Water supplies in some rural communities around Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria: Impact on water-related diseases
Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria; Department of Medical Microbiology/Parasitology, College of Medicine, University of Calabar, Nigeria
Two traditional surface water sources and one piped supply around Calabar, Nigeria were examined to reveal the community water use patterns and the impact on water-related diseases. Using questionnaires, it was shown that some communities trekked long distances (up to 5 km) to reach their supply source. The quantity of water collected per day in each of the five rural sources was inadequate (approximately 6 buckets or 90 liters). The traditional water sources were not available all year round, forcing users to trek longer distances for alternative supplies. Only 4.4% of rural water users subjected them to any further treatment, such as boiling or filtration. Fetching water was the occupation of children; they were the worst hit by water-related diseases, such as diarrhea/ dysentery, stomachache, worms and scabies/craw-craw. About 84% of the respondents were dissatisfied with their water supplies. Deaths due to apparent water-related diseases occurred among 6.3% of respondents during the twelve months preceding the study. The overall impact was a loss of school hours/days, loss of labor and general discouragement. The community served with piped treated water fared better in all respects.
animal; article; diarrhea; drinking; dysentery; helminth; human; microbiology; Nigeria; questionnaire; rural population; scabies; standard; water pollution; water supply; Animals; Diarrhea; Drinking; Dysentery; Helminths; Humans; Nigeria; Questionnaires; Rural Population; Scabies; Water Microbiology; Water Pollution; Water Supply