Diagnosis, evaluation, and management of acute kidney injury: A KDIGO summary (Part 1)
The Crisma Center, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 604 Scaife Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, United States; Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, Ghent B9000, Belgium; Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Cairo University, Egypt; University of São Paulo, Brazil; Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, OH, United States; Hennepin County Medical Center, MN, United States; Medical University Innsbruck, Austria; University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany; Tufts University, MA, United States; University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom; University of California, San Diego, CA, United States; University College Dublin, Ireland; University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa; Brown University, RI, United States; Heidelberg University Hospital, Germany; University of Leuven, Belgium; Jikei University, School of Medicine, Japan
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious problem affecting millions and causing death and disability for many. In 2012, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes completed the first ever, international, multidisciplinary, clinical practice guideline for AKI. The guideline is based on evidence review and appraisal, and covers AKI definition, risk assessment, evaluation, prevention, and treatment. In this review we summarize key aspects of the guideline including definition and staging of AKI, as well as evaluation and nondialytic management. Contrast-induced AKI and management of renal replacement therapy will be addressed in a separate review. Treatment recommendations are based on systematic reviews of relevant trials. Appraisal of the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations followed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Limitations of the evidence are discussed and a detailed rationale for each recommendation is provided. © 2013 BioMed Central Ltd.
albumin; amiloride plus hydrochlorothiazide; aminoglycoside; amphotericin; contrast medium; creatinine; dopamine; fenoldopam mesilate; furosemide; hetastarch; hypertensive factor; insulin; interleukin 18; mannitol; nesiritide; noradrenalin; rolofylline; theophylline; creatine; diuretic agent; glucose blood level; vasoconstrictor agent; vasodilator agent; acute kidney failure; article; blood cell count; burn; contrast induced nephropathy; creatinine blood level; disease severity; fluid resuscitation; follow up; glycemic control; heart surgery; human; hyperglycemia; insulin treatment; kidney function; oxygenation; practice guideline; priority journal; prognosis; renal protection; renal replacement therapy; risk assessment; sepsis; shock; urea nitrogen blood level; urine volume; Acute Kidney Injury; analysis; blood; decision support system; fluid therapy; glucose blood level; nutritional support; off pump coronary surgery; practice guideline; urine; Acute Kidney Injury; Blood Glucose; Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump; Creatine; Decision Support Techniques; Diuretics; Fluid Therapy; Humans; Nutritional Support; Practice Guidelines as Topic; Risk Assessment; Vasoconstrictor Agents; Vasodilator Agents