Evaluation of selected South African ethnomedicinal plants as mosquito repellents against the Anopheles arabiensis mosquito in a rodent model
South African Medical Research Council, 491 Ridge Road, Overport, Durban 4001, South Africa; Biosciences, CSIR, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0002, South Africa; South African National Biodiversity Institute, School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Berea Road 4007, Durban 4041, South Africa; South African Medical Research Council, P.O. Box 19070, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
Background. This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic), that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito repellent properties. Methods. Extracts of a selection of South African taxa were tested for repellency properties in an applicable mosquito feeding-probing assay using unfed female Anopheles arabiensis. Results. Although a water extract of the roots of Chenopodium opulifolium was found to be 97% as effective as DEET after 2 mins, time lag studies revealed a substantial reduction in efficacy (to 30%) within two hours. Conclusions. None of the plant extracts investigated exhibited residual repellencies >60% after three hours. © 2010 Maharaj et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Alepidea amatymbica extract; Aloe ferox extract; Aloe greatheadii extract; Artemisia absinthium extract; Bidens pilosa extract; celery extract; Chenopodium ambrosioides extract; Chenopodium opulifolium extract; Chromolaena odorata extract; Croton pseudopulchellus extract; Dichrostachys cinerea extract; diethyltoluamide; Eclipta prostrata extract; essential oil; ginger extract; insect repellent; Leucas martinicensis extract; Litogyne gariepina extract; lonchocarpus capassa extract; Melia azedarach extract; Mentha longifolia extract; Moschosma polystachyum extract; Mundulea sericea extract; Nuxia floribunda extract; Philenoptera violacea extract; plant extract; Plectranthus laxiflorus extract; Rosmarinus officinalis extract; Spirostachys africana extract; unclassified drug; unindexed drug; insect repellent; Alepidea amatymbica; Aloe ferox; Aloe greatheadii; Anopheles arabiensis; Artemisia absinthium; article; Bidens pilosa; celery; Chenopodium ambrosioides; Chenopodium opulifolium; Chromolaena odorata; Croton pseudopulchellus; Dichrostachys cinerea; drug activity; drug efficacy; Eclipta prostrata; feeding; ginger; Leucas martinicensis; Litogyne gariepina; Lonchocarpus capassa; medicinal plant; Mentha longifolia; Moschosma polystachyum; mosquito; Mundulea sericea; nonhuman; Nuxia floribunda; Philenoptera violacea; Plectranthus laxiflorus; rosemary; Sida cordifolia; South Africa; Spirostachys africana; traditional medicine; treatment duration; animal; Anopheles; chemistry; drug effect; feeding behavior; female; goosefoot; isolation and purification; Murinae; plant; plant root; Animals; Anopheles; Chenopodium; Feeding Behavior; Female; Insect Repellents; Murinae; Plant Roots; Plants; Plants, Medicinal; South Africa