A logical framework for monitoring and evaluation: A pragmatic approach to M&E
Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
University of South Africa, UNISA, South Africa
The following article discusses theoretical approaches to Monitoring and Evaluation that over time come to be streamlined and modified for implementation in the real world. Logical Frameworks (logframes) and pragmatic approaches to Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) frequently facilitate the need to modify processes that can be used in instances where there are limited resources, limited financial capital and limited human capital to determine whether programmes and projects have had an impact. The practice of M&E often moves from detailed log frames being used for measuring impact, to the implementation of orderly pragmatic approaches and finally resorting to utilizing simple fundamental principles of M&E that entail identifying measureable objectives, performance measurement indicators, targets and periodic reporting. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), for example, offers a detailed framework for insuring that intervention logic is measured in terms of verifiable indicators. The framework, however, requires the establishment of a means of verification to determine whether activities are being accomplished and outputs are being achieved. An alternative to such a detailed approach is to assess the risk of projects and programmes, and then report on the likelihood or unlikelihood of objectives being achieved. In the case of limited resources, the organization should at the least report on measureable objectives in terms of performance indicators. This paper concludes by emphasizing that no matter what approach is used in monitoring and evaluation, establishing targets is necessary in order to conduct meaningful Monitoring and Evaluation for impact.