Evaluation of the mental health continuum-short form (MHC-SF) in Setswana-speaking South Africans
Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy
Emory University, Department of Sociology, 1555 Dickey Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States; North-West University, South Africa
A continuous assessment and a categorical diagnosis of the presence of mental health, described as flourishing, and the absence of mental health, characterized as languishing, is applied to a random sample of 1050 Setswana-speaking adults in the Northwest province of South Africa. Factor analysis revealed that the mental health continuum-short form (MHC-SF) replicated the three-factor structure of emotional, psychological and social well-being found in US samples. The internal reliability of the overall MHC-SF Scale was 0.74. The total score on the MHC-SF correlated 0.52 with a measure of positive affect, between 0.35 and 0.40 with measures of generalized self-efficacy and satisfaction with life, and between 0.30 and 0.35 with measures of coping strategies, sense of coherence, and community collective self-efficacy. The total score on the MHC-SF correlated -0.22. with the total score on the General Health Questionnaire. Criteria for the categorical diagnosis were applied, and findings revealed that 20% were flourishing, 67.8% were moderately mentally healthy, and 12.2% were languishing. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized two-continua model of mental health and mental illness found in the USA. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
adult; affect; aged; article; controlled study; coping behavior; correlation analysis; cultural factor; emotionality; factorial analysis; female; General Health Questionnaire; human; language ability; life satisfaction; major clinical study; male; mental disease; mental health; Mental Health Continuum Short Form; priority journal; psychological well being; psychometry; reliability; self concept; social aspect; South Africa; United States; Adaptation, Psychological; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Cross-Cultural Comparison; Female; Health Status Indicators; Health Surveys; Humans; Internal-External Control; Language; Male; Mental Disorders; Mental Health; Middle Aged; Psychometrics; Quality of Life; Questionnaires; Reproducibility of Results; Rural Population; Self Efficacy; South Africa; Translating; Urban Population