, M., Animal Science Department, University of Zimbabwe, Mt Pleasant, Harare, ZimbabweAn experiment was conducted to determine intake and liveweight gain of sheep fed maize, sorghum, lablab-maize and lablab-sorghum silages (20 and 40% lablab) in a completely randomised design with 6 treatments. The maize and sorghum were mixed with lablab before ensiling and the silages were fed to sheep for 21 days. Silage intake increased with increase in legume inclusion level (P<0.05). Intake of maize-based silages was higher than that of sorghum-based silages. While sheep fed the straight cereal diets lost weight, liveweight change improved as the level of lablab inclusion increased (P<0.05). The findings confirm that legume inclusion with maize and sorghum forages when ensiling improves silage intake and enhances ruminant animal performance. Long-term feeding experiments using a combination of cereals and legumes with different ruminant species are required to validate these preliminary findings.NoneAnimalia; Bovidae; Lablab; Ovis aries; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34548694553Evaluation of cereal-legume intercropped forages for smallholder dairy production in ZimbabweNgongoni N.T., Mwale M., Mapiye C., Moyo M.T., Hamudikuwanda H., Titterton M.2007Livestock Research for Rural Development199NoneAnimal Science Department, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mt. Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa; Department of Livestock and Wildlife Management, Midlands State University, P. Bag 9055, Gweru, ZimbabweNgongoni, N.T., Animal Science Department, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mt. Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Mwale, M., Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa; Mapiye, C., Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa; Moyo, M.T., Department of Livestock and Wildlife Management, Midlands State University, P. Bag 9055, Gweru, Zimbabwe; Hamudikuwanda, H., Animal Science Department, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mt. Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Titterton, M., Animal Science Department, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mt. Pleasant, Harare, ZimbabweA study was conducted at Henderson Research Station in Mazoe, Zimbabwe to assess the establishment, persistence, yield and nutritive quality of cereal and ley legumes sole crops and cereal-legume intercrops on sandy and clay soils. Four cereals, maize and three sorghum varieties; Jumbo, Pan 888 and Sugargraze, and five legume varieties Vigna unguiculata, (Cow pea) Lablab pupureus (Lablab), Crotolaria juncea (Sunnhemp), Glycine max (Soyabean) and Lupinus albus (Lupin) were used. A 2 x 4 x 5 factorial experiment in a split-split plot design with soil type as the main plot factor, cereal as the sub-plot factor and legume as sub-sub-plot factor was used. Total herbage yields were significantly higher on the clay than sandy soil, with yield ranging from 8.0 to 11.0 t/ha Dry matter (DM) and 1.0 to 5.6 t/ha DM, respectively. On intercrops legumes contributed 14-69% of the total herbage yield for sandy soils (P < 0.05). On clay soil, legume contribution was low ranging from 3-30%. The dry matter yield for cereals grown on the sandy soil was 22-34% of clay soil yields. Cowpea, lablab and sunnhemp sandy soil yields ranged from 44-60% of the clay soil yield. Soybean performed poorly on the sandy soil whilst lupin did so in both sites. Sandy soil forage tended to have significantly higher DM, Water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and fibre contents and low Crude protein (CP) contents than those grown on clay soil. Maize and Jumbo had higher yields than Pan 888 and Sugargraze (P < 0.05). Cowpea, lablab and sunnhemp had higher yields than lupin and soybean (P < 0.05). Intercropping of cereals and legumes is commendable for the increase of nutrient quality particularly the crude protein content of cereals on clay soils. However, the matching has to be thoroughly done to avoid mixing forages that may hinder each other from the access of nutrients, chiefly sunlight. Therefore, farmers are recommended to use cereal-legume intercrops especially maize or sorghum and cowpea and or lablab to enhance dry season feed availability.Cereal; Intercrop; Legume; Nutritive quality; Persistence; Yield; ZimbabweCrotalaria juncea; Glycine max; Lablab; Lupinus albus; Pisum sativum; Vigna unguiculata; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80455174369Non-genetic factors affecting growth performance and carcass characteristics of two South African pig breedsDube B., Mulugeta S.D., van der Westhuizen R.R., Dzama K.2011South African Journal of Animal Sciences412NoneAnimal Science Programme, North West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa; ARC Livestock Business Division, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa; Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South AfricaDube, B., Animal Science Programme, North West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa; Mulugeta, S.D., Animal Science Programme, North West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa; van der Westhuizen, R.R., ARC Livestock Business Division, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa; Dzama, K., Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South AfricaA study was conducted to establish non-genetic factors affecting growth and carcass traits in Large White and Landrace pigs. This study was based on 20 079 and 12 169 growth and 5 406 and 2 533 carcass data collected on performance tested pigs between 1990 and 2008 from Large White and Landrace breeds respectively. The traits analyzed were backfat thickness (BFAT), test period gain (TPG), lifetime gain (LTG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), age at slaughter (AGES), lean percentage (LEAN), drip-free lean percentage (DLEAN), drip loss (DRIP), dressing percentage (DRESS), carcass length (CRLTH) and eye muscle area (AREA). Significant effects were determined using PROC GLM of SAS. Herd of origin, year of testing and their interaction significantly affected all traits. Most traits were not affected by season of testing in both breeds, while all traits in both breeds were significantly affected by sex. Testing environment (station, farm) affected all growth traits except for LTG. Backfat thickness and AGES increased with increasing total feed intake, while other traits decreased as total feed intake increased. Improved test centre management did not compensate for pre-test underperformance. Castrates produced higher carcass yields of lower quality than females, while performance testing showed the best results when done at testing centres. This study showed the importance of adjusting for fixed effects when performing genetic evaluations in the two pig populations.Carcass traits; Environmental effects; Growth traits; Landrace; Large white; SwinePieris brassicae; SuidaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80755142798Physical impact of sheep grazing on arid Karoo subshrub/grass rangeland, South AfricaDu Toit G.V.N., Snyman H.A., Malan P.J.2011South African Journal of Animal Sciences41310.4314/sajas.v41i3.11Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; P.O. Box 94, Hanover 7005, South AfricaDu Toit, G.V.N., Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa, P.O. Box 94, Hanover 7005, South Africa; Snyman, H.A., Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; Malan, P.J., Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South AfricaGrazing levels and rotational schemes need to be tailored to each individual farm or pasture, and more studies are needed on the resilience of rangelands and on separating the effects of grazing and climate. The direct short-term impact of three rates of stocking (4, 8 and 16 Small Stock Units-SSU/ha) was quantified in terms of composition and cover of arid Nama Karoo vegetation (subshrub/grass). Mature Merino wethers grazed in one hectare plots during May in 1995 and 1996 (the plots were not subjected to grazing at any other time). The basal cover of the Karoo bushes (shrubs) showed a decrease at the highest stocking rate only, with the species Phymaspermum parvifolium the most sensitive to intensive grazing. An increase in stocking rate caused a significant decrease in both canopy cover and canopy-spread cover. The canopy cover of palatable Karoo bushes such as Felicia muricata, Salsola calluna and Walafrida geniculata decreased most. Light stocking (4 SSU/ha) was apparently the least detrimental to the vegetation composition and cover. Regardless of stocking rate, an 11-month resting period was possibly sufficient for all the vegetation parameters concerned to be fully restored after grazing took place. The rangeland rapidly reacted to rainfall as the ephemeral cover increased temporarily. The higher the stocking rate was, the greater the increase in ephemerals occurring. The ecological sustainability of the Nama Karoo ecosystem, utilised by high stocking densities, is questioned.Basal cover; Canopy cover; Canopy-spread cover; Ephemerals; Karoo bushes; Stocking rateCalluna; Felicia muricata; Ovis aries; Phymaspermum; Salsola; WalafridaNone
NoneNoneInfluences of castration on the performance of landmine-detection rats (Cricetomys gambianus)Edwards T.L., Cox C., Weetjens B., Poling A.2015Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research10410.1016/j.jveb.2015.04.002Anti-Persoonsmijnen Ontmijnende Product Ontwikkeling, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; Department of Psychology, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, United StatesEdwards, T.L., Anti-Persoonsmijnen Ontmijnende Product Ontwikkeling, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; Cox, C., Anti-Persoonsmijnen Ontmijnende Product Ontwikkeling, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; Weetjens, B., Anti-Persoonsmijnen Ontmijnende Product Ontwikkeling, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; Poling, A., Anti-Persoonsmijnen Ontmijnende Product Ontwikkeling, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, Department of Psychology, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, United StatesAnti-Persoonsmijnen Ontmijnende Product Ontwikkeling has employed pouched rats as mine-detection animals for approximately 10years in sub-Saharan Africa, where the species is indigenous, and now plans to deploy the rats in areas where they are not indigenous. To prevent the possible introduction of an invasive species in those regions, all rats must be castrated before deployment. The research described in the present article was conducted to determine whether castration affects the performance of pouched rats as mine-detection animals. Five sex-, age-, and performance-matched pairs of pouched rats, 3 male pairs and 2 female pairs, were randomly divided into 2 groups: the experimental group undergoing castration procedures and the control group remaining out of training for the same duration as the experimental group. No statistically significant differences were found between the performance of experimental and control groups after the intervention despite high statistical power to detect such a difference, and equivalence tests suggest that any possible effects are of no practical significance. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.Castration; Landmines; Mine-detection animals; Neutering; Pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus); Scent detectionAnimalia; Cricetomys gambianus; RattusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84868672935Impact of sustained RNAi-mediated suppression of cellular cofactor Tat-SF1 on HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cellsGreen V.A., Arbuthnot P., Weinberg M.S.2012Virology Journal9None10.1186/1743-422X-9-272Antiviral Gene Therapy Research Unit, Health Sciences Faculty, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Scripps Research Institute, San Diego, CA, United StatesGreen, V.A., Antiviral Gene Therapy Research Unit, Health Sciences Faculty, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Arbuthnot, P., Antiviral Gene Therapy Research Unit, Health Sciences Faculty, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Weinberg, M.S., Antiviral Gene Therapy Research Unit, Health Sciences Faculty, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Scripps Research Institute, San Diego, CA, United StatesBackground: Conventional anti-HIV drug regimens targeting viral enzymes are plagued by the emergence of drug resistance. There is interest in targeting HIV-dependency factors (HDFs), host proteins that the virus requires for replication, as drugs targeting their function may prove protective. Reporter cell lines provide a rapid and convenient method of identifying putative HDFs, but this approach may lead to misleading results and a failure to detect subtle detrimental effects on cells that result from HDF suppression. Thus, alternative methods for HDF validation are required. Cellular Tat-SF1 has long been ascribed a cofactor role in Tat-dependent transactivation of viral transcription elongation. Here we employ sustained RNAi-mediated suppression of Tat-SF1 to validate its requirement for HIV-1 replication in a CD4+ T cell-derived line and its potential as a therapeutic target. Results: shRNA-mediated suppression of Tat-SF1 reduced HIV-1 replication and infectious particle production from TZM-bl reporter cells. This effect was not a result of increased apoptosis, loss of cell viability or an immune response. To validate its requirement for HIV-1 replication in a more relevant cell line, CD4+ SupT1 cell populations were generated that stably expressed shRNAs. HIV-1 replication was significantly reduced for two weeks (∼65%) in cells with depleted Tat-SF1, although the inhibition of viral replication was moderate when compared to SupT1 cells expressing a shRNA targeting the integration cofactor LEDGF/p75. Tat-SF1 suppression was attenuated over time, resulting from decreased shRNA guide strand expression, suggesting that there is a selective pressure to restore Tat-SF1 levels. Conclusions: This study validates Tat-SF1 as an HDF in CD4+ T cell-derived SupT1 cells. However, our findings also suggest that Tat-SF1 is not a critical cofactor required for virus replication and its suppression may affect cell growth. Therefore, this study demonstrates the importance of examining HIV-1 replication kinetics and cytotoxicity in cells with sustained HDF suppression to validate their therapeutic potential as targets. © 2012 Green et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Nonelens epithelium derived growth factor; protein; protein p75; SF1 protein; short hairpin RNA; transactivator protein; unclassified drug; article; CD4+ T lymphocyte; cell growth; cell line; human; human cell; Human immunodeficiency virus 1; nucleotide sequence; protein depletion; protein expression; protein function; RNA interference; T lymphocyte subpopulation; virus inhibition; virus replication; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes; Cell Line; Gene Expression; Gene Expression Regulation; HIV-1; Humans; RNA Interference; RNA, Small Interfering; Trans-Activators; Virus Replication; Human immunodeficiency virus 1None
Scopus2-s2.0-77957682673Physicochemical quality of an urban municipal wastewater effluent and its impact on the receiving environmentOdjadjare E.E.O., Okoh A.I.2010Environmental Monitoring and Assessment1704237310.1007/s10661-009-1240-yApplied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South AfricaOdjadjare, E.E.O., Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa; Okoh, A.I., Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South AfricaThe physicochemical qualities of the final effluents of an urban wastewater treatment plant in South Africa were assessed between August 2007 and July 2008 as well as their impact on the receiving watershed. The pH values across all sampling points ranged between 6.8 and 8.3, while the temperature varied from 18°C to 25°C. Electrical conductivity (EC) of the samples was in the range of 29-1,015 μS/cm, and turbidity varied between 2.7 and 35 NTU. Salinity and total dissolved solids (TDS) varied from 0.36 to 35 psu and 16 to 470 mg/L, respectively. The concentrations of the other physicochemical parameters are as follows: chemical oxygen demand (COD, 48-1,180 mg/L); dissolved oxygen (DO, 3.9-6.6 mg/L); nitrate (0.32-6.5 mg NO-{3}^{-} as N/L); nitrite (0.06-2.4 mg NO -{2}^{-} as N/L); and phosphate (0.29-0.54 mg PO -{4}^{3-} as P/L). pH, temperature, EC, turbidity, TDS, DO, and nitrate varied significantly with season and sampling point (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively), while salinity varied significantly with sampling point (P<0.01) and COD and nitrite varied significantly with season (P<0.05). Although the treated effluent fell within the recommended water quality standard for pH temperature, TDS, nitrate and nitrite, it fell short of stipulated standards for other parameters. The result generally showed a negative impact of the discharged effluent on the receiving watershed and calls for a regular and consistent monitoring program by the relevant authorities to ensure best practices with regard to treatment and discharge of wastewater into the receiving aquatic milieu in South Africa. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.Physicochemical qualities; Receiving watershed; Wastewater effluentBest-practices; Discharged effluents; Electrical conductivity; Final effluents; Monitoring programs; Municipal wastewaters; Negative impacts; pH value; Physico-chemical quality; Physicochemical parameters; Receiving watershed; Sampling points; South Africa; Total dissolved solids; Treated effluent; Urban wastewater treatment plants; Wastewater effluent; Water quality standard; Chemical oxygen demand; Dissolved oxygen; Effluent treatment; Electric conductivity of solids; Landforms; Salinity measurement; Turbidity; Wastewater; Wastewater treatment; Water pollution; Water quality; Water treatment plants; Watersheds; Effluents; dissolved oxygen; nitrate; nitrite; phosphate; effluent; environmental impact; physicochemical property; urban area; waste treatment; wastewater; water treatment; watershed; aquatic environment; article; chemical oxygen demand; controlled study; electric conductivity; environmental impact; environmental monitoring; pH; physical chemistry; salinity; seasonal variation; sewage effluent; South Africa; standard; total dissolved solids; turbidity; urban area; waste water treatment plant; water quality; water sampling; water temperature; watershed; Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis; Environment; Fresh Water; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Nitrates; Nitrites; Seasons; Temperature; Waste Disposal, Fluid; Water Pollutants, Chemical; Water Pollution, Chemical; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-59349089045The Roodekraal Complex as a constraint on the size of the Vredefort impact crater, South Africade Waal S.2008South African Journal of Geology1114240310.2113/gssajg.111.2-3.305Centre for Research on Magmatic Ore Deposits, Department of Geology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; PO Box 21167, Windhoek, Namibiade Waal, S., Centre for Research on Magmatic Ore Deposits, Department of Geology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, PO Box 21167, Windhoek, NamibiaThe volcanic Roodekraal Complex, situated about 40 km from the proposed center of the ∼2.02 Ga Vredefort cratering event, overlies the rocks of the Pretoria Group with an angular unconformity. The unsheared basal contact of the Roodekraal Complex, a succession of alkaline basic lava intruded by diorite sills, defines an ∼2.05 Ga palaeosurface and as such constrains the size of the transient Vredefort crater to a maximum of ca. 80 km in diameter. A group of concentric thrust and normal faults with listric characteristics, the Ensel Thrust System, probably represents the expected normal faults that caused collapse of the transient crater rim during the modification stage of the cratering event. A series of semi-concentric thrust faults of the order of 200 km diameter and centered on the point of impact may define the total size of the Vredefort astrobleme (taken to be the entire area of impact-induced deformation). The indicated diameters of the transient and final craters agree well with those suggested by recent numerical models. © 2008 September Geological Society of South Africa.Noneastrobleme; crater; cratering; normal fault; numerical model; paleosurface; thrust fault; unconformity; Africa; Free State; South Africa; Southern Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; Vredefort DomeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84866115019Haematological evaluations of the antimalarial activity of Bridelia ferruginea benth barkKolawole O.M., Adebayo J.O., Oguntoye S.O., Okoh A.I., Mazomba N.2012Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology62NoneApplied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, South Africa; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; Department of Chemistry, FacuKolawole, O.M., Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, South Africa; Adebayo, J.O., Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; Oguntoye, S.O., Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; Okoh, A.I., Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, South Africa; Mazomba, N., Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, South AfricaWe investigated the antimalarial activity of the methanolic extract of Bridelia ferruginea benth bark at 400 mg/kg body weights in mice (Mus musculus) infected with chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei using the rane test. There was decreased in packed cell volume, RBC and Hb in infected groups from day zero to 14 with a corresponding increase in RBC of the uninfected -extract treated group (p<0.05). The infected - untreated showed continual decreased from day zero to 14 (p<0.05) compared to the infected - treated groups and the uninfected - untreated (control) group. However, decreased in MCHC was recorded by day 14 for the infected - untreated animals. WBC and lymphocytes indices revealed that there was no significant difference in all the groups by day zero, however by day 14, there was significant increased in the WBC and lymphocytes for infected - treated groups compared to all other groups (p<0.05). In the platelets count, by day 14 there was significant decreased in the infected - untreated group compared to others (p<0.05). Also, there was no significant difference in the neutrophils for the infected - extract treated, infected - chloroquine treated, control, and uninfected - extract treated groups (p<0.05). The haematological indices further substantiates the promising antimalarial activity of the bark extract.Antimalarial; Bridelia ferruginea; Haematological indices; Methanolic extractBridelia ferruginea extract; chloroquine; hemoglobin; methanol; animal experiment; animal model; antimalarial activity; article; bark; bridelia ferruginea; controlled study; drug effect; erythrocyte count; hematocrit; leukocyte count; lymphocyte count; medicinal plant; mouse; neutrophil count; nonhuman; Plasmodium berghei infection; Animalia; Bridelia ferruginea; Mus; Mus musculus; Plasmodium bergheiNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84900306877Sexual dimorphism in bite performance drives morphological variation in chameleonsDa Silva J.M., Herrel A., Measey G.J., Tolley K.A.2014PLoS ONE9110.1371/journal.pone.0086846Applied Biodiversity Research Division, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Cape Town, Western Cape Province, South Africa; Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, Western Cape Province, South Africa; Département d'Ecologie et de Gestion de la Biodiversité, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, Île-de-France, France; Evolutionary Morphology of Vertebrates Research Group, Department of Biology, Ghent University, Ghent, East Flanders, Belgium; Department of Zoology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa; Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, Western Cape Province, South AfricaDa Silva, J.M., Applied Biodiversity Research Division, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Cape Town, Western Cape Province, South Africa, Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, Western Cape Province, South Africa; Herrel, A., Département d'Ecologie et de Gestion de la Biodiversité, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, Île-de-France, France, Evolutionary Morphology of Vertebrates Research Group, Department of Biology, Ghent University, Ghent, East Flanders, Belgium; Measey, G.J., Applied Biodiversity Research Division, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Cape Town, Western Cape Province, South Africa, Department of Zoology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa; Tolley, K.A., Applied Biodiversity Research Division, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Cape Town, Western Cape Province, South Africa, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, Western Cape Province, South AfricaPhenotypic performance in different environments is central to understanding the evolutionary and ecological processes that drive adaptive divergence and, ultimately, speciation. Because habitat structure can affect an animal's foraging behaviour, anti-predator defences, and communication behaviour, it can influence both natural and sexual selection pressures. These selective pressures, in turn, act upon morphological traits to maximize an animal's performance. For performance traits involved in both social and ecological activities, such as bite force, natural and sexual selection often interact in complex ways, providing an opportunity to understand the adaptive significance of morphological variation with respect to habitat. Dwarf chameleons within the Bradypodion melanocephalum-Bradypodion thamnobates species complex have multiple phenotypic forms, each with a specific head morphology that could reflect its use of either open- or closed-canopy habitats. To determine whether these morphological differences represent adaptations to their habitats, we tested for differences in both absolute and relative bite performance. Only absolute differences were found between forms, with the closed-canopy forms biting harder than their open-canopy counterparts. In contrast, sexual dimorphism was found for both absolute and relative bite force, but the relative differences were limited to the closed-canopy forms. These results indicate that both natural and sexual selection are acting within both habitat types, but to varying degrees. Sexual selection seems to be the predominant force within the closed-canopy habitats, which are more protected from aerial predators, enabling chameleons to invest more in ornamentation for communication. In contrast, natural selection is likely to be the predominant force in the open-canopy habitats, inhibiting the development of conspicuous secondary sexual characteristics and, ultimately, enforcing their overall diminutive body size and constraining performance. © 2014 da Silva et al.Noneanimal tissue; article; bite; body size; Bradypodion melanocephalum; Bradypodion thamnobates; canopy; chameleon; controlled study; ecological specialization; evolutionary adaptation; female; intraspecific variation; lizard; male; morphological trait; natural selection; nonhuman; organismal interaction; organisms by outer appearance; phenotypic variation; sex difference; species difference; species habitat; Adaptation, Biological; Analysis of Variance; Animals; Biological Evolution; Bite Force; Body Weights and Measures; Ecosystem; Female; Lizards; Male; Selection, Genetic; Sex Characteristics; South AfricaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80855144231Diet, morphology and performance in two chameleon morphs: Do harder bites equate with harder prey?Measey G.J., Rebelo A.D., Herrel A., Vanhooydonck B., Tolley K.A.2011Journal of Zoology285410.1111/j.1469-7998.2011.00861.xApplied Biodiversity Research Division, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Claremont, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa; Département d'Ecologie et de Gestion de la Biodiversité, UMR 7179 C.N.R.S/M.N.H.N., Paris, France; Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Belgium; Department of Botany and Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland, South AfricaMeasey, G.J., Applied Biodiversity Research Division, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Claremont, Cape Town, South Africa, Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa; Rebelo, A.D., Applied Biodiversity Research Division, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Claremont, Cape Town, South Africa; Herrel, A., Département d'Ecologie et de Gestion de la Biodiversité, UMR 7179 C.N.R.S/M.N.H.N., Paris, France; Vanhooydonck, B., Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Belgium; Tolley, K.A., Applied Biodiversity Research Division, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Claremont, Cape Town, South Africa, Department of Botany and Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland, South AfricaEcologically induced morphological variation has been identified as a mainstay in evolutionary theory. Species that inhabit different habitats are likely to display morphological and functional differences related to the exploitation of different dietary resources available in each habitat within limits imposed by trade-offs. Here, we examine two populations of the Cape Dwarf Chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, from fynbos (heathland) and woodland to investigate whether head morphology and bite performance are related to diet within and between populations. Stomach contents are compared with prey availability to test whether chameleons are selective with respect to prey size, hardness and evasiveness. Our data show that for adult chameleons from the fynbos (Kogelberg; n = 44), mean and maximum prey size are tightly correlated with head morphology and performance. In woodland habitat (Stellenbosch; n = 52), only maximum prey size is correlated with head morphology and performance. Fynbos chameleons showed no preference with respect to prey hardness, while those from woodland ate less hard and/or sedentary prey than available, thus preferring items that were soft and/or evasive. Finally, fynbos chameleons have a diet of sedentary and/or evasive prey similar in proportions to that available. Our results suggest that diet is not directly related to selection on the head morphology and biting performance of B. pumilum in woodland habitat, but that it may be important for selection in fynbos due to a reduction in overall prey availability. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Zoology © 2011 The Zoological Society of London.Adaptation; Ecomorphs; Foraging mode; Lizards; Performanceadaptation; diet; ecomorphology; evolutionary theory; fynbos; heathland; lizard; performance assessment; prey availability; prey selection; prey size; stomach content; trade-off; woodland; Bradypodion pumilum; Chamaeleonidae; SquamataNone
