Comparative performance of urinary lipoarabinomannan assays and Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-infected individuals
Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, 1503 East Jefferson St, Baltimore, MD, United States; Department of Microbiology, Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; Boston Medical Center, Boston University, School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States
Background: Xpert MTB/RIF ('Xpert') and urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) assays offer rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, but have suboptimal sensitivity when used individually in HIV-positive patients. The yield of these tests used in combination for the diagnosis of active TB among HIV-infected TB suspects is unknown. Design: Study of comparative diagnostic accuracy nested into a prospective study of HIV-infected individuals with signs and/or symptoms of TB in Uganda. Methods: Xpert testing of archived sputum was conducted for culture-confirmed TB cases and TB suspects in whom a diagnosis of TB was excluded. Additional testing included sputum smear microscopy, sputum culture (solid and liquid media), mycobacterial blood culture, and urinary testing for LAM using a lateral flow test ('LF-LAM') and an enzyme-linked immunosorbance assay ('ELISA-LAM'). Results: Among 103 participants with culture-confirmed TB, sensitivity of Xpert was 76% (95% confidence interval, CI 0.66-0.84), and was superior to that of LF-LAM (49%, 95% CI 0.39-0.59, P<0.001). Specificity was greater than 97% for both tests among 105 individuals without TB. The combination of smear microscopy and LF-LAM identified 67% (95% CI 0.57-0.76) of culture-confirmed TB cases and approached sensitivity of Xpert testing alone (P=0.15). The sensitivity of the combination of Xpert and LF-LAM was 85% (88/103 95% CI 0.77-0.92), which was superior to either test alone (P<0.05) and approached sensitivity of sputum liquid culture testing (94%, 95% CI 0.88-0.98, P=0.17). Conclusion: Sputum Xpert and urinary LAM assays were complementary for the diagnosis of active TB in HIV-infected patients, and sensitivity of the combination of these tests was superior to that of either test alone. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
lipoarabinomannan; lipoarabinomannan; lipopolysaccharide; adult; Article; blood culture; CD4 lymphocyte count; comparative effectiveness; controlled study; diagnostic test accuracy study; enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; female; fluorescence microscopy; hospital patient; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient; immunosuppressive treatment; lipid analysis; major clinical study; male; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; outpatient; priority journal; prospective study; sensitivity analysis; sensitivity and specificity; sputum analysis; sputum culture; sputum cytodiagnosis; sputum smear; tuberculosis; tuberculosis rapid test; Uganda; urinalysis; urinary lateral flow lipoarabinomannan assay; comparative study; complication; evaluation study; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; immunoaffinity chromatography; microbiology; molecular diagnosis; procedures; saliva; tuberculosis; urine; Adult; Female; HIV Infections; Humans; Immunochromatography; Lipopolysaccharides; Male; Molecular Diagnostic Techniques; Prospective Studies; Saliva; Sensitivity and Specificity; Tuberculosis; Uganda
NIAID, NIAID, National Institutes of Health; NIH, NIH, National Institutes of Health