Murky water: Analyzing risk perception and stakeholder vulnerability related to sewage impacts in mangroves of East Africa
Global Environmental Change
The Center for the Study of Institutional Diversity, School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, United States; Dept. Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Sweden; Institute of Marine Science, Zanzibar, Tanzania; Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, Kenya; Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Department of Biological Sciences, Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Mozambique
Coastal cities in East Africa are growing rapidly and consequently there is a rapid increase in urban sewage production, putting added pressure on already strained treatment systems. As a result, peri-urban mangroves are receiving extensive amounts of sewage but very little is know as to the ecological and societal consequences of this. However, UNEP among others advocate the use of low-cost, natural sewage treatment technology whenever possible and mangroves have been suggested as useful second stage biofilters. Because of the high resource dependency in many peri-urban coastal communities in East Africa, it is imperative to investigate potential societal impacts on local communities using sewage impacted peri-urban mangroves. Consequently this paper aims to characterize stakeholder groups currently affected by sewage impacted mangroves and thus also map vulnerabilities across local users in relation to future initiatives to use mangroves as biofilters along the East African coast. As risk perception is an important part of vulnerability, and risk perception related to sewage and pollution in an African setting has been little studied, we also aim to contribute baseline data on risk perception related to pollution across peri-urban populations in Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
biofiltration; coastal zone; mangrove; risk perception; sewage treatment; vulnerability; Africa; East Africa; Kenya; Mozambique; Southern Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; Tanzania; Rhizophoraceae