Comparison of phenotypic and molecular distances to predict heterosis and F1 performance in Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun)
Theoretical and Applied Genetics
Holetta Research Centre, Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization, 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Georg-August University, Von-Siebold Str-8, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
Predicting heterosis and F1 performance from the parental generation could largely enhance the efficiency of breeding hybrid or synthetic cultivars. This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between parental distances estimated from phenotypic traits or molecular markers with heterosis, F1 performance and general combining ability (GCA) in Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata). Nine inbred lines representing seven different geographic regions of Ethiopia were crossed in half-diallel. The nine parents along with their 36 F1s were evaluated in a replicated field trail at three locations in Ethiopia. Distances among the parents were calculated from 14 phenotypic traits (Euclidean distance, ED) and 182 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers (Jaccard's distances, JD), and correlated with heterosis, F1 performance and GCA sum of parents (GCAsum). The correlation between phenotypic and molecular distances was low (r = 0.34, P ≤ 0.05). Parents with low molecular distance also had low phenotypic distance, but parents with high molecular distance had either high, intermediate or low phenotypic distance. Phenotypic distance was highly significantly correlated with mid-parent heterosis (r = 0.53), F1 performance (r = 0.61) and GCA (r = 0.79) for seed yield. Phenotypic distance was also positively correlated with (1) heterosis, F1 performance and GCA for plant height and seeds plant-1, (2) heterosis for number of pods plant-1, and (3) F1 performance for 1,000 seed weight. Molecular distance was correlated with GCAsum (r = 0.36, P ≤ 0.05) but not significantly with heterosis and F1 performance for seed yield. For each parent a mean distance was calculated by averaging the distances to the eight other parents. Likewise, mean heterosis was estimated by averaging the heterosis obtained when each parent is crossed with the other eight. For seed yield, both mean ED and JD were significantly correlated with GCA (r = 0.90, P ≤ 0.01 for ED and r = 0.68, P ≤ 0.05 for JD) and mean heterosis (r = 0.79, P ≤ 0.05 for ED and r = 0.77, P ≤ 0.05 for JD). In conclusion, parental distances estimated from phenotypic traits better predicted heterosis, F1 performance and GCA than distances estimated from RAPD markers. © Springer-Verlag 2005.
Distance measurement; Genetic engineering; General combining ability (GCA); Molecular distances; Phenotypic distance; Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD); Crops; article; Brassica; comparative study; cross breeding; genetic marker; genetics; growth, development and aging; heterosis; phenotype; phylogeny; quantitative trait; random amplified polymorphic DNA; Brassica; Crosses, Genetic; Genetic Markers; Hybrid Vigor; Phenotype; Phylogeny; Quantitative Trait, Heritable; Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique; Farm Crops; Genetic Engineering; Heterosis; Nucleic Acids; Phenotypes; Seeds; Brassica; Brassica carinata