Prevalence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in drinking water and its predicted impact on diarrhoeic HIV/AIDS patients in the Amathole District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
Tshwane University of Technology, Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Science, Arcadia Campus, P/Bag X680, Pretoria 0002, South Africa; Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, P/Bag x 1314, Alice 5700, South Africa
Immunosuppressed persons such as HIV/AIDS patients are at risk of acquiring diarrhoeal infections from water-borne E. coli O157:H7. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in drinking water collected from selected distribution systems within the Amathole District of the Eastern Cape and its predicted impact on diarrhoeic conditions of HIV/AIDS persons living in this area. One hundred and eighty water samples and 360 stool swabs from confirmed and nonconfirmed HIV/AIDS diarrhoeic patients were analysed. Escherichia coli O157:H7 were isolated using enrichment culture and confirmed using molecular techniques. Of the 180 drinking water samples, 46 (25.56%) were positive for E. coli O157. The prevalence of E. coli O157 in the stools was at 36.39% (131/360) of which 56.5% (74/131) and 43.5% (57/131) were from stools of confirmed and non-confirmed HIV/AIDS patients, respectively. Molecular analysis of 27, 25 and 29 representative presumptive E. coli O157 from water and stools of confirmed and non-confirmed HIV/AIDS patients, respectively, revealed that 14.81%, 36% and 17.24% of the isolates were E. coli O157:H7. The findings predicted a possible link between E. coli O157:H7 isolated from drinking water and diarrhoeic conditions of both confirmed and non-confirmed HIV/AIDS patients visiting Frere Hospital for treatment.
Escherichia coli; Forecasting; Risk assessment; Water analysis; Water pollution; Water treatment; Distribution systems; Drinking water; E. coli; E. coli O157:H7; Enrichment cultures; Escherichia coli O157:H7; Escherichia coli O157:H7 and PCR; HIV/AIDS; Molecular analysis; Molecular techniques; Prevalence; South Africa; Stool specimens; Water samples; Water-borne; Potable water; acquired immune deficiency syndrome; bacterium; diarrheal disease; disease treatment; drinking water; feces; health risk; human immunodeficiency virus; molecular analysis; Africa; Amathole; Eastern Cape; South Africa; Southern Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; Escherichia coli