Performance optimization of a membrane assisted passive sampler for monitoring of ionizable organic compounds in water
Journal of Environmental Monitoring
School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2050, South Africa; School of Environmental Sciences, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, 0950, South Africa
A thin-walled silicone rubber hollow fibre membrane has been developed as a passive sampler. The inside of the tube is filled with an aqueous solution at an appropriate pH. The tube is sealed at both ends and then immersed in a water sample. In order for the ionizable permeating compounds to be trapped in the aqueous receiving phase, the pH is adjusted such that the compounds are ionized and trapped. The major advantages are its simplicity, low cost and high selectivity, since only ionizable organic compounds are trapped. Additionally, the sampler uses no organic solvent. By adjusting the pH of the acceptor phase, it is possible to control the extraction process and whether the sampler is used in the kinetic or equilibrium regime. Since it is very selective, no further clean-up of the extract is required. The membrane assisted passive sampler has been tested for extraction of chlorophenols under laboratory conditions. The extraction process was found to be linear over a 72 h sampling period. Selectivity of the passive sampler in river water was demonstrated and the extraction process was independent of sample concentration, even at lower concentration levels of analytes. However, the sample matrix in some river water samples led to incomplete trapping, thereby reducing the amount trapped in the acceptor phase. Detection limits (three times signal to noise ratio) were dependant on sample matrix and type of detection system and ranged from 0.05 μg L-1 to about 1 μg L-1 with a UV photodiode detector in water samples from one river and 1.0 μg L-1 to 20 μg L-1 in another but with an ordinary UV detector. The enrichment factors in river water were 28 for 2-chlorophenol and 44 for 2,4-dichlorophenol over a 72 h sampling period. 4-chlorophenol was poorly extracted and its enrichment factor was 3. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.
2,4 dichlorophenol; 4 chlorophenol; organic compound; river water; aqueous solution; article; extraction; pH; pollution monitoring; priority journal; sampler; water contamination; water pollutant; water pollution; water sampling; Chlorophenols; Environmental Monitoring; Rivers; Silicone Elastomers; Water Pollutants, Chemical