Scopus2-s2.0-63549102860Morphology, ornaments and performance in two chameleon ecomorphs: is the casque bigger than the bite?Measey G.J., Hopkins K., Tolley K.A.2009Zoology112310.1016/j.zool.2008.09.005Applied Biodiversity Research, Kirstenbosch Research Centre, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Private Bag X7, Claremont Cape Town, 7735, South Africa; Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535, South AfricaMeasey, G.J., Applied Biodiversity Research, Kirstenbosch Research Centre, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Private Bag X7, Claremont Cape Town, 7735, South Africa, Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535, South Africa; Hopkins, K., Applied Biodiversity Research, Kirstenbosch Research Centre, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Private Bag X7, Claremont Cape Town, 7735, South Africa; Tolley, K.A., Applied Biodiversity Research, Kirstenbosch Research Centre, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Private Bag X7, Claremont Cape Town, 7735, South AfricaThe evolution of ecomorphs within a species may represent either unique evolutionary events or multiple convergent events in similar environments. Functional studies of differing morphological traits of ecomorphs have been important to elucidate their role in adaptive radiations. The Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, has two ecomorphs: a large, brightly colored, ornate form found in closed habitats, and a small, dull form with reduced ornamentation found in open vegetation. The typical form is known to use casque size to communicate fighting ability, but it is unknown whether this is an honest signal and whether casque size is related to bite force. We show through a population genetic analysis that these ecomorphs are not separate genetic lineages but the result of multiple transitions between closed and open habitats. From measurements of ornamental and non-ornamental morphological characters and bite force in 105 chameleons, we find that bite force is significantly related to head size and is best predicted by head width. Bite force was reasonably predicted by casque height in ecomorphs from closed habitats, but not in those from open habitats. For size-adjusted data, open habitat males had wider heads, biting harder than closed habitat males. Our data suggest honesty in signaling for closed habitat ecomorphs, but for open habitat ecomorphs communication is different, a finding commensurate with the common framework for species radiations. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.Adaptive radiation; Bite force; Bradypodion pumilum; Combat; Conspecific signalingaggression; animal; animal behavior; article; bites and stings; body size; classification; female; histology; lizard; male; physiology; skull; Aggression; Animals; Behavior, Animal; Bites and Stings; Body Size; Female; Lizards; Male; Skull; Bradypodion pumilum; ChamaeleonidaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-64149131946The potential for predicted climate shifts to impact genetic landscapes of lizards in the South African Cape Floristic RegionTolley K.A., Makokha J.S., Houniet D.T., Swart B.L., Matthee C.A.2009Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution51110.1016/j.ympev.2008.11.017Applied Biodiversity Research, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Kirstenbosch Research Centre, Claremont, 7735 Cape Town, South Africa; Evolutionary Genomics Group, Department of Botany and Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland, 7602, South AfricaTolley, K.A., Applied Biodiversity Research, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Kirstenbosch Research Centre, Claremont, 7735 Cape Town, South Africa; Makokha, J.S., Evolutionary Genomics Group, Department of Botany and Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland, 7602, South Africa; Houniet, D.T., Applied Biodiversity Research, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Kirstenbosch Research Centre, Claremont, 7735 Cape Town, South Africa; Swart, B.L., Evolutionary Genomics Group, Department of Botany and Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland, 7602, South Africa; Matthee, C.A., Evolutionary Genomics Group, Department of Botany and Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland, 7602, South AfricaThe Cape Floristic Region (CFR) is well-known for its floral diversity, yet also contains a rich herpetofauna with >180 species, 28% of which are endemic. Recent studies conducted on CFR lizards indicated that phylogeographic patterns show some congruency, and that the western CFR shows higher overall diversity in the form of population and/or clade turnover. Here, we combine mitochondrial sequence data from two published (Bradypodion spp. and Agama atra) and one new dataset (Pedioplanis burchelli) to investigate whether geographic patterns of genetic diversity could be influenced by predicted climatic changes. We utilised Bayesian methodology and spatial genetic landscapes to establish broad-scale patterns and show that the western CFR is a contact zone for several clades in all three taxa, supporting the hypothesis of phylogeographic congruence. Current levels of gene flow are virtually zero between the western and eastern CFR. In the east, gene flow between populations is negligible at present but was probably stronger in the past given the present lack of strong genetic structure. Bioclimatic modelling predicted that climatically suitable areas within the CFR will decline for Bradypodion spp. and P. burchelli, with areas high in clade turnover loosing more climatically suitable areas than areas with low clade turnover. The models also predict that loss of climatic suitability may result in highly fragmented and patchy distributions, resulting in a greater loss of connectivity. In contrast, A. atra does not show significant climatic suitability losses overall, although it may experience localised losses (and gains). This species is not predicted to loose suitability in areas of high clade turnover. Thus, the incorporation of genetic data into climatic models has extended our knowledge on the vulnerability of these species given the predicted threat of landscape change. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Burchell's sand lizard; Climate change; Dwarf chameleon; Phylogeography; Southern rock agamamitochondrial DNA; Africa; animal; article; biological model; classification; climate; DNA sequence; gene flow; genetic variability; genetics; geography; lizard; molecular evolution; phylogeny; population genetics; Africa, Southern; Animals; Climate; DNA, Mitochondrial; Evolution, Molecular; Gene Flow; Genetic Variation; Genetics, Population; Geography; Lizards; Models, Genetic; Phylogeny; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Agama; Agama atra; Bradypodion; Pedioplanis burchelli; SquamataNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84896382538Seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton in two tropical rivers of varying size and human impact in southeast Nigeria [Dinamica de temporada del fitoplankton en dos rios tropicales de tamaño e impacto humano variado en el sureste de Nigeria]Idumah Okogwu O., Ugwumba A.O.2013Revista de Biologia Tropical614NoneApplied Biology Department, Ebonyi State University, PMB 53, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, NigeriaIdumah Okogwu, O., Applied Biology Department, Ebonyi State University, PMB 53, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; Ugwumba, A.O., Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, NigeriaPhytoplankton occurrence and dynamics in rivers are mainly shaped by hydrophysical conditions and nutrient availability. Phytoplankton main structuring factors have been poorly studied in West African rivers, and this study was undertaken to identify these conditions in two tropical rivers that vary in size and human impact. For this, environmental variables and phytoplankton monthly samples were collected from the middle reaches of Asu and Cross rivers during an 18 months survey from March 2005-July 2006. Phytoplankton biomass (F=11.87, p=0.003), Shannon-Weiner diversity and species richness (F=5.93, p=0.003) showed significant seasonality in Asu but not in Cross River. Data was analyzed with Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and showed environmental differences between the two rivers, nitrate in Asu River (5.1-15.5mg/L) was significantly higher than Cross River (0.03-1.7mg/L), while PO4 (0.2-0.9mg/L) was significantly lower in Asu River compared to Cross River (0.03-2.6mg/L) (p&lt;0.05). Eutrophic factors (NO3) determined primarily phytoplankton dynamics in Asu River, especially during the dry season, whereas hydrophysical factors (depth, transparency and temperature) shaped phytoplankton in Cross River. Taxa indicative of an eutrophic condition, such as Euglena, Chlorella, Chlorococcus, Ceratium, Peridinium, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Closterium, Scenedesmus and Pediastrum spp., were frequently encountered in the shallow impounded Asu River, while riverine species, such as Frustulia rhomboids, Gyrosigma sp., Opephora martyr and Surirella splendida dominated Cross River. A succession pattern was observed in the functional groups identified: Na/MP→TB→P (rainy→dry season) was observed in Asu River, whereas MP/D predominated in Cross River for both seasons. We concluded that, if nutrients predominate hydrophysical factors in shaping phytoplankton during dry season (half of the year) then, they are as important as hydrophysical factors structuring phytoplankton during rainy season (the other half).Asu River; Cross River; Eutrophication; Functional group; Phytoplankton; West AfricaNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84930590466The impact of cassava effluent on the microbial and physicochemical characteristics on soil dynamics and structureIgbinosa E.O., Igiehon O.N.2015Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences82NoneApplied Microbial Processes and Environmental Health Research Group, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Private Mail Bag 1154, Benin City, NigeriaIgbinosa, E.O., Applied Microbial Processes and Environmental Health Research Group, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Private Mail Bag 1154, Benin City, Nigeria; Igiehon, O.N., Applied Microbial Processes and Environmental Health Research Group, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Private Mail Bag 1154, Benin City, NigeriaThe effects of cassava effluent on soil microbial and physicochemical properties were studied using culture-dependent and standard analytical methods. Soil samples were collected from sites polluted with cassava effluent and from adjacent sites that were not impacted with the effluent pollution. The isolation and enumeration of microbial population was carried out using standard culture-based methods. Standard analytical methods were used to assay for physicochemical properties. The highest bacterial count of 3.61×108 ± 0.12 CFU/g was recorded for polluted soil sampled from Ehor, while the lowest count of 1.3×108 ± 0.03 CFU/g was recorded in Isihor. Isihor had the highest fungal count of 2.2 ×108 ± 0.01 CFU/g from soil contaminated with cassava effluent. The fungal counts of the polluted soil were significantly lower than the bacterial counts generally (p < 0.05). The heavy metal contents of the contaminated soils were relatively higher than the uncontaminated soil (control). Unlike in the control soils, pH of the polluted soils ranged from 4.0 - 4.78. The bacteria isolated were Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus macerans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella aoxytoca and Escherichia coli. Eleven species of fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Rhizopus were also isolated. The present study shows that the cassava effluent can have an increasing or limiting effect on the microbial diversity of the polluted soil which could also be attributed to the simultaneous impact on the physicochemical parameters of the soil. © 2015 Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences.Biodiversity; Heavy metal; Microbial density; Pollution; ToxicantsAspergillus; Bacillus subtilis; Bacteria (microorganisms); Escherichia coli; Fungi; Klebsiella; Manihot esculenta; Paenibacillus macerans; Penicillium; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; RhizopusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79251480044Microbial evaluation and public health implications of urine as alternative therapy in clinical pediatric cases: Health implication of urine therapyOgunshe A.A.O., Fawole A.O., Ajayi V.A.2010Pan African Medical Journal5NoneNoneApplied Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Department of Biology, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Biology and Microbiology Unit, Department of ScOgunshe, A.A.O., Applied Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Fawole, A.O., Department of Biology, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; Ajayi, V.A., Biology and Microbiology Unit, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Ogun State, NigeriaBackground: Cultural means of pediatric treatment during ill health is a mainstay in Africa, and though urine has been known to contain enteric pathogens, urine therapy is still culturally applicable in some health conditions and also advocated as alternative therapy. The study therefore, is to evaluate the microbial contents and safety of urine. Methods: Urinary bacteria from cows and healthy children aged 5-11 years were identified by conventional phenotypic methods and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using modified agar disc and well-diffusion methods. Results: A total of 116 bacterial isolates (n = 77 children; n = 39 cows) were identified as Bacillus (10.4%; 5.1%)), Staphylococcus (2.6%; 2.6%), Citrobacter (3.9%; 12.8%), Escherichia coli (36.4%; 23.1%), Klebsiella (7.8%; 12.8%), Proteus (18.2%; 23.1%), Pseudomonas (9.1%; 2.6%), Salmonella (3.9%; 5.1%) and Shigella (7.8%; 12.8%) spp. Antibiotic resistance rates of the Gram-positive bacteria were high (50.0-100%), except in Bacillus strains against chloramphenicol, gentamicin and tetracycline (14.3%), while higher resistance rates were recorded among the Gram-negative bacteria except in Citrobacter (0.0%) and Proteus (8.5%) spp. against gentamicin and tetracycline respectively. The Gram-negative bacteria from ito malu (cow urine) were more resistant bacteria except in Citrobacter (20.0%) and Shigella spp. (0.0%) against tetracycline and Proteus spp. (11.1%), (22.2%) against amoxicillin and tetracycline respectively. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) rates recorded in children urinal bacterial species were 37.5-100% (Gram-positive) and 12.5-100% (Gram-negative), while MAR among the cow urinal bacteria was 12.5-75.0% (Gram-positive) and 25.0-100% (Gram-negative). Similar higher resistance rates were also recorded among the Gram-negative bacterial species from urine specimens against the pediatric antibiotic suspensions. Conclusion: The study reported presence of multiple antibiotic-resistant indicator bacteria in human urine and ito malu used as alternative remedy in pediatric health conditions like febrile convulsion. © Adenike Adedayo O. Ogunshe et al.Alternative medicine; Antibiotic resistance; Convulsion; Cultural behaviour; Infant mortality; Nigeria; Pediatic; Urine therapyagar; amaxin; amoxicillin; amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid; ampicillin; ampicillin plus cloxacillin; antibiotic agent; azithromycin; cefaclor; cefadroxil; cefalerin; cefamor; cefuroxime axetil; chloramphenicol; clindamycin; clofencol; cloxacillin; cotrimoxazole; emicillin; emzoclox; erythrokid; erythromycin; erythromycin stearate; flucloxacillin; fusidic acid; gentamicin; jawaclox; loxagyl; loxaprim; metronidazole; odoxil ds; penicillin G; rancotrim; sulfamethoxazole; tetracycline; throtal; trimethoprim; unclassified drug; antiinfective agent; alternative medicine; antibiotic resistance; antibiotic sensitivity; article; Bacillus; bacterium identification; bacterium isolation; child; childhood disease; Citrobacter; controlled study; cow; Escherichia coli; febrile convulsion; female; Gram negative bacterium; Gram positive bacterium; human; Klebsiella; male; microbiological examination; nonhuman; phenotype; preschool child; Proteus; Pseudomonas; public health service; Salmonella; school child; Shigella; species difference; Staphylococcus; urine therapy; African medicine; animal; antibiotic resistance; cattle; drug effect; evaluation; febrile convulsion; Gram negative bacterium; Gram positive bacterium; isolation and purification; microbiological examination; microbiology; pediatrics; public health; urine; Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Cattle; Child; Child, Preschool; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Gram-Negative Bacteria; Gram-Positive Bacteria; Humans; Male; Medicine, African Traditional; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Pediatrics; Public Health; Seizures, Febrile; UrineNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84938827709Evaluation of bacteriostatic potency of expired oral paediatric antibiotics and implications on infant healthOgunshe A., Adinmonyema P.2014Pan African Medical Journal19None10.11604/pamj.2014.19.378.2156Applied Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaOgunshe, A., Applied Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Adinmonyema, P., Applied Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, NigeriaIntroduction: in spite of significant risks, as well as non-clinical importance due to loss of potency, stiff penalties against administration of expired medications are still not appropriately enforced by health policy makers in many developing countries, possibly because of little evidence to support that expired medications are hazardous. The purpose of this study therefore, was to investigate the effect of expiration dates on in vitro bacteriostatic potentials of oral paediatric antibiotics. Methods: comparative bacteriostatic potentials of 31 expired and seven corresponding unexpired oral paediatric antibiotics were determined on infantile diarrhoeagenic bacteria, using a modification of agar well-diffusion method. Results: verall total percentage in vitro resistance rates against expired and unexpired paediatric antibiotics respectively were - E. coli (≤100% vs. ≤15.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (≤100% vs. ≤31.3%), Proteus mirabilis (≤91.7% vs. ≤41.7%) and Staphylococcus aureus (≤100% vs. ≤18.2%). Resistance rates of 45.5-55.8% (sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim 5), 39.5-63.6% (amoxycillin 6), 46.5-54.5% (cotrimoxazole 7), 37.5-63.6% (ampicillin + cloxacillin 18), and higher resistance rates of ≥75.0-100% were exhibited towards remaining expired antibiotics. Higher total resistance and multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) rates were also recorded against expired antibiotics (45.2-93.5%) compared to unexpired antibiotics (28.6-57.2%), except for few strains of E. coli and Proteus mirabilis. Furthermore, unexpired paediatric antibiotics exhibited wider zones of inhibition towards the test diarrhoeagenic bacteria (≥25.0 mm diameter). Conclusion: this study provided preliminary microbiological results on the appreciable reduction in in vitro bacteriostatic potentials, as well as higher resistance and multiple antibiotic resistance rates among expired oral paediatric antibiotics on infantile diarrhoeagenic bacteria. Apart from less-efficacy, administration of expired antibiotics can lead to increased antibiotic resistance and clinical treatment failure, as well as adverse drug reactions. © Adenike Ogunshe et al.Antibiotic resistance; Drug allergy; Drug degradation; Drug toxicity; Expired antibiotics; Infant mortality; Paediatric antibiotics; Paediatric healthamoxicillin; ampicillin plus cloxacillin; antibiotic agent; cotrimoxazole; antiinfective agent; agar diffusion; antibiotic resistance; Article; bacteriostasis; child; child health; controlled study; Escherichia coli; expiration date; human; in vitro study; infant; Klebsiella pneumoniae; nonhuman; Proteus mirabilis; Staphylococcus aureus; drug effects; drug stability; drug storage; growth, development and aging; infant welfare; microbial sensitivity test; oral drug administration; preschool child; statistics and numerical data; Administration, Oral; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Child, Preschool; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Drug Stability; Drug Storage; Escherichia coli; Humans; Infant; Infant Welfare; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Staphylococcus aureusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84884538372The impact of flooding on water quality, zooplankton composition, density and biomass in Lake Iyieke, Cross River-Floodplain, Southeastern NigeriaNwonumara N.G., Okogwu O.I.2013Zoology and Ecology23210.1080/21658005.2013.805015Department of Applied Biology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, NigeriaNwonumara, N.G., Department of Applied Biology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; Okogwu, O.I., Department of Applied Biology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, NigeriaThe physico-chemical parameters, zooplankton composition, density and biomass of Lake Iyieke (Cross River- Floodplain, Nigeria) were studied monthly from February to December 2011 during pre-flood (February-May), flood (June-August) and post-flood (September-December) periods. The study was aimed at evaluating the response of zooplankton to seasonal flooding. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that temperature (28-35 C), PO4-P (0.10- 0.16 g/L), pH (6.50-6.80), transparency (0.17-0.98 m), conductivity (18.0-56.00 S/cm) and total dissolved solids (8.50-28.00 mg/L) were the main environmental variables that influenced zooplankton dynamics. Rotifers of the families Collothecidae, Collurellidae and the cladoceran Scapholeberi kingi were recorded in the lake for the first time. Rotifers were dominant in the pre-flood period, while microcrustaceans were dominant in the flood and post-flood periods. Contrary to our expectations, species richness (56 species) and density (527 ind/L) peaked during the pre-flood and flood periods, respectively. Based on our results and previous studies on the lake, we recommend undertaking a comprehensive study on this and other lakes within the Cross River basin in order to gain a clear understanding of the impact anthropogenic activities (dams and dredging) and climatic factors (that could alter the intensity and duration of flood) could have on zooplankton. © 2013 Nature Research Centre.Biomass; Density; Flood; Lake Iyieke; Water quality; ZooplanktonNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84868459367Electrical resistivity survey for groundwater investigations and shallow subsurface evaluation of the basaltic-greenstone formation of the urban Bulawayo aquiferMuchingami I., Hlatywayo D.J., Nel J.M., Chuma C.2012Physics and Chemistry of the EarthNoneNone10.1016/j.pce.2012.08.014Applied Physics Department, National University of Science and Technology, Box AC939, Ascot, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe; Department of Earth Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Box X17, Bellville 7535, South AfricaMuchingami, I., Applied Physics Department, National University of Science and Technology, Box AC939, Ascot, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, Department of Earth Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Box X17, Bellville 7535, South Africa; Hlatywayo, D.J., Applied Physics Department, National University of Science and Technology, Box AC939, Ascot, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe; Nel, J.M., Department of Earth Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Box X17, Bellville 7535, South Africa; Chuma, C., Applied Physics Department, National University of Science and Technology, Box AC939, Ascot, Bulawayo, ZimbabweElectrical resistivity surveying methods have been widely used to determine the thickness and resistivity of layered media for the purpose of assessing groundwater potential and siting boreholes in fractured unconfined aquifers. Traditionally, this has been done using one-dimensional (1D) vertical electrical sounding (VES) surveys. However, 1D VES surveys only model layered structures of the subsurface and do not provide comprehensive information for interpreting the structure and extent of subsurface hydro-geological features. As such the incorporation of two-dimensional (2D) geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting has often been used to provide a more detailed interpretation of the subsurface hydro-geological features from which potential sites for successful borehole location are identified. In this study, 2D electrical resistivity tomography was combined with 1D VES to produce a subsurface resistivity model for assessing the availability of groundwater in the basaltic-greenstone formation of the Matsheumhlope well field in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Low resistivity readings (<50. Ωm) towards the central region of the study area suggest a high groundwater potential, while high resistivities (>500. Ωm) around the western margin of the study area suggests a low groundwater potential. 2D electrical resistivity surveys provide a more detailed subsurface structure and may assist in identifying the configuration of possible fractures which could conduct groundwater into the shallow subsurface of study area. It is concluded that 2D electrical resistivity methods is an effective tool for assessing the availability of groundwater in the highly weathered and fractured basaltic greenstone rocks. The methods provided a more precise hydro-geophysical model for the study area compared to the traditional VES. Results from this study are useful for technical groundwater management as they clearly identified suitable borehole locations for long term groundwater prospecting. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.2D (two-dimensional); Electrical resistivity; Groundwater; Resistivity models; Unconfined aquiferComprehensive information; Effective tool; Electrical resistivity; Electrical resistivity tomography; Geophysical techniques; Groundwater management; High resistivity; Layered media; Layered Structures; Low resistivity; Potential sites; Resistivity models; Shallow subsurface; Study areas; Subsurface structures; Unconfined aquifers; Vertical electrical sounding; Zimbabwe; Aquifers; Basalt; Boreholes; Electric conductivity; Electric prospecting; Geophysics; Groundwater; Hydrogeology; Structural geology; Surveys; Two dimensional; Water management; Groundwater resources; basalt; borehole; electrical resistivity; greenstone; groundwater; tomography; two-dimensional modeling; unconfined aquifer; urban area; vertical electrical sounding; water management; Bulawayo [Bulawayo (PRV)]; Bulawayo [Zimbabwe]; ZimbabweNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84859116370Evaluation of the antioxidant potentials of ten leafy vegetables extracts commonly consumed by the Ghanaian populationAchel D.G., Mills R., Otchere J., Seyram E., Achoribo E., Adu-Bobi N.A.-K., Donkor S., Boatin R., Adom T., Adaboro R.M., Gomda Y.2012Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry112NoneApplied Radiation Biology centre, Reseach Scientist and Centre Manager Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, GhanaAchel, D.G., Applied Radiation Biology centre, Reseach Scientist and Centre Manager Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Ghana; Mills, R., Applied Radiation Biology centre, Reseach Scientist and Centre Manager Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Ghana; Otchere, J., Applied Radiation Biology centre, Reseach Scientist and Centre Manager Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Ghana; Seyram, E., Applied Radiation Biology centre, Reseach Scientist and Centre Manager Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Ghana; Achoribo, E., Applied Radiation Biology centre, Reseach Scientist and Centre Manager Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Ghana; Adu-Bobi, N.A.-K., Applied Radiation Biology centre, Reseach Scientist and Centre Manager Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Ghana; Donkor, S., Applied Radiation Biology centre, Reseach Scientist and Centre Manager Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Ghana; Boatin, R., Applied Radiation Biology centre, Reseach Scientist and Centre Manager Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Ghana; Adom, T., Applied Radiation Biology centre, Reseach Scientist and Centre Manager Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Ghana; Adaboro, R.M., Applied Radiation Biology centre, Reseach Scientist and Centre Manager Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Ghana; Gomda, Y., Applied Radiation Biology centre, Reseach Scientist and Centre Manager Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, GhanaTen traditional leafy vegetables commonly consumed by Ghanaians have been evaluated for their antioxidant potential based on their polyphenolic and flavonoid contents. Among the plants studied the methanol extracts of Ocimum basilicum (akokobesa), and Amaranthus incurvatus (aleefo) exhibited the highest phenolic content of 16.4 mg GAE/g dw and 11.3mg dw GAE/g respectively. The highest phenolic content for water extracts were seen in Manihot esculenta (cassava; 9.29mg GAE/g dw) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (shuuré; 7.28mg GAE/g dw) and C esculanta (7.11 mg GAE/g dw). The methanol extracts of H. sabdariffa (Shuuré), Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaves), Manihot esculenta (cassava leaves) and Ocimum basilicum (akokobesa) recorded the highest flavonoid content (FC) of 99.14 μg QE/g dw, 70.20μg QE/g dw, 70.08μg QE/g dw and 63.37μg QE/g dw respectively. For the FC of the aqueous extracts the order was; A. incurvatus &gt; H. sabdariffa &gt; Talinum triangulare&gt; Colocasia esculenta &gt; M. esculenta &gt; V. amygdalina&gt; O. basilicum &gt; Solanum macrocarpon &gt; Launaea taraxacifolia &gt; Corchorus olitorius. A good positive correlation r 2= 0.663 was observed between polyphenolic content and antioxidant values for the aqueous extracts, however, no correlation was found between flavonoids, polyphenolics and total antioxidants. The study indicates that the leafy vegetables consumed by Ghanaians are potentially rich sources of dietary polyphenolic compounds and antioxidants, and might contribute important health and nutraceutical benefits to consumers.Antioxidants; Free-radicals; Health benefits; Leafy vegetables; PhytochemicalsAmaranthus; Amaranthus hybridus; Colocasia esculenta; Corchorus olitorius; Gymnanthemum amygdalinum; Hibiscus sabdariffa; Launaea; Manihot esculenta; Ocimum; Ocimum basilicum; Solanum; Solanum macrocarpon; Talinum triangulare; Vernonia amygdalinaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84882598747Influence of reference temperature on exergy and exergoeconomic performance of a natural gas fired thermal power plantAnozie A.N., Odejobi O.J.2013International Journal of Exergy13110.1504/IJEX.2013.055780Applied Thermodynamics and Process Design Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220005, NigeriaAnozie, A.N., Applied Thermodynamics and Process Design Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220005, Nigeria; Odejobi, O.J., Applied Thermodynamics and Process Design Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220005, NigeriaThe influence of reference temperature on exergy and exergoeconomic performance parameters of a thermal plant was investigated. The plant was simulated using HYSYS (2003) process simulator software and the exergy and exergoeconomic analyses were done using Microsoft EXCEL spreadsheet. As reference temperature increased from 15°C to 35°C, exergy efficiency decreased from 11.7% to 11.5% and irreversibility increased from 1790 MW to 1812 MW. Also, overall exergy cost decreased from 6650.78 MW to 6055.40 MW and monetary cost from $75,343.84/h to $68,430.19/h. The optimum (base case) reference temperature, where the exergy and the monetary exergy loss costs were at minimum, was found to be 30°C. At this temperature both the condenser and boiler units made significant contributions to the process exergy and monetary exergy loss costs. The study concluded that the performance of the thermal plant depends on reference temperature, efficiencies of condenser and boiler units. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.Exergetic efficiency; Exergoeconomic improvement potential.; Exergoeconomic loss cost; Exergy improvement potential; Exergy loss costs; Irreversibility; Reference temperatureExergetic efficiency; Exergoeconomic; Exergy improvement potentials; Exergy loss; Irreversibility; Loss costs; Reference temperature; Boilers; Computer software; Costs; Heat engines; Thermoelectric power plants; ExergyNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79958792768Cover Crop Management in a Sauvignon blanc/Ramsey vineyard in the semi-arid Olifants River Valley, South Africa. 2. Effect of different cover crops and cover crop management practices on grapevine performanceFourie J.C., Louw P.J.E., Agenbag G.A.2007South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture282NoneARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa; Department of Agronomy, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa; Sapex Exports, 11 Victoria Street, Stellenbosch 7599, South AfricaFourie, J.C., ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa; Louw, P.J.E., ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa, Sapex Exports, 11 Victoria Street, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa; Agenbag, G.A., Department of Agronomy, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7600, South AfricaThe trial was conducted over a period of ten years (1993/94 to 2002/03) on a sandy soil in a Sauvignon blanc/Ramsey vineyard near Lutzville (31°35'S, 18°52'E), situated in the semi-arid Olifants River Valley of the Western Cape. Fourteen treatments, consisting of three grain species and four legumes, managed according to two cover crop management practices, were included. One management practice consisted of cover crops which were sown annually and full surface, post-emergence chemical control which was applied before bud break and when the berries reached pea size (BB). The second management practice consisted of cover crops which were sown biennially. Post-emergence chemical control was applied to the vine row before bud break and full surface when the berries reached pea size (AB). From 1999/2000 to 2002/03 the cover crops were sown annually, while the full surface post-emergence control applied at the end of November was advanced to mid-October. Two treatments in which Avena sativa L. v. Saia ('Saia' oats) and Vicia dasycarpa Ten. (grazing vetch) were sown annually, controlled mechanically in the work row and chemically in the vine row from bud break to harvest (MC), were also applied. These treatments were compared to a control, in which no cover crop was sown and MC was applied. A treatment in which no cover crop was sown and BB was applied (weedchem), was also included. During the third growing season of the vines (1994/95), the grapevine shoot mass of the BB treatments of grazing vetch and Medicago truncatula Gaertn. v. Paraggio ('Paraggio' medic) was significantly more than that of the AB and MC treatments, with the exception of Secale cereale L. v. Henog (AB) and grazing vetch (MC). The first harvest (1994/95) from the grapevines in the BB treatments was significantly higher than that of weedchem and the MC treatments. The grape yield of the BB treatments, grazing vetch (AB) and Ornithopus sativus L. v. Emena (pink Seradella) (AB) was significantly more than that of weedchem and the control during the 1997/98 season. The NO 3-N concentration in the leaf petioles in all the cover crop treatments was, with the exception of the AB treatments of rye, M. truncatula Gaertn. v. Parabinga ('Parabinga' medic) and grazing vetch, significantly higher than that in weedchem and the control, as measured during the 1994/95 season. The NO 3-N concentration in the leaf petioles of the BB and AB treatment of a species differed significantly. The N concentration in the juice of the cover crop treatments during the 1995/96 season was, with the exception of 'Saia' oats (MC) and 'Parabinga' medic (AB), significantly higher than that of weedchem and the control. During the 1998/99 season, the N concentration of the juice in the BB and AB treatments of grazing vetch and pink Seradella was significantly higher than that of the MC treatments, two rye treatments, weedchem and the AB treatments of the other cover crops. The concentration of Ca in the juice of the cover crop treatments was, with the exception of the pink Seradella treatments, significantly higher than that of weedchem and the control. Wine quality did not differ between treatments.Cover crops; Grape juice; Grape yield; Grapevines; Shoot growth; Soil managementAvena; Avena sativa; Medicago truncatula; Ornithopus sativus; Pisum sativum; Secale cereale; Vicia; Vicia villosa varia; Vitaceae; VitisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84882946114Impact of intestinal microorganisms and protozoan parasites on drinking water quality in Harare, ZimbabweDalu T., Barson M., Nhiwatiwa T.2011Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development1310.2166/washdev.2011.049Aquatic Ecology Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, P. O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, ZimbabweDalu, T., Aquatic Ecology Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, P. O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Barson, M., Aquatic Ecology Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, P. O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe; Nhiwatiwa, T., Aquatic Ecology Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, P. O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, ZimbabweThe presence of microorganisms and their potential impacts on drinking water from boreholes, bowsers, lakes, rivers, springs, taps and wells was investigated in peri-urban settlements around Harare. Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio cholerae and faecal streptococci were present in all water sources except for the boreholes and bowsers. Rivers, lake and wells showed the greatest diversity of 10, 5 and 6 species and relative density (rd) of 90.9, 83.4 and 61.67% respectively for the protozoan parasites. Cryptosporidium was identified in groundwater sources; wells (rd = 8.3%) and springs (rd = 41.7%) and identified in tap water (rd = 6.23%) and the Mukuvisi River downstream (rd = 8.3%). Entamoeba histolytica, Cyclospora, Isospora belli, Trichuris trichiura and Giardia lamblia were found in all water sources. Eggs/larvae of intestinal parasites; Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides, Rhabditis, Taenia sp. and Schistosoma mansoni were identified in different water sources. Faecal coliform levels had a significant effect on the water sources' water quality with p = 0.018 in all sites except for the borehole whilst faecal streptococci had no significant impact with p = 0.513. The presence of at least one microbial pathogenic organism and parasites in most of the water sources poses a threat to the water quality and is a human health risk in the study areas. © IWA Publishing 2011.Coliforms; Drinking water; Harare; Microorganisms; Parasites; ProtozoaNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33749640288Evaluation of toxic action mechanisms of binary mixtures of spent lubricant oil and detergent against littoral estuarine macro-invertebratesChukwu L.O.2006Pollution Research252NoneAquatic Toxicology and Ecophysiology Laboratory, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, NigeriaChukwu, L.O., Aquatic Toxicology and Ecophysiology Laboratory, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, NigeriaThe toxicities of spent engine oil and a Nigerian brand of detergent (Omo), and their binary mixture in ratio of 9:1 were evaluated against hermit crab, Clibanarius africanus and periwinkle, Tympanotfonus fuscatus in laboratory bioassays. The interactions between binary mixture showed significant variations from the action of the individual constituent toxicants when acting singly. On the basis of synergistic ratio (SRs) and concentration-addition models, the relationship between binary mixture. (9:1) of spent engine oil and detergent against C africanus and T fuscatus were in conformity with the models of synergism (S.R=4.12; RTU=3.95 and S.R=1.21; RTU=10 respectively) indicating that the toxicity of the constituent toxicants in the mixtures were enhanced. The importance of the results obtained from the joint action toxicity evaluations in setting effective and environmentally safe limits for control and management of petroleum pollutants is discussed. Copyright © Enviromedia.Nonebioassay; crab; detergent; laboratory method; oil; pollution monitoring; snail; synergism; toxicity test; Catharanthus roseus; Clibanarius; Decapoda (Crustacea); InvertebrataNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33750508938Evaluation of a commercial rubella IgM assay for use on oral fluid samples for diagnosis and surveillance of congenital rubella syndrome and postnatal rubellaVijaylakshmi P., Muthukkaruppan V.R., Rajasundari A., Korukluoglu G., Nigatu W., L.A.Warrener, Samuel D., Brown D.W.G.2006Journal of Clinical Virology37410.1016/j.jcv.2006.09.005Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India; Aravind Medical Research Foundation, India; Refik Saydam National Hygiene Center, National Measles Laboratory, Cemal Gursel Cad.No: 18, 06100 Yenisehir, Ankara, Turkey; Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute (EHNRI), PO Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Virus Reference Department, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London, NW9 5EQ, United Kingdom; Microimmune Limited, 104A High Street, Brentford, Middlesex TW8 8AT, United KingdomVijaylakshmi, P., Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India; Muthukkaruppan, V.R., Aravind Medical Research Foundation, India; Rajasundari, A., Aravind Medical Research Foundation, India; Korukluoglu, G., Refik Saydam National Hygiene Center, National Measles Laboratory, Cemal Gursel Cad.No: 18, 06100 Yenisehir, Ankara, Turkey; Nigatu, W., Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute (EHNRI), PO Box 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; L.A.Warrener, Virus Reference Department, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London, NW9 5EQ, United Kingdom; Samuel, D., Virus Reference Department, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London, NW9 5EQ, United Kingdom, Microimmune Limited, 104A High Street, Brentford, Middlesex TW8 8AT, United Kingdom; Brown, D.W.G., Virus Reference Department, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London, NW9 5EQ, United KingdomBackground: Clinical diagnosis (surveillance) of rubella is unreliable and laboratory confirmation is essential. Detection of virus specific IgM in serum is the most commonly used method. However, the use of serum necessitates the drawing of blood, either through venipuncture or finger/heel prick, which can be difficult in young babies. Oral fluid samples have proved useful as an alternative, less invasive sample for virus specific IgM detection however until recently no commercial rubella IgM tests were available, restricting the usefulness of this approach. Objectives: To evaluate the performance of the Microimmune Rubella IgM capture EIA using oral fluid samples from outbreaks as well as in cases of suspected congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Study design: Paired serum and oral fluids were collected from cases during a rubella outbreak in three provinces in Turkey. Matched serum and oral fluid samples were collected from children with suspected CRS in an active surveillance programme at the Aravind Eye Hospital in South India. Serum samples were collected as part of the measles surveillance programme in Ethiopia. Results: On serum samples the sensitivity and specificity of the Microimmune Rubella IgM capture EIA compared to Behring Enzygnost rubella IgM test was 96.9% (62/64; 95% CI 94.2-100%) and 100% (53/53; 95% CI 93.2-100%). On oral fluids compared to matched Behring results on serum the sensitivity was 95.5% (42/44; 95% CI 84.5-99.4%). The sensitivity and specificity of Microimmune Rubella IgM capture EIA on oral fluids from suspected CRS cases compared to serum results using Behring Enzygnost IgM assay was 100% (95% CI 84.5-100%) and 100% (95% CI 95.8-100.0%) respectively. Conclusion: Microimmune Rubella IgM capture EIA has adequate performance for diagnosis and surveillance of rubella in outbreak using either serum or oral fluid specimens.IgM; Oral fluid; Rubellaimmunoglobulin M; antigen detection; article; child; congenital rubella syndrome; controlled study; diagnostic accuracy; enzyme immunoassay; Ethiopia; human; immune deficiency; India; infant; intermethod comparison; major clinical study; male; measles; priority journal; rubella; Turkey (republic); Antibodies, Viral; Biological Assay; Female; Humans; Immunoglobulin M; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications, Infectious; Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; Rubella; Saliva; Sensitivity and SpecificityNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84876959735Effects of soil parent material and climate on the performance of vitis vinifrra L. cvs. Sauvignon blanc and Cabernet Sauvignon - Part II. Climate, leaf analysis, juice analysis and wine qualityShange L.P., Conradie W.J.2012South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture332NoneARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, 7599 Stellenbosch, South AfricaShange, L.P., ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, 7599 Stellenbosch, South Africa; Conradie, W.J., ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, 7599 Stellenbosch, South AfricaA five-year investigation (2004/05 to 2008/09) was carried out in two Sauvignon blanc and two Cabernet Sauvignon vineyards in the Helderberg area, Western Cape, South Africa. Soils, derived mainly from granite and shale, were identified in each vineyard. Climatic parameters were measured, while leaves and juice were analysed. Experimental wines were prepared and evaluated annually. The nutritional status of the leaf blades and petioles was not affected by soil parent materials in a consistent pattern. Juice N of grapevines on the shale-derived soil was usually higher than that of vines on the granite-derived soil. The effect of soil parent material on Sauvignon blanc wine style appeared to have been more distinct at the locality where wine quality was highest. At this locality, wine from the grapevines on shale-derived soil (higher water-holding capacity) was best in 2004/05 (dry season), while the reverse was true in the 2007/08 season (wet). The style and/or quality of Cabernet Sauvignon wines were affected to a greater extent by differences in soil parent materials, relative to Sauvignon blanc. Differences were especially noticeable during the cooler and wetter seasons. Better drainage in the case of the granite-derived soils, due to the higher coarse sand fraction, may have played a positive role during these seasons.Granite; Juice nitrogen; Shale; Wine styleVitisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77956526884Effects of rootstock on grapevine performance, petiole and must composition, and overall wine score of Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay and pinot noirWooldridge J., Louw P.J.E., Conradie W.J.2010South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture311NoneARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa; Sapex Exports (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 1000, Stellenbosch 7599, South AfricaWooldridge, J., ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa; Louw, P.J.E., Sapex Exports (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 1000, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa; Conradie, W.J., ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South AfricaCharacteristics of Chardonnay and Pinot noir vines on Richter 99 (99R), Richter 110 (110R), Ruggeri 140 (140Ru) and SO4 rootstocks were assessed over six consecutive seasons in a factorial field trial on an Avalon soil in Stellenbosch that had been limed to pH 5.75 (1M KCl). Ruggeri 140 promoted the highest cane mass (vigour), highest petiole and must nitrogen (N), lowest ratio of yield to cane mass, and lowest overall wine quality. The lowest cane mass and highest wine quality were produced by vines on 110R. Petiole N, phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), and must N and Ca, were also lower for vines on 110R than for those on 140Ru.Cane mass; Chardonnay; Must; Petiole; Pinot noir; YieldVitaceae; Vitis; Vitis viniferaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77956514102Soil management in the Breede River valley wine grape region, South Africa. 1. Cover crop performance and weed controlFourie J.C.2010South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture311NoneARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, 7599, South AfricaFourie, J.C., ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, 7599, South AfricaEight cover crop treatments were applied for 12 consecutive years on a medium-textured soil in a vineyard near Robertson (33°50'S, 19°54'E). A treatment with full surface straw mulch and full surface post-emergence chemical control applied from just before grapevine bud break to harvest (BB), and one with no cover crop combined with BB, were also applied. The control consisted of mechanical control in the work row and post-emergence chemical control in the vine row applied from bud break to harvest. Rotating Triticale v. Usgen 18 (triticale) and Vicia dasycarpa Ten. (vetch) did not improve the dry matter production (DMP) of either species. Average DMP decreased as follows: triticale > Secale cereale L. v. Henog (rye)/Vicia faba L. v. Fiord (faba bean) mixture > triticale/vetch biennial rotation > triticale/vetch annual rotation > vetch. Triticale (BB) resulted in total winter weed suppression from 1995 to 1996 and from 2001 to 2004. Total weed control from bud break to the pea size berry stage of the grapevines was achieved with straw mulch (BB), triticale (BB), rye/faba bean mixture (BB) and triticale/vetch rotated biennially (BB) from 2001 to 2003. For triticale combined with full surface post-emergence chemical control applied from grapevine berry set (AB), and for triticale/vetch rotated annually (BB), this was restricted to 2001 and 2003. From the pea size berry stage to harvest, straw mulch (BB), triticale (BB), vetch (BB), rye/faba bean mixture (BB) and triticale (AB) reduced the weed stand significantly in comparison to the control.Cover crops; Grapevines; Management practices; Mulches; Weed controlPisum sativum; Secale cereale; Triticosecale; Vicia; Vicia faba; Vicia villosa varia; Vitaceae; Vitis; Vitis viniferaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79958786775Soil management in the breede river valley wine grape region, South Africa. 3. Grapevine performanceFourie J.C.2011South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture321NoneARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, 7599, South AfricaFourie, J.C., ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, 7599, South AfricaEight cover crop treatments were applied for 12 consecutive years on a medium textured soil in a vineyard near Robertson (33°50'S, 19°54'E). A treatment with full surface straw mulch combined with full surface post-emergence chemical control applied from just before grapevine bud break to harvest (BB) and another with no cover crop combined with BB was also applied. The control consisted of mechanical control in the work row and post-emergence chemical control in the vine row applied from bud break to harvest. In the BB treatments, grapevine shoot growth was signifcantly higher than in the treatment where a perennial cover crop was established in the work row during both the second (1993/94) and third (1994/95) season after the grapevines were established. The grape yield in all the BB treatments, except the one in which a mixture of Secale cereale L. v. Henog and Vicia faba L. v. Fiord was sown, was signifcantly higher than that of the control and the treatment in which a perennial cover crop was sown in the work row during the 1995/96 season. During the 2001/02 season, the grape yield of the BB treatment with a full surface straw mulch was signifcantly higher than that of all the other treatments. The different soil management practices had a signifcant effect on the N status of the juice, but did not affect wine quality.Cover crops; Grape juice; Grape yield; Grapevines; Shoot growth; Soil managementSecale cereale; Vicia faba; Vitaceae; Vitis; Vitis viniferaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-19944389566Rapid measurement and evaluation of the effect of drying conditions on harpagoside content in Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw) rootJoubert E., Manley M., Gray B.R., Schulz H.2005Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry53910.1021/jf047930cARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, 7599, South Africa; Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland (Stellenbosch), 7602, South Africa; Institute for Plant Analysis, Federal Centre for Breeding Research on Cultivated Plants (BAZ), Neuer Weg 22-23, 06484 Quedlinburg, GermanyJoubert, E., ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, 7599, South Africa; Manley, M., Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland (Stellenbosch), 7602, South Africa; Gray, B.R., Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland (Stellenbosch), 7602, South Africa; Schulz, H., Institute for Plant Analysis, Federal Centre for Breeding Research on Cultivated Plants (BAZ), Neuer Weg 22-23, 06484 Quedlinburg, GermanyThe effect of drying conditions on harpagoside (HS) retention, as well as the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for rapid quantification of the iridoids, HS, and 8-ρ-coumaroyl harpagide (8ρCHG) and moisture, in dried Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw) root was investigated. HS retention was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in sun-dried samples as compared to tunnel-dried (60 °C, 30% relative humidity) and freeze-dried samples. The best retention of HS was obtained at 50 °C when evaluating tunnel drying at dry bulb temperatures of 40, 50, and 60 °C and 30% relative humidity. NIRS can effectively predict moisture content with a standard error of prediction (SEP) and correlation coefficient (r) of 0.24% and 0.99, respectively. The HS and 8ρCHG NIRS calibration models established for both iridoid glucosides can be used for screening purposes to get a semiquantitative classification of devil's claw roots (for HS: SEP = 0.236%, r = 0.64; for 8ρCHG: SEP = 0.048%, r = 0.73). © 2005 American Chemical Society.8-ρ-coumaroyl harpagide; Controlled drying; Devil's claw; Harpagophytum procumbens; Harpagoside; HPLC; Moisture content; NIRSglycoside; harpagoside; pyran derivative; article; chemistry; comparative study; desiccation; freeze drying; Harpagophytum; methodology; pharmaceutics; plant root; sunlight; temperature; Desiccation; Freeze Drying; Glycosides; Harpagophytum; Plant Roots; Pyrans; Sunlight; Technology, Pharmaceutical; Temperature; Harpagophytum; Harpagophytum procumbensNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79955614278Ssperformance of poverty alleviation projects in South Africa: The case of Vhembe Districtin Limpopo ProvinceTshitangoni M., Okorie A., Francis J.2011Scientific Research and Essays65NoneCentre for Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation, School of Agriculture, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South AfricaTshitangoni, M., Centre for Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation, School of Agriculture, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa; Okorie, A., Centre for Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation, School of Agriculture, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa; Francis, J., Centre for Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation, School of Agriculture, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South AfricaThis paper presents the findings of a review of performance of poverty alleviation projects in Vhembe District of Limpopo Province in South Africa. Data were collected from 30 stratified randomly sampled poverty alleviation projects across the district. Five project strata, namely community gardens (n = 12), poultry (n = 8), piggery (n = 2), bakery (n = 2) and other projects, including juice making, brick making, stone crushing and coffin making (n = 6) constituted the sample. One hundred and eight (108) respondents representing the sampled projects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were coded, processed and analyzed using the Microsoft Excel program and matrix of projects performance. Performance of projects differed by type. All the bakery projects were successful, followed by poultry (62%), community garden and other projects with 33% each. In contrast, all the piggery projects were performing poorly. Overall, the projects performed well (above the 50% threshold), based on the following indicators: availability of project funding, level of commitment by project members and skills as well as knowledge gained. Level of production, generation of income and profit, self-reliance and relevance of projects to addressing project members needs indicated that the projects did not perform well. The results of this study reflected areas of serious concern, in particular the low levels of production; irrelevance of projects to addressing project members needs; inability of projects to generate income and profit; and lack of self-reliance. Given the results of this study, it is desirable to evaluate the performance of all PAPs in the province. ©2011 Academic Journals.Alleviation; Indicator; Performance; Poverty; ProjectNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-41149107338Evaluation of spectrophotometric methods for screening of green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and green honeybush (Cyclopia genistoides) extracts for high levels of bio-active compoundsJoubert E., Manley M., Botha M.2008Phytochemical Analysis19210.1002/pca.1033ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, 7599, South Africa; Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag XI, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South AfricaJoubert, E., ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, 7599, South Africa, Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag XI, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa; Manley, M., Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag XI, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa; Botha, M., Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag XI, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South AfricaThe potential of UV spectrophotometry and an aluminium chloride (AlCl3) colorimetric method to determine the dihydrochalcone (DHC) and mangiferin contents of green rooibos and honeybush (C. genistoides) extracts, respectively, was investigated. The DHC content of rooibos water extracts, determined using UV spectroscopy, correlated with the sum of the aspalathin and nothofagin contents as quantified using HPLC (r = 0.98). A correlation coefficient of 0.91 was obtained when correlating the mangiferin content of C. genistodies methanol extracts, determined by the AlCl3 colorimetric method, with the results obtained by HPLC. Using the linear equations from the correlations it was possible to predict the DHC and mangiferin contents of extracts from the respective spectrophotometric measurements to a reasonable accuracy as an alternative to HPLC. The total polyphenol (TP) content of rooibos water extracts can also be determined using UV spectrophotometry and aspalathin as a standard (r = 0.99) as an alternative to the Folin-Ciocalteau method. The TP content of rooibos extracts correlated (r = 0.99) with its total antioxidant activity (TAA) as determined with the ABTS radical cation scavenging assay, but the TP content of C. genistoides water extracts is not a good indication of their TAA (r = 0.27). The aspalathin content of rooibos extracts correlated with their TAA (r = 0.96), but the mangiferin content of honeybush water extracts only gave a moderate correlation with their TAA (r = 0.75). Copyright © 2007 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd.Aspalathin; Aspalathus linearis; Cyclopia genistoides; Dihydrochalcone; Honeybush; Mangiferin; Rooibos; Screening methodsaluminum chloride; antioxidant; aspalathin; Aspalathus linearis extract; chalcone derivative; Cyclopia genistoides extract; dihydrochalcone; mangiferin; methanol; natural product; nothofagin; plant extract; polyphenol; unclassified drug; accuracy; antioxidant activity; article; Aspalathus; Aspalathus linearis; colorimetry; correlation analysis; correlation coefficient; Cyclopia genistoides; drug screening; drug structure; high performance liquid chromatography; linear system; prediction; quantitative analysis; scavenging system; ultraviolet spectrophotometry; Aluminum Compounds; Aspalathus; Chalcones; Chlorides; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid; Colorimetry; Cyclopia Plant; Molecular Structure; Plant Extracts; Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet; Water; Xanthones; Aspalathus linearis; Cyclopia genistoidesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84924851019Evaluation of indigenous fynbos and renosterveld species for cover crop management in the vineyards of the Coastal Wine Grape Region, South AfricaFourie J.C.2014South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture351NoneARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, South AfricaFourie, J.C., ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, South AfricaFour treatments in which fynbos and renosterveld species were employed as cover crops, and two treatments in which exotic species were used as cover crops, were applied. A treatment in which indigenous annuals and an exotic annual was sown as a mixture, and a control in which no cover crop was established, were also included in the trial. These eight treatments were applied for four consecutive years on a sandy soil (33°52 1 S, 18°58' E) and a sandy loam soil (33 °551 S, 18°52 'E) in vineyards near Stellenbosch, South Africa. Effective suppression of the winter growing weeds was achieved with Avena saliva L. cv. Pallinup on a sandy soil from the third season onwards. This was also achieved with a mixture of Ornithopus sativus L. cv. Emena (50%) and three indigenous broadleaf annuals (50%), namely Felicia helerophylla (Cass) Grau, Dimorphothecapluvialis (L.) Moench and Scenecio elegans L. None of the renosterveld and lowland fynbos mixtures or monocultures had the abifity to become established effectively on both the sandy and sandy loam soil, or could compete effectively with the winter-growing weeds commonly found in the vineyards of the Coastal wine grape region of the Western Cape. These species therefore should not be considered for cover crop management in this region.Biodiversity; Cover crops; Grapevines; Indigenous species; Soil cultivationAvena sativa; Felicia; Ornithopus sativus; Vitis viniferaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84951964216Effect of irrigation with diluted winery wastewater on the performance of two grass cover crops in vineyardsFourie J.C., Theron H., Ochse C.H.2015South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture362NoneARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Private Bag X8, Wellington, South AfricaFourie, J.C., ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Theron, H., Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Private Bag X8, Wellington, South Africa; Ochse, C.H., ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, South AfricaPennisetum glaucum L. cv. Babala (pearl millet) established as a summer catch crop followed by Avena sativa L. cv Palinup (oats) established as a winter catch crop were irrigated with winery wastewater diluted to eight chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels ranging between 100 mg/L and 3 000 mg!L. The diluted wastewater treatments were compared to irrigation with river water. The dry matter production (DMP) of oats, if not preceded by pearl millet, tended to improve when irrigated with winery wastewater. Growth of pearl millet peaked during the period when 91% of the diluted winery wastewater was applied. Winery wastewater improved the DMP of pearl millet. No trends were observed in the nutrient levels of the above-ground growth of the two interception crops. However, Na levels increased over time. Using both species, too high levels of macro-nutrients were intercepted, but insignificant amounts of Na were removed. Irrigation with winery wastewater with COD levels between 1 500 mg/L and 2 500 mg/L may be sustainable if only pearl millet is employed as an interception crop. Fertiliser needed to maintain the nutrient balance in the soil resulted in an additional cost of approximately R2 800/ha/yr. However, the fodder may provide an income in excess of R15 000/ha/yr.Catch crops; Cellar effluent; Chemical oxygen demand; Cover crops; Grapevine; Interception crops; Soil cultivationNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-68949105688Effects of season and regulated photoperiod on the reproductive performance of sowsChokoe T.C., Siebrits F.K.2009South African Journal of Animal Sciences391NoneARC, Department of Reproduction Genetic Resources, Irene Animal Improvement Institute, Private Bag X02, Irene 0062, South Africa; Tshwane University of Technology, Department of Animal Sciences, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South AfricaChokoe, T.C., ARC, Department of Reproduction Genetic Resources, Irene Animal Improvement Institute, Private Bag X02, Irene 0062, South Africa, Tshwane University of Technology, Department of Animal Sciences, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; Siebrits, F.K., Tshwane University of Technology, Department of Animal Sciences, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South AfricaReproductive performance of experimental commercial Dalland sows (n = 87) maintained under a constant photoperiod (10 h light and 14 h darkness) and control sows (n = 187) maintained under natural daylight length (10.4 h light in winter and 13.4 h light in summer) were compared. In early summer 4.1% of experimental sows returned to oestrus compared to 20.8% of the control sows. In late summer 9.1% of experimental sows returned to oestrus compared to 21.9% of the control sows. Reduced photoperiod improved the farrowing rate of experimental sows in the early summer breeding compared to the control group (95.4% and 81.3%, respectively). With winter breeding there was a small proportion of sows that returned to service in both groups (7.9% and 8.9%) while the farrowing rate was high in both groups (93.9% and 91.0% in the experimental and control groups, respectively). Litter sizes derived from early summer services were 11.4 and 11.6 for the experimental and control groups, respectively, while winter services led to litter sizes of 11.6 and 12.4 whereas in late summer services, regulated photoperiod had improved the litter size of the experimental group (12.3) compared to the control group (11.2). © South African Society for Animal Science.Farrowing rate; Litter size; Regulated photoperiod; Return to oestrus; SeasonNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79951538989Production and breeding performance of South African dairy herdsTheron H.E., Mostert B.E.2009South African Journal of Animal Sciences39SUPPL. 1NoneARC-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South AfricaTheron, H.E., ARC-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa; Mostert, B.E., ARC-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South AfricaComparisons between production and breeding potential of different feeding systems (Concentrates, Mixed and Pastures) in South Africa were made. Data of active cows participating in performance testing as at November 2007 were used. Holstein cows numbered 68280 in 254 herds and Jersey cows 51275 in 248 herds. Average milk production and lactation number were 8147 ± 2260 and 2.9 ± 1.8 for Holstein and 5347 ± 1156 and 3.1 ± 2.0 for Jersey, respectively. Most Holstein and Jersey herds (53%) were on Mixed rations, followed by Concentrates (28%) and Pastures (19%). Milk production was 9967 ± 2022; 6996 ± 1623 and 7143 ± 1549 kg for Holstein and 6385 ± 1233; 5155 ± 955 and 4753 ± 1022 kg for Jersey cows, respectively, for Concentrates, Mixed and Pasture systems. Most sires used were local (49% of Holstein sires and 68% of Jersey sires). Imported Holstein sires were mostly from USA (30%) and The Netherlands (17%), and foreign Jersey sires (26%) were mostly from the USA. Farmers seemed to select the same sires on the different feeding regimes. Differences between feeding regimes were significant. © South African Society for Animal Science.Concentrates; Pasture systems; Sire selectionNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84875846348Estimates of variance components for postweaning feed intake and growth in bonsmara bulls andevaluation of alternative measures of feed efficiencyMacNeil M.D., Scholtz M.M., Maiwashe A.2013South African Journal of Animal Sciences43110.4314/sajas.v43i1.2ARC-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa; Delta G, 145 Ice Cave Road, Miles City, MT 59301, United States; University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9301, South AfricaMacNeil, M.D., ARC-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa, Delta G, 145 Ice Cave Road, Miles City, MT 59301, United States, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9301, South Africa; Scholtz, M.M., ARC-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9301, South Africa; Maiwashe, A., ARC-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South AfricaFeed efficiency is of major economic importance in beef production. The objective of this work was to evaluate alternative measures of feed efficiency for use in genetic evaluation. To meet this objective, genetic parameters were estimated for the components of efficiency. These parameters were then used in multiple-trait animal model genetic evaluations and alternative genetic predictors of feed efficiency were derived from the results. Corresponding single-trait evaluations for residual feed intake (RFI), residual daily gain (RDG), and residual intake and gain (RIG) were also conducted. The data contained 3 331 animals with records and an additional 6 322 animals in their pedigree. The alternative measures of feed efficiency were compared using Spearman rank correlations. Heritability estimates for metabolic body weight (MBW), average daily gain (ADG) and averagedaily feed intake (DFI) were 0.38 ± 0.05, 0.25 ± 0.05 and 0.37 ± 0.05, respectively. Estimates of the genetic correlations among these traits were 0.79 ± 0.07, 0.54 ± 0.08 and 0.66 ± 0.08 for MBW with ADG, MBW with DFI, and ADG with DFI, respectively. The various measures of feed efficiency were highly correlated. However, RFI and RDG did provide different rankings of candidates for selection. The combination of RFI and RDG to form RIG appears to provide an effective harmonization of the former two biological measures of efficiency. It is recommended that genetic evaluation systemsinclude analyses of ADG and DFI, and breeders are advised to base selection decisions on the basisof multiple-trait selection indexes that incorporate feed intake and performance.Genetic evaluation; Residual feed intake; Residual gainAnimaliaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77951687163Germplasm evaluation and enhancement for the development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp dual-purpose F2 genotypesMoalafi A.I., Asiwe J.A.N., Funnah S.M.2010African Journal of Agricultural Research57NoneARC-Grain Crops Institute, Private Bag X 1251, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa; Department of Plant Production, University of North West, Mafikeng 2120, South AfricaMoalafi, A.I., ARC-Grain Crops Institute, Private Bag X 1251, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa; Asiwe, J.A.N., ARC-Grain Crops Institute, Private Bag X 1251, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa; Funnah, S.M., Department of Plant Production, University of North West, Mafikeng 2120, South AfricaCowpea is an important grain legume as well as fodder crop, especially in the dry regions of South Africa. The production of this crop has been below average because of low genetic variation and cultivation of poor-yielding varieties which have not been improved. The potentials of cowpea F2 generation arising from crosses made from 55 exotic parental lines, introduced into South Africa were determined. F1 lines derived from the crosses were advanced to F2 lines in the glass-house, and the segregating F2 families were further evaluated in the field with their parental lines. The following data were collected from the progeny: number of pods per plant, 100 seed-weights, fodder yield, grain yield and harvest index. Results showed that F2 lines exhibited significant differences on all the parameters studied thus indicating the presence of genetic variability among the segregating progeny. Number of pods per plant, 100 seed-weight and harvest index showed higher significant differences. The F2 lines obtained a significant increase in number of pods per plant as compared to their parents, thus indicating the potentials of progeny for higher pod production. Harvest index for F2 lines varied between 0.16 and 0.60 (dual-purpose type), and are mostly medium cowpea types with dual purpose characteristics for producing grain for human consumption and fodder for livestock. These parameters should therefore receive highest priority in developing high yielding dual-purpose varieties. There are several promising F2 progenies which performed exceedingly well over the parents, so further screening is essential until their full potential is attained. © 2010 Academic Journals.100 seed-weights; Dual-purpose; Germplasm; Harvest index; Segregating population; Vigna unguiculataAnimalia; Vigna unguiculataNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33646560011Evaluation and standardisation of small-scale canning methods for small white beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) canned in tomato sauceVan Der Merwe D., Osthoff G., Pretorius A.J.2006Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture86710.1002/jsfa.2476ARC-Grain Crops Institute, Private Bag X1251, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa; Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Consumer Science, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X 6001, Potchefstroom 2520, South AfricaVan Der Merwe, D., ARC-Grain Crops Institute, Private Bag X1251, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa, Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Consumer Science, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X 6001, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa; Osthoff, G., Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa; Pretorius, A.J., ARC-Grain Crops Institute, Private Bag X1251, Potchefstroom 2520, South AfricaCanning and evaluation procedures should be standardised to ensure that beans selected, based on canning quality, meet the requirements set by the market and processors. For the purpose of evaluating the canning qualities of small white beans in tomato sauce, three small-scale canning techniques were evaluated, one of which was found to deliver a product with quality parameters similar to those of international standards. Using South African small white bean cultivars and the selected method, Teebus, the cultivar used by industry as the standard to indicate acceptable canning quality, displayed better visual appearance and less split beans than with the other two methods. The percentage washed drained weight and texture values of Teebus were also in agreement with international standards. The evaluation procedure for the small white beans after canning was also optimised, by comparing two procedures, which identified texture, visual appearance (scale 1 to 10), splits (scale 1 to 10), hydration coefficient, clumping, size and colour as the statistically most suitable quality parameters. With the aid of the developed method, it was possible to define standard values for South African 'choice' and 'standard' grade beans, which previously was based only on 'visual inspection' by a trained inspection panel. © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.Canning procedures; Canning quality; Dry beans; Evaluation procedures; Small white beans; Small-scale canning methodsLycopersicon esculentum; Phaseolus (angiosperm); Phaseolus vulgarisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84872701657Breeding investigations into the gene action and agronomic performance of sunflower traits based on f1 top-cross hybridsMakanda I., Matamela T., Mashingaidze K., Chigeza G., Musanya J., Muungani D.2012Helia355610.2298/HEL1256031MARC-Grains Crops Institute, P/Bag X1251, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa; ICFR, P.O. Box 100281, Scottsville, 3209 Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; ZARI, Private Bag 7, Chilanga, Zambia; Agricultural Seeds and Services (Pvt) Ltd., Eastlea, Harare, ZimbabweMakanda, I., ARC-Grains Crops Institute, P/Bag X1251, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa; Matamela, T., ARC-Grains Crops Institute, P/Bag X1251, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa; Mashingaidze, K., ARC-Grains Crops Institute, P/Bag X1251, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa; Chigeza, G., ICFR, P.O. Box 100281, Scottsville, 3209 Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Musanya, J., ZARI, Private Bag 7, Chilanga, Zambia; Muungani, D., Agricultural Seeds and Services (Pvt) Ltd., Eastlea, Harare, ZimbabweInformation on the performance and gene action of sunflower traits is still scarce in southern Africa despite the crop's increasing importance and the growing demand for adapted cultivars. To generate this information, 30 malesterile lines were cross-bred to a restorer line generating 30 experimental hybrids. The hybrids and three check varieties were evaluated in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Data was analysed using REML procedure in Gen- Stat®. Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed for grain yield traits, oil content and days to 50% flowering. Grain yield ranged between 1700 kg ha-1 and 4278 kg ha-1, 1000-seeds weight between 59.4 g and 89.3 g, oil content between 36.6% and 44.6%, and days to 50% flowering between 55.5 and 68.0 for the hybrids but going up to 70 for the control varieties. Five hybrids were ranked above the highest performing check variety for grain yield. Two hybrids, HV9120 and HV9132, significantly outperformed the highest check variety by up to 19.6% and the lowest check variety by up to 91.6%. Oil content showed similar trends with eight hybrids having up to 6.8% yield advantage over the highest check variety and 19.3% over the lowest check variety. The high yields were attributed to heterosis and indicated the high potential for grain yield and oil content from the current germplasm set. The presence of high yielding hybrids with shorter days to 50% flowering, such as HV9132, HV9127, HV9128 and HV9135, showed that it was possible to breed for the short growing season, characteristics of most southern African areas, without compromising grain yield. General combining ability (GCA) effects were significant for all the traits indicating the importance of additive gene action for the traits. Parental lines KP1235, KP1304 and KP1290 that showed desirable GCA effects for at least three of the important traits, were selected for inclusion in the breeding programme for cultivars adapted to the region.NoneHelianthusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34247357793Subjective visual evaluation vs. traditional and geometric morphometrics in species delimitation: A comparison of moth genitaliaMutanen M., Pretorius E.2007Systematic Entomology32210.1111/j.1365-3113.2006.00372.xDepartment of Biology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Biology, University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, FIN-90014 University of Oulu, FinlandMutanen, M., Department of Biology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Department of Biology, University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, FIN-90014 University of Oulu, Finland; Pretorius, E., Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaSpecies-level taxonomic studies usually include detailed morphological descriptions of taxa. Traditionally, species descriptions have been based on nonmetric, subjective, visual comparisons of morphological traits regardless of whether diagnostic characters between species are quantitative or qualitative in nature. In difficult cases, traditional morphometrics (morphometrics based on linear measurements or ratios) and appropriate multivariate statistics have been applied to validate species delimitations. Modern geometric morphometrics, a new powerful method to quantify shapes, is increasingly being used in taxonomy and systematics. We compared the results from the three morphology-based methods (subjective visual differentiation and differentiation by traditional morphometrics and geometric morphometrics) using male genital morphology for this purpose. Five species complexes of Lepidoptera Tortricidae and Geometridae were analysed, each having two to four species, and each species being readily identifiable by their wing patterns. The between-species differences were visualized with thin-plate spline deformation grids using average landmark configurations of each species. The results from exploratory and confirmatory statistics of geometric data in a taxonomic context were compared. Morphometrics provided more accurate identification than subjective visual differentiation and the best result was achieved by combined size and shape data. Furthermore, species delimitation using exploratory statistics of landmark data is often problematic because of overlap in scatters. We conclude that geometric morphometrics provides a powerful way to search for differences between taxa and serves as an objective, useful and novel way to visualize morphological variation in shape in insect taxonomy. We recommend more extensive use of geometric morphometric tools in taxonomy. © 2007 The Royal Entomological Society.Nonemorphology; morphometry; moth; taxonomy; visual analysis; Geometridae; Hexapoda; Lepidoptera; TortricidaeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84908155352Evaluation of physico-chemical properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivar 'Wonderful' on three locations of South AfricaMashavhathakha K.L., Soundy P., Ngezimana W., Mudau F.N.2014Tropical Agriculture913NoneARC-INFRUTTEC-NIETVOORBIJ Horticulture Division, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6FL, South AfricaMashavhathakha, K.L., ARC-INFRUTTEC-NIETVOORBIJ Horticulture Division, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, South Africa; Soundy, P., Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria, South Africa; Ngezimana, W., Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6FL, South Africa; Mudau, F.N., Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6FL, South AfricaThe pomegranate fruit is one of the high valued crops, but there is insufficient information regarding the fruit properties in South Africa. The aim of the study was to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of cultivar 'Wonderful' on three locations of the Western Cape. This study was conducted on mature pomegranate fruits harvested in the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Fruit weight (g), length (mm), and width (mm), peel colour and total arils weights (g) were measured. Fruits were also analyzed for total soluble solids (TSS, oBrix %), titratable acidity (TA) and juice pH. Results of the study showed that there were significant differences in all measured factors with the exception of % aril yield between the three locations. Though varied per season, fruits produced at Bonnievalle had better physical and chemical properties than at the other localities. Total soluble solids content varied from 16.0-17.3 (oBrix), pH values from 2.7-3.0, titratable acid content varied from 1.3-1.7 and maturity index from 9.7-13.4. The results clearly reveal the significance of season and location when growing 'Wonderful' in order to obtain higher yield percentage. © 2014 Trop. Agric. (Trinidad).Chemical properties; Cultivar; Physical properties; PomegranateLythraceae; Punica granatumNone
Scopus2-s2.0-78650195928Effects of whey and molasses as silage additives on potato hash silage quality and growth performance of lambsNkosi B.D., Meeske R.2010South African Journal of Animal Sciences403NoneARC-LBD: Animal Production Institute, P/Bag x 2, Irene 0062, South Africa; Western Cape Department of Agriculture, P.O. Box 249, George 6530, South AfricaNkosi, B.D., ARC-LBD: Animal Production Institute, P/Bag x 2, Irene 0062, South Africa; Meeske, R., Western Cape Department of Agriculture, P.O. Box 249, George 6530, South AfricaThe aim of the study was to determine the effect of whey or molasses on the fermentation quality when added to potato hash silage. In addition, lamb performance, digestibility and feed intake of diets containing potato hash silage were compared with a diet containing maize silage (MSd). Potato hash silage (treated with no additive, or whey, or molasses) and MS were produced in 210 L drums for 90 days and the fermentation quality of the silages was determined thereafter. Diets were formulated and fed ad libitum to 32 South African Dorper lambs (23.5 ± 0.873 kg live weight) for 63 days. A digestibility study was conducted during the last week of the study. The untreated potato hash silage (UPHS) was poorly fermented as indicated by higher concentrations of butyric acid, ammonia-N and pH compared to the other silages. Higher dry matter intake (DMI) and daily weight gains (218 and 250 g/d) were obtained with MSd and molasses treated potato hash silage diet (MPHSd) compared to the other diets. Nutrient digestibility was lower in the UPHS diet compared to the other dietary treatments. It was concluded that the fermentation quality of potato hash was improved with the addition of whey and molasses. Furthermore, growth performance was higher with the MSd and MPHSd than of the other treatments, suggesting that MPHSd can safely replace MSd in a lamb diet at a dietary inclusion level of 20% without any adverse effect on animal performance. © South African Society for Animal Science.Digestibility; Dry matter; Fermentation; Intake; Maize silageAnimalia; Ovis aries; Solanum tuberosum; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77955032736Effects of dietary replacement of maize grain with popcorn waste products on nutrient digestibility and performance by lambsNkosi B.D., Meeske R., van der Merwe H.J., Acheampong-Boateng O., Langa T.2010South African Journal of Animal Sciences402NoneARC-LBD: Animal Production Institute, P/Bag x2, Irene 0062, South Africa; Western Cape Department of Agriculture, P.O. Box 249, George 6530, South Africa; Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Science, University of the Free State, South Africa; Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture, University of Venda, South AfricaNkosi, B.D., ARC-LBD: Animal Production Institute, P/Bag x2, Irene 0062, South Africa; Meeske, R., Western Cape Department of Agriculture, P.O. Box 249, George 6530, South Africa; van der Merwe, H.J., Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Science, University of the Free State, South Africa; Acheampong-Boateng, O., Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture, University of Venda, South Africa; Langa, T., ARC-LBD: Animal Production Institute, P/Bag x2, Irene 0062, South AfricaA study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary replacement of maize with popcorn waste (PW) on the intake, nutrient digestibility and growth performance of lambs. Diets replacing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% maize with PW were formulated and fed ad libitum to 40 South African Mutton Merino lambs (25.0 ± 0.45 kg live-weight). The diets had similar intake and nutrient digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Lambs fed the 25 and 50% PW diets had higher intakes of crude protein (CP), metabolizable energy and ether extract compared to the other diets. Growth rate was highest (226 g/d) on the 25% diet and lowest (109 g/d) on the 75% PW diet. Best feed conversion ratio (FCR), of 5.1 (kg feed/kg live weight) was obtained with the 0% PW diet. Improved digestibility of CP and EE occurred in the 25 and 75% PW diets. Higher intake of nitrogen (N) and N retention were obtained in the 25 and 50% PW diets. Dietary replacement of >75% of maize resulted in poor animal performance (ADG < 150 g/d and FCR >7.00). It was concluded that PW can replace up to 50% of the maize in diets for growing lambs. © South African Society for Animal Science.Average daily gain; By-Products; Lambs; Maize; PopcornAnimalia; Ovis aries; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34347353294The impact of heavy grazing on an ephemeral river system in the succulent karoo, South AfricaAllsopp N., Gaika L., Knight R., Monakisi C., Hoffman M.T.2007Journal of Arid Environments71110.1016/j.jaridenv.2007.03.001ARC-LBD: Range and Forage Unit, Private Bag X17 Bellville, 7535, South Africa; Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Department, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535, South Africa; Lesley Hill Institute of Plant Conservation, Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7700, South AfricaAllsopp, N., ARC-LBD: Range and Forage Unit, Private Bag X17 Bellville, 7535, South Africa; Gaika, L., Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Department, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535, South Africa; Knight, R., Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Department, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535, South Africa; Monakisi, C., Lesley Hill Institute of Plant Conservation, Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa; Hoffman, M.T., Lesley Hill Institute of Plant Conservation, Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7700, South AfricaThe impact of long-term high grazing pressure on geomorphological features, plant community composition and cover and soil characteristics of an ephemeral river system in Namaqualand, South Africa, was compared to that of lighter grazing pressure across fencelines which crossed the river system. Under heavy grazing the river system was less braided and a higher proportion of the river width was unvegetated runoff channels. The river system was generally dominated by very sandy soil. However, more silt and organic matter, and less sand were found in soil under plants growing in the river bed. Since vegetation cover was much higher under light grazing, river soil was more fertile when grazing was light. A plant species compositional shift when grazing pressure was high resulted in riparian vegetation which more closely resembled the surrounding rangelands. Graminoid growth forms were encountered more frequently in the lightly grazed river. A rest from grazing of 33 months resulted in increased plant cover in another section of the river system. Heavy grazing alters the physical and soil features of this river system by reducing plant cover. Riparian vegetation, by slowing flow rates and catching light soil particles increases landscape heterogeneity and creates productive sites in the landscape. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Animal-plant interactions; Landscape patches; Livestock impacts; Namaqualand; Resource control; Riparian vegetationcommunity composition; ephemeral pool; grazing pressure; Karoo Supergroup; landscape; livestock; plant community; plant-herbivore interaction; riparian vegetation; river system; sedge; vegetation cover; Africa; Namaqualand; Southern Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; AnimaliaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77952467373Evaluation of activated charcoal as treatment for Yellow tulp (Moraea pallida) poisoning in cattleSnyman L.D., Schultz R.A., Botha C.J., Labuschagne L., Joubert J.P.J.2009Journal of the South African Veterinary Association804NoneARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; 16 Hickman street, Parys, 9585, South AfricaSnyman, L.D., ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; Schultz, R.A., ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; Botha, C.J., Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; Labuschagne, L., ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; Joubert, J.P.J., ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa, 16 Hickman street, Parys, 9585, South AfricaThe efficacy of activated charcoal as a treatment for cattle (n = 57) poisoned by Yellow tulp (Moraea pallida) was investigated. Treatment with activated charcoal resulted in full recovery, irrespective of the degree of posterior paresis, provided that this clinical sign did not develop within the first 12 hours after initial exposure to Yellow tulp-infested grazing. For instance, despite treatment, 1 of 7 cattle succumbed after manifesting mild posterior paresis 6 to 8 h after initial exposure and 3 of 3 treated cattle died after developing severe posterior paresis within 6 to 12 h.Activated charcoal; Moraea pallida; Treatment; Yellow tulp poisoningactivated carbon; carbopal-gn-h; unclassified drug; cardiac glycoside; charcoal; plant toxin; animal experiment; article; cattle disease; disease severity; drug efficacy; drug treatment failure; exposure; intoxication; lethality; nonhuman; paresis; plant; yellow tulp; animal; animal disease; cattle; female; Iridaceae; male; South Africa; treatment outcome; Bos; Moraea; Animals; Cardiac Glycosides; Cattle; Cattle Diseases; Charcoal; Female; Iridaceae; Male; Plant Poisoning; South Africa; Treatment OutcomeNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77956265695In vitro and in vivo evaluation of five low molecular weight proteins of Ehrlichia ruminantium as potential vaccine componentsSebatjane S.I., Pretorius A., Liebenberg J., Steyn H., Van Kleef M.2010Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology1374243310.1016/j.vetimm.2010.05.011ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South AfricaSebatjane, S.I., ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa, Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; Pretorius, A., ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; Liebenberg, J., ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; Steyn, H., ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; Van Kleef, M., ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa, Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South AfricaLow molecular weight (LMW) proteins of E. ruminantium can induce proliferation of immune peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) by CD4+-enriched T-cells. In this study, a reverse vaccinology approach was applied to identify additional vaccine candidates focusing on genes that encode LMW proteins smaller than 20. kDa. Five open reading frames (ORFs) were selected from the E. ruminantium genome and their corresponding recombinant (r) proteins were produced in a bacterial expression system. Their ability to induce proliferative responses and IFN-γ production was evaluated in vitro using lymphocyte proliferation and ELISPOT assays. All five recombinant proteins induced proliferation of immune PBMCs and IFN-γ production by these cells. The corresponding five genes were each individually incorporated into pCMViUBs, a mammalian expression vector and tested as a potential vaccine in sheep using a DNA prime-protein boost immunisation regimen. A cocktail of these DNA constructs protected one out of five sheep against a virulent E. ruminantium (Welgevonden) needle challenge. Three of the five vaccinated sheep showed an increase in their proliferative responses and production of IFN-γ before challenge. This response decreased after challenge in the sheep that succumbed to the challenge and increased in the sheep that survived. This finding indicates that sustained IFN-γ production is likely to be involved in conferring protective immunity against heartwater. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.DNA vaccine; E. ruminantium; ELISPOT; Recombinant proteinsgamma interferon; plasmid DNA; recombinant protein; animal model; article; bacterial genome; bacterial infection; cell proliferation; controlled study; cytokine production; Ehrlichia ruminantium; enzyme linked immunospot assay; in vitro study; in vivo study; lymphocyte proliferation; molecular weight; nonhuman; open reading frame; peripheral blood mononuclear cell; sheep; vaccination; Animals; Bacterial Proteins; Bacterial Vaccines; Ehrlichia ruminantium; Immunization, Secondary; Interferon-gamma; Lymphocyte Activation; Molecular Weight; Open Reading Frames; Sheep; Vaccines, DNA; Bacteria (microorganisms); Ehrlichia ruminantium; Mammalia; Ovis ariesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84880293862Resistance evaluation of wheat germplasm containing Dn4 or Dny against Russian wheat aphid biotype RWASA3Tolmay V.L., Jankielsohn A., Sydenham S.L.2013Journal of Applied Entomology137610.1111/jen.12008ARC-Small Grain Institute, Bethlehem, South AfricaTolmay, V.L., ARC-Small Grain Institute, Bethlehem, South Africa; Jankielsohn, A., ARC-Small Grain Institute, Bethlehem, South Africa; Sydenham, S.L., ARC-Small Grain Institute, Bethlehem, South AfricaHost plant resistance can effectively manage Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) Kurdjumov (Homoptera: Aphididae) in areas where it is an economically important pest of wheat. However, biotypes of D. noxia virulent on wheat containing resistance gene Dn4 have been reported in both the United States and South Africa. Thirty wheat genotypes, including susceptible Yuma, resistant CItr2401, as well as 25 genotypes containing Dn4 and three genotypes containing Dny were planted under greenhouse conditions in Bethlehem, South Africa, and screened with D. noxia biotype RWASA3. RWASA3 caused susceptible damage symptoms in MTRWA92-145, Ankor, Halt, Bond CL, 18FAWWON-SA 262, Prowers99, 18FAWWON-SA 264, Hatcher, Yumar, Corwa and Thunder CL all reported to contain the Dn4 resistance gene. Genotypes PI586956, Stanton and 18FAWWON-SA 257, containing the Dny-resistance gene were susceptible to RWASA3. Similarly, coinciding development of virulence to resistance genes Dn4 and Dny was reported in the United States. However, in this study, 13 Dn4-containing genotypes showed moderate resistance when screened with RWASA3 alluding to a more complex biotype-gene-interaction. These findings could indicate that Dn4 and Dny may be related and possibly share a similar or common resistance factor. Further studies will be aimed at explaining these results investigating the possibility of an allelic cluster or series for Dn4, possibly including Dny. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag, GmbH.Diuraphis noxia; Host plant resistance; Triticum aestivumaphid; biotype; genetic analysis; genotype; germplasm; host plant; pest resistance; symptom; virulence; wheat; Arizona; Russian Federation; South Africa; United States; Yuma; Aphididae; Diuraphis noxia; Hemiptera; Triticum aestivum; YumaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-70349648781The influence of second language teaching on undergraduate mathematics performanceGerber A., Harding A.F., Engelbrecht J., Rogan J.2005Mathematics Education Research Journal17310.1007/BF03217419Arcus GIBB, PO Box 35007, Menlo Park, 0102, Pretoria, South Africa; Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South Africa; Science Education Research Group, University of KwaZuluNatal, Pietermartizburg Campus, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, 3202, South AfricaGerber, A., Arcus GIBB, PO Box 35007, Menlo Park, 0102, Pretoria, South Africa; Harding, A.F., Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South Africa; Engelbrecht, J., Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South Africa; Rogan, J., Science Education Research Group, University of KwaZuluNatal, Pietermartizburg Campus, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, 3202, South AfricaUnderstanding abstract concepts and ideas in mathematics, if instruction takes place in the first language of the student, is difficult. Yet worldwide students often have to master mathematics via a second or third language. The majority of students in South Africa - a country with eleven official languages - has to face this difficulty. In a quantitative study of first year calculus students, we investigated two groups of students. For one group tuition took place in their home language; for the second group, tuition was in English, a second or even a third language. Performance data on their secondary mathematics and first year tertiary calculus were analysed. The study showed that there was no significant difference between the adjusted means of the entire group of first language learners and the entire group of second language learners. Neither was there any statistically significant difference between the performances of the two groups of second language learners (based on the adjusted means). Yet, there did seem to be a significant difference between the achievement of Afrikaans students attending Afrikaans lectures and Afrikaans students attending English lectures.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84943809362Evaluation of the safety, gastroprotective activity and mechanism of action of standardised leaves infusion extract of Copaifera malmei HarmsAdzu B., Balogun S.O., Pavan E., Ascêncio S.D., Soares I.M., Aguiar R.W.S., Ribeiro R.V., Beserra Â.M.S.E.S., De Oliveira R.G., Da Silva L.I., Damazo A.S., Martins D.T.D.O.2015Journal of Ethnopharmacology175None10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.027Área de Farmacologia, Departamento de Ciências Básicas em Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av.Fer- nando Correada Costa, no.2367-Boa Esperança, Cuiabá-MT, Brazil; Área de Histologia, Departamento de Ciências BásicaAdzu, B., Área de Farmacologia, Departamento de Ciências Básicas em Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av.Fer- nando Correada Costa, no.2367-Boa Esperança, Cuiabá-MT, Brazil, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Abuja, Nigeria; Balogun, S.O., Área de Farmacologia, Departamento de Ciências Básicas em Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av.Fer- nando Correada Costa, no.2367-Boa Esperança, Cuiabá-MT, Brazil; Pavan, E., Área de Farmacologia, Departamento de Ciências Básicas em Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av.Fer- nando Correada Costa, no.2367-Boa Esperança, Cuiabá-MT, Brazil; Ascêncio, S.D., Laboratório de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais, Curso de Medicina, Universidade Federal Do Tocantins (UFT), Palmas, Brazil; Soares, I.M., Laboratório de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais, Curso de Medicina, Universidade Federal Do Tocantins (UFT), Palmas, Brazil; Aguiar, R.W.S., Departamento da Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal Do Tocantins (UFT), Gurupi, Brazil; Ribeiro, R.V., Área de Farmacologia, Departamento de Ciências Básicas em Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av.Fer- nando Correada Costa, no.2367-Boa Esperança, Cuiabá-MT, Brazil; Beserra, Â.M.S.E.S., Área de Farmacologia, Departamento de Ciências Básicas em Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av.Fer- nando Correada Costa, no.2367-Boa Esperança, Cuiabá-MT, Brazil; De Oliveira, R.G., Área de Farmacologia, Departamento de Ciências Básicas em Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av.Fer- nando Correada Costa, no.2367-Boa Esperança, Cuiabá-MT, Brazil; Da Silva, L.I., Área de Farmacologia, Departamento de Ciências Básicas em Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av.Fer- nando Correada Costa, no.2367-Boa Esperança, Cuiabá-MT, Brazil; Damazo, A.S., Área de Histologia, Departamento de Ciências Básicas em Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiabá, Brazil; Martins, D.T.D.O., Área de Farmacologia, Departamento de Ciências Básicas em Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Av.Fer- nando Correada Costa, no.2367-Boa Esperança, Cuiabá-MT, BrazilEthnopharmacological relevance Copaifera malmei Harms (Fabaceae) is a plant that occurs in the central region of Brazil, where the plant's leaves infusion is popularly used to treat gastric ulcer and inflammatory diseases. This study was aimed to investigate the gastroprotective activity and mode of action of the plants' leaves infusion in order to establish the scientific basis for such usage, and to assess its potential as a source of an anti-ulcer agent. Materials and methods Leaves infusion extract of the plant (SIECm) was prepared, freeze dried and lyophilised. Its qualitative and quantitative phytochemical constituents were investigated using TLC and HPLC techniques. The safety profile was evaluated on CHO-k1 epithelial cells viability using the Alamar blue assay, and by acute toxicity test in mice. The gastroprotection and anti-ulcer efficacy of the SIECm (25, 100 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) were tested using acute (acidified ethanol, piroxicam and water restrain stress), and chronic (acetic acid) experimental ulcer models. The plausible mode of action of the SIECm was assessed using gastric secretion, gastric barrier mucus, nitric oxide, and its antioxidant (myeloperoxidase and catalase) effects in mice and rats. The histopathological analyses of the ulcerated tissues as well as the extract's activity on Helicobacter pylori were also investigated. Results Phytochemical tests indicated the presence of mainly phytosterols, phenolics and flavonoids. The SIECm exhibited no cytotoxic effects on the CHO-k1 cells, and no oral acute toxicity in mice. It prevented against the acute induced ulcerations by enhancing gastroprotection through gastric mucus production, NO modulation, antioxidant, reduced gastric secretion and enhanced chronic ulcers healing process, as shown by reduction/prevention of epithelial and vascular damage, in addition to reduction in leucocyte infiltration. The SIECm however did not exhibit activity against H. pylori. Conclusion The SIECm is safe, contain useful phytochemicals and exhibited significant gastroprotective/anti-ulcer effects. The results justify its folkloric usage, and provided scientific evidence of its potential as a source of new phytodrug to treat gastric ulcers. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Acute toxicity; Copaifera malmei; Gastroprotection; Leaves infusion; Phytochemicalsacetic acid; alcohol; antiulcer agent; carbenoxolone; catalase; catechin; copaifera malmei extract; ellagic acid; flavonoid; gallic acid; myeloperoxidase; nitric oxide; phenol derivative; phytosterol; piroxicam; plant extract; quercetin; rutoside; unclassified drug; water; acute toxicity; adult; analytic method; animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; antioxidant activity; antiulcer activity; Article; blood vessel injury; cell viability; CHO cell line; clinical assessment; controlled study; Copaifera malmei; drug efficacy; drug mechanism; drug safety; drug screening; epithelium cell; experimental mouse; experimental rat; Fabaceae; freeze drying; Helicobacter pylori; high performance liquid chromatography; histopathology; immobilization stress; infusion; lymphocytic infiltration; lyophilisate; medicinal plant; mouse; nonhuman; plant leaf; qualitative analysis; quantitative analysis; rat; resazurin assay; single drug dose; stomach lesion; stomach mucus; stomach protection; stomach secretion; stomach ulcer; thin layer chromatography; ulcer healing; water restraint stressNone
