Effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila
Fish and Shellfish Immunology
Kenyatta University, School of Agriculture and Enterprise Development, Department of Agricultural Resource Management, P.O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya; School of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, Department of Natural Resource, Karatina University, P.O. Box 1957-10101, Karatina, Kenya; National Aquaculture Research Development and Training Centre - Sagana, P. O. Box 26-10230, Sagana, Kenya; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Eldoret, P.O. Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya
We investigated effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were divided into 4 groups and fed for 4 and 16 weeks with 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% of U.dioica incorporated into the diet. Use of U.dioica in the diet resulted in improved biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters. Among the biochemical parameters; plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol decreased while total protein and albumin in fish increased with increasing dietary inclusion of U.dioica. Among the haematology parameters: red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) counts, haematocrit (Htc), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and netrophiles increased with increasing dietary inclusion levels of U.dioica, some depending on the fish age. Serum immunoglobulins, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst were the main immunological parameters in the adult and juvenile L.victorianus measured and they all increased with increasing herbal inclusion of U.dioica in the diet. Dietary incorporation of U.dioica at 5% showed significantly higher relative percentage survival (up to 95%) against A.hydrophila. The current results demonstrate that using U.dioica can stimulate fish immunity and make L.victorianus more resistant to bacterial infection (A.hydrophila). © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Aeromonas hydrophila; Bacteria (microorganisms); Labeo; Labeo victorianus; Urtica dioica