Exposure to 2,4-decadienal negatively impacts upon marine invertebrate larval fitness
Marine Environmental Research
Sch. of Mar. Science and Technology, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, Ridley Bldg., Claremont Rd., N., United Kingdom; Dept. of Biodiv. and Conserv. Biol., Intl. Ocean Inst.-Southern Africa, Univ. of the W. Cape, South Africa, South Africa
Diatoms liberate volatile, biologically active unsaturated aldehydes following cell damage, which negatively impact upon invertebrate reproductive processes such as fertilization, embryogenesis and larval survival. 2,4-Decadienal is frequently identified among the aldehydes produced and is one of the more biologically active. The majority of studies which have examined the toxic effects of diatom aldehydes to invertebrate reproduction have scored egg production and/or hatching success as indicators of biological impacts. There are very few studies which have dealt specifically with the impacts of diatom-derived aldehydes on larval fitness. Larval stages of the polychaetes Arenicola marina and Nereis virens and the echinoderms Asterias rubens and Psammechinus miliaris exposed to 2,4-decadienal at sub 1 μg ml -1 concentrations suffered reduced survival over the incubation period (day 1-8 post fertilization) with detectable differences for the polychates at a concentration of 0.005 and 0.01-0.1 μg ml -1 for the echinoderms. Susceptibility of larval N. virens was investigated using stage specific 24 h exposures at 2,4-decadienal concentrations up to 1.5 μg ml -1. A clear stage specific effect was found, with earlier larval stages most vulnerable. Nectochaete larvae (9-10 d) showed no reduction in survival at the concentrations assayed. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), defined as random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry, was used to analyse fitness of larval P. miliaris exposed to 2,4-decadienal at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1 μg ml -1. The degree and frequency of asymmetrical development increased with increasing 2,4-decadienal concentration. Equally, as FA increased larval survival decreased. These results provide further support for the teratogenic nature of 2,4-decadienal and its negative impact on invertebrate larval fitness. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
2,4-decadienal; Cell damage; Embryogenesis; Fertilization; Aldehydes; Cells; Marine biology; Radon; Toxicity; Radiation hazards; 2,4 decadienal; aldehyde derivative; unclassified drug; aldehyde; biogenic emission; diatom; fitness; fluctuating asymmetry; interspecific interaction; invertebrate; larval development; toxin; article; concentration (parameters); environmental exposure; environmental impact; invertebrate; larva; larval stage; nonhuman; survival rate; teratogenesis; Abnormalities; Aldehydes; Animals; Diatoms; Environmental Exposure; Female; Larva; Male; Polychaeta; Population Dynamics; Reproduction; Survival Analysis; algae; Arenicola; Arenicola marina; Asterias; Asterias rubens; Bacillariophyta; Echinodermata; Invertebrata; Nereis; Nereis virens; Polychaeta; Psammechinus miliaris