Impact assessment of proximity of local black soap industry on the bacteriological and physicochemical properties of Ebu stream in Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
Aims: The level of contamination of Afawo Stream located near Afawo Soap industry in Ikere-Ekiti were investigated by determining the total bacteria and coliform count with antibiotics susceptibility of the isolated bacteria and physico-chemical qualities of the water samples. Methodology and results: The total bacteria and coliform count were determined using pour plate method, the antibiotic susceptibility were carried out using disc diffusion method, while physico-chemical and mineral studies were also carried out using standard methods. The mean total bacteria count of the water samples ranged 40.4 × 104 - 26.5 × 105 CFU/mL and 36.4 × 104 - 23.3 × 105 CFU/mL respectively. Percentage distribution of isolated bacteria include; Escherichia coli (17%), Streptococcus spp. (16%), Bacillus spp. (11%), Nitrobacter spp. (10%), Aeromonas spp. (9%), Arthrobacter spp. (9%), Pseudomonas spp. (5%), Klebsiella spp. (5%), Enterococcus spp. (5%), Micrococcus spp. (4%), Staphylococcus spp. (3%), Vibro spp. (3%), Enterobacter spp. (2%), Salmonella spp. (1%). Enteric microbes have high level of resistance to amoxicillin and augmentin, while nalixidic acid was most effective against the Gram negative isolates. Also the Gram positive isolates showed a high level of resistance to augmentin, cotrimoxazole and cloxacillin while streptomycin and gentamicin was most effective against the Gram positive isolates. Eighty four percent (84%) of the isolates exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance, some of which possess plasmids with very high molecular weight ranging between 10 and 21 kbp. The physico-chemical properties of the water samples revealed the presence of the some mineral element in the water samples; magnesium (15.60 mg/L), potassium (16.20 mg/L), calcium (8.75 mg/L), sodium (11.55 mg/L), zinc (0.34 mg/L), iron (0.76 mg/L), chloride (21.40 mg/L), sulphate (5.60 mg/L), nitrate (0.35 mg/L). Meanwhile, the mean values of soil minerals were; potassium (76.5 - 83.5) mg/kg, calcium (49.8 - 62.7) mg/kg, sodium (63.4 - 71.6) mg/kg, magnesium (65.8 - 72.4) mg/kg, phosphorus (266.5 - 275.3) mg/kg, zinc (8.28 - 12.22) mg/kg, copper (3.60 - 4.68) mg/kg.