Performance of a prototype baited-trap in attracting and infecting the tick Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae) in field experiments
Experimental and Applied Acarology
Department of Zoology, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O Box 62000, Nairobi, Kenya; International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), P.O Box 30772, Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Biology, University of Namibia, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia; Department of Biological Sciences, Kenyatta University, P.O Box 43844, Nairobi, Kenya
Investigations were commenced to study the potential use of the fungi, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and the attraction-aggregation- attachment pheromone (AAAP) for the control of Ambloyomma variegatum as an environmentally friendly technology. The objective of the study was to develop and test a device, which could be used for pheromone and carbon dioxide delivery and infection of ticks with the fungi in an attempt to control the tick populations in the vegetation. Using a pheromone-baited device treated with the fungi mixture, 79% of the ticks released were attracted and exposed to the fungi and of these, 78% died during incubation in the laboratory. In another set of experiments, of the released ticks that were similarly exposed to fungi using the pheromone-baited device and left in the vegetation, 33.8% were recovered compared to recoveries of between 76 and 84% in the controls. These results were significantly different at the 5% level, an indication that the pheromone/fungi mixtures had significant effect in reducing the tick population in the field. © Springer 2006.
carbon dioxide; pheromone; aggregation pheromone; attractant; biological control; fungus; pest control; tick; animal; article; Ascomycetes; biological pest control; female; growth, development and aging; infestation; insect control; male; methodology; microbiology; tick; Animals; Ascomycota; Dry Ice; Female; Ixodidae; Male; Pest Control, Biological; Pheromones; Tick Control; Tick Infestations; Acari; Amblyomma; Amblyomma variegatum; Beauveria; Cordyceps bassiana; Fungi; Ixodidae; Metarhizium anisopliae