In vivo anti-plasmodial activities and toxic impacts of lime extract of a combination of Picralima nitida, Alstonia boonei and Gongronema latifolium in mice infected with Chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei
Department of Zoology, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria; Nigeria Natural Medicine Development Agency, Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, Nigeria; Biochemistry Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Nigeria
Background: Lime extracts of powdered combination of seeds of Picralima nitida, stem bark of Alstonia boonei and leaves of Gongronema latifolium is a common remedy used in the treatment of malaria in South Western Nigeria. Objective: To determine the antiplasmodial activities of the combined herbal extracts and its impact on the haematological, hepatological and renological parameters in mice. Methods: The 4-day suppressive and curative tests were used to assess the antiplasmodial activities of the extract in mice infected with chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei at concentration of 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg body weight. The haematological parameters including red blood cells, white blood cells, packed cell volume and haemoglobin count were analysed with an auto analyser. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined, while urea, protein and creatinine were analysed by standard procedural methods. Results: The 4-day suppressive test revealed that the test extract achieved percentage suppression of 39.0%, 41.6% and 54.68% for the 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg concentration respectively. Additionally, the curative test achieved a high percentage suppression of 80.97%, 83.84% and 86.16% at the 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg concentration respectively. The extracts did not induce significant change on haematological parameters (P>0.05), while significant elevation in the values of the ALT and AST (P<0.05) was observed and elevation of creatinine (P<0.05) at 800mg/kg. Conclusions: The results support the traditional use of the herbal combination in the treatment of malaria, however the liver cells were impacted by the extracts in bioassay conducted with mice. © 2015, Makerere University, Medical School. All rights reserved.
alanine aminotransferase; alkaline phosphatase; Alstonia boonei extract; antimalarial agent; aspartate aminotransferase; chloroquine; creatinine; Gongronema latifolium extract; hemoglobin; herbaceous agent; Picralima nitida extract; protein; unclassified drug; urea; adult; alanine aminotransferase blood level; alkaline phosphatase blood level; Alstonia; Alstonia boonei; animal experiment; animal model; antimalarial activity; Apocynaceae; Article; aspartate aminotransferase blood level; autoanalyzer; controlled study; creatinine blood level; erythrocyte count; female; Gongronema latifolium; hemoglobin blood level; in vivo study; leukocyte count; male; mouse; Nigeria; nonhuman; Picralima nitida; plant leaf; plant stem; Plasmodium berghei; Plasmodium berghei infection; protein blood level; traditional medicine; urea blood level