Scopus2-s2.0-50349102618Trophallactic activities in the honeybee brood nest - Heaters get supplied with high performance fuelBasile R., Pirk C.W.W., Tautz J.2008Zoology111610.1016/j.zool.2007.11.002BEEgroup, Department of Zoology II, Behavioral Physiology and Sociobiology, Biocenter, Julius-Maximilians-University, D-97074 Würzburg, Germany; Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South AfricaBasile, R., BEEgroup, Department of Zoology II, Behavioral Physiology and Sociobiology, Biocenter, Julius-Maximilians-University, D-97074 Würzburg, Germany; Pirk, C.W.W., Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South Africa; Tautz, J., BEEgroup, Department of Zoology II, Behavioral Physiology and Sociobiology, Biocenter, Julius-Maximilians-University, D-97074 Würzburg, GermanyHoneybees actively regulate their brood temperature by heating between 33 and 36 °C if ambient temperatures are lower. Heat is generated by vibrating the flight muscles. Heating rapidly depletes the worker's internal energy; therefore heating performance is limited by the honey that is ingested before the heating process. Stored honey is the predefined fuel for flying and heating, but it is stored at a distance from the broodcomb, causing a potential logistic problem of efficient energy supply in the brood area. Our study focused on the behaviour and the thoracic temperature of the participants in trophallactic food exchanges on the broodcomb. We found that 85.5% of the recipients in a trophallactic food exchange have a higher thoracic temperature during feeding contacts than donors and after the feeding contact the former engage in brood heating more often. The donor bees have lower thoracic temperature and shuttle constantly between honey stores and the broodcomb where they transfer the stored honey to heating bees. Providing heat-emitting workers with small doses of high performance fuel contributes to an economic distribution of resources consistent with physiological conditions of the bees and the ecological requirements of the hive. The trophallaxis-based system is essential to provide the energy-intensive brood warming activity. The emerging independence from ambient temperatures is not only beneficial for brood rearing during times of sudden cold spells, but also enables the honeybees in temperate regions to raise brood in early spring and might be the decisive factor for the occurrence of honeybees in temperate climates in general. © 2008 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.Apis mellifera; Brood heating; Food exchange; Trophallaxisanimal; article; bee; body temperature; feeding behavior; heat; honey; nesting; physiology; social behavior; thermoregulation; Animals; Bees; Body Temperature; Body Temperature Regulation; Feeding Behavior; Honey; Hot Temperature; Nesting Behavior; Social Behavior; Apis mellifera; ApoideaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84860343597The dynamics of urban expansion and its impacts on land use/land cover change and small-scale farmers living near the urban fringe: A case study of Bahir Dar, EthiopiaHaregeweyn N., Fikadu G., Tsunekawa A., Tsubo M., Meshesha D.T.2012Landscape and Urban Planning106210.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.02.016Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University, 1390 Hamasaka, Tottori 680-0001, Japan; Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, EthiopiaHaregeweyn, N., Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University, 1390 Hamasaka, Tottori 680-0001, Japan, Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Ethiopia; Fikadu, G., Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 231, Ethiopia; Tsunekawa, A., Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University, 1390 Hamasaka, Tottori 680-0001, Japan; Tsubo, M., Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University, 1390 Hamasaka, Tottori 680-0001, Japan; Meshesha, D.T., Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University, 1390 Hamasaka, Tottori 680-0001, JapanThis study evaluated the dynamics of urban expansion and its impacts on land use/land cover change and livelihoods of small-scale farmers living near the urban fringe of Bahir Dar in northwest Ethiopia. Aerial photos for the years 1957, 1984, and 1994 as well as field mapping using GPS for the year 2009 were employed and analyzed using GIS. Heads of 271 households affected by the expansion were interviewed to evaluate the impacts of expansion and compensation modalities in practice. Results showed that the urban area expanded annually by about 12%, 14% and 5% during the periods: 1957-1984, 1984-1994 and 1994-2009, respectively. The area showed an overall annual increment of 31%, from 279. ha in 1957 to 4830. ha in 2009. Built-up areas increased as a result of horizontal expansion, from 80. ha in 1957 to 848. ha in 1994, but also due to intensification at the expense of agricultural areas, from 80 to 155. ha, during the same period. A total of 242.2. ha of farmland was expropriated from 271 households between 2004 and 2009, and 96% of those interviewed believed that the compensation was insufficient, as the decision is influenced by the government's land ownership system. We predict that the current urban area will double by 2024. This will have far-reaching ecological, socio-economic and environmental impacts. A better understanding of the dynamics of urban growth and its associated impacts in the urban fringe can help form a basis for sustainable planning of future developments of areas experiencing urban expansion. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.Ethiopia; Expropriation; Horizontal expansion; Intensification; Urban expansion; Urban fringeEthiopia; Expropriation; Horizontal expansion; Intensification; Urban expansion; Urban fringe; Agriculture; Crystal orientation; Dynamics; aerial photography; agricultural intensification; agricultural land; agricultural worker; GIS; GPS; land cover; land use change; land use planning; landownership; urban growth; EthiopiaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84897839766Land-use change and its socio-environmental impact in Eastern Ethiopia's highlandMeshesha D.T., Tsunekawa A., Tsubo M., Ali S.A., Haregeweyn N.2014Regional Environmental Change14210.1007/s10113-013-0535-2Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University, 1390 Hamasaka, Tottori, 680-0001, Japan; Department of Geology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002 UP, India; Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, Tigray, P.O. Box 231, Mek'ele, Ethiopia; Institutes for Soil, Climate and Water, Agricultural Research Council, 600 Belvedere Street, Arcadia, Pretoria, 0083, South AfricaMeshesha, D.T., Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University, 1390 Hamasaka, Tottori, 680-0001, Japan; Tsunekawa, A., Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University, 1390 Hamasaka, Tottori, 680-0001, Japan; Tsubo, M., Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University, 1390 Hamasaka, Tottori, 680-0001, Japan, Institutes for Soil, Climate and Water, Agricultural Research Council, 600 Belvedere Street, Arcadia, Pretoria, 0083, South Africa; Ali, S.A., Department of Geology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002 UP, India; Haregeweyn, N., Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University, 1390 Hamasaka, Tottori, 680-0001, Japan, Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, Tigray, P.O. Box 231, Mek'ele, EthiopiaThe Alemaya district (Eastern Ethiopian highlands) is characterized by undulating physiographic features with arid, semi-arid, and humid climatic conditions. This study evaluated socio-environmental changes in land use and land cover during 1985-2011. Screen digitization on remotely sensed data (i.e., Landsat images from 1985 to 2011) was performed to produce 10 classes of land use and land cover. Then, final land-use maps were prepared using a geographic information system following field verification and accuracy assessment. The drying of water bodies, including the prominent lakes Alemaya, Adele, and Tinike, had been the most important environmental change observed. Degraded land, marsh, perennial cropland, and residential areas increased by 37, 438, 42, and 190 %, respectively, whereas grassland, plantation, shrubland, and temporal cropland decreased by 64, 11, 63, and 29 %, respectively. The increase in land degradation (+37 %), the other major observed problem, has made large areas unsuitable for agriculture and has reduced crop productivity. These land-use and land-cover changes have affected both the environment and the livelihoods of local residents; especially the issue related to land degradation requires urgent attention. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.Alemaya; Image classification; Lake retreat; Land degradation; Land-use change; Satellite imageNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84876141943Assessing the performance of a spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) in northern ethiopiaHaregeweyn N., Poesen J., Verstraeten G., Govers G., de Vente J., Nyssen J., Deckers J., Moeyersons J.2013Land Degradation and Development24210.1002/ldr.1121Arid Land Research Centre, Tottori University, 1390 Hamasaka, Tottori 680-0001, Japan; Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, PO Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Division of Geography, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium; Department of Desertification and Geoecology, Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas (EEZA-CSIC), Almeria, Spain; Department of Geography, Gent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S8), B 9000 Gent, Belgium; Division of Soil and Water Management, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium; Agriculture and Forestry Economics, Royal Museum for Central Africa, B-3080, Tervuren, BelgiumHaregeweyn, N., Arid Land Research Centre, Tottori University, 1390 Hamasaka, Tottori 680-0001, Japan, Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, PO Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia; Poesen, J., Division of Geography, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium; Verstraeten, G., Division of Geography, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium; Govers, G., Division of Geography, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium; de Vente, J., Department of Desertification and Geoecology, Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas (EEZA-CSIC), Almeria, Spain; Nyssen, J., Department of Geography, Gent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S8), B 9000 Gent, Belgium; Deckers, J., Division of Soil and Water Management, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 E, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium; Moeyersons, J., Agriculture and Forestry Economics, Royal Museum for Central Africa, B-3080, Tervuren, BelgiumMost regional-scale soil erosion models are spatially lumped and hence have limited application to practical problems such as the evaluation of the spatial variability of soil erosion and sediment delivery within a catchment. Therefore, the objectives of this study were as follows: (i) to calibrate and assess the performance of a spatially distributed WATEM/SEDEM model in predicting absolute sediment yield and specific sediment yield from 12 catchments in Tigray (Ethiopia) by using two different sediment transport capacity equations (original and modified) and (ii) to assess the performance of WATEM/SEDEM for the identification of critical sediment source areas needed for targeting catchment management. The performance of the two model versions for sediment yield was found promising for the 12 catchments. For both versions, model performance for the nine catchments with limited gully erosion was clearly better than the performance obtained when including the three catchments with significant gully erosion. Moreover, there is no significant difference (alpha 5 per cent) between the performances of the two model versions. Cultivated lands were found to be on average five times more prone to erosion than bush-shrub lands. The predicted soil loss values in most parts of Gindae catchment are generally high as compared with the soil formation rates. This emphasises the importance of implementing appropriate soil and water conservation measures in critical sediment source areas prioritising the steepest part of the catchment (i.e. areas with slope >50 per cent). The applicability of the WATEM/SEDEM model to environments where gully erosion is important requires the incorporation of permanent gully and bank gully erosion in the model structure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Calibration; Critical sediment-source areas; Ethiopia; Gully erosion; Sediment delivery model; Sediment yield; Soil erosion; Transport capacityCritical sediment-source areas; Ethiopia; Gully erosion; Sediment delivery; Sediment yields; Soil erosion; Transport capacity; Calibration; Erosion; Geologic models; Landforms; Runoff; Sediment transport; Sedimentology; Soils; Spatial distribution; Water conservation; Catchments; calibration; catchment; gully erosion; numerical model; sediment transport; sediment yield; soil conservation; soil erosion; spatial variation; Ethiopia; TigrayNone
WoSWOS:000267045500033Multidimensional evaluation of managed relocationAshe, Daniel M.,Brennan, E. Jean,Camacho, Alejandro,Clark, Jamie Rappaport,Early, Regan,Etterson, Julie R.,Fielder, E. Dwight,Gill, Jacquelyn L.,Gonzalez, Patrick,Hellmann, Jessica J.,McLachlan, Jason S.,Minteer, Ben A.,Polasky, Stephen,Richardson, David 2009PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA1062410.1073/pnas.0902327106Arizona State University, Brown University, Stanford University, Stellenbosch University, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), United States Forest Service, University of British Columbia, University of California Berkeley, University of California Davis, University of California System, University of Minnesota Duluth, University of Minnesota System, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, University of Notre Dame, University of Wisconsin Madison, University of Wisconsin System, Bur Land Management, USDA Forest Serv, US Fish & Wildlife Service"Camacho, Alejandro: University of Notre Dame","Early, Regan: Brown University","Etterson, Julie R.: University of Minnesota Duluth","Etterson, Julie R.: University of Minnesota System","Etterson, Julie R.: University of Minnesota Twin Cities","Gill, Jacquelyn L.: University of Wisconsin Madison","Gill, Jacquelyn L.: University of Wisconsin System","Gonzalez, Patrick: University of California Berkeley","Gonzalez, Patrick: University of California System","Hellmann, Jessica J.: University of Notre Dame","McLachlan, Jason S.: University of Notre Dame","Minteer, Ben A.: Arizona State University","Richardson, David M.: Stellenbosch University","Safford, Hugh D.: United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)","Safford, Hugh D.: United States Forest Service","Sala, Osvaldo E.: Brown University","Sax, Dov F.: Brown University","Schwartz, Mark W.: University of California Davis","Schwartz, Mark W.: University of California System",Managed relocation (MR) has rapidly emerged as a potential intervention strategy in the toolbox of biodiversity management under climate change. Previous authors have suggested that MR (also referred to as assisted colonization, assisted migration, or assisted translocation) could be a last-alternative option after interrogating a linear decision tree. We argue that numerous interacting and value-laden considerations demand a more inclusive strategy for evaluating MR. The pace of modern climate change demands decision making with imperfect information, and tools that elucidate this uncertainty and integrate scientific information and social values are urgently needed. We present a heuristic tool that incorporates both ecological and social criteria in a multidimensional decision-making framework. For visualization purposes, we collapse these criteria into 4 classes that can be depicted in graphical 2-D space. This framework offers a pragmatic approach for summarizing key dimensions of MR: capturing uncertainty in the evaluation criteria, creating transparency in the evaluation process, and recognizing the inherent tradeoffs that different stakeholders bring to evaluation of MR and its alternatives."assisted migration","CLIMATE CHANGE","CONSERVATION BIOLOGY","conservation strategy","sustainability science","ASSISTED COLONIZATION",CLIMATE-CHANGE,DEBATE,MIGRATIONNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84894078678Evaluation of three-way maize (Zea mays L) hybrids for yield and resistance to maize streak virus and turcicum leaf blight diseasesKaravina C., Mandumbu R., Mukaro R.2014Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences241NoneBindura University of Science Education, Department of Crop Science, Private Bag 1020, Bindura, Zimbabwe; Department of Research and Specialist Services, Crop Breeding Institute, P. O. Box CY550, Causeway, Harare, ZimbabweKaravina, C., Bindura University of Science Education, Department of Crop Science, Private Bag 1020, Bindura, Zimbabwe; Mandumbu, R., Bindura University of Science Education, Department of Crop Science, Private Bag 1020, Bindura, Zimbabwe; Mukaro, R., Department of Research and Specialist Services, Crop Breeding Institute, P. O. Box CY550, Causeway, Harare, ZimbabweMaize, a staple food crop in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world, is affected by many diseases that reduce yield. Disease management has mainly been reliant on chemical and cultural control options. However, such options are unsustainable to the smallholder resource poor farmers and environmentally unfriendly. A study carried out at the Harare Research Station evaluated eight three-way and four commercial maize hybrids for yield and resistance to Maize streak virus using controlled leaf hopper infestation and Turcicum Leaf Blight under artificial inoculation. The objectives of the study were to identify hybrids that have multiple resistance to Maize streak virus and Turcicum Leaf Blight and to determine the relationship between disease severity and yield performance of the hybrids. The experiment was laid out in a split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design with Disease type as the main plot factor while Maize hybrids were the subplot factor. Ratings of 1 (tolerant) to 5 (susceptible) based on streaked and blighted leaf surfaces were used. The hybrid 053WH54 had multiple resistance to Turcicum Leaf Blight and Maize streak virus. The hybrids 043WH61 and 043WH07 were high-yielding even at high disease pressure while 043WH41 and 013WH03 were relatively low yielding at low disease pressure. This showed the inherent genetic diversity of the hybrids. The hybrids ZS 225, 043WH61 and 043WH07 are recommended for production in areas with high prevalence of both diseases.Hybrid; Maize streak virus; Resistance; Severity; Turcicum Leaf Blight; YieldNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-72149098388Is tuberculous lymphadenitis over-diagnosed in Ethiopia? Comparative performance of diagnostic tests for mycobacterial lymphadenitis in a high-burden countryIwnetu R., Van Den Hombergh J., Woldeamanuel Y., Asfaw M., Gebrekirstos C., Negussie Y., Bekele T., Ashenafi S., Seyoum B., Melaku K., Yamuah L., Tilahun H., Tadesse Z., Aseffa A.2009Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases414252810.1080/00365540902897697Armauer Hansen Research Institute (AHRI), ALERT Compound, Jimma Road, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; TB and Leprosy Control Team, Federal Ministry of Health, Ethiopia; Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Addis Ababa University, Harar, Ethiopia; Hiwot Fana Hospital, Harar; Felege Hiwot Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Faculty, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaIwnetu, R., Armauer Hansen Research Institute (AHRI), ALERT Compound, Jimma Road, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Van Den Hombergh, J., TB and Leprosy Control Team, Federal Ministry of Health, Ethiopia; Woldeamanuel, Y., Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Addis Ababa University, Harar, Ethiopia; Asfaw, M., Hiwot Fana Hospital, Harar; Gebrekirstos, C., Felege Hiwot Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Negussie, Y., Felege Hiwot Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Bekele, T., Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Ashenafi, S., Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Seyoum, B., Armauer Hansen Research Institute (AHRI), ALERT Compound, Jimma Road, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Melaku, K., Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Faculty, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Yamuah, L., Armauer Hansen Research Institute (AHRI), ALERT Compound, Jimma Road, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Tilahun, H., Armauer Hansen Research Institute (AHRI), ALERT Compound, Jimma Road, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Tadesse, Z., TB and Leprosy Control Team, Federal Ministry of Health, Ethiopia; Aseffa, A., Armauer Hansen Research Institute (AHRI), ALERT Compound, Jimma Road, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaEthiopia reports the third highest number of extrapulmonary TB cases globally, most of which are lymph node TB (TBLN). We investigated the performance of the available diagnostic tests for TBLN. Fine needle aspirate (FNA) and excision biopsy samples from affected lymph nodes were collected from 150 consenting patients with suspected TBLN visiting regional hospitals in Ethiopia. The sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of histopathology against culture as reference was 92%, 88%, 97% and 77% and of FNA cytology (FNAC) 76%, 88%, 100% and 55%, respectively. Naked eye examination of FNA had 67% sensitivity and 64% specificity. HIV coinfection did not diminish the performance of macroscopic examination, Ziehl-Neelsen stain, histology or cytology examinations. When any positive result in ZN, histopathology or culture was considered confirmatory, clinical diagnosis could be confirmed in 85% of the patients, suggesting that TBLN is over-diagnosed in up to 15% of cases. With combined criteria as reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of FNAC was 72%, 100%, 100% and 55%, respectively. FNAC is a practical tool that can improve the diagnosis of TBLN in high-burden settings. Over-diagnosis alone cannot explain the high burden of LNTB in Ethiopia. © 2009 Informa UK Ltd.Noneadolescent; adult; aged; article; aspiration biopsy; child; clinical trial; Ethiopia; histopathology; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; human tissue; lymph node biopsy; major clinical study; mixed infection; multicenter study; preschool child; school child; sensitivity and specificity; tissue culture; tuberculous lymphadenitis; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Biopsy, Fine-Needle; Chi-Square Distribution; Child; Child, Preschool; Ethiopia; Female; Histocytochemistry; Humans; Lymph Nodes; Male; Middle Aged; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Predictive Value of Tests; Sensitivity and Specificity; Tuberculosis, Lymph Node; Young AdultNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77955642843The impact on dam design of a new materials model for the early behaviour of RCCShaw Q.H.W.2010International Journal on Hydropower and Dams174NoneARQ (Pty) Ltd, PO Box 76397, Lynnwood Ridge, 0040, South AfricaShaw, Q.H.W., ARQ (Pty) Ltd, PO Box 76397, Lynnwood Ridge, 0040, South AfricaThe impact of new materials model for high strength RCC on the design of large dams is discussed through the example of Changuinola 1 dam in Panama, focusing on aspects of particular importance for arch dams. An approach combining field measurement with structural modeling to predict and demonstrate actual materials behavior is discussed. The finite element (FE) analysis confirmed that the anticipated residual tensile stresses between induced joints spaced at 20 m are minimal, peaking at only 50 microstrain for a temperature drop of the order of 20°C. The study finds that applying a uniform temperature drop of 6°C, arch action concentrated more towards the upstream side and the top of the structure, is observed. The design approach of Changuinola 1 dam requires installation of cooling pipes in the RCC above the upper gallery if shrinkage and creep are evident in the RCC.NoneArch action; Cooling pipes; Dam design; Design approaches; Field measurement; Finite elements; High strength; Induced joints; Large dams; Materials behavior; Micro-strain; New material; Residual tensile stress; Shrinkage and creep; Structural modeling; Temperature drops; Uniform temperature; Arches; Dams; Drops; Finite element method; DesignNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84930402282Evaluation of biomass yield and growth performance of alfalfa and oat cultivars in the high land of Arsi, EthiopiaBefekadu C., Yunus A.2015Livestock Research for Rural Development276NoneArsi University, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, PO Box 193, Asella, EthiopiaBefekadu, C., Arsi University, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, PO Box 193, Asella, Ethiopia; Yunus, A., Arsi University, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, PO Box 193, Asella, EthiopiaThe major objective of this study was to investigate the effect of intercropping alfalfa with oat on growth rate, total forage dry matter yield and nitrogen yield. Alfalfa cultivars with or without oat was grown on finely prepared seed beds. The experimental seed was planted on 12 m2 plot (4 m long and 3 m wide), consisted of 10 rows with intra-row spacing of 0.3m. The plots were laid out in Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five replications per treatment. Data on biomass yield and other yield related traits was subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure for RCBD experiments using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of SAS computer software packages. The result of this experiment has shown that the total forage dry matter yield harvested from plots containing a mixture of alfalfa and oat was higher (P<0.05) than other plots containing pure stands of alfalfa and oat. The analysis also indicated that the dry matter yield per area of land was much greater for oat grown with alfalfa than oat grown without alfalfa. In this trial, the leaf to stem ratio of alfalfa and oat plant grown alone was statistically similar (P>0.05) to those grown in a mixture. The average plant height of.alfalfa and oat plant grown in separate plot was not differed (P>0.05) from those grown in a mixture on same plot under this experiment. The chemical analysis result has implied that the dry matter content of each plant (alfalfa and oat) grown in a mixture was higher than those plant grown separately. Likewise, the crude protein content of oat grown with alfalfa on the same plots was improved as compared to those oats plants grown alone in separate plots which could be achieved from the symbiotic relationship between the two plants grown in mixture. In general, the higher quality forage obtained from oat plants grown with alfalfa on the same plots, may be an important consideration for livestock producers. © 2015 Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.Crude protein; Forage yield; Growth rate; IntercroppingAvena; Medicago sativaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84893334876Effects of job evaluation on decisions involving pay equityChaneta I.2014Asian Social Science10410.5539/ass.v10n4p145Arts and Social Studies, University of Zimbabwe, ZimbabweChaneta, I., Arts and Social Studies, University of Zimbabwe, ZimbabweJob evaluation's purpose is to compare all the jobs in the organisation, one with another, with the aim of producing a rank order. This rank order may be then be subdivided into groups of jobs of the same size which can, if desired, be placed within pay ranges or grades. While this approach is clearly more appropriate to large organisations, even in small organisations judgements have to be made about how one job compares with another, otherwise no decision can be made about relative pay and status. So, in effect, even where there is no formal method of job evaluation, jobs are evaluated in any case. It is really a question of how analytical the organisation wants to be.Analytical; Appropriate; Pay ranges; Rank order; Relative pay; SubdividedNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84873937678Impact of locus of control expectancy on level of well-beingApril K.A., Dharani B., Peters K.2012Review of European Studies4210.5539/res.v4n2p124Ashridge Business School, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, 7701 Berkhamsted, HP4 1NS Cape Town, South Africa; Ashridge Business School, Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, HP4 1NS, United KingdomApril, K.A., Ashridge Business School, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, 7701 Berkhamsted, HP4 1NS Cape Town, South Africa; Dharani, B., Ashridge Business School, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch, 7701 Berkhamsted, HP4 1NS Cape Town, South Africa; Peters, K., Ashridge Business School, Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, HP4 1NS, United KingdomThis paper investigates the impact of locus of control, a psychological social learning theory that is rigorously researched for its implications on leadership qualities, on the level of happiness of an individual. The primary research strategy employed was the survey strategy. Participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire that was designed to test, amongst other variables, their locus of control and level of happiness. The Spearman Rank Correlation hypothesis test was used to test the data for significance and strength of the relationship. As a secondary research approach, self-reflection documents written by research participants, on the topic of locus of control, were used to add personal expression to the discussion of the quantitative results. While academic literature vastly supports the view that leadership qualities are predominantly present in those with an internal locus of control, our research results conclude that a maximum level of happiness is achieved by individuals with a balanced locus of control expectancy - a mix of internal and external locus of control, alternatively known as 'bi-local expectancy'.Bi-local; Expectancies; Happiness; Leadership; Locus of control; Subjective well-beingNoneNone
WoSWOS:000305583300126Towards Universal Health Coverage: An Evaluation of Rwanda Mutuelles in Its First Eight YearsBasinga, Paulin,Binagwaho, Agnes,Chin, Brian,Hill, Kenneth,Hirschhorn, Lisa R.,Lewandowski, Jiwon Lee,Lu, Chunling,Murray, Megan2012PLOS ONE7610.1371/journal.pone.0039282Asian Development Bank, Harvard University, University of Rwanda"Basinga, Paulin: University of Rwanda","Chin, Brian: Asian Development Bank","Hill, Kenneth: Harvard University","Hirschhorn, Lisa R.: Harvard University","Lewandowski, Jiwon Lee: Harvard University","Lu, Chunling: Harvard University","Murray, Megan: Harvard University",Background: Mutuelles is a community-based health insurance program, established since 1999 by the Government of Rwanda as a key component of the national health strategy on providing universal health care. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of Mutuelles on achieving universal coverage of medical services and financial risk protection in its first eight years of implementation. Methods and Findings: We conducted a quantitative impact evaluation of Mutuelles between 2000 and 2008 using nationally-representative surveys. At the national and provincial levels, we traced the evolution of Mutuelles coverage and its impact on child and maternal care coverage from 2000 to 2008, as well as household catastrophic health payments from 2000 to 2006. At the individual level, we investigated the impact of Mutuelles' coverage on enrollees' medical care utilization using logistic regression. We focused on three target populations: the general population, under-five children, and women with delivery. At the household level, we used logistic regression to study the relationship between Mutuelles coverage and the probability of incurring catastrophic health spending. The main limitation was that due to insufficient data, we are not able to study the impact of Mutuelles on health outcomes, such as child and maternal mortalities, directly. The findings show that Mutuelles improved medical care utilization and protected households from catastrophic health spending. Among Mutuelles enrollees, those in the poorest expenditure quintile had a significantly lower rate of utilization and higher rate of catastrophic health spending. The findings are robust to various estimation methods and datasets. Conclusions: Rwanda's experience suggests that community-based health insurance schemes can be effective tools for achieving universal health coverage even in the poorest settings. We suggest a future study on how eliminating Mutuelles copayments for the poorest will improve their healthcare utilization, lower their catastrophic health spending, and affect the finances of health care providers.,ASIA,CARE,CHINA,COUNTRIES,IMPACT,INSURANCE,OUT-OF-POCKET,PAYMENTS,SERVICESNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-42149087700Effects of dietary phytase on performance and nutrient metabolism in chickensPirgozliev V., Oduguwa O., Acamovic T., Bedford M.R.2008British Poultry Science49210.1080/00071660801961447ASRC, SAC, Edinburgh, United Kingdom; Syngenta Animal Nutrition Inc., Beckhampton, Marlborough, Wiltshire, United Kingdom; ASRC, SAC, Auchincruive Estate, Ayr, KA6 5HW, United Kingdom; University of Agriculture, PMB 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria; AB Vista FeedPirgozliev, V., ASRC, SAC, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, ASRC, SAC, Auchincruive Estate, Ayr, KA6 5HW, United Kingdom; Oduguwa, O., ASRC, SAC, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, University of Agriculture, PMB 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria; Acamovic, T., Syngenta Animal Nutrition Inc., Beckhampton, Marlborough, Wiltshire, United Kingdom; Bedford, M.R., Syngenta Animal Nutrition Inc., Beckhampton, Marlborough, Wiltshire, United Kingdom, AB Vista Feed Ingredients, Woodstock Court, Blenheim Rd., Marlborough Bus. Pk., Marlborough, Wiltshire SN8 4AN, United KingdomA broiler growth study was conducted to compare the effect of different concentrations of an Escherichia coli-derived phytase on performance, apparent metabolisable energy (AME), nitrogen (N), amino acid and mineral metabolisability, sialic acid excretion and villus morphology when fed to broiler chickens. 2.Female Ross 308 broilers (480) were reared in floor pens from 0 to 28 d of age. All birds were fed on nutritionally complete starter (0 to 21 d of age) and grower diets (21 to 28 d of age) with the exception that they were low in P (28 and 23 g/kg available P, respectively). These maize-soy diets were supplemented with 0, 250, 500 or 2500 phytase units (FTU)/kg feed. 3.Between 21 and 28 d of age, two birds from each floor pen were selected, and each pair placed in one of 32 metabolism cages (two birds per cage). Feed intake was recorded and excreta collected for the last 2 d of the feeding period, and AME, N, amino acid and mineral metabolisability coefficients and endogenous losses were determined following a total collection procedure. 4.Feed intake and weight gain increased in a linear manner in response to phytase dose, with an average increase of approximately 117 and 135%, respectively, compared with chickens fed on the low-P diet. Birds given diets with 2500 FTU weighed 66% more and had a 24% higher feed conversion efficiency (FCE) than those fed on diets containing 500 FTU. 5.Enzyme supplementation increased the intake of AME and metabolisable N by 103 and 39%, respectively, principally through increases in feed intake. Birds given enzyme-supplemented diets also improved their intake of metabolisable amino acids and P by approximately 14 and 124%, respectively, compared with birds fed on the control diet. Enzyme supplementation did not affect ileal villus morphometry of the birds.Noneamino acid; mineral; phytase; animal; animal food; article; chemistry; chicken; comparative study; diet; eating; enzymology; Escherichia coli; feces; female; growth, development and aging; metabolism; weight gain; 6-Phytase; Amino Acids; Animal Feed; Animal Nutrition Physiology; Animals; Chickens; Diet; Eating; Escherichia coli; Feces; Female; Minerals; Weight Gain; Aves; Escherichia coli; Gallus gallus; Zea maysNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77953415633Impact of heavy metal contamination of Akaki river of Ethiopia on soil and metal toxicity on cultivated vegetable cropsPrabu P.C.2009Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry89NoneAssistant Professor and PG Coordinator (Env.Science), Ambo University College, Ambo, EthiopiaPrabu, P.C., Assistant Professor and PG Coordinator (Env.Science), Ambo University College, Ambo, EthiopiaThis study was conducted to assess the extent of heavy metal contamination of vegetables due to irrigation with polluted Akaki River water, Ethiopia on agricultural land. Samples of water, soil and different vegetables grown using Akaki River water have been analysed for seven heavy metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Ni using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results show that the heavy metals in Akaki water were higher than the natural elemental levels in freshwater. The heavy metals content in soil was higher than vegetable samples and the reason might be due to their strong adsorptive nature in soil (vertisol). The concentration of Cr in all vegetables was more than the maximum limit. The Cd accumulation was more in leafy vegetables than other vegetables under study. Metal transfer factors from soil to vegetables were significant for Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe and Cd and accumulation of Cr and Ni was comparatively less while that of Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn is more in vegetable plants.Akaki water; Heavy metals; Soil; Vegetables and transfer factorNoneNone
