Reproductive performances of dairy cows in smallholder production system in Selalle, Central Ethiopia
Tropical Animal Health and Production
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Department of Clinical Sciences, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden; Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 34, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia; Swedish Dairy Association, SE-63184 Eskilstuna, Sweden
A study was conducted to assess the reproductive performance and factors that influence reproductive efficiency of cows in smallholder dairy farms in Selalle, Central Ethiopia. Three hundred dairy farms (average herd size = 8) were visited and data on reproductive, breeding and management histories were collected and analysed. The overall geometric means for calving to conception interval (n = 382) and duration after last calving (n = 422) were 187 and 201 days in pregnant and non-pregnant cows, respectively. The least-squares mean calving to conception interval was higher (p < 0.05) in mixed crop-livestock production (MCLP) than in small urban dairy production (SUDP) systems and was lower (p < 0.01) in non-suckling than in suckling cows. District significantly influenced (p < 0.01) the least-squares mean duration after last calving and, among the districts, non-pregnant cows in Wuchale-Jida had the highest values, whereas cows in Sululta and Mulo had the lowest values. The overall average number of services per conception (±SD) and the first service conception rate were 1.6 ± 1.0 (n = 382) and 56% (n = 456), respectively. The prevalences of abortion, dystocia (assisted parturition), retained fetal membrane, vulval discharge/endometritis and pre-weaning calf mortality were 1.4%, 1.3%, 5.4%, 2.8% and 17.4%, respectively. The present estimates of extended calving to conception interval and duration after last calving indicate poor reproductive performances of cows in Selalle smallholder dairy farms. The pre-weaning calf mortality rate is highly significant. Accordingly, a further detailed investigation is necessary to identify and quantify the specific reproductive disorders and associated interacting factors attributing to such poor performance and to determine the causes and predisposing factors behind such high calf mortality. © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2006.
animal; animal disease; article; breeding; cattle; cattle disease; dairying; Ethiopia; female; methodology; physiology; pregnancy; pregnancy outcome; pregnancy rate; puerperal disorder; reproduction; suckling; time; Animals; Animals, Suckling; Cattle; Cattle Diseases; Dairying; Ethiopia; Female; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Outcome; Pregnancy Rate; Pregnancy, Animal; Puerperal Disorders; Reproduction; Time Factors; Bos taurus