Evaluation of a photo-poster on nurses' perceptions of teething problems in South-western Nigeria
Department of Preventive Dentistry, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
Background: Health problems commonly associated with the eruption of teeth in babies continue to pose problems in Nigeria. Even nurses who should be well informed have misconceived views. In order to enlighten mothers and healthcare workers on this issue, a photo-poster was developed as a health-education tool. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the poster, displayed in the workplace for 18 months, on the knowledge, attitude and reported practice of nurses. The study also aimed to assess the outcome of the inclusion of the photo-poster in training materials in a workshop setting. Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. In the first part, 542 nurses working in children's units within the city of Ibadan, South-western Nigeria were selected using a stratified sampling technique. A questionnaire was used to gather information on their perceptions of teething problems at baseline. Photo-posters were displayed in the nurses' workplaces for 18 months, and a follow-up survey was conducted using the same questionnaire. In the second part of the study, two groups of nurses (n=21 and n=18 nurses) working in similar healthcare facilities in Ibadan participated in two separate workshops. One workshop used the photo-poster in addition to the standard educational materials, and the other workshop did not. Percentage differences between pre- and postintervention responses to perceived health problems were calculated. Intervention effects were the differences between the percentage changes in the intervention (with poster) and comparison (without poster) groups. Statistical differences were determined by Chi-squared test or one-tailed t-test, as appropriate. Results: Five hundred and forty-two nurses (519 female and 23 male) completed the questionnaire survey at baseline and 403 (371 female and 32 male) at follow-up. Their ages ranged between 23 and 56 years, with the greatest percentage aged 25-40 years. At baseline, many respondents indicated that several of the listed health problems were a consequence of tooth eruption. After exposure to the posters at their workplace for 18 months, there were slight changes in their opinions but most were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The use of posters in a workshop setting revealed percentage changes ranging from -11 to 61% for the different associated health problems. Many of these changes were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Displaying photo-posters in the workplace did little to change nurses' perceptions of teething problems; the posters had more influence when they were used in an instructional, interactive atmosphere. It is recommended that the use of photo-posters in health education for such culturally entrenched health issues should be accompanied by discussion of the same subject wherever possible. © 2004 The Royal Institute of Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
adult; article; calculation; chi square test; city; controlled study; female; health care facility; health education; hospital department; human; literature; male; Nigeria; nurse attitude; pediatrics; questionnaire; sampling; staff training; statistical analysis; statistical significance; tooth eruption; workshop; Adult; Audiovisual Aids; Education, Nursing, Continuing; Female; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Mothers; Nigeria; Nurses; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Tooth Eruption