Evaluation and Potential Health Hazard of Selected Metals in Water, Sediments, and Fish from the Gomti River
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment
Institute for Water and Wastewater Technology, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa; Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India; Dr. R. M. L. Avadh University, Faizabad, India
ABSTRACT: The health hazard associated with the consumption of fish from the Gomti River in India, contaminated with the heavy metals Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn was assessed in terms of target hazard quotients (THQs). The concentrations of metals (mg kg−1, wet weight basis) in the muscle tissues of different fish species Mastacembelus puncalus, Clupisona garua, Cyrinous carpio, Botia lochachata, Channa punctatus, Heteropneustise fossilis, Puntius sofore, and Clarious batrachus ranged as follows: Cr (2.2–21.4), Cu (0.3–14.3), Mn (2.3–5.5), Ni (0.5–10.9), Pb (1.0–3.9), and Zn (12.3–46.9). The accumulation of metals in fish muscle tissue was in the order: Zn > Cr > Ni > Mn > Cu > Pb. THQs indicated a potential health hazard to children due to the consumption of fish contaminated with Ni and Pb; their THQs were greater than 1 for almost all fish species except for Ni in C. garua (THQ, 0.07) and C. carpio (THQ, 0.90). For adults, insignificant health hazard was associated with THQs less than 1 for all metals in the different fish species, but long-term exposure to these metals and subsequent bioaccumulation in the body may require additional investigation. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Batrachoides; Botia; Channa punctatus; Mastacembelus; Puntius