The impact of 2 dipping systems on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in 4 communally grazed areas in Limpopo province, South Africa
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; Department of Veterinary Services, Limpopo Provincial Government, Private Bag X1321, Thulamahashe 1365, South Africa; Department of Statistics, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
A 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the Bushbuckridge region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (Babesia bigemina and Babesin bovis) and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale) in the local cattle population. To this end 60 cattle in each communal grazing area were bled at the beginning and the conclusion of the experimental period and their sera were assayed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and Anaplasma antibodies. Cattle in the intensively dipped group were dipped 26 times and maintained on a 14-day dipping interval throughout the study, whereas cattle in the strategically dipped group were dipped only 13 times. Three cattle, from which adult ticks were collected, were selected from each village, while immature ticks were collected by drag-sampling the surrounding vegetation. During the dipping process, a questionnaire aimed at assessing the prevalence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease, abscesses and mortalities was completed by an Animal Health Technician at each diptank. An increase in seroprevalence to B. bovis and B. bigemina and a decrease in seroprevalence to Anaplasma was detected in the strategically dipped group while in the intensively dipped group the converse was true. Amblyomma hebraeum was the most numerous tick species on the cattle, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus was more plentiful than Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus. Drag samples yielded more immature stages of A. hebraeum than of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp. The incidence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease and of abscesses increased in the strategically dipped group at the start of the survey.
acaricide; protozoon antibody; bacterium antibody; insecticide; abscess; Anaplasma marginale; anaplasmosis; article; Babesia; babesia bigemina; Babesia bovis; babesiosis; blood sampling; cattle; cattle disease; cattle farming; controlled study; disease surveillance; endemic disease; female; grazing; infection control; male; mortality; nonhuman; parasite development; questionnaire; Rhipicephalus; seroprevalence; South Africa; tick; tick borne disease; vegetation; animal; animal disease; blood; drug effect; epidemiology; growth, development and aging; microbiology; parasitology; season; treatment outcome; Acari; Amblyomma hebraeum; Anaplasma; Anaplasma marginale; Animalia; Babesia bigemina; Babesia bovis; Boophilus; Boophilus bigemina; Boophilus bovis; Bos taurus; Ixodida; Rhipicephalus; Anaplasma marginale; Anaplasmosis; Animals; Antibodies, Bacterial; Antibodies, Protozoan; Babesia; Babesia bovis; Babesiosis; Cattle; Cattle Diseases; Female; Insecticides; Male; Seasons; Seroepidemiologic Studies; South Africa; Tick-Borne Diseases; Ticks; Treatment Outcome