Impact of Sawah system on rice based farming system in Nigeria
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment
C/O Hirose Project International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, North West University, Mafikeng Campus, South Africa; Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara 332-7204, Japan
The importance of rice in Nigeria is no longer the question but rather how to meet the growing demand, reduce import and be self-sufficient. Consumption per capita jumped from 2.9 kg in 1970-1974 to 25 kg in 2004. Production figure increased 6 times within the period to 3.27 million tons for importation figure reaching a climax in 1998 at 1 million ton which accounted for one-third of the total import for West Africa. By 1999, area harvested from rice stood at 2.2 million hectares of which 65% was from rainfed lowland. The major constraints identified by past studies to the realization of the expected potential high rice yield are poor water control measures and poor soil management. The Sawah system offers excellent techniques for water control and soil fertility management. Sawah package consists of Sawah system which is leveled field surrounded by bund with inlet and outlet connecting irrigation and drainage canals, row transplanting of improved variety and the application of fertilizer. Using the Sawah package that was introduced to farmers through on-farm demonstrations in Bida area of Nigeria, rice yield increased to 3- 5 t/ha consistently in the last five years, while traditional system still averaged only 1.5 t/ha. Similarly, the number of farmers adopting the technology was grown from 6 in 2001 to 103 in 2005. The increased yield consequent on the adoption of the Sawah system has influenced the farming system of farmers using the Sawah package such that crops that can be accommodated within the Sawah bunds are introduced after rice harvest and gender distribution of roles within rice growing farming households are affected.
fertilizer; agricultural worker; article; farming system; grain yield; harvest period; human; Nigeria; nonhuman; plant biotechnology; plant development; plant growth; rice; sex determination; soil fertility; soil management