Evaluation of CD4+/CD8+ status and urinary tract infections associated with urinary schistosomiasis among some rural Nigerians
Department of Zoology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria; Department of Medical Microbiology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria; Department of Zoology, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria; P.O. Box 902, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria
Background: Data on urinary schistosomiasis in Nigeria are mainly epidemological. The knowledge of co-infections of urinary schistosomiasis and other pathogens are important epidemiological tools for the control and health benefits of the rural dwellers. The granulomatous reactions in urinary schistosomiasis is CD4+ dependent. The CD8+ is cytotoxic to parasites and it is activated by CD4+. These parameters therefore participate in the immune responses to urinary schistosomiasis Objective: In this study, we evaluated the polyparasitism involving urinary schistosomiasis and urinary tract co - infections among some rural Nigerians. The CD4+:CD8+ ratio and status with age groups in years were also investigated. Methods: Parasitological investigation using ova on urine was carried out on 216 volunteers. The urine samples were examined for bacteriuria and subsequently subjected to standard microbiological urine culture. CD4+/CD8+ were determined using the CD T4 Dynabead techniques. Data were analysed using MicroSoft Excel. Results: The inhabitants with light infections of urinary schistosomiasis as indicated by <50 ova /10ml of urine had a mean CD4+:CD8+ ratio of 1.57 while those with heavy infections as shown by >50 ova/10ml of urine had a relatively lower CD4+:CD8+ ratio of 1.03. In all, the overall CD4+:CD8+ ratio of 1.23 was recorded with the mean CD4+ count of 257.96 cells/μL, and the mean CD8+ count of 210.45cells /μL. Comparatively, the control uninfected subjects had a CD4+:CD8+ ratio of 5.97. The CD4+ and the CD8+ counts were correlated with the ova of S. haematobium in their urine samples at r = 0.0108 and r = 0.516 respectively. The bacteriuria, urinary schistosomiasis and urinary tract co - infections namely; Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staph. Saprophyticus were reported in the urine cultures of 48(22.0%) volunteers. Conclusion: The mean overall CD4+:CD8+ ratio of urinary schistosomiasis infected persons is 1.23 which is above the normal CD4+: CD8+ ratio of 1. The CD4+:CD8+ ratio and counts of the urinary schistosomiasis infected inhabitants were lower than the uninfected inhabitants. The positive correlation between the CD4+: CD8+ and the S. haematobium ova shows a relationship which indicate an increase of the CD4+: CD8+ as the intensity of infection increases. We report polyparasitism of S. haematobium and urinary tracts co-infections among some rural inhabitants in Ikpeshi, Nigeria. It is therefore imperative to incorporate the management of urinary tract infections in urinary schistosomiasis control programme.
adolescent; adult; age distribution; article; bacteriuria; CD4 CD8 ratio; CD4+ T lymphocyte; CD8+ T lymphocyte; child; computer program; controlled study; correlation analysis; disease association; disease severity; Escherichia coli; human; immune response; infection control; infection prevention; lymphocyte count; major clinical study; Nigeria; oocyte; parasite examination; prevalence; Proteus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; rural area; Schistosoma hematobium; schistosomiasis; Staphylococcus epidermidis; Staphylococcus saprophyticus; superinfection; urinalysis; urinary tract infection; urine culture; female; male; middle aged; preschool child; rural population; Adolescent; Adult; CD4-CD8 Ratio; Child; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Nigeria; Rural Population; Schistosomiasis haematobia; Urinary Tract Infections