Performance comparison and economics analysis of waste stabilization ponds and horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater: A case study of the Juja sewage treatment works
Journal of Environmental Management
UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, P.O. Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft, Netherlands; Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 190, 50100 Kakamega, Kenya; University College West Flanders, EnBiChem Research Group, Graaf Karel de Goedelaan 5, 8500 Kortrijk, Belgium; Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent, Belgium
The performance, effluent quality, land area requirement, investment and operation costs of a full-scale waste stabilization pond (WSP) and a pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) were investigated between November 2010 to January 2011. Both systems gave comparable medium to high levels of organic matter and suspended solids removal. However, the WSP showed a better removal for Total Phosphorus (TP) and Ammonium (NH4 +-N). Based on the population equivalent calculations, the land area requirement per person equivalent of the WSP system was 3 times the area that would be required for the HSSF-CW to treat the same amount of wastewater. The total annual cost estimates consisting of capital, operation and maintenance (O&M) costs were comparable for both systems. However, the evaluation of the capital cost of either system showed that it is largely influenced by the size of the population served, local cost of land and the construction materials involved. Hence, one can select either system in terms of treatment efficiency. When land is available other factor including the volume of wastewater or the investment, and O&M costs determine the technology selection. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
ammonia; organic matter; phosphorus; comparative study; constructed wetland; domestic waste; economic analysis; optimization; performance assessment; pollutant removal; pond; sewage treatment; spatiotemporal analysis; stabilization; subsurface flow; wastewater; article; constructed wetland; cost; domestic wastewater; environmental economics; pond; sewage; sewage treatment; suspended particulate matter; waste; waste water; waste water management; Economics; Horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands; Performance; Waste stabilization ponds; Ammonium Compounds; Costs and Cost Analysis; Humans; Kenya; Phosphorus; Ponds; Population Density; Waste Disposal, Fluid; Waste Water; Water Pollutants, Chemical; Water Quality; Wetlands