Evaluation of the anti-candidal activity of methanolic leaf extract of cleistopholis patens (Fam. Annonaceae) on candida species isolated from stage II HIV patients
Pharmaceutical Microbiology Unit of Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria; Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra, Nigeria
Background: Candida species (sp) is implicated in causing opportunistic disseminated mycotic complications in stage II HIV patients. Cleistopholis patens is a West African medicinal tree reported to have significant antifungal activity against C. albicans. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the anti-candidal activity of methanolic leaf extract of Cleistopholis patens against Candida species isolated from stage II HIV patients. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract and Nystatin®® was determined by agar dilution method. The killing rate studies of the plant extract and Nystatin® were also determined. Results: The extract had activity against all Candida isolates, with the MIC against the five isolates ranging from 6.0-9.8 mg/ml. Nystatin® also demonstrated plausible activity against the isolates with MICs ranging from 0.3125-25 mg/ml. Candida albicans strain 2 was the most sensitive to both extract and Nystatin® with MIC values of 6 and 0.3125 mg/ml respectively. Candida krusei was the least sensitive with MIC values of 9.8 and 25 mg/ml for the extract and Nystatin® respectively. The killing rate values for the extract ranged from-0.029 to-0.091 min-1 and that of Nystatin® ranged from-0.076 to-0.11216 min-1. Conclusions: The results indicate that the methanolic extract of Cleistopholis patens is a promising clinical alternative besides Nystatin® in the treatment of infections caused by Candida species in stage II HIV patients. © 2015, Makerere University, Medical School. All rights reserved.
antifungal agent; Cleistopholis patens extract; methanol; nystatin; plant extract; unclassified drug; agar dilution; Annonaceae; antifungal activity; Article; Candida; Candida albicans; Cleistopholis patens; concentration response; disease classification; disease severity; fungal strain; fungus isolation; Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient; minimum inhibitory concentration; nonhuman; opportunistic infection; Pichia kudriavzevii; plant leaf