Implementation and evaluation of a health-promotion strategy for control of Taenia solium infections in northern Tanzania
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3021, Morogoro, Tanzania; Department of Agricultural Education and Extension, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3002, Morogoro, Tanzania; Department of Health Promotion Sciences, College of Public Health, P.O. Box 26901, Oklahoma City, OK 73190, United States; Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3019, Morogoro, Tanzania; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, 801 NE 13th St, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, United States; WHO/FAO Collaborating Center for Research and Training on Emerging and Other Parasitic Zoonoses, Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Dyrlægevej 100, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
Introduction: Education of pig farmers on health and pig management practices can have an important contribution to the control of Taenia solium infections in endemic areas, leading to potential for providing long-term control of the parasite. In this paper, we describe the application of a health promotion model to implement and evaluate evidence-based strategies for control of T. solium infections in northern Tanzania. Design and methods: We used the PRECEDE-PROCEED model as a guide to implement two previously planned health-promotion strategies (enhancing the quality provided by the public health extension services, and conducting seminars for smallholder pig farmers). We carried out a randomised-controlled field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. Results: Process evaluation revealed a good strategy delivery and a moderate participation of the smallholder pig farmers in the training. The impact evaluation revealed a significant reduction of consumption of pork infected with cysticercosis by the intervention (reduction by 20 per cent, P = 0.005). The outcome evaluation revealed a reduction of the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis by 43 per cent by the intervention. Conclusion: The PRECEDE-PROCEED model may provide an efficient means for designing, implementing, and evaluating effective strategies for control of T. solium infections in any endemic setting.