WoSWOS:000327280400014Evaluation of an External Quality Assessment Program for HIV Testing in Haiti, 2006-2011Anselme, Renette,Balajee, S. Arunmozhi,Boncy, Jacques,Buteau, Josiane,Dahourou, Georges,Louis, Frantz Jean,Marston, Barbara,Ndongmo, Clement,Vertefeuille, John2013AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY140610.1309/AJCPYWX49IZSQKFSAssoc Publ Hlth Labs, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention - USA, Ctr Dis Control & PreventNoneObjectives: To evaluate an external quality assessment (EQA) program for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rapid diagnostics testing by the Haitian National Public Health Laboratory (French acronym: LNSP). Acceptable performance was defined as any proficiency testing (PT) score more than 80%. Methods: The PT database was reviewed and analyzed to assess the testing performance of the participating laboratories and the impact of the program over time. A total of 242 laboratories participated in the EQA program from 2006 through 2011; participation increased from 70 laboratories in 2006 to 159 in 2011. Results: In 2006, 49 (70%) laboratories had a PT score of 80% or above; by 2011, 145 (97.5%) laboratories were proficient (P &lt; .05). Conclusions: The EQA program for HIV testing ensures quality of testing and allowed the LNSP to document improvements in the quality of HIV rapid testing over time. (C) American Society for Clinical Pathology"EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT","HIV rapid tests","PROFICIENCY TESTING",DEVELOPING-COUNTRIES,PROFICIENCY,SETTINGSNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33747584147General surgery in crisis - Factors that impact on a career in general surgeryKahn D., Pillay S., Veller M.G., Panieri E., Westcott M.J.R.2006South African Journal of Surgery443NoneAssociation of Surgeons of South Africa, Department of Surgery, Universities of Cape Town and the Witwatersrand, South AfricaKahn, D., Association of Surgeons of South Africa, Department of Surgery, Universities of Cape Town and the Witwatersrand, South Africa; Pillay, S., Association of Surgeons of South Africa, Department of Surgery, Universities of Cape Town and the Witwatersrand, South Africa; Veller, M.G., Association of Surgeons of South Africa, Department of Surgery, Universities of Cape Town and the Witwatersrand, South Africa; Panieri, E., Association of Surgeons of South Africa, Department of Surgery, Universities of Cape Town and the Witwatersrand, South Africa; Westcott, M.J.R., Association of Surgeons of South Africa, Department of Surgery, Universities of Cape Town and the Witwatersrand, South AfricaIntroduction. The Association of Surgeons of South Africa (ASSA), because of a concern about the decline in the number of applicants for registrar posts, undertook this study into the various factors that may influence the choice of surgery as career option. Methods. The study involved a combination of desk research and structured interviews with heads of departments, specialists, and registrars in general surgery. Results. The reasons for choosing general surgery as a career included the immediately visible results of a surgeon's efforts and the practical and intellectual challenge of the specialty. General surgery continued to enjoy a high status in society. The greater focus on primary health care has affected facilities at tertiary and secondary institutions. General surgeons worked excessively long hours, which was associated with increased levels of stress and placed severe strains oh family life. All respondents felt that their levels of remuneration were 'poor' in relation to other disciplines and professions. Conclusion. In this study we identified various factors that impacted either positively or negatively on the choice of general surgery as a career option.Nonearticle; career; decision making; general surgery; health practitioner; hospital department; human; intellect; manager; medical research; medical specialist; professional practice; social status; structured interview; surgeon; tertiary health care; Career Choice; Education, Medical, Undergraduate; Emigration and Immigration; Family Practice; Humans; Interviews; Life Style; South Africa; Stress, Psychological; Students, Medical; Surgery; Training Support; WorkplaceNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84924755802Impact of anisotropic stresses during dissipative gravitational collapseReddy K.P., Govender M., Maharaj S.D.2015General Relativity and Gravitation47410.1007/s10714-015-1880-xAstrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban, South AfricaReddy, K.P., Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban, South Africa; Govender, M., Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban, South Africa; Maharaj, S.D., Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban, South AfricaWe employ a perturbative scheme to study the evolution of a spherically symmetric stellar body undergoing gravitational collapse in the presence of heat dissipation and anisotropic stresses. The Bowers and Liang static model is perturbed, and its subsequent dynamical collapse is studied in the linear perturbative regime. We find that anisotropic effects brought about by the differences in the radial and tangential pressures render the core more unstable than the cooler surface layers. An analysis of the temperature profiles in the interior of the collapsing body shows that the temperature is enhanced in the presence of pressure anisotropy. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.Anisotropic stresses; Causal thermodynamics; Dissipative collapseNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84896693226Comparison of HI and optical redshifts of galaxies - The impact of redshift uncertainties on spectral line stackingMaddox N., Hess K.M., Blyth S.-L., Jarvis M.J.2013Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society433310.1093/mnras/stt934Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, 7701 Rondebosch, South Africa; Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Kehle Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, United Kingdom; Physics Department, University of the Western Cape, 7535 Cape Town, South AfricaMaddox, N., Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, 7701 Rondebosch, South Africa; Hess, K.M., Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, 7701 Rondebosch, South Africa; Blyth, S.-L., Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, 7701 Rondebosch, South Africa; Jarvis, M.J., Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Kehle Rd, Oxford OX1 3RH, United Kingdom, Physics Department, University of the Western Cape, 7535 Cape Town, South AfricaAccurate optical redshifts will be critical for spectral co-adding techniques used to extract detections from below the noise level in ongoing and upcoming surveys for neutral hydrogen (HI), which will extend our current understanding of gas reservoirs in galaxies to lower column densities and higher redshifts. We have used existing, high-quality optical and radio data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey to investigate the relationship between redshifts derived from optical spectroscopy and HI spectral line observations. We find that the two redshift measurements agree well, with a negligible systematic-offset and a small distribution width. Employing simple simulations, we determine how the width of an ideal stacked HI profile depends on these redshift offsets, as well as larger redshift errors more appropriate for high-redshift galaxy surveys. The width of the stacked profile is dominated by the width distribution of the input individual profiles when the redshift errors are less than the median width of the input profiles, and only when the redshift errors become large, ∼ 150 km s-1, do they significantly affect the width of the stacked profile. This redshift accuracy can be achieved with moderate-resolution optical spectra. We provide guidelines for the number of spectra required for stacking to reach a specified mass sensitivity, given telescope and survey parameters, which will be useful for planning optical spectroscopy observing campaigns to supplement the radio data.© 2013 The Authors.Galaxies: Distances and redshifts; Radio lines: galaxies; SurveysNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-50449084792Understanding diversity in impact and responses among HIV/AIDS-affected households: The case of Msinga, South AfricaSwaans K., Broerse J., Van Diepen I., Salomon M., Gibson D., Bunders J.2008African Journal of AIDS Research7210.2989/AJAR.2008.7.2.2.519Athena Institute for Research on Innovation and Communication in Health and Life Sciences, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands; Medical Anthropology and Sociology Unit, University of Amsterdam, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, Netherlands; Farmer Support Group, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 1 Golf Road, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South AfricaSwaans, K., Athena Institute for Research on Innovation and Communication in Health and Life Sciences, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands; Broerse, J., Athena Institute for Research on Innovation and Communication in Health and Life Sciences, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands; Van Diepen, I., Athena Institute for Research on Innovation and Communication in Health and Life Sciences, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands, Medical Anthropology and Sociology Unit, University of Amsterdam, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, Netherlands; Salomon, M., Farmer Support Group, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 1 Golf Road, Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Gibson, D., Medical Anthropology and Sociology Unit, University of Amsterdam, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, Netherlands; Bunders, J., Athena Institute for Research on Innovation and Communication in Health and Life Sciences, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, NetherlandsTo gain a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of HIV and AIDS on rural households in Msinga, South Africa, the sustainable livelihoods framework was adapted. An ethnographic perspective was employed to examine: 1) the impact of HIV/AIDS-related illnesses on people's mind and spirit (the internal environment), and 2) the influence of institutional structures and processes (the external environment), in order to better understand 3) the actions taken by individuals and households in response to HIV and AIDS. Members of three support groups at a local drop-in centre were consulted about the impact of HIV and AIDS on their lives through focus groups, a questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The study shows that the psychosocial impact and associated coping strategies, as well as prevailing gender-based power relations and exclusion from social-exchange networks - which are not (readily) available factors in the sustainable livelihoods framework - affect people's lives in different ways and depend on the specific situation of the individual or household concerned. The study confirms the need to restore a household's resource base and to address psychosocial issues. However, the variation in impact to different households requires a diversified and holistic programme of development interventions. Copyright © NISC Pty Ltd.Accessibility; Coping; Mitigation strategies; Psychosocial aspects; Resource-poor settings; Sustainable livelihoods frameworkacquired immune deficiency syndrome; adolescent; adult; article; coping behavior; ethnographic research; female; holistic care; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence; interview; major clinical study; male; questionnaire; rural area; sex ratio; social aspect; social psychology; South Africa; support group; sustainable developmentNone
Scopus2-s2.0-36348985543Evaluation of the Arkansas method of urine testing for isoniazid in South AfricaHanifa Y., Mngadi K., Lewis J., Fielding K., Churchyard G., Grant A.D.2007International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease1111NoneAurum Institute for Health Research, Johannesburg, South Africa; Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Aurum Institute for Health Research, 47 Main Street, Marshalltown, 2107, South AfricaHanifa, Y., Aurum Institute for Health Research, Johannesburg, South Africa, Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Aurum Institute for Health Research, 47 Main Street, Marshalltown, 2107, South Africa; Mngadi, K., Aurum Institute for Health Research, Johannesburg, South Africa; Lewis, J., Aurum Institute for Health Research, Johannesburg, South Africa, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Fielding, K., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Churchyard, G., Aurum Institute for Health Research, Johannesburg, South Africa, Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Grant, A.D., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United KingdomSETTING: A South African hospital serving gold mine employees. OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Arkansas method for detecting isoniazid (INH) metabolites among South African adults and to examine the effect of smoking status on positive results. DESIGN: Urine specimens were collected from in-patients taking INH as part of tuberculosis treatment at 6, 12 and 24 h after a directly observed 300 mg oral dose. As a control group, a single urine specimen was collected from surgical in-patients not taking INH. Specimens were tested for INH using a commercially available dipstick. RESULTS: A total of 153 patients on INH and 60 controis were recruited. The sensitivity of the test was 93.3% (95%CI 88.1-96.8) at 6 h post INH, 93.4% (95%CI 88.2-96.8) at 12 h and 77% (95%CI 69.1-83.7) at 24 h. The specificity of the test was 98.3% (95%CI 91.1->99.9). There was no association between smoking status and colour change of positive results. CONCLUSIONS: This test is a useful method of monitoring adherence to TB treatment or preventive therapy among South Africans. However, it is less than 100% sensitive, especially with increasing time post dose, which should be taken into consideration when interpreting results for individual patients. © 2007 The Union.Adherence; Africa; Isoniazid; Tuberculosisdrug metabolite; isoniazid; tuberculostatic agent; adult; article; cigarette smoking; controlled study; female; human; major clinical study; male; medical assessment; priority journal; sensitivity and specificity; South Africa; tuberculosis; United States; urinalysis; Adult; Antitubercular Agents; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; Isoniazid; Male; Middle Aged; Patient Compliance; Sensitivity and Specificity; Smoking; South Africa; TuberculosisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-39649119854Impact of cotrimoxazole on non-susceptibility to antibiotics in Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage isolates among HIV-infected mineworkers in South AfricaPemba L., Charalambous S., von Gottberg A., Magadla B., Moloi V., Seabi O., Wasas A., Klugman K.P., Chaisson R.E., Fielding K., Churchyard G.J., Grant A.D.2008Journal of Infection56310.1016/j.jinf.2007.12.003Aurum Institute for Health Research, P. O. Box 61587, Marshalltown, 2107, South Africa; Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Medical Research Council, De Korte Street, Braamfontein, 2001, South Africa; Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Division of Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States; Johns Hopkins University, 1840E Monument Street, Room 401, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E7HT, United KingdomPemba, L., Aurum Institute for Health Research, P. O. Box 61587, Marshalltown, 2107, South Africa; Charalambous, S., Aurum Institute for Health Research, P. O. Box 61587, Marshalltown, 2107, South Africa; von Gottberg, A., Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Medical Research Council, De Korte Street, Braamfontein, 2001, South Africa; Magadla, B., Aurum Institute for Health Research, P. O. Box 61587, Marshalltown, 2107, South Africa; Moloi, V., Aurum Institute for Health Research, P. O. Box 61587, Marshalltown, 2107, South Africa; Seabi, O., Aurum Institute for Health Research, P. O. Box 61587, Marshalltown, 2107, South Africa; Wasas, A., Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Medical Research Council, De Korte Street, Braamfontein, 2001, South Africa; Klugman, K.P., Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Medical Research Council, De Korte Street, Braamfontein, 2001, South Africa, Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Division of Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States; Chaisson, R.E., Johns Hopkins University, 1840E Monument Street, Room 401, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States; Fielding, K., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E7HT, United Kingdom; Churchyard, G.J., Aurum Institute for Health Research, P. O. Box 61587, Marshalltown, 2107, South Africa; Grant, A.D., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E7HT, United KingdomObjectives: To investigate risk factors for pneumococcal carriage and non-susceptibility among HIV-infected mineworkers in South Africa. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, HIV clinic attendees were questioned about risk factors for pneumococcal carriage and antimicrobial non-susceptibility. Oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal swabs were taken for pneumococcal culture, serotyping and susceptibility testing. Results: Among 856 participants (854 male, median age 41.5 years, median CD4 290 cells/mm3), 294 (34.3%) were receiving cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Overall, 75/856 (8.8%) carried S. pneumoniae; among those taking vs. not taking cotrimoxazole, 8.2% vs. 9.1% were carriers. Risk factors for pneumococcal carriage were living with a child (adjusted OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.06-4.62) and recent hospitalisation (adjusted OR 1.80; 95% CI 0.98-3.30). Among participants not taking cotrimoxazole, the prevalence of carriage was higher in individuals with lower CD4 counts. Comparing participants taking cotrimoxazole vs. not, 60.9% vs. 22.4% (p = 0.001) isolates were non-susceptible to cotrimoxazole and 30.4% vs. 8.2% were non-susceptible to penicillin (p = 0.014). Thirty three/72 (45.8%) isolates were paediatric serotypes/groups. Nasopharyngeal compared with oropharyngeal swabs had higher sensitivity in detecting carriage (53/75, 70.7% vs. 31/75, 41.3%), and adding oropharyngeal sampling increased detection from 6.2% to 8.8%. Conclusions: Non-susceptibility to cotrimoxazole and penicillin was more common among isolates from participants taking cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Surveillance for antimicrobial susceptibility is important where prophylaxis is used. Treatment for pneumococcal disease should take into account a higher risk of non-susceptibility to antibiotics amongst individuals taking cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. © 2007 The British Infection Society.Antimicrobial resistance; HIV infection; Pneumococcal carriage; Sub-Saharan Africaantibiotic agent; antiretrovirus agent; beta lactam antibiotic; cotrimoxazole; isoniazid; penicillin G; adult; aged; antibiotic prophylaxis; antibiotic sensitivity; article; bacterium carrier; bacterium culture; bacterium detection; bacterium isolate; CD4+ T lymphocyte; controlled study; female; hospitalization; human; human cell; Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; major clinical study; male; miner; minimum inhibitory concentration; nonhuman; nose smear; risk factor; sensitivity and specificity; serotyping; South Africa; Streptococcus infection; Streptococcus pneumoniae; throat culture; tuberculosis; Adult; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Carrier State; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; Cross-Sectional Studies; Drug Resistance, Bacterial; Female; HIV Infections; Humans; Male; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Middle Aged; Pharynx; Pneumococcal Infections; Risk Factors; Serotyping; South Africa; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole CombinationNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77954704762Liquid vs. solid culture for tuberculosis: Performance and cost in a resource-constrained settingChihota V.N., Grant A.D., Fielding K., Ndibongo B., Van Zyl A., Muirhead D., Churchyard G.J.2010International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease148NoneAurum Institute for Health Research, Private Bag X 30500, Houghton, Johannesburg, 2041, South Africa; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United KingdomChihota, V.N., Aurum Institute for Health Research, Private Bag X 30500, Houghton, Johannesburg, 2041, South Africa; Grant, A.D., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Fielding, K., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Ndibongo, B., Aurum Institute for Health Research, Private Bag X 30500, Houghton, Johannesburg, 2041, South Africa; Van Zyl, A., Aurum Institute for Health Research, Private Bag X 30500, Houghton, Johannesburg, 2041, South Africa; Muirhead, D., Aurum Institute for Health Research, Private Bag X 30500, Houghton, Johannesburg, 2041, South Africa, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Churchyard, G.J., Aurum Institute for Health Research, Private Bag X 30500, Houghton, Johannesburg, 2041, South Africa, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United KingdomSETTING: National Health Laboratory Services tuberculosis (TB) laboratory, South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To compare Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) with Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium with regard to Mycobacterium tuberculosis yield, time to positive culture and contamination, and to assess MGIT cost-effectiveness. DESIGN: Sputum from gold miners was cultured on MGIT and LJ. We estimated cost per culture, and, for smear-negative samples, incremental cost per additional M. tuberculosis gained with MGIT using a decision-tree model. RESULTS: Among 1267 specimens, MGIT vs. LJ gave a higher yield of mycobacteria (29.7% vs. 22.8%), higher contamination (16.7% vs. 9.3%) and shorter time to positive culture (median 14 vs. 25 days for smear-negative specimens). Among smear-negative samples that were culture-positive on MGIT but negative/contaminated on LJ, 77.3% were non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Cost per culture on LJ, MGIT and MGIT+LJ was respectively US$12.35, US$16.62 and US$19.29. The incremental cost per additional M. tuberculosis identified by standard biochemical tests and microscopic cording was respectively US$504.08 and US$328.10 using MGIT vs. LJ, or US$160.80 and US$109.07 using MGIT+LJ vs. LJ alone. CONCLUSION: MGIT gives higher yield and faster results at relatively high cost. The high proportion of NTM underscores the need for rapid speciation tests. Minimising contaminated cultures is key to cost-effectiveness. © 2010 The Union.Anti-MPB64 assay; LJ medium; MGIT; Microscopic cording; Mycobacterium tuberculosisadult; aged; article; bacterium culture; bacterium identification; cost effectiveness analysis; decision tree; female; human; major clinical study; male; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; priority journal; South Africa; sputum culture; comparative study; cost; culture medium; economics; follow up; growth, development and aging; isolation and purification; microbiological examination; microbiology; middle aged; Mycobacterium fortuitum; prevalence; reproducibility; retrospective study; sputum; standards; tuberculosis; young adult; Adult; Aged; Bacteriological Techniques; Costs and Cost Analysis; Culture Media; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Middle Aged; Mycobacterium fortuitum; Prevalence; Reproducibility of Results; Retrospective Studies; South Africa; Sputum; Tuberculosis; Young Adult; culture medium; Adult; Aged; Bacteriological Techniques; Costs and Cost Analysis; Culture Media; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Middle Aged; Mycobacterium fortuitum; Prevalence; Reproducibility of Results; Retrospective Studies; South Africa; Sputum; Tuberculosis; Young AdultNone
WoSWOS:000306406400015The impact of peer outreach on HIV knowledge and prevention behaviours of male sex workers in Mombasa, KenyaGeibel, Scott,King'ola, Nzioki,Luchters, Stanley,Temmerman, Marleen2012SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS88510.1136/sextrans-2011-050224Austin Research Institute, Ghent University, Burnet Inst, ICRHNoneIntroduction Targeting most at-risk populations is an essential component of HIV prevention strategies. Peer education programmes have been found to increase HIV knowledge, condom use and safer sex behaviours among female sex workers in Africa and men who have sex with men elsewhere. The authors aimed to evaluate the impact of a peer-driven intervention on male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Methods Using time-venue sampling, a baseline survey of 425 male sex workers was conducted in late 2006, after which, 40 peer educators were trained in HIV prevention, basic counselling skills and distribution of condoms and lubricants. A follow-up time-venue survey of 442 male sex workers was conducted in early 2008, and pre- and post-intervention changes were examined. The impact of peer educator exposure on HIV knowledge and condom use was analysed. Results Positive changes in HIV prevention behaviours were observed, including increases in consistent use of condoms with both male clients (35.9%-50.2%, p&lt;0.001) and non-paying male partners (27.4%-39.5%, p=0.008). Exposure to peer educators (AOR=1.97, 95% CI 1.29 to 3.02) and ever having been counselled or tested for HIV (AOR=1.71, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.66) were associated with consistent condom use in multivariate analysis. Peer educator contact was also associated with improved HIV knowledge and use of water-based lubricants. Conclusions Peer outreach programming reached highly stigmatised male sex workers in Mombasa, resulting in significant, but limited, improvements in HIV knowledge and prevention behaviours. Improved peer coverage and additional prevention initiatives are needed to sufficiently mitigate HIV transmission.,MENNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-33847330634Impact assessment and biodiversity considerations in Nigeria: A case study of Niger Delta University campus project on wildlife in Nun River Forest ReserveHamadina M.K., Otobotekere D., Anyanwu D.I.2007Management of Environmental Quality18210.1108/14777830710725849Biogeochem Associates Ltd., Port Harcourt, Nigeria; University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; Biodiversity Unit, Institute of Pollution Studies, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaHamadina, M.K., Biogeochem Associates Ltd., Port Harcourt, Nigeria, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; Otobotekere, D., Biodiversity Unit, Institute of Pollution Studies, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; Anyanwu, D.I., University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, NigeriaPurpose - Niger Delta University (NDU) campus is located on the fringe of a Nun River Forest Reserve (NRFR) in Nigeria. The NRFR covers 97.15 km 2 of humid tropical rainforest characterized by torrential rains, seasonal flooding, and multi-layered vegetation. This paper aims to conduct a wildlife study, to assess the effects of the NDU campus project on NRFR. Design/methodology/approach - The assessment was preceded by "scoping" to determine key wildlife issues. Thereafter a mix of methods, including literature search, reconnaissance visits, field exercises, and interviews with hunters, was adopted to gather information. These were augmented with diurnal and nocturnal forest expeditions to find evidence(s) of wildlife species existence. Findings - There is a rich assemblage of wildlife species; of which 12 are enlisted in the 2006 IUCN Red List of threatened species, while 14 are protected by Nigeria's statutes; and they are threatened by human activities. The NDU campus project shall have significant adverse impacts on the wildlife: directly through habitat loss/fragmentation, nuisance, influx of people; and indirectly by exacerbating the existing threats. Research limitations/ implications - This work is limited to the NDU campus project and its impact on NRFR. The brevity of time spent in the field coupled with the generally inaccessible terrain and remote location of the NRFR constitute the limitations that must have influenced the findings in this paper. Originality/value - This paper reports the results of an original work, discusses the impacts of NDU campus on NRFR, and highlights conservation-friendly local beliefs/practices that could fit into a wildlife management plan, and fosters the debate on methodologies and field initiatives. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Animal habitats; Environmental management; Forests; NigeriaNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84856005905Vulnerability of coastal communities to key impacts of climate change on coral reef fisheriesCinner J.E., McClanahan T.R., Graham N.A.J., Daw T.M., Maina J., Stead S.M., Wamukota A., Brown K., Bodin O.2012Global Environmental Change22110.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.09.018Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia; Wildlife Conservation Society, Marine Program, Bronx, NY 10460-1099, United States; School of International Development, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom; Coral Reef Conservation Project, Mombasa, Kenya; Computational Ecology Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia; School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, United Kingdom; Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, United Kingdom; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, SwedenCinner, J.E., Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia; McClanahan, T.R., Wildlife Conservation Society, Marine Program, Bronx, NY 10460-1099, United States; Graham, N.A.J., Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia; Daw, T.M., School of International Development, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom; Maina, J., Coral Reef Conservation Project, Mombasa, Kenya, Computational Ecology Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia; Stead, S.M., School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, United Kingdom; Wamukota, A., Coral Reef Conservation Project, Mombasa, Kenya; Brown, K., School of International Development, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, United Kingdom; Bodin, O., Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Sweden, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, SwedenCoral reefs support the livelihood of millions of people especially those engaged in marine fisheries activities. Coral reefs are highly vulnerable to climate change induced stresses that have led to substantial coral mortality over large spatial scales. Such climate change impacts have the potential to lead to declines in marine fish production and compromise the livelihoods of fisheries dependent communities. Yet few studies have examined social vulnerability in the context of changes specific to coral reef ecosystems. In this paper, we examine three dimensions of vulnerability (exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity) of 29 coastal communities across five western Indian Ocean countries to the impacts of coral bleaching on fishery returns. A key contribution is the development of a novel, network-based approach to examining sensitivity to changes in the fishery that incorporates linkages between fishery and non-fishery occupations. We find that key sources of vulnerability differ considerably within and between the five countries. Our approach allows the visualization of how these dimensions of vulnerability differ from site to site, providing important insights into the types of nuanced policy interventions that may help to reduce vulnerability at a specific location. To complement this, we develop framework of policy actions thought to reduce different aspects of vulnerability at varying spatial and temporal scales. Although our results are specific to reef fisheries impacts from coral bleaching, this approach provides a framework for other types of threats and different social-ecological systems more broadly. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.Coral bleaching; Coral reef; Fisheries; Global climate change; Resilience; Social-ecological systems; Vulnerabilityclimate change; coastal zone; coral; coral bleaching; coral reef; economic impact; environmental stress; fishery economics; fishery production; global change; mortality; nature-society relations; policy approach; vulnerability; Indian Ocean; Indian Ocean (West); AnthozoaNone
