Evaluation of interceptor long-lasting insecticidal nets in eight communities in Liberia
Uganda Malaria Surveillance Project, PO Box 7475, Kampala, Uganda; Malaria Consortium, Development House, 56-64 Leonard Street, London EC2A 4LT, United Kingdom; MENTOR Initiative, La Prade, 11150 Villasavary, France
Background. By 2008, the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) recommended five long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) for the prevention of malaria: Olyset®, PermaNet 2.0®, Netprotect®, Duranet® and Interceptor®. Field information is available for both Olyset® and PermaNet®, with limited data on the newer LLINs. To address this gap, a field evaluation was carried out to determine the acceptability and durability of Interceptor® LLINs. Methods. A one-year prospective field study was conducted in eight rural returnee villages in Liberia. Households were randomized to receive Interceptor® LLINs or conventionally treated nets (CTNs). Primary outcomes were levels of residual alpha-cypermethrin measured by HPLC and participant utilization/acceptability of the ITNs. Results. A total of 398 nets were analysed for residual alpha-cypermethrin. The median baseline concentrations of insecticide were 175.5 mg/m2 for the Interceptor® LLIN and 21.8 mg/m2 for the CTN. Chemical residue loss after a one year follow-up period was 22% and 93% respectively. Retention and utilization of nets remained high (94%) after one year, irrespective of type, while parasitaemia prevalence decreased from 29.7% at baseline to 13.6% during the follow up survey (p = < 0.001). Interview and survey data show perceived effectiveness of ITNs was just as important as other physical attributes in influencing net utilization. Conclusion. Interceptor® LLINs are effective and desirable in rural communities in Liberia. Consideration for end user preferences should be incorporated into product development of all LLINs in the future, in order to achieve optimum retention and utilization. © 2010 Banek et al.
insecticide; cipermethrin; pesticide residue; pyrethroid; article; bed net; clinical trial; controlled clinical trial; controlled study; follow up; health survey; high performance liquid chromatography; human; Liberia; major clinical study; malaria; outcome assessment; parasitemia; randomized controlled trial; semi structured interview; adult; consumer; family size; female; infant; information processing; male; methodology; mosquito; patient attitude; preschool child; prospective study; risk; rural population; statistics; Adult; Child, Preschool; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid; Consumer Participation; Family Characteristics; Female; Focus Groups; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Infant; Insecticide-Treated Bednets; Insecticides; Liberia; Malaria; Male; Mosquito Control; Patient Acceptance of Health Care; Pesticide Residues; Prospective Studies; Pyrethrins; Risk; Rural Population