Evaluation of leaf extracts of Vitex negundo L. (Family: Verbenaceae) against larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and repellent activity on adult vector mosquitoes
School of Environmental Health Science, Faculty of Public Health, Jimma University, P.O. Box No. 378, Jimma, Ethiopia; Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India; Center for Research in Medical Entomology (ICMR), Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India
Petroleum ether (60-80°C) extracts of the leaves of Vitex negundo (Verbenaceae) were evaluated for larvicidal activity against larval stages of Culex tritaeniorhynchus in the laboratory. Larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus were found more susceptible, with LC50 and LC90 values of 2.4883 and 5.1883 mg/l, respectively. Human volunteers wearing special terricot (68:32) fabrics, in the form of armbands, anklets, headbands, collar, and shoulder and pocket strips impregnated with V. negundo leaf extract were used, to test their repellent efficacy at two concentrations viz., 1.5 and 2.0 mg/cm2 under the field conditions. At 1.5-mg/cm2 concentration, more efficacies were found and 6-h complete protection against mosquito bites was provided. Complete protections for 8 h were found at 2.0 mg/cm2 against mosquitoes bites. These results clearly reveal that the V. negundo leaf extract served as a potential larvicidal agent against Japanese encephalitis vector C. tritaeniorhynchus and additionally acted as a promising repellent against various adult vector mosquitoes. © 2008 Springer-Verlag.
biomaterial; insecticide; larvicidal agent; Vitex negundo extract; article; concentration response; controlled study; Culex; culex tritaeniorhyncus; disease carrier; drug efficacy; epidemic encephalitis; insecticidal activity; larval stage; LC 50; mosquito; nonhuman; parasite vector; plant leaf; priority journal; Verbenaceae; Vitex; Animals; Culex; Inhibitory Concentration 50; Insect Repellents; Insecticides; Larva; Plant Extracts; Plant Leaves; Survival Analysis; Vitex; Culex tritaeniorhynchus; Japanese encephalitis virus; Verbenaceae; Vitex negundo