Toxicological evaluation of aqueous leaf and berry extracts of Phytolacca dioica L. in male Wistar rats
Food and Chemical Toxicology
Centre for Phytomedicine Research, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
Despite the widespread use of Phytolacca dioica L. in folklore medicine of South Africa, there is dearth of information on its safety/toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicological effect of aqueous leaf and berry extracts of the plant at different dosages for 14. days on the liver and kidney function indices in male Wistar rats. Phytochemical screening indicated that the extracts are rich in phytonutrients including alkaloid, tannin, saponins, phenolics, lectins and flavonoids; while triterpenoids and phlobatanins were absent. The extracts significantly reduced the body and absolute organ weights of the animals at all the dosages investigated. Whereas, significant increase was observed in the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), bilirubin, calcium, creatinine, urea and uric acid; the serum concentration of total protein, albumin and globulin were reduced in the serum following treatment with the extracts. Generally, the effect of the herb appeared to be dosage dependent. This investigation clearly showed that P. dioica can impair normal hepatic and renal functions. This is an indication that the extracts may not be completely safe in male rats when continuously administered for 14. days. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
alanine aminotransferase; albumin; alkaline phosphatase; alkaloid; aspartate aminotransferase; bilirubin; calcium; creatinine; flavonoid; globulin; herbaceous agent; phenol derivative; Phytolacca dioica extract; plant lectin; saponin; tannin; triterpenoid; unclassified drug; urea; uric acid; alanine aminotransferase blood level; albumin blood level; alkaline phosphatase blood level; animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; article; aspartate aminotransferase blood level; berry; calcium blood level; controlled study; creatinine blood level; dose response; drug safety; hyperbilirubinemia; liver toxicity; male; nephrotoxicity; nonhuman; phytochemistry; Phytolacca dioica; Phytolaccaceae; plant leaf; rat; toxicity testing; urea blood level; uric acid blood level; weight reduction; Animals; Fruit; Kidney Function Tests; Liver Function Tests; Male; Phytolacca; Plant Extracts; Plant Leaves; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Animalia; Phytolacca dioica; Rattus; Rattus norvegicus