In vivo evaluation of genetic and systemic toxicity of aqueous extracts of phyllanthus amarus in mice and rats
International Journal of Toxicological and Pharmacological Research
Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Phyllanthus amarus is a broad spectrum medicinal plant which has received world-wide recognition. However, there are concerns on the efficacy and safety of this plants' extract when used as medicinal herb. This study was therefore designed to investigate the genotoxicity of aqueous extract of P. amarus using the mouse micronucleus and sperm morphology assays. The potential effects of the extract on histology of the liver, kidney and testis, and blood parameters of rats were also investigated. Five concentrations: 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg body weight of the extract were utilized and the test animals were orally exposed for ten consecutive days. Distilled water and cyclophosphamide were utilized as negative and positive controls respectively. Compared with the negative control, the extract induced increasing frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and sperm abnormalities at tested concentrations; and this was significant (p<0.05) at some of the tested doses. There was significant (p<0.05) increase in total white blood cell and lymphocyte counts; and significant pathological changes in the liver, kidney and testis of exposed rats. Tannins, resins, cardiac glycolyside and phenols were analysed in the extract. These findings suggest that aqueous extract of P. amarus contained constituents capable of causing systemic and DNA damage in the mouse and rat. © 2015,International Journal of Toxicological and Pharmacological Research. All rights reserved.
cyclophosphamide; distilled water; phenol derivative; Phyllanthus amarus extract; resin; tannin derivative; animal cell; animal experiment; animal tissue; Article; controlled study; DNA damage; drug effect; erythrocyte; genotoxicity; hematological parameters; in vivo study; kidney parenchyma; leukocyte count; liver histology; lymphocyte count; male; micronucleus test; morphology; mouse; nonhuman; rat; semen abnormality; sperm; testis; toxicity testing