Evaluation of pharmacognostical parameters and heavy metals in some locally manufactured herbal drugs
Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research
Department of Pharmacetical and Medicinal Chemistry, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria; Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal Medicine, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria
Five heavy metals lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co) were determined in four (4) branded Pax-herbal products - Paxherbal Health Tea®, Paxherbal Potensine®, Paxherbal Malatreat tea® and Paxherbal Black powder® using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) after acid digestion. The samples were purchased from manufacturer's (Pax-herbal) retail out-let in Yenagoa. The concentration of lead (Pb), Cd, Zn, Fe and Co in all the samples ranged from BDL to 102.200 ± 1.838 μg/g, 0.249 ± 0.010 μg/g to 2.839 ± 0.018 μg/g, BDL to 14.638 ± μg/g,), 88.557 ± 1.135 μg/g to 269.074 ± 3.433 μg/g and 0.604 ± 0.002 μg/g to 9.781± 0.032 μg/g respectively. Pb content was below detection limits (BDL) in Paxherbal Health Tea® and Paxherbal Potensine®, while the amount in Paxherbal Malatreat tea and Paxherbal Black powder was 102.200 ± 1.838 μg/g and 49.528 ± 0.583 μg/g respectively. The corresponding daily intake of heavy metals in herbal drugs were below limits stipulated by regulatory agencies such - FAO/WHO, Canadian and American National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) International, except for Paxherbal Malatreat tea where the value of 418.611 μg/day (based on recommended dosage by manufacturer) was significantly above the FAO/WHO permissible limit of 232.14 μg/day, assuming an average body weight of 65 kg for an adult human.
alcohol; black powder; cadmium; cobalt; health tea; heavy metal; herbaceous agent; iron; lead; malatreat tea; potensine; unclassified drug; water; zinc; article; ash; atomic absorption spectrometry; body weight; drug contamination; drug determination; drug manufacture; drug purity; limit of detection; moisture; pH; pharmacognosy; tea