Evaluation of the antidiarrhoeal activity of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Pupalia lappacea Linn. Juss. (Amaranthaceae)
Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology (PTT), College of Medicine, University of Lagos, P.M.B. 12003 Lagos, Nigeria
Ethnopharmacological Relevance Pupalia lappacea is a medicinal plant found in savannah and woodland localities and forest path sides from Senegal to Southern Nigeria. It has been used in the management of diarrhoea in Nigerian traditional medicine. This study was designed to evaluate the antidiarrhoeal activity of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Pupalia lappacea (PL). Materials and methods The antidiarrhoeal activity of PL was evaluated using the normal and castor oil-induced intestinal transit, castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastric emptying and intestinal fluid accumulation tests in rodents. Results PL (100-400 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in normal and castor oil-induced intestinal transit compared with the control group (distilled water 10 ml/kg, p.o.). This effect was significantly (P<0.05) inhibited by pilocarpine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) but not by yohimbine (10 mg/kg, s.c.), prazosin (1 mg/kg, s.c.), or propranolol (1 mg/kg, i.p.). The extract produced a dose-dependent and significant increase in the onset of diarrhoea. PL (100-400 mg/kg) also reduced the diarrhoea score, number and weight of wet stools. The in-vivo antidiarrhoeal index (ADIin vivo) of 56.95% produced by the extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg was lower compared to that produced by loperamide 5 mg/kg (77.75%). However, PL (400 mg/kg) significantly increased gastric emptying in rats but significantly reduced the volume of intestinal content in the intestinal fluid accumulation test. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, and fixed oils and fats. The acute toxicity studies revealed that the extract is relatively safe when given orally; no death was recorded at a dose of 10 g/kg. Conclusion Results showed that the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Pupalia lappacea possesses antidiarrhoeal activity possibly mediated by antimuscarinic receptor activity. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Antidiarrhoeal activity; Castor oil; Intestinal transit; Loperamide; Pupalia lappacea; Amaranthaceae; Animals; Antidiarrheals; Castor Oil; Diarrhea; Ethanol; Female; Gastric Emptying; Gastrointestinal Transit; Male; Mice; Phytotherapy; Plant Extracts; Plant Leaves; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Solvents; Toxicity Tests, Acute; Water