Introduction of a community water supply in rural western Kenya: Impact on community wellbeing and child health
Organization for Common Education, Faculty of Policy Studies, Chuo University, Japan; Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Japan; Nagasaki University Kenya Research Station, Nairobi, Kenya; Graduate School of Biomedical Science Medicine, Nagasaki University, Japan; Department of Social Services, Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Development, Kenya
Background: This study aimed to examine water availability and community health before and after tube wells were introduced in a ruralwestern Kenyan community. Differences in impact among income quintile groups were quantified, and users' perceptions of their water supply measured. Methods:We conducted a two-part pre- (2009) and post-intervention (2011), cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires for mothers. Results: In total, 1391 (576 in 2009 and 815 in 2011)mothers participated.Well introduction changed the households' drinking-water source from river to ground water. The median distance to the water source was reduced by 40%(500 to 300 metres) and median collection timewas reduced by 50%(30 to 15minutes).Water consumption per household increased by approximately 20%(from 82.6 to 99.0 L) and drinking of untreated water decreased by approximately 10%. Regression analyses revealedmothers with higher monthly incomes had the highest satisfaction levels (β=0.167, p<0.001). Positive impacts were strongest among wealthier groups. Conclusions: The small-scale communitywater supply dramatically affected user hygiene behaviours and daily life. Water supply access improved from 'no access' to 'basic access'. Household connections to a water supply and hygiene education are important steps to enhance community health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.
drinking water; ground water; river water; adult; Article; child health; community care; cross-sectional study; daily life activity; female; fluid intake; health behavior; household; human; income; Kenya; mother; observational study; personal hygiene; priority journal; public health; rural area; satisfaction; social status; structured questionnaire; water availability; water quality; water supply; water treatment; wellbeing