Chemical analysis and preliminary toxicological evaluation of Garcinia mangostana seeds and seed oil
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Botany Department, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
The chemical analysis and preliminary toxicological evaluation of Garcinia mangostana seeds and seed oil have been investigated in order to determine the possibility of using them for human and/or animal consumption. Proximate analysis showed that the seeds had high amount of carbohydrate and were rich in oil (21.68 ± 6.18%) but have a low protein content. The physical properties of the oil extracts showed the state to be liquid at room temperature (25 ± 1 °C) and the colour of the oil golden-orange. The specific gravity of the oil was 0.98 ± 0.01. Among the chemical properties of the oil extracts, acid value, saponification number, iodine value, percent free fatty acid and peroxide value compared well with those of conventional edible oils. The seed flour was found to be a good source of minerals. It contained considerable amounts of potassium (7071 mg/kg), magnesium (865 mg/kg) and calcium (454 mg/kg). Fatty acid composition of the seed oil indicated that the oil contained one essential fatty acids small proportions: linoleic acid (1.30%). The most prevalent fatty acids were palmitic acid (49.5%) and oleic acid (34.0%). Weanling albino rats appeared to suffer no toxicological effects when fed with G. mangostana seed oil in their diet for 8 weeks. Weekly monitoring of the rats showed good physical appearance and steady weight increase. Histological examination of sections of the heart, liver, kidney, spleen and lung revealed that the kidney of some of the rats had some degrees of pathology which included diffuse glomerular and tubular degeneration. No lesion was found in the heart and liver of the rats. The seed oil could be useful as an edible oil and for industrial applications. © 2006.
calcium; carbohydrate; fatty acid; iodine; linoleic acid; magnesium; oleic acid; palmitic acid; peroxide; potassium; vegetable oil; acidity; animal tissue; article; chemical analysis; chemical composition; color; comparative study; degeneration; diet; fluor; Garcinia mangostana; glomerulus; heart; histology; kidney; kidney tubule; lipid composition; liquid; liver; lung; monitoring; nonhuman; pathology; plant seed; rat; relative density; room temperature; saponification; spleen; toxicology; Animalia; Garcinia mangostana