Wild flower harvesting on the Agulhas Plain, South Africa: Impact of harvesting intensity under a simulated commercial harvesting regime for two re-seeding and two re-sprouting fynbos species
South African Journal of Botany
Fynbos Ecoscapes, Witkrans, Gansbaai 7220, South Africa; CapeNature, Walker Bay Nature Reserve, 16 17th Avenue, Hermanus, 7200, South Africa; Laboratoire de l'Ecology, Systématique et Evolution, Université Paris Sud XI, Orsay, France; Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag x1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; Environmental Resource Management Department (ERMD), Westlake Conservation Office, City of Cape Town, Ou Kaapse Weg, Tokai 7966, Cape Town, South Africa
We present a simple method for assessing the medium-term sustainability of different flower harvesting intensities (i.e. percentage of number of stems harvested per individual) for two re-seeders and re-sprouters of fynbos plants on the Agulhas Plain in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. We interpret our results from an ecological point of view, looking at impacts of harvesting on vegetative re-growth and survival of frequently harvested fynbos species, and an economic point of view, determining the cumulative number of stems harvested per year.We analysed the impact of different harvesting intensities on two obligate re-seeding (Erica corifolia (L.) and Erica imbricata (L.)) and two strongly re-sprouting species (Brunia laevis (Thunb.) and Staavia radiata (L. Dahl)) on different flower farms. Seventy-five randomly selected plants of each species were experimentally harvested in the same way as is done by flower harvesters. Fifteen plants of each species were left as controls (un-harvested) and 15 each were harvested (cut 15-20. cm below the inflorescence) such that 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the inflorescences were removed. Harvested stems were labelled and the number of new shoots counted. Additionally we recorded plant height and mortality.100% harvesting resulted in high mortality rates for both re-seeders (for both species 100% of the individuals were dead at the end of the experiment) and resprouters (for one species all 15 individuals were dead at the end of the experiment and for the other species 4 of 15). Re-seeders in particular were highly susceptible to harvesting below the first branching node, which generally also resulted in plant death. Both guilds can survive up to 75% harvesting (resprouters experienced no mortality for one species, while in the other 4 out of 15 died; of the re-seeders, 9 out of 15 died in the one species, while only 1 out of 15 in the other) and are still able to grow in height. For both seeders and resprouters we recommend that flower harvesters do not harvest in young veld. To ensure sufficient seed set and to avoid seed bank depletion we recommend to preferably only harvest between 25 and 50% of stems per individual. © 2014 South African Association of Botanists.
flower; growth response; mortality; seed bank; species diversity; wild population; Agulhas Plain; South Africa; Western Cape