Characterization of rice hull ash and its performance in turbidity removal from water
Particulate Science and Technology
Department of Metallurgy, Mineral Processing and Technology Research Centre, University of Johannesburg, Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, Johannesburg, South Africa; Department of Civil and Chemical Engineering, University of South Africa, Florida Campus, Jo
This study characterizes the locally obtained samples of rice hull ash and investigates its performance on turbidity removal from water. Four samples of this material were studied, namely, unwashed parboiled rice hull ash (UPRHA), washed parboiled rice hull ash (WPRHA), unwashed unparboiled rice hull ash (UUPRHA), and washed unparboiled rice hull ash (WUPRHA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were carried out to characterize these samples. A filtration process was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of the rice hull ash medium in removing water turbidity. The XRD results showed the silica, which is present in the ashes, to be cristobalite, quartz, and tridymite. The silica contents of the UUPRHA and WUPRHA were observed to be 77.10% and 98.24%, respectively, while those of UPRHA and WPRHA were 79.07% and 94.97%, respectively. The SEM images showed agglomeration of ash particles after the ashes were washed. The washed RHA samples showed improved pH, a good percentage of turbidity removal (<5 NTU) from water sample. Washing RHA with distilled water increased the efficiency of RHA in turbidity removal from water and regulated water pH to an acceptable range. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Infrared spectroscopy; Quartz; Scanning electron microscopy; Silicate minerals; Chemical compositions; Distilled water; Filtration process; Rice hull ash; Turbidity removal; Water turbidity; X ray diffractometers; XRD; Turbidity; aluminum oxide; calcium oxide; iron oxide; magnesium oxide; manganese oxide; oxide; phosphorus pentoxide; potassium derivative; silicon dioxide; sodium derivative; titanium dioxide; water; article; ash; chemical composition; chemical structure; filtration; infrared spectroscopy; mineralogy; pH; priority journal; rice; scanning electron microscopy; turbidity; turbidity removal; unwashed parboiled rice hull ash; unwashed unparboiled rice hull ash; washed parboiled rice hull ash; washed unparboiled rice hull ash; water pollutant; water treatment; X ray diffraction