Groundwater quality evaluation for productive uses - The afram plains area, Ghana
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
Dept. of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State Univ., Montclair, NJ 07043, United States; Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Ghana, Legon, Ghana
Groundwater is the most widely used water resource in the Afram Plains area, Ghana. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of fluoride, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and salinity (EC) in groundwater from the different aquifers in the Afram Plains area. The distribution of these parameters would enable a determination of the quality of groundwater from the different aquifer units for use in households and irrigation purposes. The inverse distance weighting, interpolator with a power of 2 was applied to 143 data points of each parameter to generate prediction maps for fluoride, SAR, and EC in the area. The distribution maps from this study show that the shale aquifers that underlie the southwestern sections of the area have the highest levels of fluoride, SAR, and EC. A narrow strip of the shale aquifer in the southwestern region produces groundwater whose fluoride level (2.2 mg/L) is higher than the World Health Organization minimum allowable fluoride concentration of 1.5 mg/L in drinking water. The feldsparthic sandstone, arkose, siltstone, and mudstone aquifers in the northeastern sections of the area produce groundwater with fluoride concentration in the range of 0.0-0.3 mg/L, which fall outside the minimum range of 0.7-1.2 mg/L required in drinking water for normal bone and dental health. The highest SAR and EC are also associated with the shale aquifers to the southwestern section of the area. Using the World Food and Agriculture Organization's guidelines for irrigation water quality, it was determined that groundwater from the Afram Plains area will generally have a mild to moderate effect on the hydraulic properties of soils when used as irrigation water. © 2008 ASCE.
Adsorption; Aquifers; Electric conductivity; Fluorine compounds; Irrigation; Potable water; Salinity measurement; Sodium; Groundwater quality; Sodium adsoprtion ratio; Water quality; Adsorption; Aquifers; Electric conductivity; Fluorine compounds; Irrigation; Potable water; Salinity measurement; Sodium; Water quality; adsorption; aquifer; developing world; drinking water; electrical conductivity; fluoride; groundwater resource; irrigation; salinity; sodium; water quality; Africa; Ghana; Sub-Saharan Africa; West Africa