Cultural Bases for Self-Evaluation: Seeing Oneself Positively in Different Cultural Contexts
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
University of Sussex, United Kingdom; Polytechnic University of Hong Kong, China; Catholic University of Milan, Italy; Sultan Qaboos University, Oman; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain; Federal University of Paraíba, Brazil; Yasar University, Turkey; Bilkent University, Turkey; Federal University of Pará, Brazil; Universidad de Los Andes, Colombia; Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines; Salgado de Oliveira University, Brazil; Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium; Université de Lorraine, France; Chinese University of Hong Kong, China; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary; American University of Beirut, Lebanon; University of Gdansk, Poland; University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; University of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia; Free University of Tbilisi, Georgia; West University of Timisoara, Romania; University of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa; University of Tartu, Estonia; Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QH, United Kingdom
Several theories propose that self-esteem, or positive self-regard, results from fulfilling the value priorities of one's surrounding culture. Yet, surprisingly little evidence exists for this assertion, and theories differ about whether individuals must personally endorse the value priorities involved. We compared the influence of four bases for self-evaluation (controlling one's life, doing one's duty, benefitting others, achieving social status) among 4,852 adolescents across 20 cultural samples, using an implicit, within-person measurement technique to avoid cultural response biases. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed that participants generally derived feelings of self-esteem from all four bases, but especially from those that were most consistent with the value priorities of others in their cultural context. Multilevel analyses confirmed that the bases of positive self-regard are sustained collectively: They are predictably moderated by culturally normative values but show little systematic variation with personally endorsed values. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
adolescent; cultural anthropology; cultural factor; female; human; male; questionnaire; self concept; self evaluation; Adolescent; Cross-Cultural Comparison; Culture; Female; Humans; Male; Questionnaires; Self Concept; Self-Assessment
RES-062-23-1300, ESRC, Economic and Social Research Council