Wildlife Conservation in Zambia: Impacts on Rural Household Welfare
Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States; United Nations World Food Programme, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States; University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia
We investigate the impact of wildlife conservation policies in Zambia on household welfare in game management areas (GMAs), which are buffer zones around national parks. Analysis of data from a nationwide survey of rural households shows that GMAs are positively associated with household income and crop damage from wildlife conflicts. Gains and damages were greatest among households in GMAs with greater wildlife diversity, with net gains relatively greater for wealthier households. Households in prime (well stocked) GMAs were more likely to participate in off-farm wage and self-employment compared to other rural households, but they were also more likely to suffer crop losses related to wildlife conflicts. The findings suggest that wildlife conservation and tourism development can contribute to pro-poor development, but may be sustainable only if human-wildlife conflicts are minimized or compensated. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
buffer zone; conservation management; household survey; national park; nature conservation; rural development; self employment; sustainability; tourism development; wage; welfare impact; wildlife management; Zambia