WoSWOS:000326315200005Feasibility of adaptation of open source ILS for libraries in Kenya: a practical evaluationAmollo, Beatrice Adera2013ELECTRONIC LIBRARY31510.1108/EL-12-2011-0171Australian Studies Inst LibNonePurpose-Despite its fast growth and penetration in all sectors, it has been noted that open source software (OSS) is yet to find its optimal place in libraries, particularly libraries in the developing countries. Lack of documented information on the experiences and use of open source integrated library system (ILS) is a major drawback, and so the need for this study. The proposed study aims to help to investigate and test usability and cost effectiveness of a typical OSS for ILS. It will involve deploying the software from installation, configuration to creating customized user interfaces and structures that are specific to the requirements of the library's parent organization. The cost and performance of the OSS will then be compared with that of a typical commercial based software with the same functionalities. Design/methodology/approach-A preliminary study has been conducted to collect data from libraries in the country through distribution of questionnaires to provide data for accurate analysis that will form the basis for recommendations. The target group includes library and IT personnel in the various institutions and the end-users within sample group. A case study is proposed to help establish OSS effectiveness in libraries. To test a typical OSS, parameters are to be drawn from two models open source maturity model and business readiness rating. Findings-A casual observation of the Kenyan situation reveals that the majority of academic, public and research libraries depend on commercial, free or locally developed systems. This scenario may be attributed to lack of knowledge (or interest) in OSS alternatives and lack of sufficient technical expertise to support them. While there are quite a number of libraries and librarians worldwide that have shown a great interest in OSS, few library administrators have actually implemented OSS. Could this be due to fear of taking on the risks that may come with reliance on open source library automation systems? Is the low uptake due to lack of sufficient technical expertise in the libraries? The research outcomes will help formulate a model and guidelines to be used by systems librarians considering the use of OSS for library processes. Factors to be considered when deciding on OSS will be outlined. Research limitations/implications-This paper is of importance to library personnel in Kenya as it establishes the effectiveness of OSS, with the aim of empowering the library staff who have for a long time relied on their IT departments and vendors for systems installation and implementation. Originality/value-The study will result in a comprehensive evaluation of the economic and functional advantages of OSS as an alternative for the library in Kenya. Librarians involved in selection of software for their libraries will find this helpful when deciding on the type of software to select for their libraries. It will help to enlighten library professional about the value of OSS and how they can participate in the development of their own systems, instead of always relying on vendors."information systems","integrated software",KENYA,LIBRARIES,"LIBRARY AUTOMATION","LIBRARY SYSTEMS","OPEN SYSTEMS",RESEARCH,"OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE"NoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-67651119884The impact of habitat fragmentation on tsetse abundance on the plateau of eastern ZambiaDucheyne E., Mweempwa C., De Pus C., Vernieuwe H., De Deken R., Hendrickx G., Van den Bossche P.2009Preventive Veterinary Medicine91110.1016/j.prevetmed.2009.05.009Avia-GIS, Risschotlei 33, 2980 Zoersel, Belgium; Department of Veterinary and Livestock Development, Zambia; Animal Health Department, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium; Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, South AfricaDucheyne, E., Avia-GIS, Risschotlei 33, 2980 Zoersel, Belgium; Mweempwa, C., Department of Veterinary and Livestock Development, Zambia; De Pus, C., Animal Health Department, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium; Vernieuwe, H., Avia-GIS, Risschotlei 33, 2980 Zoersel, Belgium; De Deken, R., Animal Health Department, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium; Hendrickx, G., Avia-GIS, Risschotlei 33, 2980 Zoersel, Belgium; Van den Bossche, P., Animal Health Department, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium, Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, South AfricaTsetse-transmitted human or livestock trypanosomiasis is one of the major constraints to rural development in sub-Saharan Africa. The epidemiology of the disease is determined largely by tsetse fly density. A major factor, contributing to tsetse population density is the availability of suitable habitat. In large parts of Africa, encroachment of people and their livestock resulted in a destruction and fragmentation of such suitable habitat. To determine the effect of habitat change on tsetse density a study was initiated in a tsetse-infested zone of eastern Zambia. The study area represents a gradient of habitat change, starting from a zone with high levels of habitat destruction and ending in an area where livestock and people are almost absent. To determine the distribution and density of the fly, tsetse surveys were conducted throughout the study area in the dry and in the rainy season. Landsat ETM+ imagery covering the study area were classified into four land cover classes (munga, miombo, agriculture and settlements) and two auxiliary spectral classes (clouds and shadow) using a Gaussian Maximum Likelihood Classifier. The classes were regrouped into natural vegetation and agricultural zone. The binary images were overlaid with hexagons to obtain the spatial spectrum of spatial pattern. Hexagonal coverage was selected because of its compact and regular form. To identify scale-specific spatial patterns and associated entomological phenomena, the size of the hexagonal coverage was varied (250 and 500 m). Per coverage, total class area, mean patch size, number of patches and patch size standard deviation were used as fragmentation indices. Based on the fragmentation index values, the study zone was classified using a Partitioning Around Mediods (PAM) method. The number of classes was determined using the Wilks' lambda coefficient. To determine the impact of habitat fragmentation on tsetse abundance, the correlation between the fragmentation indices and the index of apparent density of the flies was determined and habitat changes most affecting tsetse abundance was identified. From this it followed that there is a clear relationship between habitat fragmentation and the abundance of tsetse flies. Heavily fragmented areas have lower numbers of tsetse flies, but when the fragmentation of natural vegetation decreases, the number of tsetse flies increases following a sigmoidal-like curve. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Fragmentation analysis; GIS; Tsetseanimal; article; disease carrier; ecosystem; female; geographic information system; growth, development and aging; human; male; parasitology; season; Trypanosoma; tsetse fly; Zambia; Animals; Ecosystem; Female; Geographic Information Systems; Humans; Insect Vectors; Male; Seasons; Trypanosoma; Tsetse Flies; Zambia; Glossina (genus)None
Scopus2-s2.0-28244493000Tidal impact on breeding African Black Oystercatchers on Robben Island, Western Cape, South AfricaCalf K.M., Underhill L.G.2005Ostrich7642433NoneAvian Demography Unit, Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa; School of Biology, University of Leeds, LC Miall Building, Clarendon Way, LS2 9JT, United KingdomCalf, K.M., Avian Demography Unit, Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa, School of Biology, University of Leeds, LC Miall Building, Clarendon Way, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom; Underhill, L.G., Avian Demography Unit, Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa[No abstract available]NoneHaematopus bachmaniNone
Scopus2-s2.0-34548588355Diets containing Escherichia coli-derived phytase on young chickens and turkeys: Effects on performance, metabolizable energy, endogenous secretions, and intestinal morphologyPirgozliev V., Oduguwa O., Acamovic T., Bedford M.R.2007Poultry Science864NoneAvian Science Research Centre, Scottish Agricultural College, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, United Kingdom; Syngenta Animal Nutrition Inc., Chestnut House, Marlborough, Wiltshire SN8 1QJ, United Kingdom; University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2240, AbeoPirgozliev, V., Avian Science Research Centre, Scottish Agricultural College, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, United Kingdom; Oduguwa, O., Avian Science Research Centre, Scottish Agricultural College, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, United Kingdom, University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria; Acamovic, T., Avian Science Research Centre, Scottish Agricultural College, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, United Kingdom; Bedford, M.R., Syngenta Animal Nutrition Inc., Chestnut House, Marlborough, Wiltshire SN8 1QJ, United KingdomThe aim of this experiment was to compare the responses of young broiler chickens directly with the responses of turkeys to different dietary phytase concentrations. Nine hundred sixty birds (480 female Ross 308 broilers, and 480 female BUT6 turkeys) were reared in 64 floor pens from 0 to 21 d of age. Each species was fed a nutritionally complete (12.79 MJ/kg of AME, 231 g/kg of CP vs. 11.75 MJ/kg of AME, 285 g/kg of CP for chickens and turkeys, respectively), low-P (28 and 37 g/kg available P for chickens and turkeys, respectively) corn (maize)-soy feed supplemented with either 0, 250, 500, or 2,500 phytase units (phytase/kg of feed) to give a total of 4 diets per species. The study was conducted in a split-plot design and each dietary treatment was replicated 8 times. Performance, AME, sialic acid (SA) excretions, and ileal villus morphology of 21-d-old broiler chickens and turkeys were determined. Overall, chickens grew faster and consumed more than turkeys throughout the study period. Dietary enzyme concentrations linearly increased the feed intake and weight gain of birds. The results were improved, on average, as follows: feed intake by 11.2 and 6.5%, gain by 10.2 and 13.2%, feed efficiency by 0 and 7.6%, AME by 1.4 and 5.7%, and AME intake by 13.1 and 9.8% for chickens and turkeys, respectively. The AME data were subject to a species x phytase interaction, whereby increasing the phytase dosage led to significant increments in parameters for turkeys but not broilers; broilers recovered significantly more energy from the ration than did turkeys. A quadratic relationship existed between dietary AME and phytase concentrations. Turkeys excreted more SA than did chickens in the absence of phytase, whereas supplementation with phytase (250 and 500 phytase units) reduced the excretion of SA in turkeys. Enzyme supplementation did not affect the ileal villus morphometry of the 2 species. We concluded that both species can tolerate phytase concentrations much higher than 1,000 phytase units and that these concentrations have further beneficial effects compared with lower phytase concentrations. The work reported here supports the hypothesis that supplementing turkey diets with phytase will need to be considered independently of chicken diets, considering the components in the diets, such that optimal responses can be obtained. ©2007 Poultry Science Association Inc.Chicken; Endogenous excretion; Performance; Phytase; TurkeyAves; Escherichia coli; Gallus gallus; Meleagris gallopavo; Zea mays; phytase; animal; animal food; animal husbandry; article; caloric intake; chicken; digestion; drug effect; energy metabolism; enzymology; Escherichia coli; intestine; physiology; poultry; turkey (bird); weight gain; 6-Phytase; Animal Feed; Animal Husbandry; Animals; Chickens; Digestion; Energy Intake; Energy Metabolism; Escherichia coli; Intestines; Poultry; Turkeys; Weight GainNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84900417099Thermal performance considerations for intelligent videoAlves R.2014EngineerITNoneAPRILNoneAxis Communications, South AfricaAlves, R., Axis Communications, South Africa[No abstract available]NoneNoneNone
WoSWOS:000340956400001Impact of health education intervention on knowledge and perception of cervical cancer and cervical screening uptake among adult women in rural communities in NigeriaAbiodun, Olumide A.,Olu-Abiodun, Oluwatosin O.,Oluwole, Francis A.,Sotunsa, John O.2014BMC PUBLIC HEALTH14None10.1186/1471-2458-14-814Babcock Univ, Olabisi Onabanjo Univ, Sch NursingNoneBackground: Cervical cancer is a disease of public health importance affecting many women and contributing to avoidably high levels of cancer deaths in Nigeria. In spite of the relative ease of prevention, the incidence is on the increase. This study aimed to determine the effect of health education on the awareness, knowledge and perception of cervical cancer and screening among women in rural Nigerian communities. Methods: The study design was quasi-experimental. The study was carried out among adult women in Odogbolu (intervention) and Ikenne (control) local government areas (LGA) of Ogun state. Three hundred and fifty (350) women were selected per group by multistage random sampling technique. Data was collected by semi structured interviews with the aid of questionnaire. The intervention consisted of structured health education based on a movie. Result: The intervention raised the level of awareness of cervical cancer and screening to 100% (p &lt; 0.0001). The proportion of women with very good knowledge of cervical cancer and screening rose from 2% to 70.5% (X-2 = 503.7, p &lt; 0.0001) while the proportion of those with good perception rose from 5.1% to 95.1% (p &lt; 0.0001). The mean knowledge and mean perception scores were also increased (p &lt; 0.0001). There was increase in the proportion of women who had undertaken cervical screening from 4.3% to 8.3% (p = 0.038). The major reason stated by the women for not having had cervical screening done was lack of awareness about cervical cancer and screening. There was statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups concerning their knowledge attitude and practice towards cervical and screening (p &lt; 0.05) after the intervention. Conclusion: Multiple media health education based on a movie is effective in creating awareness for and improving the knowledge and perception of adult women about cervical cancer and screening. It also improves the uptake of cervical cancer screening. The creation of awareness is very crucial to the success of a cervical cancer prevention programme.AWARENESS,"CERVICAL CANCER","CERVICAL SCREENING",KNOWLEDGE,movie,"Participatory health education",PERCEPTION,BREASTNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84938718507Influence of business information use on sales performance of SMEs in Lagos StateOjo A., Akinsunmi S., Olayonu O.2015Library Philosophy and Practice20151NoneBabcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, NigeriaOjo, A., Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria; Akinsunmi, S., Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria; Olayonu, O., Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, NigeriaSmall and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) are crucial drivers of every nation's economy. However, reports suggest SMEs in Nigeria have not performed creditably well in terms of sales. Hence, they are yet to contribute to a large extent to the economic growth and development of the country. Considering that business information is an indispensable resource in overall business performance, one is forced to question the availability and utilisation of business information by SME owners. This study examines the influence of business information use on the sales performance of SMEs in the information technology sector in Lagos State. Employing a survey research design, the study population comprised of 575 Computer and Allied Product Dealers Association of Nigeria (CAPDAN) registered SMEs in Computer Village of Lagos State. The stratified sampling technique was used to survey the responses of 181 SME owners who served as respondents in this study. A selfdeveloped questionnaire was used as the instrument of data collection. Frequency distribution, simple percentages, and regression analysis were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that SMEs obtained most of the information they use from newspapers and informal sources. Also revealed was that business information utilisation influences sales performance of SMEs (R = 0.36, R Square = .212, F<inf>1,161</inf> = 94.18, p < 0.05). The study concludes that business information use for SMEs sales performance is inevitable. However, use is predicated on availability. It is recommended that agencies in charge of SMEs in Nigeria should put more effort in ensuring formal information sources are made available to SME owners.Business information; Information availability; Information use; Sales performance; SMEsNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-79958810394Empirical analysis of impact of capital market development on Nigeria's economic growth (1981-2008) (case study: Nigerian stock exchange)Obiakor R.T., Okwu A.T.2011DLSU Business and Economics Review202NoneBabcock University, NigeriaObiakor, R.T., Babcock University, Nigeria; Okwu, A.T., Babcock University, NigeriaThis study empirically examined the impact of capital market development on economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1981-2008. The major tool we employed for empirical analysis is a multiple regression analysis model specified on the basis of hypothesized functional relationship between capital market development and economic growth. For capital market development indicators, we considered ratios of value of shares traded, market capitalization, gross capital formation and foreign private investment, to gross domestic product, as explanatory variables, while we used growth rate of gross domestic product as the dependent variable. We introduced an error correction term to capture the flexibility in adjustment to long-run equilibrium. We estimated the model via the ordinary least squares (OLS) techniques. Further, we evaluated the model using relevant statistics. The results showed that while market capitalization, gross capital formation, and foreign private investment individually exerted statistically significant impact on growth of the economy, value of shares traded exerted positive but statistically insignificant impact during the review period. However, the variables jointly exerted statistically significant impact on growth of the economy. In addition, the model exhibited a very high explanatory power and high flexibility in adjustment to long-run equilibrium. The variables time series were stationary at second difference, showed existence of long-run relationship between the two sets of variables, and exhibited stability for the study period. Based on the findings, the study recommended, among others, sustainable development of the capital market to enhance faster rates of capital accumulation for greater productivity gains and economic growth as well as the need to complement market development with real sector macroeconomic policy thrust like significant reduction in lending rates to stimulate investment and manufacturing activities in the real sector and translate capital market gains to real sector output growth. © 2011 De La Salle University, Philippines.Capital market; Development; Economic growthNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84856597389Evaluation and modification of off-host flea collection techniques used in northwest Uganda: Laboratory and field studiesBorchert J.N., Eisen R.J., Holmes J.L., Atiku L.A., Mpanga J.T., Brown H.E., Graham C.B., Babi N., Montenieri J.A., Enscore R.E., Gage K.L.2012Journal of Medical Entomology49110.1603/ME11045Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521, United States; Uganda Viral Research Institute, P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, UgandaBorchert, J.N., Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521, United States; Eisen, R.J., Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521, United States; Holmes, J.L., Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521, United States; Atiku, L.A., Uganda Viral Research Institute, P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda; Mpanga, J.T., Uganda Viral Research Institute, P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda; Brown, H.E., Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521, United States; Graham, C.B., Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521, United States; Babi, N., Uganda Viral Research Institute, P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda; Montenieri, J.A., Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521, United States; Enscore, R.E., Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521, United States; Gage, K.L., Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521, United StatesQuantifying the abundance of host-seeking fleas is critical for assessing risk of human exposure to flea-borne disease agents, including Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague. Yet, reliable measures of the efficacy of existing host-seeking flea collection methods are lacking. In this study, we compare the efficacy of passive and active methods for the collection of host-seeking fleas in both the laboratory and human habitations in a plague-endemic region of northwest Uganda. In the laboratory, lighted "Kilonzo" flea traps modified with either blinking lights, the creation of shadows or the generation of carbon dioxide were less efficient at collecting Xenopsylla cheopis Rothchild and Ctenocephalides felis Bouch fleas than an active collection method using white cotton socks or cotton flannel. Passive collection using Kilonzo light traps in the laboratory collected significantly more X. cheopis than C. felis and active collection, using white socks and flannel, collected significantly more C. felis than X. cheopis. In field studies conducted in Uganda, Kilonzo traps using a flashlight were similar in their collection efficacy to Kilonzo traps using kerosene lamps. However, in contrast to laboratory studies, Kilonzo flea traps using flashlights collected a greater number of fleas than swabbing. Within human habitations in Uganda, Kilonzo traps were especially useful for collecting C. felis, the dominant species found in human habitations in this area. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.Ctenocephalides felis; flea; flea trap; plague; Xenopsylla cheopisanimal; article; classification; flea; insect control; instrumentation; physiology; species difference; Uganda; Animals; Insect Control; Siphonaptera; Species Specificity; Uganda; Ctenocephalides; Ctenocephalides felis; Gossypium hirsutum; Siphonaptera (fleas); Xenopsylla; Xenopsylla cheopis; Yersinia pestisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-77956481702Evaluation of rodent bait containing imidacloprid for the control of fleas on commensal rodents in a plague-endemic region of Northwest UgandaBorchert J.N., Enscore R.E., Eisen R.J., Atiku L.A., Owor N., Acayo S., Babi N., Montenieri J.A., Gage K.L.2010Journal of Medical Entomology47510.1603/ME09221Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampait Road, Fort Collins, CO 80522, United States; Uganda Virus Research Institute, Plot 51-59 Nakiwongo, P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, UgandaBorchert, J.N., Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampait Road, Fort Collins, CO 80522, United States; Enscore, R.E., Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampait Road, Fort Collins, CO 80522, United States; Eisen, R.J., Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampait Road, Fort Collins, CO 80522, United States; Atiku, L.A., Uganda Virus Research Institute, Plot 51-59 Nakiwongo, P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda; Owor, N., Uganda Virus Research Institute, Plot 51-59 Nakiwongo, P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda; Acayo, S., Uganda Virus Research Institute, Plot 51-59 Nakiwongo, P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda; Babi, N., Uganda Virus Research Institute, Plot 51-59 Nakiwongo, P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda; Montenieri, J.A., Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampait Road, Fort Collins, CO 80522, United States; Gage, K.L., Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampait Road, Fort Collins, CO 80522, United StatesIn recent decades, the majority of human plague cases (caused by Yersinia pestis) have been reported from Africa. In an effort to reduce the risk of the disease in this area, we evaluated the efficacy of a host-targeted rodent bait containing the insecticide imidacloprid for controlling fleas on house-dwelling commensal rodents in a plague-endemic region of northwestern Uganda. Results demonstrated that the use of a palatable, rodent-targeted, wax-based bait cube was effective at reducing the prevalence of fleas on commensal rodents and flea burdens on these animals at day 7 postbait exposure, but lacked significant residual activity, allowing flea populations to rebound in the absence of additional bait applications. Our results indicate the use of a palatable host-targeted bait block containing imidacloprid was an effective technique for quickly reducing flea numbers on rodents in northwest Uganda and, thus, could be useful for lowering the potential risk of human flea bite exposures during plague outbreaks if applied continuously during the period of risk.ßea control; imidacloprid; plague; Rattus rattusimidacloprid; imidazole derivative; insecticide; nitro derivative; animal; animal disease; article; ectoparasitosis; flea; human; plague; rodent; rodent disease; Uganda; Animals; Ectoparasitic Infestations; Humans; Imidazoles; Insecticides; Nitro Compounds; Plague; Rodent Diseases; Rodentia; Siphonaptera; Uganda; Animalia; Pulex irritans; Rattus; Rattus rattus; Rodentia; Siphonaptera (fleas); Yersinia pestisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84899784472Evaluation of customised lineage-specific sets of MIRU-VNTR loci for genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in GhanaAsante-Poku A., Nyaho M.S., Borrell S., Comas I., Gagneux S., Yeboah-Manu D.2014PLoS ONE9310.1371/journal.pone.0092675Bacteriology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Biochemistry Department, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; Genomics and Health Unit, Centre for Public Health Research, Valencia, Spain; CIBER (Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Red) in Epidemiology and Public Health, Madrid, SpainAsante-Poku, A., Bacteriology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana, Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Nyaho, M.S., Bacteriology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana, Biochemistry Department, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; Borrell, S., Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Comas, I., Genomics and Health Unit, Centre for Public Health Research, Valencia, Spain, CIBER (Centros de Investigación Biomédica en Red) in Epidemiology and Public Health, Madrid, Spain; Gagneux, S., Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Yeboah-Manu, D., Bacteriology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, GhanaBackground: Different combinations of variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci have been proposed for genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Existing VNTR schemes show different discriminatory capacity among the six human MTBC lineages. Here, we evaluated the discriminatory power of a "customized MIRU12" loci format proposed previously by Comas et al. based on the standard 24 loci defined by Supply et al. for VNTR-typing of MTBC in Ghana. Method: One hundred and fifty-eight MTBC isolates classified into Lineage 4 and Lineage 5 were used to compare a customized lineage-specific panel of 12 MIRU-VNTR loci ("customized MIRU-12") to the standard MIRU-15 genotyping scheme. The resolution power of each typing method was determined based on the Hunter-Gaston- Discriminatory Index (HGDI). A minimal set of customized MIRU-VNTR loci for typing Lineages 4 (Euro-American) and 5 (M. africanum West African 1) strains from Ghana was defined based on the cumulative HGDI. Results and Conclusion: Among the 106 Lineage 4 strains, the customized MIRU-12 identified a total of 104 distinct genotypes consisting of 2 clusters of 2 isolates each (clustering rate 1.8%), and 102 unique strains while standard MIRU-15 yielded a total of 105 different genotypes, including 1 cluster of 2 isolates (clustering rate: 0.9%) and 104 singletons. Among, 52 Lineage 5 isolates, customized MIRU-12 genotyping defined 51 patterns with 1 cluster of 2 isolates (clustering rate: 0.9%) and 50 unique strains whereas MIRU-15 classified all 52 strains as unique. Cumulative HGDI values for customized MIRU-12 for Lineages 4 and 5 were 0.98 respectively whilst that of standard MIRU-15 was 0.99. A union of loci from the customised MIRU-12 and standard MIRU-15 revealed a set of customized eight highly discriminatory loci: 4052, 2163B, 40, 4165, 2165, 10,16 and 26 with a cumulative HGDI of 0.99 for genotyping Lineage 4 and 5 strains from Ghana. © 2014 Asante-Poku et al.Nonearticle; bacterial strain; bacterium isolation; controlled study; gene cluster; gene locus; genotype; Ghana; Hunter Gaston Discriminatory Index; Mycobacterium africanum; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; named inventories, questionnaires and rating scales; nonhuman; single nucleotide polymorphism; variable number of tandem repeat; clinical trial; epidemiology; genetics; genotype; human; isolation and purification; male; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; tuberculosis; Genotype; Ghana; Humans; Male; Minisatellite Repeats; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; TuberculosisNone
Scopus2-s2.0-57749181538Comparative field evaluation of two rapid immunochromatographic tests for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer)Michel A.L., Simões M.2009Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology1274237110.1016/j.vetimm.2008.09.025Bacteriology Section, ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag x05, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; UTAD (Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro) and ACD (Associacao Ciencia para o Desenvolviment, PortugalMichel, A.L., Bacteriology Section, ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag x05, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; Simões, M., UTAD (Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro) and ACD (Associacao Ciencia para o Desenvolviment, PortugalPanels of sera from African buffalo with confirmed bovine tuberculosis and from known uninfected controls were used to evaluate the performance of two commercial rapid chromatographic immunoassays (A and B) for the detection of antibodies to Mycobacterium bovis. The sensitivity was 33% and 23%, respectively, while the specificity was determined at 90% and 94%, respectively. Overall the performance of both diagnostic tests under field conditions was not found sufficiently high to support their use in bovine tuberculosis management and control strategies in South African game reserves. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.African buffalo; Bovine tuberculosis; Immunodiagnosis; Rapid testanimal experiment; animal model; article; buffalo; controlled study; diagnostic test; immunoassay; Mycobacterium bovis; nonhuman; sensitivity and specificity; serodiagnosis; Syncerus caffer; tuberculosis; Animals; Animals, Wild; Antibodies, Bacterial; Buffaloes; Case-Control Studies; Immunoassay; Mycobacterium bovis; Sensitivity and Specificity; South Africa; Tuberculosis; Bovinae; Mycobacterium bovis; Syncerus cafferNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84855438985On-farm evaluation and demonstration of different types of hay pressTeffera A., Tekeste S., Denekew Y.2012Livestock Research for Rural Development241NoneBahir Dar Agricultural Mechanization and Food Science Research Center, P.O. Box 133, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Andassa Livestock Research Center, P.O. Box: 27, Bahir Dar, EthiopiaTeffera, A., Bahir Dar Agricultural Mechanization and Food Science Research Center, P.O. Box 133, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Tekeste, S., Bahir Dar Agricultural Mechanization and Food Science Research Center, P.O. Box 133, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Denekew, Y., Andassa Livestock Research Center, P.O. Box: 27, Bahir Dar, EthiopiaHay is the oldest and most important conserved fodder. The aim of haymaking is to store feed for later on-farm use. Traditional haymaking practice in Ethiopia has many problems. Delayed or early harvesting, improper handling system during harvesting, transportation, and storage stages are identified as main causes of feed loss. This project is, therefore, intended to evaluate and demonstrate manual hay presses so as to assist users in haymaking and baling practice. Two hay press models, vertical and horizontal hay presses, were manufactured and after preliminary test, practical on field test was conducted at two sites. Besides, discussions were made with farmers and their opinions were recorded. The test result has shown that, the average pressing rate, bale density, and baling time of vertical hay press was 45.2 kg h-1, 86.5 kg m -3 and 14.1 min per piece. Likewise, similar parameters of the horizontal type were 36.9 kg hr-1, 72.3 kg m -3 and 17.4 min per piece, respectively. It was observed that most of the respondent farmers preferred vertical type press due to its lower energy requirement and better output. Therefore, the vertical hay press model is recommended for further promotion.Animal feed; Hay making; Mechanical hay pressAnimaliaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84888858013Evaluation and demonstration of direct solar potato dryerTefera A., Endalew W., Fikiru B.2013Livestock Research for Rural Development2512NoneBahir Dar Agricultural Mechanization and Food Science Research Centre, P.O. Box 133, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Food, Medicine and Health Care Administration and Control Authority of Ethiopia, P.O. Box 5681, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaTefera, A., Bahir Dar Agricultural Mechanization and Food Science Research Centre, P.O. Box 133, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Endalew, W., Bahir Dar Agricultural Mechanization and Food Science Research Centre, P.O. Box 133, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Fikiru, B., Food, Medicine and Health Care Administration and Control Authority of Ethiopia, P.O. Box 5681, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaThis study was conducted to evaluate the performance of two models of direct solar potato dryers and to demonstrate to farmers around potato producing areas, in Amhara Regional State. Wooden box dryer and Pyramid shape dryer models were evaluated. Dryers were compared with open sun drying methods. Temperature, relative humidity as well as the rate of moisture removal as expressed by loss-in-weight were recorded and analyzed. Results showed that on the average there was a 10-20 °C temperature difference between ambient condition and the drying chambers. Besides, the weight of sliced potato which was initially 0.90 kg was reduced to about 0.19 kg within two days. This showed an overall reduction in drying time by 2-3 hours compared to open sun drying. This result, however, was not perceived to be large enough under existing testing condition. But considering other benefits of the driers like protecting the drying material against contaminants, dust, and insects resulting in better quality product, this result is acceptable. On the other hand, comparing the performances of the two driers, Pyramid dryer was found better in creating more conducive drying environment with optimal temperature and lower relative humidity. Moreover, considering manufacturing costs, simplicity in design to manufacture in rural area from almost any kind of available building materials by locally available workmen, Pyramid dryer is better than Box dryer. Demonstration and practical training on the use of solar dryers and methods of food preparation out of the dried potato slices was provided for a group of farmers. Participant farmers actively participated in the potato menu preparation and informal sensory evaluation. They have showed high interest in diversified potato utilization as it enhances their feeding habits. This dryer was found suitable for drying small quantities (10-15 kg) of agricultural products which suits best for household level. Therefore, Pyramid (pyramid shape) dryer models should be recommended for further promotion.Dried potato; Dryer model; Farmers; Potato processingNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84940703988Evaluation of genetic parameters and growth traits of Hungarian Simmental cattle breedKebede D., Komlosi I.2015Livestock Research for Rural Development279NoneBahir Dar University College, Agriculture and Environmental Science, P.O. Box: 79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Debrecen University, P.O. Box: 36, Debrecen, HungaryKebede, D., Bahir Dar University College, Agriculture and Environmental Science, P.O. Box: 79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Komlosi, I., Debrecen University, P.O. Box: 36, Debrecen, HungaryA study was undertaken in Hungary with the objectives to evaluate Hungarian Simmental cattle growth traits and estimate genetic parameters. Calving ease, birth weight, weaning weight, weaning age, 205-day weight and average daily gain of Hungarian Simmental calves (n=6552, bulls=1479 , heifers=5073) were evaluated. The effects included in the model for the analysis of growth traits were sex (2 classes), birth year (13 classes), birth month (12 classes) and farm (8 classes). R software program was used to calculate variance analysis and least square means; PEST software was used for data file and pedigree file coding and VCE6 software was used for calculating heritablities and correlations. Sex, year, month and farm significantly influenced CE, BW, WW, WA, 205W and ADG (P<0.001). Birth month and sex of the calf significantly (p<0.05) influenced CE, BW, 205W and ADG. The estimated heritablities of WW, BW, ADG and 205W were 0.26, 0.16, 0.31 and 0.25, respectively. Genetic correlation among weaning weight, birth weight, average daily gain and 205-day weight were positive but with calving ease was negative. Weaning weight had strong genetic correlation with average daily gain (r=0.98). Calving ease also had negative genetic correlation with 205-day weight (r=-0.02). The phenotypic correlation of average daily gain and 205-day weight was strong (0.79). © 2015 Fundacion CIPAV. All rights reserved.Genetic correlation; Phenotypic correlation; Programmes and assessmentNoneNone
