Biotribological evaluation of artificial disc arthroplasty devices: Influence of loading and kinematic patterns during in vitro wear simulation
Aesculap AG Research and Development, Tuttlingen, Germany; Ludwig Maximilian University, Clinic for Orthopaedic Surgery, Grosshadern Medical Center, Munich, Germany; Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States; Orthopedic Care Center, Aventura, FL, United States; 6o of Freedom, Cape Town, South Africa; Biomechanical Research Laboratory, Aesculap AG Research and Development, Am Aesculap-Platz, 78532 Tuttlingen, Germany
Wear simulation is an essential pre-clinical method to predict the mid- and long-term clinical wear behavior of newly introduced devices for total disc arthroplasty. The main requirement of a suitable method for spinal wear simulation has to be the ability to distinguish between design concepts and allow for a direct comparison of predicate devices. The objective of our study was to investigate the influence of loading and kinematic patterns based on two different protocols for spinal wear simulation (ISO/FDIS 18192-1 (2006) and ASTM F2423-05). In vitro wear simulation was performed with six activ ® L lumbar artificial disc devices (Aesculap Tuttlingen, Germany). The applied kinematic pattern of movement was multidirectional for ISO (elliptic track) and unidirectional with a curvilinear shape for ASTM. Testing was done for 10 million cycles in the ISO loading mode and afterwards with the same specimens for 5 million cycles according to the ASTM protocol with a customized six-station servohydraulic spinal wear simulator (EndoLab Thansau, Germany). Gravimetrical and geometrical wear assessment, a slide track analysis correlated to an optical surface characterization, and an estimation of particle size and morphology were performed. The gravimetric wear rate for the first 10 million cycles was ISOinitial = 2.7 ± 0.3 mg/million cycles. During the ASTM test period (10-15 million cycles) a gravimetric wear rate of 0.14 ± 0.06 mg/million cycles was estimated. The wear rates between the ISO and ASTM driven simulations differ substantially (approximately 20-fold) and statistical analysis demonstrates a significant difference (p < 0.001) between the test groups. The main explanation of divergency between ISO and ASTM driven wear simulations is the multidirectional pattern of movement described in the ISO document resulting in a cross-shear stress on the polyethylene material. Due to previous retrieval observations, it seems to be very unlikely that a lumbar artificial disc is loaded with a linear wear path.Testing according to ASTM F2423-05 with pure unidirectional motion does not reflect the kinematics of TDA patients' daily activities. Based on our findings it seems to be more reliable to predict the clinical wear behavior of an artificial disc replacement using the ISO/FDIS 18192-1 method. © 2008 Springer-Verlag.
polyethylene; arthroplasty; article; daily life activity; device; geometry; gravimetry; kinematics; lumbar spine; mechanical stress; methodology; morphology; particle size; priority journal; shear stress; simulation; Arthroplasty, Replacement; Biomechanics; Compressive Strength; Intervertebral Disk; Joint Prosthesis; Materials Testing; Polyethylene; Stress, Mechanical; Weight-Bearing