Using a new odour-baited device to explore options for luring and killing outdoor-biting malaria vectors: A report on design and field evaluation of the Mosquito Landing Box
Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, P.O.Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania; Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United Kingdom; Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Background: Mosquitoes that bite people outdoors can sustain malaria transmission even where effective indoor interventions such as bednets or indoor residual spraying are already widely used. Outdoor tools may therefore complement current indoor measures and improve control. We developed and evaluated a prototype mosquito control device, the 'Mosquito Landing Box' (MLB), which is baited with human odours and treated with mosquitocidal agents. The findings are used to explore technical options and challenges relevant to luring and killing outdoor-biting malaria vectors in endemic settings. Methods. Field experiments were conducted in Tanzania to assess if wild host-seeking mosquitoes 1) visited the MLBs, 2) stayed long or left shortly after arrival at the device, 3) visited the devices at times when humans were also outdoors, and 4) could be killed by contaminants applied on the devices. Odours suctioned from volunteer-occupied tents were also evaluated as a potential low-cost bait, by comparing baited and unbaited MLBs. Results: There were significantly more Anopheles arabiensis, An. funestus, Culex and Mansonia mosquitoes visiting baited MLB than unbaited controls (P≤0.028). Increasing sampling frequency from every 120 min to 60 and 30 min led to an increase in vector catches of up to 3.6 fold (P≤0.002), indicating that many mosquitoes visited the device but left shortly afterwards. Outdoor host-seeking activity of malaria vectors peaked between 7:30 and 10:30pm, and between 4:30 and 6:00am, matching durations when locals were also outdoors. Maximum mortality of mosquitoes visiting MLBs sprayed or painted with formulations of candidate mosquitocidal agent (pirimiphos-methyl) was 51%. Odours from volunteer occupied tents attracted significantly more mosquitoes to MLBs than controls (P<0.001). Conclusion: While odour-baited devices such as the MLBs clearly have potential against outdoor-biting mosquitoes in communities where LLINs are used, candidate contaminants must be those that are effective at ultra-low doses even after short contact periods, since important vector species such as An. arabiensis make only brief visits to such devices. Natural human odours suctioned from occupied dwellings could constitute affordable sources of attractants to supplement odour baits for the devices. The killing agents used should be environmentally safe, long lasting, and have different modes of action (other than pyrethroids as used on LLINs), to curb the risk of physiological insecticide resistance. © 2013 Matowo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
insecticide; pirimiphos methyl; unclassified drug; Anopheles arabiensis; Anopheles funestus; article; controlled study; Culex; disease carrier; field study; human; malaria; mansonia; medical device; mortality; mosquito; mosquito landing box; nonhuman; odor; Tanzania; vector control; Adult; Animals; Anopheles; Behavior, Animal; Culex; Entomology; Equipment and Supplies; Human Experimentation; Humans; Insect Vectors; Male; Pheromones; Smell; Sterculiaceae; Tanzania; Anopheles arabiensis