WoSWOS:000284282200007Impact of occupational health and safety on worker productivity: A case of Zimbabwe food industryGadzirayi, C. T.,Katsuro, P.,Mupararano, Suzanna,Taruwona, M.2010AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT413NoneBindura Univ Sci EducNoneThis research sought to assess the impact of occupational health safety ( OHS) on productivity in the commercial food industry. The objective of the study was to explore OHS problems of different work areas and their impact on productivity. The research targeted production supervisors, shop floor employees and industrial clinic nurses. Questionnaires, interviews and observations were used as research instruments to collect data. The study found out that OHS related problems negatively affect workers' productive capacity in the food industry resulting in reduced worker output. Workers develop a negative attitude and low morale towards work. High incidents of accidents at work also occur. The study recommends that food industry factories should upgrade their OHS through training programmes and use up-to-date equipment."Food factory","OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH",productivity.,SAFETYNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84947070662Evaluation of the efficacy of bleach routinely used in health facilities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in EthiopiaMekonnen D., Admassu A., Wassie B., Biadglegne F.2015Pan African Medical Journal21None10.11604/pamj.2015.21.317.5456Bahir Dar University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Department of Regional Mycobacteriology Laboratory, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Bahir Dar University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Ethiopia; Institute of Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, University of Leipzig, GermanyMekonnen, D., Bahir Dar University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Admassu, A., Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Department of Regional Mycobacteriology Laboratory, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Wassie, B., Bahir Dar University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Ethiopia; Biadglegne, F., Bahir Dar University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, University of Leipzig, GermanyIntroduction: In Ethiopia, the most widely used disinfectant is 5% Hypochlorites. However, Ethiopian national health safety and infection prevention guideline recommendation on the use of bleach is not consistent and varying from 0.1%-4%. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the effective time-concentration relationship of sodium hypochlorite against Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the absence of any organic load. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in Bahir Dar Regional laboratory from February-June 2013. Test suspensions of 1.5 X 108 CFU/ml prepared using normal saline containing 0.5% tween 80. From 5% stock, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% bleach was prepared. A 1ml of test strain suspension and 1ml of bleach mixed and allowed to stand until the specified time achieved, neutralized by 48 ml phosphate buffer. 100µl from the diluted sediment were spread on two L-J mediums and incubated at 37°C for 8 weeks. Results: When 0. 1% bleach was used for 10 min, majority 11/20 of isolates showed 3 x 103 CFU/ml growth (ME=4.4) which was inefficient. However, when the time increased, the log10 reduction was acceptable, ME &gt;5 and it was effective. The bleach solution containing 0.5% and above was effective in all respective times. In this study, there is no difference observed in the tuberculocidal activity of bleach against resistant and sensitive strains. Conclusion: Our study showed that in the absence of any organic load, 0.1% bleaches over 15 min and 0.5 % bleaches over 10 min was found to be tuberculocidal. © Daniel Mekonnen et al.Bleach; Efficacy; Ethiopia; M. tuberculosis; Organic loadbleaching agent; hypochlorite sodium; Article; bacterial growth; bacterial strain; bactericidal activity; bacterium isolate; controlled study; disinfection; dose time effect relation; Ethiopia; growth inhibition; health care facility; infection prevention; instrument sterilization; laboratory; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; nonhuman; pH; temperature sensitivity; water temperatureNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84940056879Effect of short chain iodoalkane solvent additives on photovoltaic performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and phenyl-C<inf>61</inf>-butyric acid methyl ester based bulk heterojunction solar cellsHailegnaw B., Adam G., Yohannes T.2015Thin Solid Films589None10.1016/j.tsf.2015.05.038Bahir Dar University, College of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Dilla University, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 419, Dilla, Ethiopia; Addis Ababa University, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 1179, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaHailegnaw, B., Bahir Dar University, College of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Adam, G., Dilla University, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 419, Dilla, Ethiopia; Yohannes, T., Addis Ababa University, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 1179, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaIn this work the effect of short chain iodoalkane solvent additives such as iodobutane, iodoethane, diiodomethane and iodomethane on the photovoltaic parameters of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C<inf>61</inf>-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) (1:1) based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells was studied in an ambient air conditions. Devices processed in 2% (v/v) of diiodomethane, iodobutane and iodoethane showed improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.40, 2.29 and 2.04%, respectively as compared to the efficiency of pristine (without additive) devices (1.93%), while devices made using iodomethane exhibit PCE of 1.66%. The UV-vis absorption spectra of devices showed that the presence of these additives results the growth of enhanced local structure with improved crystalline and order of P3HT domain. Furthermore, UV-vis absorption response of the solar cells before and after soaked in the aforementioned solvents indicates that each additive has selective solubility for PCBM except iodomethane in which both P3HT and PCBM showed solubility. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.Bulk heterojunction; Iodoalkane; Phase separation; Selective dissolution; Solvent additiveAdditives; Butyric acid; Carrier mobility; Chains; Esters; Heterojunctions; Phase separation; Photovoltaic effects; Solar power generation; Solubility; Solvents; Ultraviolet spectroscopy; Bulk heterojunction; Bulk heterojunction (BHJ); Bulk heterojunction solar cells; Iodoalkane; Power conversion efficiencies; Selective dissolution; Solvent additives; UV-VIS absorption spectra; Solar cellsNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84948771504Higher breastfeeding performance index is associated with lower risk of illness in infants under six months in EthiopiaHaile D., Biadgilign S.2015International Breastfeeding Journal10110.1186/s13006-015-0057-2Bahir Dar University, Department of Reproductive Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Independent Public Health Research Consultants, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaHaile, D., Bahir Dar University, Department of Reproductive Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; Biadgilign, S., Independent Public Health Research Consultants, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Breastfeeding performance index is an explanatory attempt to summarize key breastfeeding practices by summarizing the different dimensions of breastfeeding practices into a single summary variable. Breastfeeding performance index is used to assess optimal breastfeeding practices by constructing a single composite index that includes timely initiation of breastfeeding, prelacteal feeding, current breastfeeding status, bottle feeding, any liquid given(except medicine) in the last 24h, formula given in the last 24h, any solid food given in the last 24h. This study aimed to assess optimal breastfeeding practices of 0-6 month infants using breastfeeding performance index (BPI) and its association with childhood illness in Ethiopia. Methods: A secondary data analysis was carried out based on the Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2011 data. The BPI was created using seven components by giving equal weight for all components during scoring. The data were described using descriptive statistics and analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of low, medium, and high BPI was 18.41, 57.96 and 23.63% respectively. The mean BPI score was 4.38 (SD 1.25; 95% CI 4.31, 4.45). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that those infants who had low BPI score were 2.22 times (AOR=2.22; 95% CI 1.20, 4.11) and medium BPI category had 2.15 times at higher odds (AOR=2.15; 95% CI 1.23, 3.75) of developing diarrhea compared to infants in the highest BPI category. Being in the lower BPI category was significantly associated with higher odds of having fever (AOR=1.73; 95% CI 1.06, 2.80). Being in the medium index category was also associated with higher odds of having short and rapid breaths (AOR=2.02; 95% CI 1.01, 4.04). Conclusion: More than 80% of the infants did not receive optimal breastfeeding practices based on the Breastfeeding Performance Index. Lower BPI was statistically associated with diarrhea, fever and short and rapid breaths illness in the last 2 weeks. This study implicates the importance of optimal breastfeeding to reduce childhood illness. © 2015 Haile and Biadgilign.Breastfeeding; DHS; Ethiopia; Index; InfantsNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84879584016Enhancing self-regulated learning in teaching spoken communication: Does it affect speaking efficacy and performance?Aregu B.B.2013Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching101NoneBahir Dar University, EthiopiaAregu, B.B., Bahir Dar University, EthiopiaThe study examines the effects of enhancing self-regulated learning in the teaching of spoken communication on speaking efficacy and performances among second year students attending spoken and written communication lessons in the College of Business and Economics of Bahir Dar University. In this study, two sections consisting of 91 participants were included. To gather data, scales, tests, and diaries were used. Descriptive statistics, paired t-test, independent samples t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were applied to analyze the quantitative data. On the other hand, the qualitative data were analysed using such steps as looking for themes and coding, categorizing codes of similar content, and writing summary and interpretation. The outputs of the ANCOVA show that 56% of the variance in speaking performance and 39% of the variance in speaking efficacy are accounted for by the self-regulated learning intervention controlling for initial differences. The qualitative analysis also indicated that the experimental group improved its speaking efficacy and performances. Overall, the results reveal that the experimental group surpasses the control group in both speaking efficacy and performances. The results imply that attention needs to be paid to the enhancement of self-regulated learning in the process of teaching spoken communication. © Centre for Language Studies National University of Singapore.NoneNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-37349029400Environmental influences on pre-weaning growth performances and mortality rates of extensively managed Somali goats in Eastern EthiopiaZeleke Z.M.2007Livestock Research for Rural Development1912NoneBahir Dar University, PO Box 1866, Bahir Dar, EthiopiaZeleke, Z.M., Bahir Dar University, PO Box 1866, Bahir Dar, EthiopiaRecords of 326 Somali goats born from 1994 to 2004 in eastern Ethiopia were used to assess effects of major environmental factors on growth and survival traits. Year of birth had significant effect (P<0.01) on birth weight, pre-weaning daily weight gain and weaning weight of kids. Male kids had higher (P<0.01) birth weight (3.35±0.18kg vs. 3.04±0.18kg), pre-weaning daily weight gain (61.60±7.06g vs. 55.87±7.15g) and weaning weight (12.27±0.89kg vs. 11.10±0.91kg) than female kids. Kids born from fifth parity dams had the least birth weight (2.98±0.23kg) and the highest pre-weaning mortality rate (33.33%) than those born from dams younger than fifth parity. Similarly, single born kids had heavier birth weight (3.17±0.06kg vs. 2.30± 0.20kg), higher pre-weaning daily weight gain (55.80±2.22g vs. 47.31±7.92g), higher weaning weight (11.47±0.28kg vs. 9.50±1.00kg) and less pre-weaning mortality rate (8.78 vs. 42.86%) than twin born kids. Similarly, mortality rate was found to be the highest (75%) in kids weighing <1.5kg. Improving feeding management for pregnant and lactating dams to assure moderate birth weight and adequate quantity of milk for twin born kids, and stringent culling practice of dams beyond fourth parity can be suggested to improve the productivity of Somali goats.Birth type; Birth weight; Parity; Season; Sex; Weaning weightCapra hircusNone
Scopus2-s2.0-80051509837Comparative reproductive performance of Horro (Zebu) with Horro x Friesian and Horro x Jersey females in sub humid environments of BakoKebede G., Kebede M., Midexa T., Eshetu S.2011Livestock Research for Rural Development238NoneBako Agricultural Research Center, P. O.Box 3, Bako, EthiopiaKebede, G., Bako Agricultural Research Center, P. O.Box 3, Bako, Ethiopia; Kebede, M., Bako Agricultural Research Center, P. O.Box 3, Bako, Ethiopia; Midexa, T., Bako Agricultural Research Center, P. O.Box 3, Bako, Ethiopia; Eshetu, S., Bako Agricultural Research Center, P. O.Box 3, Bako, EthiopiaReproductive traits of Horro and their crosses with Friesian and Jersey females were compared. Two thousand nine hundred thirty three, 282 and 280 data of Horro, Horro-Friesian and Horro-Jersey cows; 1804 and 1691 data for dry and wet seasons; 1716 and 1755 data of breeding by bull and artificial insemination respectively were used in the study. Horro cows had mean intervals from calving to first heat of 72.4 days (range 15-253) and from calving to conception 119.2 days (range 57-317). Similarly Horro x Friesian cows had mean intervals from calving to first heat of 77.8 days (range 17-247) and from calving to conception 123 days (range 66-277). Horro X Jersey cows had mean intervals from calving to first heat of 66.3 days (range 16-216) and from calving to conception 108.6 days (range 43-285). No significant differences were found between the breeds in the number of services per conception, gestation length and days to conception. However Horro X Jersey crosses had the shortest interval to first heat and days open and required less number of services per conception than the other breeds. Calving to first service interval did not vary among breeds. The influence of season of calving on the number of services per conception and days open was significant (p<0.05). Significant differences (p<0.05) were also found between the two breeding types, artificial insemination and bull, in the number of services per conception. The number of services per conception for cows served by bull and artificial insemination were 1.76 and 2.09 respectively.Crossbred cows; Reproductive traits; Zebu cowsBos indicus; FriesiaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-23944469924An evaluation of library automation in some Ghanaian university librariesAmekuedee J.-O.2005Electronic Library23410.1108/02640470510611508Balme Library, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; University of Oslo, Oslo, NorwayAmekuedee, J.-O., Balme Library, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana, University of Oslo, Oslo, NorwayPurpose - The study was undertaken to find out which library processes have been automated in Ghana's three older public university libraries namely, the Balme Library, the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Library and the University of Cape Coast (UCC) Library. Design/methodology/approach - Using data obtained through the use of questionnaires, the study examined areas of general automation, automation of specific library processes, networking, internet connectivity, training, and major constraints to library automation. Findings - The study found out that even though the university libraries realize the importance of library automation, they are hampered by lack of funds, lack of support from the university administrations, and lack of skilled staff to embark on automation of all library processes. It was also revealed that none of the libraries have on OPAC (online public access catalogue). Originality/value - The study concludes with recommendations that would enhance the university libraries drive towards automation of their library processes and ensure effective and efficient use of the new technology to raise the image of the libraries and give their library clients more services. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Automation; Ghana; Internet; Libraries; UniversitiesDeveloping countries; Information technology; Internet; Office automation; Online searching; Statistical methods; Ghana; Online public access catalogue; University libraries; Digital librariesNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84873350859Statistical analysis of the performance of microfinance institutions: The Ethiopian caseAnduanbessa T.2009Savings and Development332NoneBank of Abyssinia S.C., Addis Ababa, EthiopiaAnduanbessa, T., Bank of Abyssinia S.C., Addis Ababa, EthiopiaNowadays governments and many development agents pay great attention to the development of Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) with the belief that they are able to alleviate poverty in a very shot time. This paper tried to give statistical insight in measuring the performance of MFIs in Ethiopia and the determinants of their performance. A cross-sectional data from 2006 fiscal calendar balance sheet of 26 MFIs in the country is used to carry out the study. Factor analysis (FA) of performance indicators revealed that the deposit mobilized from clients, the number of active borrowers, and the gross loan portfolio load high on one component, establishing the outreach performance dimension of the MFIs in the country. On the other hand, profit margin, OSS, return on asset and gross loan portfolio-to-total asset ratio load high on the other component, establishing the financial sustainability dimension. In order to identify the determinants of the performance of the MFIs, a seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) model was fitted on the outreach and sustainability dimension scores synthesized by FA. The number/ types of financial services rendered, the number of staff per branch and their capital are found to determine the outreach performance of the MFIs in the country. It was also noted that capital has an adverse impact on the outreach efforts of the MFIs. Moreover, the financial viability of the MFIs is found to be highly determined by the average amount of loans disbursed to individuals, the financial revenue ratio and the cost per borrower ratio.Factor analysis (FA); Microfinance Institutions (MFIs); Outreach; Seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) model; SustainabilityNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84897143998The impact of financial structure on profitability of firms: A cross-sectional industry analysis of Nigerian quoted firmsEkumankama O.O.2011Corporate Ownership and Control91 ENoneBanking and Finance Department, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, African Institute of Applied Economics, NigeriaEkumankama, O.O., Banking and Finance Department, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, African Institute of Applied Economics, NigeriaThis study empirically examines the impact of financial structure decision on the profitability of Nigerian quoted firms. Cross-sectional time series data of 72 Nigerian quoted firms were collated and analysed. Two hypotheses were proposed for the study, while the ordinary least square (OLS), fixed effects (FE) and the gerneralised least square (GLS) regression were used on pooled and panel data to estimate the relationship between financial leverage and the different measures of profitability in Nigeria quoted firms. In determining the extent of the influence of leverage on the dependent variables, most of the industrial groups showed evidence of sizable positive influence of leverage on profitability and earnings yield. This was significant and robust with all the measures of leverage.Cross-sectional analysis; Finance; Listed firms; NigeriaNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-61749094806Internalisation and firm performance: Evidence from estimates of efficiency in banking in Namibia and TanzaniaOkeahalam C.C.2008Journal of International Development20710.1002/jid.1455BAR, AGH Group, Private Bag X9, Benmore 2010 Johannesburg, South AfricaOkeahalam, C.C., BAR, AGH Group, Private Bag X9, Benmore 2010 Johannesburg, South AfricaThis paper assesses and compares the impact of internationalisation on the economic performance of firms in the banking sector in Namibia and Tanzania. With the aid of financial ratios and econometric analysis, measures of efficiency are used as proxies for overall economic performance and comparisons are made. In Namibia, the market is more concentrated than in Tanzania, all the foreign banks are fromone country, and they have had a presence in the country for a long time. In Tanzania, the market is less concentrated than in Namibia, foreign entry is from a number of countries and has been more recent. The study finds that in Namibia, all the foreign banks are larger but more inefficient than domestically owned banks. In Tanzania, foreign banks are more efficient than domestic banks. These results suggest that the generation of foreign entry and industry structure are significant determinants of positive spillovers of internationalisation. They also indicate that the type of foreign entrant, not, just foreign entry determines the impact on efficiency and the competitive landscape. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Banking; Competition; Effciency; Internationalisation; Namibia; Performance; Tanzaniabanking; competition (economics); competitiveness; globalization; technical efficiency; Africa; East Africa; Namibia; Southern Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; TanzaniaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84864568925Perceptions of Threat Risk Frequency and Impact on Construction Projects in Ghana: Opinion survey findingsChileshe N., Boadua A., Yirenkyi-Fianko2011Journal of Construction in Developing Countries162NoneBarbara Hardy Institute (BHI), School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIPMA), Achimota, Accra, GhanaChileshe, N., Barbara Hardy Institute (BHI), School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; Boadua, A., Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIPMA), Achimota, Accra, Ghana; Yirenkyi-Fianko, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIPMA), Achimota, Accra, GhanaThreat risks are experienced by all stakeholders in a construction project. Although the nature of these risks is understood, less is known about their likelihood of occurrence and potential impact. This study explored these elements of risk by using an opinion survey approach to collect data from 103 professionals (clients, consultants and contractors) in the Ghanaian construction industry. Significant differences were found between the perceptions of these sub-groups regarding the likelihood of occurrence of threat risks in five categories: construction method; price inflation; exceptional weather; ground conditions and site contamination; and poor communication among the project team. The contractors rated 'construction methods' higher than did the clients, and they also rated 'exceptional weather' higher than either the clients or the consultants. On the other hand, consultants rated 'price inflation' higher than the clients. Significant differences between the sub-groups were also found regarding the potential impact of the threat risk of price fluctuation. The consultants rated the 'price fluctuation' threat risk higher than either the contractors or the clients. These findings suggest that despite the existence of remedial strategies to protect some of the stakeholders from these risks, there is a fear of being blacklisted, thus compromising future opportunities (especially among contractors) should legal action be taken to redress the identified problems (such as such delayed payments). The following implications are drawn: One of the suggested recourses is the introduction of bespoke rather than standard contracts, as these might introduce contract flaws and contribute towards helping the project stakeholders monitor these potential risks and take appropriate action. © Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2011.Construction industry; Ghana; Opinion survey; Project risk factorsNoneNone
Scopus2-s2.0-84880895145Synthesis and biological evaluation of a post-synthetically modified Trp-based diketopiperazinePreciado S., Mendive-Tapia L., Torres-García C., Zamudio-Vázquez R., Soto-Cerrato V., Pérez-Tomás R., Albericio F., Nicolás E., Lavilla R.2013MedChemComm4810.1039/c3md20353kBarcelona Science Park, Baldiri Reixac 10-12, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Barcelona Science Park, Baldiri Reixac 10-12, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Martí I Franqués 1-11, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; CIBER-BBN, Networking Centre on Bioengineering Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, Barcelona Science Park, Baldiri Reixac 10, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Department of Patology and Experimental Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Feixa Llarga s/n, Pavelló de Govern. 08907 L'Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain; School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 4001-Durban, South Africa; Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Avda. Joan XXII s.n., 08028 Barcelona, SpainPreciado, S., Barcelona Science Park, Baldiri Reixac 10-12, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Mendive-Tapia, L., Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Barcelona Science Park, Baldiri Reixac 10-12, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Torres-García, C., Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Martí I Franqués 1-11, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Zamudio-Vázquez, R., Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Barcelona Science Park, Baldiri Reixac 10-12, 08028 Barcelona, Spain, CIBER-BBN, Networking Centre on Bioengineering Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, Barcelona Science Park, Baldiri Reixac 10, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Soto-Cerrato, V., Department of Patology and Experimental Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Feixa Llarga s/n, Pavelló de Govern. 08907 L'Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain; Pérez-Tomás, R., Department of Patology and Experimental Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Feixa Llarga s/n, Pavelló de Govern. 08907 L'Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain; Albericio, F., Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Barcelona Science Park, Baldiri Reixac 10-12, 08028 Barcelona, Spain, Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Martí I Franqués 1-11, 08028 Barcelona, Spain, CIBER-BBN, Networking Centre on Bioengineering Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, Barcelona Science Park, Baldiri Reixac 10, 08028 Barcelona, Spain, School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 4001-Durban, South Africa; Nicolás, E., Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Martí I Franqués 1-11, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Lavilla, R., Barcelona Science Park, Baldiri Reixac 10-12, 08028 Barcelona, Spain, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Avda. Joan XXII s.n., 08028 Barcelona, SpainA series of C2-arylated analogues of the diketopiperazine brevianamide F has been synthesized using a mild Pd-catalyzed CH-activation procedure. Biological evaluation of the new derivatives in different cell lines shows that this modification is responsible for the remarkable change in activity, turning a mild antibiotic and antifungal natural product (brevianamide F) into novel antitumoral compounds. Furthermore, the approach stated represents a new straightforward and versatile methodology with promising applications in peptidomimetics and medicinal chemistry. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.Noneantineoplastic agent; brevianamide F derivative; puromycin; unclassified drug; antineoplastic activity; antiproliferative activity; article; arylation; breast adenocarcinoma; cancer cell culture; catalysis; chemical modification; colon adenocarcinoma; controlled study; drug cytotoxicity; drug mechanism; drug potency; drug screening; drug structure; drug synthesis; human; human cell; lung carcinoma; priority journal; stereoisomerism; uterine cervix carcinomaNone
Scopus2-s2.0-73949140661Impact of silica on hydrometallurgical and mechanical properties of RIP grade resins for uranium recoveryYahorava V., Scheepers J., Kotze M.H., Auerswald D.2009Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy10910NoneBateman Engineering, South AfricaYahorava, V.; Scheepers, J.; Kotze, M.H.; Auerswald, D., Bateman Engineering, South AfricaResin-in-pulp (RIP) technology has recently often been considered for the direct recovery of base metals and uranium from dense pulps. Implementation of RIP will eliminate the requirement for any solid-liquid separation downstream of leaching and has the potential to combine the recovery and purification steps, hence reducing both capital and operating costs. The recovery of the valuable metal is expected to be higher when RIP is used, especially where the leached solids are difficult to settle or filter, and to wash. The main concerns about the use of RIP for uranium recovery from dense pulps are the impact of silica on the resin's metallurgical performance and the operating costs that would be associated with resin loss. Although a number of resin manufacturers have been developing much improved RIP-grade resins, it is critical that the most cost-effective resin be selected. Mintek currently is doing a significant amount of work on silica fouling of RIP-grade strongbase resins in acidic leach liquors and the effect it has on the performance of the resin, including its durability. This paper describes the results of the test work done on silica fouling and its impact on plant design input data. Resin durability test work was done using various laboratory techniques, but durability was also evaluated on a relatively large scale using actual pumps, screens, and mechanical a